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Sample records for non-metallic osmia melanosmia

  1. Distribution, biology and habitat of the rare European osmiine bee species Osmia (Melanosmia pilicornis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Osmiini

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    Rainer Prosi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmia pilicornis is distributed from western temperate Europe to western Siberia, where it exclusively occurs in open-structured, mesophilous and mainly deciduous woodland below 1000 m a.s.l. In Central Europe, its peak activity ranges from the last third of March to the first third of June. Due to its rarity and its low population densities over most of its range, the biology of O. pilicornis was only fragmentarily known. The discovery of six nests in the course of the present study revealed that females of O. pilicornis have a unique nesting behaviour among the osmiine bees: they gnaw their nests in dead wood with the aid of their strong mandibles, which have a peculiar chisel-like shape hypothesized to be an adaptation to the species’ specialized nesting behaviour. All six nests were in dead fallen branches of different tree and shrub species and of varying wood hardness. The nesting branches had a diameter of 1.5–6.1 cm, lay on sun-exposed ground and were largely hidden under vegetation. The nests contained one to three linearly arranged brood cells. Both cell partitions and nest plug were built from chewed leaves harvested from Fragaria vesca. Osmia pilicornis was identified as a new host of the chrysidid wasp Chrysura hirsuta, and the ichneumonid wasp Hoplocryptus confector developed in its nests. Microscopical analysis of scopal pollen loads of collected females revealed that pollen is mainly collected from three plant taxa, i.e. Pulmonaria (Boraginaceae, Fabaceae (e.g. Lathyrus, Vicia and Lamiaceae (e.g. Ajuga, Glechoma. On flowers of Pulmonaria, which is the most important pollen host over most of the species’ range, the females use specialized bristles on their proboscis to brush pollen out of the narrow corolla tube, they almost exclusively exploit pollen-rich flowers in the early red stage and they often steal pollen from still closed flowers by forcefully opening buds. On their search for females, males of O. pilicornis patrol

  2. Osmia species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae from the southeastern United States with modified facial hairs: taxonomy, host plants, and conservation status

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    Molly Rightmyer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe females and males of Osmia (Melanosmia calaminthae sp. n., an apparent floral specialist on Calamintha ashei (Lamiaceae, and provide observations on the behavior of female bees on flowers of this plant. We also provide diagnostic information for Osmia (Diceratosmia conjunctoides Robertson, stat. n., and synonymize O. (Diceratosmia subfasciata miamiensis Mitchell with O. conjunctoides syn. n. Females of both O. calaminthae and O. conjunctoides are unique among North American Osmia forshort, erect, simple facial hairs, which are apparent adaptations for collecting pollen from nototribic flowers. Osmia calaminthae is currently only known from sandy scrub at four nearby sites in the southern Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, USA, while O. conjunctoides is known from limited but widespread sites in the southeastern USA. We discuss the conservation status of both species based on known or speculated floral associates and distributions.

  3. Substrates and materials used for nesting by North American Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae)

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    James H. Cane; Terry L. Griswold; Frank D. Parker

    2007-01-01

    Nesting substrates and construction materials are compared for 65 of North America's 139 described native species of Osmia bees. Most accounts report Osmia bees nesting in preexisting cavities in dead wood or pithy stems such as elderberry (Sambucus spp.), with cell partitions and plugs made from a pulp of finely masticated leaf tissue. Mud is widely used by...

  4. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

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    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  5. The neonicotinoid clothianidin interferes with navigation of the solitary bee Osmia cornuta in a laboratory test.

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    Jin, Nanxiang; Klein, Simon; Leimig, Fabian; Bischoff, Gabriela; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-09-01

    Pollinating insects provide a vital ecosystem service to crops and wild plants. Exposure to low doses of neonicotinoid insecticides has sub-lethal effects on social pollinators such as bumblebees and honeybees, disturbing their navigation and interfering with their development. Solitary Hymenoptera are also very important ecosystem service providers, but the sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoids have not yet been studied well in those animals. We analyzed the ability of walking Osmia to remember a feeding place in a small environment and found that Osmia remembers the feeding place well after 4 days of training. Uptake of field-realistic amounts of the neonicotinoid clothianidin (0.76 ng per bee) altered the animals' sensory responses to the visual environment and interfered with the retrieval of navigational memory. We conclude that the neonicotinoid clothianidin compromises visual guidance and the use of navigational memory in the solitary bee Osmia cornuta. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Flight biomechanics of developmentally-induced size variation in the solitary bee Osmia lignaria

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    Body size covaries with morphology, functional performance, and fitness. For insects, variation in adult phenotypies are derived from developmental variation in larval growth and metamorphosis. In this study, we asked how larval growth impacted adult morphology in Osmia lignaria—especially traits th...

  7. Dung pat nesting by the solitary bee, Osmia (Acanthosmiodes) integra (Megachilidae: Apiformes).

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    Solitary bees nest in a diversity of substrates, typically soil, but also wood, stems and twigs. A new and novel substrate is reported here, dried cattle dung. Two species of Osmia bees were found nesting in dung in Wyoming. One species, O. integra, otherwise nests shallowly in soil. Nests were ...

  8. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA): reliability, accuracy and exposure data.

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Alan C.; Muggleton, J.M.; Mellor, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA) based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Methods Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptom...

  9. Secondary defects in non-metallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbee, K.H.G.; Hobbs, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper points out features of secondary defect formation which are peculiar to non-metallic solids (excluding elemental semiconductors). Most of the materials of interest are compounds of two or more (usually more or less ionic) atomic species, and immediate consequence of which is a need to maintain both stoichiometry (or accommodate non-stoichiometry) and order. Primary defects in these solids, whether produced thermally, chemically or by irradiation, seldom are present or aggregate in exactly stoichiometric proportions, and the resulting extending defect structures can be quite distinct from those found in metallic solids. Where stoichiometry is maintained, it is often convenient to describe extended defects in terms of alterations in the arrangement of 'molecular' units. The adoption of this procedure enables several novel features of extended defect structures in non-metals to be explained. There are several ways in which a range of non-stoichiometry can be accommodated, which include structural elimination of point defects, nucleation of new coherent phases of altered stoichiometry, and decomposition. (author)

  10. Radiation damage in non-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Work on the problem of radiation damage in non-metals over the past 25 years is reviewed with especial emphasis on the contribution made at AERE, Harwell and in particular by members of the Theoretical Physics Division. In the years between 1954 and the end of the 1960's the main thrust in the radiation damage of non-metals was model-building including devising defect models and mechanisms that were qualitatively acceptable, and compiling systematic data. The early 1970's made greater quantitative demands as computer techniques made theory more powerful. In many cases it was possible to predict defect properties accurately, so that one could distinguish between different defect models which were hard to tell apart by experiment alone. In the late 1970's the most important aspect has moved towards mechanisms of defect processes, especially in cases where experiment by itself is limited by timescale, by complexity, by the unintentional impurities inevitable in real crystals, or by the extreme conditions required. (UK)

  11. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  12. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

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    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  13. The Effect of Nest Box Distribution on Sustainable Propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Commercial Tart Cherry Orchards

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    Boyle, N. K.; Pitts-Singer, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Say), is a solitary bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as an alternative pollinator. Establishing O. lignaria pollination as a sustainable industry requires careful consideration of both bee and orchard management. Here, we test the effect of artificial nest box distribution on in-or...

  14. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA): reliability, accuracy and exposure data.

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    Breen, Alan C; Muggleton, Jennifer M; Mellor, Fiona E

    2006-01-04

    Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA) based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Calibration model 1 (mobile) was screened upright, in 7 inter-vertebral positions. The volunteers and calibration model 2 (fixed) were screened on a motorized table comprising 2 horizontal sections, one of which moved through 80 degrees. Model 2 was screened during motion 5 times and the L2-S1 levels of the volunteers twice. Images were digitised at 5fps. Inter-vertebral motion from model 1 was compared to its pre-settings to investigate accuracy. For volunteers and model 2, the first digitised image in each sequence was marked with templates. Vertebrae were tracked throughout the motion using automated frame-to-frame registration. For each frame, vertebral angles were subtracted giving inter-vertebral motion graphs. Volunteer data were acquired twice on the same day and analysed by two blinded observers. The root-mean-square (RMS) differences between paired data were used as the measure of reliability. RMS difference between reference and computed inter-vertebral angles in model 1 was 0.32 degrees for side-bending and 0.52 degrees for flexion-extension. For model 2, X-ray positioning contributed more to the variance of range measurement than did automated registration. For volunteer image sequences, RMS inter-observer variation in intervertebral motion range in the coronal plane was 1.86 degrees and intra-subject biological variation was between 2.75 degrees and 2.91 degrees. RMS inter-observer variation in the sagittal plane was 1.94 degrees. Radiation dosages in each view were below

  15. An objective spinal motion imaging assessment (OSMIA: reliability, accuracy and exposure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellor Fiona E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally-invasive measurement of continuous inter-vertebral motion in clinical settings is difficult to achieve. This paper describes the reliability, validity and radiation exposure levels in a new Objective Spinal Motion Imaging Assessment system (OSMIA based on low-dose fluoroscopy and image processing. Methods Fluoroscopic sequences in coronal and sagittal planes were obtained from 2 calibration models using dry lumbar vertebrae, plus the lumbar spines of 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Calibration model 1 (mobile was screened upright, in 7 inter-vertebral positions. The volunteers and calibration model 2 (fixed were screened on a motorised table comprising 2 horizontal sections, one of which moved through 80 degrees. Model 2 was screened during motion 5 times and the L2-S1 levels of the volunteers twice. Images were digitised at 5fps. Inter-vertebral motion from model 1 was compared to its pre-settings to investigate accuracy. For volunteers and model 2, the first digitised image in each sequence was marked with templates. Vertebrae were tracked throughout the motion using automated frame-to-frame registration. For each frame, vertebral angles were subtracted giving inter-vertebral motion graphs. Volunteer data were acquired twice on the same day and analysed by two blinded observers. The root-mean-square (RMS differences between paired data were used as the measure of reliability. Results RMS difference between reference and computed inter-vertebral angles in model 1 was 0.32 degrees for side-bending and 0.52 degrees for flexion-extension. For model 2, X-ray positioning contributed more to the variance of range measurement than did automated registration. For volunteer image sequences, RMS inter-observer variation in intervertebral motion range in the coronal plane was 1.86 degreesand intra-subject biological variation was between 2.75 degrees and 2.91 degrees. RMS inter-observer variation in the sagittal plane was 1

  16. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

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    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  17. Reproductive potential and nesting effects of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis female (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae

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    Giejdasz Karol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The red mason bee Osmia rufa is a solitary bee belonging to the family Megachilidae, and is prone to nest in aggregations. Each female builds a nest separately in pre-existing cavities such as holes in wood and walls or empty plant stems. This is done by successively setting the cells in a linear series. In this study, we elucidate the nesting behavior and the reproductive potential of a single O. rufa female. The reproductive potential of nesting females was evaluated after the offspring finished development. We observed that an individual female may colonize up to five nest tubes and build 5-34 cells in them (16 on an average. During the nesting time the number of cells decreased with the sequence of nest tubes colonized by one female, which built a maximum of 11 cells in the first occupied nest and 5 cells in the last (fifth nest. Our observations indicated that 40% of nesting females colonized one nest tube as compared to 7% colonizing five nest tubes. Furthermore, in subsequent nest tubes the number of cells with freshly emerged females gradually decreased which was the reverse with males. Thus, the sex ratio (proportion of male and female offspring may change during the nesting period. The female offspring predominated in the first two nesting tubes, while in the subsequent three tubes male offspring dominated. We also cataloged different causes of reduction in abundance of offspring in O. rufa females such as parasitization or problem associated with moulting.

  18. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Abbott, V A; Nadeau, J L; Higo, H A; Winston, M L

    2008-06-01

    We examined lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria (Cresson) and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). We also made progress toward developing reliable methodology for testing pesticides on wild bees for use in pesticide registration by using field and laboratory experiments. Bee larvae were exposed to control, low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid or clothianidin in pollen. Field experiments on both bee species involved injecting the pollen provisions with the corresponding pesticide. Only O. lignaria was used for the laboratory experiments, which entailed both injecting the bee's own pollen provisions and replacing the pollen provision with a preblended pollen mixture containing imidacloprid. Larval development, emergence, weight, and mortality were monitored and analyzed. There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid. No similar sublethal effects were found with clothianidin on M. rotundata. We were successful in creating methodology for pesticide testing on O. lignaria and M. rotundata; however, these methods can be improved upon to create a more robust test. We also identified several parameters and developmental stages for observing sublethal effects. The detection of sublethal effects demonstrates the importance of testing new pesticides on wild pollinators before registration.

  19. Forewing structure of the solitary bee Osmia bicornis developing on heavy metal pollution gradient.

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    Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Moroń, Dawid; Nawrocka, Anna; Tofilski, Adam; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-10-01

    Wild bees in natural conditions can develop under various environmental stressors. Heavy metal pollution of the environment is one of the most widely studied stressors in insects, yet its effect is poorly described in bees. We have measured how pollution of the environment along a zinc, cadmium and lead contamination gradient in Poland affects bee development, using red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as a model and their forewing asymmetry measures to assess possible developmental instabilities. We have also described wing asymmetry measures in the red mason bee-an important managed pollinator species-for the first time. The development of bee larvae in a contaminated environment did not affect forewing asymmetry measures, but it did lead to a negative correlation of wing size with contamination in females. Bees also showed a clear change in their asymmetry measures between various seasons, suggesting other, unknown environmental factors affecting wing asymmetry more than pollution. Sexes were found to have different forewing shape and size, larger females having larger forewings than the smaller males. The direction of size asymmetry was in favour of the left side in both sexes and also shape differences between the left and right wings showed similar tendencies in males and females. The levels of forewing shape and size asymmetry were smaller in females, making them the more symmetrical sex.

  20. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

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    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.

  1. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

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    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  2. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L. and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski.

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    David J Biddinger

    Full Text Available The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae. The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG, λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II, dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC, phosmet (Imidan 70W, and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F. At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards.

  3. Female choice in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa (L.) (Megachilidae).

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    Conrad, Taina; Paxton, Robert J; Barth, Friedrich G; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    Females are often thought to use several cues and more than one modality in selection of a mate, possibly because they offer complementary information on a mate's suitability. In the red mason bee, Osmia rufa, we investigated the criteria a female uses to choose a mating partner. We hypothesized that the female uses male thorax vibrations and size as signs of male viability and male odor for kin discrimination and assessment of genetic relatedness. We therefore compared males that had been accepted by a female for copulation with those rejected, in terms of their size, their immediate precopulatory vibrations (using laser vibrometry), the genetic relatedness of unmated and mated pairs (using microsatellite markers) and emitted volatiles (using chemical analyses). Females showed a preference for intermediate-sized males that were slightly larger than the modal male size. Furthermore, male precopulatory vibration burst duration was significantly longer in males accepted for copulation compared with rejected males. Vibrations may indicate vigor and assure that males selected by females are metabolically active and healthy. Females preferentially copulated with males that were genetically more closely related, possibly to avoid outbreeding depression. Volatiles of the cuticular surface differed significantly between accepted and rejected males in the relative amounts of certain hydrocarbons, although the relationship between male odor and female preference was complex. Females may therefore also use differences in odor bouquet to select among males. Our investigations show that O. rufa females appear to use multiple cues in selecting a male. Future investigations are needed to demonstrate whether odor plays a role in kin recognition and how the multiple cues are integrated in mate choice by females.

  4. Phenotypic Variation in Fitness Traits of a Managed Solitary Bee, Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Sampson, B J; Rinehart, T A; Kirker, G T; Stringer, S J; Werle, C T

    2015-12-01

    We investigated fitness in natural populations of a managed solitary bee Osmia ribifloris Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from sites separated from 400 to 2,700 km. Parental wild bees originated in central Texas (TX), central-northern Utah (UT), and central California (CA). They were then intercrossed and raised inside a mesh enclosure in southern Mississippi (MS). Females from all possible mated pairs of O. ribifloris produced F1 broods with 30-40% female cocoons and outcrossed progeny were 30% heavier. Mitochondrial (COI) genomes of the four populations revealed three distinct clades, a TX-CA clade, a UT clade, and an MS clade, the latter (MS) representing captive progeny of CA and UT bees. Although classified as separate subspecies, TX and CA populations from 30° N to 38° N latitude shared 98% similarity in COI genomes and the greatest brood biomass per nest straw (600- to 700-mg brood). Thus, TX and CA bees show greater adaptation for southern U.S. sites. In contrast, UT-sourced bees were more distantly related to TX and CA bees and also produced ∼50% fewer brood. These results, taken together, confirm that adult O. ribifloris from all trap-nest sites are genetically compatible, but some phenotypic variation exists that could affect this species performance as a commercial blueberry pollinator. Males, their sperm, or perhaps a substance in their sperm helped stabilize our captive bee population by promoting legitimate nesting over nest usurpation. Otherwise, without insemination, 50% fewer females nested (they nested 14 d late) and 20% usurped nests, killing 33-67% of brood in affected nests. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

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    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  6. Non-metallic structural wrap systems for pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.H.; Wesley Rowley, C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of thermoplastics and reinforcing fiber has been a long-term application of non-metallic material for structural applications. With the advent of specialized epoxies and carbon reinforcing fiber, structural strength approaching and surpassing steel has been used in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plants. One of those applications is a NSWS for pipe and other structural members. The NSWS is system of integrating epoxies with reinforcing fiber in a wrapped geometrical configuration. This paper specifically addresses the repair of degraded pipe in heat removal systems used in nuclear power plants, which is typically caused by corrosion, erosion, or abrasion. Loss of structural material leads to leaks, which can be arrested by a NSWS for the pipe. The technical aspects of using thermoplastics to structurally improve degraded pipe in nuclear power plants has been addressed in the ASME B and PV Code Case N-589. Using the fundamentals described in that Code Case, this paper shows how this technology can be extended to pipe repair from the outside. This NSWS has already been used extensively in non-nuclear applications and in one nuclear application. The cost to apply this NSWS is typically substantially less than replacing the pipe and may be technically superior to replacing the pipe. (author)

  7. EDITORIAL: Charge transport in non-metallic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Ian J.; Almond, Darryl P.

    2009-03-01

    Workers engaged in a wide range of investigations of charge transport in non-metallic solids came together at a meeting of the Institute of Physics Dielectric Group, held in London on 2 April 2008. Topics included both ionic and electronic conduction, investigations of the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport, percolation, modelling the conduction process in both natural and man-made composite electrical and electromagnetic materials, the design and development of solids with specified conduction properties and the ac characteristics of non-metallic solids. In the first session, the long-standing problem of the anomalous power law increase in ac conductivity with frequency was addressed by a set of four presentations. Jeppe Dyre, an invited speaker from Roskilde University, Denmark, introduced the problem and stressed the universality of the frequency dependence observed in the ac conductivities of disordered non-metallic materials. He showed that it could be obtained from a simple random barrier model, independent of the barrier distribution. Darryl Almond, University of Bath, showed that the electrical responses of large networks of randomly positioned resistors and capacitors, simulating the microstructures of disordered two-phase (conductor insulator) materials, exhibit the same frequency dependence. He demonstrated their robustness to component value and distribution and suggested that it was an emergent property of these networks and of two-phase materials. Klaus Funke, an invited speaker from the University of Munster, Germany, presented a detailed model of ion motion in disordered ionic materials. He stressed the need to account for the concerted many-particle processes that occur whilst ions hop from site to site in response to an applied electric field. The conductivity spectra obtained from this work reproduce the same frequency dispersion and have the additional feature of conductivity saturation at high frequencies. Tony West, University of

  8. Developing and establishing bee species as crop pollinators: the example of Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2002-02-01

    The development of a bee species as a new crop pollinator starts with the identification of a pollination-limited crop production deficit and the selection of one or more candidate pollinator species. The process continues with a series of studies on the developmental biology, pollinating efficacy, nesting behaviour, preference for different nesting substrates, and population dynamics of the candidate pollinator. Parallel studies investigate the biology of parasites, predators and pathogens. The information gained in these studies is combined with information on the reproductive biology of the crop to design a management system. Complete management systems should provide guidelines on rearing and releasing methods, bee densities required for adequate pollination, nesting materials, and control against parasites, predators and pathogens. Management systems should also provide methods to ensure a reliable pollinator supply. Pilot tests on a commercial scale are then conducted to test and eventually refine the management system. The process culminates with the delivery of a viable system to manage and sustain the new pollinator on a commercial scale. The process is illustrated by the development of three mason bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski), O. lignaria Say and O. cornuta (Latreille) as orchard pollinators in Japan, the USA and Europe, respectively.

  9. Insights into the biochemical defence and methylation of the solitary bee Osmia rufa L: A foundation for examining eusociality development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Strachecka

    Full Text Available We examined age-related biochemical and histological changes in the fat bodies and hemolymph of Osmia rufa males and females. We analysed solitary bees during diapause, in October and in April; as well as the flying insects following diapause, in May and June. The trophocyte sizes, as well as the numbers of lipid droplets were the greatest at the beginning of diapause. Subsequently, they decreased along with age. Triglyceride and glucose concentrations systematically decreased in fat body cells but increased in the hemolymph from October to June. Concentrations/activities of (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and proteolytic systems, as well as phenoloxidase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were constant during the diapause, usually lower in the males than the females. Prior to the diapause/overwintering, the concentrations/activities of all the compounds were higher in the fat bodies than in the hemolymph. Later in the spring and in the summer, they increased in the hemolymph and on the body surfaces, while decreasing in the fat bodies. The global DNA methylation levels increased with age. Higher levels were always observed in the males than in the females. The study will promote better understanding of bee evolution and will be useful for the protection and management of solitary bees, with benefits to the environment and agriculture.

  10. Divergence in male sexual odor signal and genetics across populations of the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Taina; Paxton, Robert J; Assum, Günter; Ayasse, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i) if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii) how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii) whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.

  11. Divergence in male sexual odor signal and genetics across populations of the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Conrad

    Full Text Available In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.

  12. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Progeny Density and Nest Availability Affect Parasitism Risk and Reproduction in a Solitary Bee (Osmia lignaria) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla

    2018-02-08

    Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics. To do so, I experimentally manipulated nest cavity availability in a region of northern Utah with naturally occurring populations of O. lignaria. Nest cavity availability had a negative effect on cuckoo bee (Stelis montana Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) parasitism rates, with lower parasitism rates occurring in nest blocks with more available cavities. For both S. montana and the cleptoparasitic blister beetle Tricrania stansburyi Haldeman (Coleoptera: Meloidae), brood parasitism rate was negatively correlated with log-transformed O. lignaria progeny density. Finally, cavity availability had a positive effect on male O. lignaria body weight, with the heaviest male progeny produced in nest blocks with the most cavities. These results suggest that cavity availability and progeny density can have substantial effects on brood parasitism risk and reproduction in this solitary bee species. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on the red mason bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Natalie; Elston, Charlotte; Klein, Olaf; Hamberger, Anja; Thompson, Helen

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on wild bees. In solitary bee species the direct link between each individual female and reproductive success offers the opportunity to evaluate effects on individuals. The present study investigated effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on reproductive behavior and output of solitary red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) released in 6 pairs of fields over a 2-yr period and confined to tunnels in a single year. After adjustment to the number of females released, there was significantly lower production of cells and cocoons/female in tunnels than in open field conditions. This difference may be because of the lack of alternative forage within the tunnels. Under open field conditions, palynology of the pollen provisions within the nests demonstrated a maximum average of 31% oilseed rape pollen at any site, with Quercus (oak) contributing up to 86% of the pollen. There were no significant effects from exposure to oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed from nest establishment through cell production to emergence under tunnel or field conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1071-1083. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Keller

    Full Text Available Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics.

  16. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics.

  17. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  18. Studies on the effect of Osmia rufa L. (Apoidea, Megachilidae on the effectiveness of pod and seed development in the subgenus Glycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Skorupska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three abundantly blooming forms of Glycogen tabacina and one G. tomentella form were studied. The experiment was conducted under isolated conditions. The effect of Osmia rufa L. on the fertility of raceme flowers was studied. It was found that the G. tabacina and G. tomentella flowers were intensively penetrated by the insects. A very clear increase (3-4 fold in pod development was observed. The results ol the experiment indicate that geitonogamic pollination has a favorable influence on the effectiveness of the blooming of the chasmogamic flowers of the studied species.

  19. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  20. ‘… a metal conducts and a non-metal doesn't’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. P.; Lodge, M. T. J.; Hensel, F.; Redmer, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a letter to one of the authors, Sir Nevill Mott, then in his tenth decade, highlighted the fact that the statement ‘… a metal conducts, and a non-metal doesn’t’ can be true only at the absolute zero of temperature, T=0 K. But, of course, experimental studies of metals, non-metals and, indeed, the electronic and thermodynamic transition between these canonical states of matter must always occur above T=0 K, and, in many important cases, for temperatures far above the absolute zero. Here, we review the issues—theoretical and experimental—attendant on studies of the metal to non-metal transition in doped semiconductors at temperatures close to absolute zero (T=0.03 K) and fluid chemical elements at temperatures far above absolute zero (T>1000 K). We attempt to illustrate Mott’s insights for delving into such complex phenomena and experimental systems, finding intuitively the dominant features of the science, and developing a coherent picture of the different competing electronic processes. A particular emphasis is placed on the idea of a ‘Mott metal to non-metal transition’ in the nominally metallic chemical elements rubidium, caesium and mercury, and the converse metallization transition in the nominally non-metal elements hydrogen and oxygen. We also review major innovations by D. A. Goldhammer (Goldhammer 1913 Dispersion und absorption des lichtes) and K. F. Herzfeld (Herzfeld 1927 Phys. Rev. 29, 701–705. (doi:10.1103/PhysRev.29.701)) in a pre-quantum theory description of the metal–non-metal transition, which emphasize the pivotal role of atomic properties in dictating the metallic or non-metallic status of the chemical elements of the periodic table under ambient and extreme conditions; a link with Pauling’s ‘metallic orbital’ is also established here. PMID:20123742

  1. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R Artz

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid, and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata, cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  2. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione) and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid), and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol) added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata), cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  3. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Non-Metal Doped Mesoporous Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z. Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2 has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of reactants and charge carriers to the photocatalytically active interface of TiO2. However, because the large band gap of TiO2 limits its ability to utilize visible light, non-metal doping has been extensively studied to tune the energy levels of TiO2. While first-principles calculations support the efficacy of this approach, it is challenging to efficiently introduce active non-metal dopants into the lattice of TiO2. This review surveys recent advances in the preparation of mp-TiO2 and their doping with non-metal atoms. Different doping strategies and dopant sources are discussed. Further, co-doping with combinations of non-metal dopants are discussed as strategies to reduce the band gap, improve photogenerated charge separation, and enhance visible light absorption. The improvements resulting from each doping strategy are discussed in light of potential changes in mesoporous architecture, dopant composition and chemical state, extent of band gap reduction, and improvement in photocatalytic activities. Finally, potential applications of non-metal-doped mp-TiO2 are explored in water splitting, CO2 reduction, and environmental remediation with visible light.

  4. Treatment of transverse patellar fractures: a comparison between metallic and non-metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, Maarten H G; den Hamer, Anniek; Traa, Willeke A; Oomen, Pim J A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of transverse patellar fixation have been described. This study compares the clinical outcome and the occurrence of complications of various fixation methods. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Google were searched. A direct comparison between fixation techniques using mixed or non-metallic implants and metallic K-wire and tension band fixation shows no significant difference in clinical outcome between both groups. Additionally, studies reporting novel operation techniques show good clinical results. Studies describing the treatment of patients using non-metallic or mixed implants are fewer compared with those using metallic fixation. A large variety of clinical scoring systems were used for assessing the results of treatment, which makes direct comparison difficult. More data of fracture treatment using non-metallic or mixed implants is needed to achieve a more balanced comparison.

  5. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  6. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  7. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc .) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  8. LCAO fitting of positron 2D-ACAR momentum densities of non-metallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present a least-squares fitting method to fit and analyze momentum densities obtained by 2D-ACAR. The method uses an LCAO-MO as a fitting basis and thus is applicable to non-metals. Here we illustrate the method by taking MgO as an example. (orig.)

  9. LCAO fitting of positron 2D-ACAR momentum densities of non-metallic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, T. [National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We present a least-squares fitting method to fit and analyze momentum densities obtained by 2D-ACAR. The method uses an LCAO-MO as a fitting basis and thus is applicable to non-metals. Here we illustrate the method by taking MgO as an example. (orig.)

  10. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  11. Soil effects on GPR detection of buried non-metallic mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.H.; Miller, T.; Borchers, B.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Landmines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of landmine sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic landmines remains very difficult. The objective of this contribution is to synthesize our work related to the effects of

  12. Mining Waste Classification and Quantity of Non-Metal Minesin Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Burger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining is an important human activity that creates wealth and supplies materials for maintaining standard of living and further human development. However, mining has also negative impacts on the environment and society. One of them is the production of mining waste throughout the entire mining cycle, in particular in the mine development and operation /production stage.Due to the EU Directive 2006/21/EC on the management of waste from the extractive industries and its implementation in Member state, estimation on quality and quantity of mining waste from active non-metal mines in Slovenia was carried out. In the selected mines mining and processing was closely examined. With material flow analysis quantity and characteristics of mining waste were defined for several mines of different commodities.Data on mining waste were afterwards generalized in order to get an overall country evaluation on mining waste “production” of non-metal mines.Mining waste as a result of mining and beneficiation processes in non-metal mines of Slovenia is either inert or non-hazardous. Most of the mining waste is used for mine reclamation running simultaneously with the production phase. The largest amounts of mining waste per unit produced are created in dimension stone industry. Since the dimensionstone production is small, the waste amount is negligible. Large quantities of mining waste are produced in crushed stone and, sand and gravel operations, because aggregate production is pretty large with regard to other non-metals production in Slovenia. We can therefore conclude that large quantities of mining waste from non-metal mines, which are mostly used in reclamation and for side products, do not represent danger to the environment.

  13. Performance simulation of serpentine type metallic and non-metallic solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sageer, A. A. M.; Alowa, M. I.; Saad, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of metallic and non-metalic solar water collector models for evaluating its performane parameters. The determined parameters include heat removal factor , overall heat loss coefficients, heat gain, daily and hourly efficiencies. The present study reports that, under forced circulation lest, the non-metallic collector has an inferior performance parameters when compared to that of the metallic one. It was also revealed that the overall heat loss coefficients of both collectors show weak dependence on the flow rate variations. It was also noticed that the heat removal factor forboth models is more sensitive to the flow rate variations. Also noticed that the heat removal factor for both models is more sensitive to the flow rate variations. Also, a comparision of performance parameters of the theoretical and experimental studies showed good agreements for most hours of the day, except the results obtained at the early morning and late after noon hours.(Author)

  14. Computer Simulation of the Formation of Non-Metallic Precipitates During a Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors own computer software, based on the Ueshima mathematical model with taking into account the back diffusion, determined from the Wołczyński equation, was developed for simulation calculations. The applied calculation procedure allowed to determine the chemical composition of the non-metallic phase in steel deoxidised by means of Mn, Si and Al, at the given cooling rate. The calculation results were confirmed by the analysis of samples taken from the determined areas of the cast ingot. This indicates that the developed computer software can be applied for designing the steel casting process of the strictly determined chemical composition and for obtaining the required non-metallic precipitates.

  15. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  16. Damage parameters for non-metals in a high energy neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Berry, H.C.; Lazareth, O.W.; Goland, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Simulation of radiation damage induced in monatomic and binary non-metals by FMIT and fusion neutrons is described. Damage produced by elastic scattering of recoil atoms and by ionization-assisted processes has been evaluated using the damage program DON. Displacement damage from gamma rays has been evaluated by using the technique of Oen and Holmes. A comparison of damage for an anticipated FMIT radiation environment generated by a coupled n-γ transport calculations and a fusion spectrum is made. Gamma-induced displacement damage is sufficiently small that it is dominated by neutron-induced recoil processes. Ionization-assisted displacements may be important depending upon the ionization cross section of the particular non-metal under consideration

  17. Non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Lawrence; Morello, Salvatore; Balistreri, Francesco; D'Arienzo, Antonio; D'Arienzo, Michele

    2016-08-01

    Despite good clinical outcome proposals, there has been relatively little published regarding the use of non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation. The purpose of the study was to perform a systematic literature review to summarize and evaluate the clinical studies that described techniques for treating patella fractures using non-metallic implants. A comprehensive literature search was systematically performed to evaluate all studies included in the literature until November 2015. The following search terms were used: patellar fracture, patella suture, patella absorbable, patella screw, patella cerclage. Two investigators independently reviewed all abstracts and the selection of these abstracts was then performed based on inclusion and/or exclusion criteria. A total of 9 studies involving 123 patients were included. Patients had a mean age of 33.7 years and were followed up for a mean of 18.9 months. The most common method for fracture fixations included the use of suture material. Good clinical outcomes were reported among all studies. Thirteen patients (10.5%) presented complications, while 4 patients (3.2%) required additional surgery for implant removal. There is a paucity of literature focused on the use of non-metallic implant for patellar fracture fixation. However, this systematic review showed that non-metallic implants are able to deliver good clinical outcomes reducing the rate of surgical complications and re-operation. These results may assist surgeons in choosing to use alternative material such as sutures to incorporate into their routine practice or to consider it, in order to reduce the rate of re-operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation of non-metallic inclusions and the possibility of their removal during ingot casting

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnarsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of non-metallic inclusions during ingot casting. Emphasize have been on understanding the types of inclusions formed and developed through the casting process and on the development of already existing inclusions carried over from the ladle during casting. Industrial experiments carried on at Uddeholm Tooling together with laboratory work and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Ingots of 5.8 tons have bee...

  19. Formation and Chemical Development of Non-metallic Inclusions in Ladle Treatment of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate theformation and chemical development of non-metallic inclusionsduring ladle treatment of steel. To begin with, an investigation of the deoxidation processand the impact of aluminium addition was carried out. For thispurpose, a new experimental setup was constructed. The setupallowed the examination of the deoxidation process as afunction of time by using a quenching technique. Preliminaryexperiments showed that homogeneous nucleation of alumin...

  20. Autoradiographic investigation of the removal of non-metallic inclusions in connection with the steel remelting process in vacuum furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaski, H.; Siewierski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled radioactive non-metallic inclusions in steel were obtained through deoxidation of steel with an activated aluminium alloy containing 1% rare earths. Quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions in the steel were determined by applying autoradiography to the longitudinal and cross sections of the steel slabs. After remelting in an electronic furnace the distribution of non-metallic inclusions was determined by autoradiography of the lateral surfaces and the cross section of the slabs. It was found that 50 - 70% of the inclusions could be removed. The results obtained from autoradiographic investigation allow the exploration of the mechanism of the removal of inclusions. (author)

  1. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-01-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ( 63 Cu + , 107 Ag + , 197 Au + ) and non-metal ( 4 He + , 12 C + ) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10 13 ions cm −2 , the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10 17 ions cm −2 , the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C 0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C 0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10 7 Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10 16 ions cm −2 , being 10 17 Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC

  2. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta, V., E-mail: vincenzo.resta@le.infn.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Quarta, G. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Farella, I. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Maruccio, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Cola, A. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems – Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Calcagnile, L. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, Lecce I-73100 (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal ({sup 63}Cu{sup +}, {sup 107}Ag{sup +}, {sup 197}Au{sup +}) and non-metal ({sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sup +}) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated C=C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C{sub 0x} clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C{sub 0x} cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼10{sup 7} Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}, being 10{sup 17} Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  3. A Review of Post and Core Application with Emphasize on Non Metallic Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahroodi MH

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Many different methods are suggested to restore endodontically treated teeth. Prefabricated posts can not be indicated for all teeth and cast posts require extra time and cost. In addition, with the introduction of full ceramic restorations, achieving the ideal esthetic with metal post underneath them may be problematic or impossible because the darkness of the metallic posts may show through the highly translucent all ceramic restorations. In this article the review of litature and describiton of applied methods of different procedure in restoring the root canal therapied teeth and few techniques of non metallic posts fabrication such as fiber reinforced composite and zirconium oxide posts have been described.

  4. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers

  5. Application of the quantitative autoradiography for determination of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, J.T.; Wilczynski, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions, i.e. the knowledge of the content of the radiotracer in a single inclusion, allows to obtain new information about the mechanism and the kinetics of steel deoxidation. In order to determine this specific activity quantitative autoradiography was used. Fo; this purpose, various standards of aluminium oxides with different amounts of cerium oxide Ce 2 O 3 and an aluminium-cerium alloy were prepared. The standards and the alloy were activated with thermal neutrons. Then several autoradiographs were made for these standards (ORWO AF-3 films were used). The autoradiographs served as the basis for evaluation of the standardization curves: optical density versus dimension of particles for a constant cerium concentration; optical density versus concentration of cerium for a constant dimension of particle. The samples of liquid steel were deoxidated with Al-Ce alloy. After labelled non-metallic inclusions had been isolated, the autoradiographs were made under the same conditions as for the standards. The standardization curves were used to determine the cerium content in the single inclusions. (author)

  6. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  7. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  8. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  9. Automated Classification and Analysis of Non-metallic Inclusion Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Mohammad; Zhang, Tongsheng; Tan, Jia; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to utilize principal component analysis (PCA), clustering methods, and correlation analysis to condense and examine large, multivariate data sets produced from automated analysis of non-metallic inclusions. Non-metallic inclusions play a major role in defining the properties of steel and their examination has been greatly aided by automated analysis in scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The methods were applied to analyze inclusions on two sets of samples: two laboratory-scale samples and four industrial samples from a near-finished 4140 alloy steel components with varying machinability. The laboratory samples had well-defined inclusions chemistries, composed of MgO-Al2O3-CaO, spinel (MgO-Al2O3), and calcium aluminate inclusions. The industrial samples contained MnS inclusions as well as (Ca,Mn)S + calcium aluminate oxide inclusions. PCA could be used to reduce inclusion chemistry variables to a 2D plot, which revealed inclusion chemistry groupings in the samples. Clustering methods were used to automatically classify inclusion chemistry measurements into groups, i.e., no user-defined rules were required.

  10. Evaluation of Accelerated Ageing Tests for Metallic and Non-Metallic Graffiti Paints Applied to Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sanmartín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, different methods (gravimetric analysis, examination of digital images, colour and infrared measurements were used to evaluate the performance of accelerated ageing tests (involving exposure to humidity, freeze-thawing cycles and NaCl and Na2SO4 salts for graffiti painted on stone. Silver (metallic and black (non-metallic graffiti spray paints were applied to two types of igneous rock (granite and rhyolitic ignimbrite and one sedimentary rock (fossiliferous limestone, i.e., biocalcarenite. The metallic and non-metallic graffiti spray paints acted differently on the stone surfaces, both chemically and physically. Older graffiti were found to be more vulnerable to weathering agents. The ageing test with NaCl and particularly Na2SO4, both applied to granite, proved the most severe on the paints, yielding more detrimental and faster artificial ageing of the type of material under study.

  11. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    M?Sadoques, George; Carra, Michael; Beringer, Woody

    2012-01-01

    Electric motors that run in pure oxygen must be sealed, or "canned," for safety reasons to prevent the oxygen from entering into the electrical portion of the motor. The current canning process involves designing a metallic barrier around the rotor to provide the separation. This metallic barrier reduces the motor efficiency as speed is increased. In higher-speed electric motors, efficiency is greatly improved if a very thin, nonmetallic barrier can be utilized. The barrier thickness needs to be approximately 0.025-in. (.0.6-mm) thick and can be made of a brittle material such as glass. The motors, however, designed for space applications are typically subject to high-vibration environments. A fragile, non-metallic barrier can be utilized in a motor assembly if held in place by a set of standard rubber O-ring seals. The O-rings provide the necessary sealing to keep oxygen away from the electrical portion of the motor and also isolate the fragile barrier from the harsh motor vibration environment. The compliance of the rubber O-rings gently constrains the fragile barrier and isolates it from the harsh external motor environment. The use of a non-metallic barrier greatly improves motor performance, especially at higher speeds, while isolating the electronics from the working fluid with an inert liner.

  12. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on red mason bees (Osmia bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km 2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado ® -dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.

  13. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields

  14. Use of radioactive indicators for the quantitative determination of non-metall inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciuk, B.; Michalik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of determining and investigating the sources of non-metal inclusions in steel are presented together with some results of radiometric investigations. The experience of several years of research in industries as well as profound studies of world literature were used as a basis for systematic and critical discussion of the methods used. Optimum methods have been chosen for the quantitative determination of oxide inclusions and for the identification of their origin (e.g. from the refractory furnace lining, the tap-hole, the runner, the ladle or mold slag). Problems of tracers (type, quantity, condition, activity), of the labelling method suitable for the various origins of inclusions, of sampling, of chemical processing of the material sampled, as well as of radiometric measuring techniques (including possible activation) are discussed. Finally, a method for the determination of inclusions resulting from the deoxidation of steel is briefly outlined. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic detection and infrared visualization techniques for non-metallic inclusions in molten aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Ming; Ludwig, Reinhold; Shankar, Sumanth; Apelian, Diran

    2002-01-01

    The role of detecting non-metallic and weakly conducting inclusions in hot melts during the manufacturing process is of major importance. However, the key impediment to assessing melt cleanliness is the quantification of the level of inclusions. In this paper, we present the theory and practice in using a magnetic force-based detection system capable of monitoring small inclusions of micron-size dimensions. The idea is to force the non-conducting inclusions to a detection location (the free melt surface) by electromagnetic Archimedes forces. Further, an infrared (IR) imaging system can then be applied to detect their thermal signature. Finally, a novel image-processing algorithm is used to analyze the inclusion level on the measurement surface

  16. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    -shaped objects. Two-dimensional probe-correction and addition signal processing are applied to the raw probe-data. The probe used in this experiment was an open-ended waveguide operating at S-band. The movements of the probe are controlled by two stepmotors via an RS-232 interface. The probe is connected...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum...

  17. The role of the excited impurity levels on the metal-non metal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.F. da; Makler, S.S.; Anda, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic density of states for the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is calculated using the Green function method. The system is described by a Hamiltonian with local Coulomb interactions represented in a tight binding basis composed by two orbitals per site. The electronic correlation is treated in the CPA approximation. To calculate the configurational average for this structural disordered system a diagrammatic scheme is developed. It represents an extension of the Matsubara and Toyozawa method for the case of two hybridized bands in the presence of electronic correlation. The excited levels show to play a crutial role in the undestanding of the metal-non metal transition. This work represents an improvement of a previous result. The particular case of Si : P is analyzed. (author) [pt

  18. The role of the excited impurity levels on the metal-non metal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.F. da; Makler, S.S.; Anda, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic density of states for the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is calculated using the Green function method. The system is described by a Hamiltonian with local Coulomb interactions represented in a tight binding basis composed by two orbitals per site. The electronic correlation is treated in the CPA approximation. To calculate the configurational average for this structural disordered system a diagrammatic scheme is developed. It represents an extension of the Matsubara and Toyozawa method for the case of two hybridized bands in the presence of electronic correlation. The excited levels shown to play a crutial role in the understanding of the metal-non metal transition. This work represents an improvement of a previous result. The particular case of Si:P is analyzed. (Author) [pt

  19. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia

    2009-01-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  20. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  2. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustal, B; Schelnberger, B; Bührig-Polaczek, A

    2016-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content. (paper)

  3. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  4. Development of a Flexible Non-Metal Electrode for Cell Stimulation and Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of producing flexible electrodes for potentially simultaneously stimulating and measuring cellular signals in retinal cells. Currently, most multi-electrode applications rely primarily on etching, but the metals involved have a certain degree of brittleness, leaving them prone to cracking under prolonged pressure. This study proposes using silver chloride ink as a conductive metal, and polydimethysiloxane (PDMS as the substrate to provide electrodes with an increased degree of flexibility to allow them to bend. This structure is divided into the electrode layer made of PDMS and silver chloride ink, and a PDMS film coating layer. PDMS can be mixed in different proportions to modify the degree of rigidity. The proposed method involved three steps. The first segment entailed the manufacturing of the electrode, using silver chloride ink as the conductive material, and using computer software to define the electrode size and micro-engraving mechanisms to produce the electrode pattern. The resulting uniform PDMS pattern was then baked onto the model, and the flow channel was filled with the conductive material before air drying to produce the required electrode. In the second stage, we tested the electrode, using an impedance analyzer to measure electrode cyclic voltammetry and impedance. In the third phase, mechanical and biocompatibility tests were conducted to determine electrode properties. This study aims to produce a flexible, non-metallic sensing electrode which fits snugly for use in a range of measurement applications.

  5. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue strength of high manganese steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, I.; Shibata, H.; Lee, J.H.; Nishida, Shin-ichi

    1991-01-01

    Six series of high manganese austenitic steel, which contain different inclusion quantity, were prepared. Fatigue experiments, tensile tests and Charpy tests were carried out. Influence of non-metallic inclusion and of temperature on the stress intensity threshold, fatigue crack propagation behavior, elastic-plastic fracture toughness and Charpy value were studied at room temperature and low temperature. In general, strength of this high manganese steel was reduced with increase of inclusion content. Influences of the direction of elongated inclusion with regard to the rolling direction on their strengths were also discussed based on SEM observation and numerical analysis for the stress concentration at a crack tip when an inclusion was near by the tip. According to these results, an inclusion acted as an obstacle to crack propagation for LT specimen. The roughness of fracture surface of ST specimen was larger than that of SL specimen, and the crack growth rate of the former was less than that of the latter. Fatigue life was increased with decrease of temperature, and mechanical parameters such as ΔK th and J 1c were decreased with increase of temperature. The Charpy value decreased clearly with decrease of temperature

  6. Fatal Cobalt Toxicity after a Non-Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne M. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case illustrates the potential for systemic cobalt toxicity in non-metal-on-metal bearings and its potentially devastating consequences. We present a 71-year-old male with grinding sensations in his right hip following ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA. After diagnosing a fractured ceramic liner, the hip prosthesis was revised into a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. At one year postoperatively, X-rays and MARS-MRI showed a fixed reversed hybrid THA, with periarticular densities, flattening of the femoral head component, and a pattern of periarticular metal wear debris and pseudotumor formation. Before revision could take place, the patient was admitted with the clinical picture of systemic cobalt toxicity, supported by excessively high serum cobalt and chromium levels, and ultimately died. At autopsy dilated cardiomyopathy as cause of death was hypothesized. A third body wear reaction between ceramic remnants and the metal femoral head very likely led to excessive metal wear, which contributed systemic cobalt toxicity leading to neurotoxicity and heart failure. This case emphasizes that fractured ceramic-on-ceramic bearings should be revised to ceramic-on-ceramic or ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings, but not to metal-on-polyethylene bearings. We aim to increase awareness among orthopedic surgeons for clinical clues for systemic cobalt intoxication, even when there is no metal-on-metal bearing surface.

  7. A first-principles study of light non-metallic atom substituted blue phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Minglei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Tang, Wencheng, E-mail: 101000185@seu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Ren, Qingqiang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Wang, Sa-ke [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu (China); Yu, Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Du, Yanhui [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All the impurities are covalently bonded to blue phosphorene (with a single vacancy). • All the substituted systems are semiconductors. • B-substituted system exhibits direct bandgap semiconductor behavior. • The band gaps with spin polarization are found in C and O-substituted systems. • Our works can paves a new route at nanoscale for novel functionalities of optical and spintronics devices. - Abstract: First-principles calculations are implemented to study the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of light non-metallic atom (B, C, N, O and F) substituted blue phosphorene. All the substituted systems are highly stable. The B-substituted system is a direct bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap size about 1.5 eV. The C, O-substituted systems are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors. Magnetism is observed for C and O substitution, while for the other impurities no magnetic moment is detected. Our works paves a new route at nanoscale for novel functionalities of optical and spintronics devices.

  8. Validation of the Ventgraph program for use in metal/non-metal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, C.J. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Ventgraph is a ventilation software developed by the Polish Academy of Sciences. It has features similar to other ventilation programs, such as network simulation and contaminant dispersal. Its additional capabilities include mine fire simulation, compressible flow modelling, and real-time on-screen visualization of mine ventilation and fire effects. For that reason, it has been widely used around the world for studying coal mine fires, fighting fires with inert gases, spontaneous combustion, and mine emergency exercises. Ventgraph has been used to a much lesser extent in metal/non-metal (M/NM) mines. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has determined that the use of Ventgraph to hardrock mining methods would be beneficial for studying M/NM ventilation effects, mine evacuation training, risk analysis of potential mine ventilation changes, airborne contaminants, recirculation, and mine fires. Ventgraph was used to simulate the 1972 Sunshine Mine fire where 91 miners perished. The Sunshine Mine was chosen because of its deep, complex ventilation system. Calibration of Ventgraph's fire simulation module to known events of the fire showed close correlation to contaminant levels observed and real-time movement of fire combustion products through the mine. It was concluded that Ventgraph is a valuable tool for M/NM mine ventilation, fire, and evacuation planning. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Separation of the metallic and non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards employing green technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada-Ruiz, R.H., E-mail: rhestrada@itsaltillo.edu.mx; Flores-Campos, R., E-mail: rcampos@itsaltillo.edu.mx; Gámez-Altamirano, H.A., E-mail: hgamez@itsaltillo.edu.mx; Velarde-Sánchez, E.J., E-mail: ejvelarde@itsaltillo.edu.mx

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Small sizes of particles are required in order to separate the different fractions. • Inverse flotation process is an efficient green technology to separate fractions. • Superficial air velocity is the main variable in the inverse flotation process. • Inverse flotation is a green process because the pulṕs pH is 7.0 during the test. - Abstract: The generation of electrical and electronic waste is increasing day by day; recycling is attractive because of the metallic fraction containing these. Nevertheless, conventional techniques are highly polluting. The comminution of the printed circuit boards followed by an inverse flotation process is a clean technique that allows one to separate the metallic fraction from the non-metallic fraction. It was found that particle size and superficial air velocity are the main variables in the separation of the different fractions. In this way an efficient separation is achieved by avoiding the environmental contamination coupled with the possible utilization of the different fractions obtained.

  10. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  11. Dielectric relaxations in non-metallic materials related to Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennani, H.; Pilet, J.C. (Lab. Instrumentation, Rennes-1 Univ., 35 (France)); Guilloux-Viry, M.; Perrin, C.; Perrin, A.; Sergent, M. (Lab. de Chimie Minerale B, C.N.R.S., 35 - Rennes (France))

    1990-10-15

    In relation with high Tc superconducting material studies, dielectric measurements have been carried out, in the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 kHz, on two powdered compounds belonging to the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. The non-metallic tetragonal phases YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} exhibit dielectric relaxations: for the studied samples (x<0.4) the activation energy U is observed in the range 0.5

  12. Novel measurement method of activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-Dae; Lim, Byung-Ju; Song, Chi-Sung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel technique and its applicability for measuring activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPPs (nuclear power plants). The E a is a principal property for life assessment and accelerating thermal aging of equipment during environmental qualification. The E a is conventionally obtained by tensile test using UTM (Universal Testing Machine). However, this conventional method has many difficulties such as lots of big standardized specimens required and long measuring time of at least 3 months. Moreover, this is not only an inapplicable method during inservice inspection but destructive method, which are main obstacles for using UTM. Fortunately, newly developed technique for the E a such as TGA (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis) can eliminate almost all the problems of UTM. The common TGA is to measure weight change with time under constant heating rate. TGA was devised to perform the compositional analysis of materials such as rubber, carbon black, filler, volatile, etc., and to determine the thermal stability/decomposition, stoichiometry of reactions, and kinetics of reaction, by weight changes of materials when heated. TGA method has various advantages such as small amount of the sample (e.g. 20 mg), shortened measuring time of approximately 2 days, and virtually non-destructive method. In this study, we have tried to find the justification of TGA utilization for E a measurement by comparing the measured TGA data to UTM data for three cable materials. Considering reasonable consistency of our TGA data with UTM data, we conclude that TGA method gives convenient way to measure the activation energy for EPR, CR, and CSP materials with many merits, such as measuring time, specimen size and quantity required, and test expenses. (author)

  13. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-11-01

    Recently, non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs) made from thermoplastic resins such as polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, and polypropylene have been used as removable partial dentures (RPDs). However, the use of such RPDs can seriously affect various tissues because of their low rigidity. In this study, we fabricated high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) for use in RPDs, and examined their physical properties such as apparent density, dynamic hardness, and flexural properties. GFRTPs made from E-glass fibers and polypropylene were fabricated using an injection-molding. The effects of the fiber content on the GFRTP properties were examined using glass-fiber contents of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. Commercially available denture base materials and NMCD materials were used as controls. The experimental densities of GFRTPs with various fiber contents agreed with the theoretical densities. Dynamic micro-indentation tests confirmed that the fiber content does not affect the GFRTP surface properties such as dynamic hardness and elastic modulus, because most of the reinforcing glass fibers are embedded in the polypropylene. The flexural strength increased from 55.8 to 217.6 MPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%. The flexural modulus increased from 1.75 to 7.42 GPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%, that is, the flexural strength and modulus of GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 3.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unreinforced polypropylene. These results suggest that fiber reinforcement has beneficial effects, and GFRTPs can be used in NMCDs because their physical properties are better than those of controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2254-2260, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  15. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  16. Chemical sensors for monitoring non-metallic impurities in liquid sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Rajesh; Jayaraman, V.; Rajan Babu, S.; Sridharan, R.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid sodium is the coolant of choice for fast breeder reactors. Liquid sodium is highly compatible with structural steels when the concentration of dissolved non-metallic impurities such as oxygen and carbon are low. However, when their concentrations are above certain threshold limits, enhanced corrosion and mass transfer and carburization of the steels would occur. The threshold concentration levels of oxygen in sodium are determined by thermochemical aspects of various ternary oxides of Na-M-O systems (M alloying elements in steels) which take part in corrosion and mass transfer. Dissolved carbon also influences these threshold levels by establishing relevant carbide equilibria. An event of steam leak into sodium at the steam generator, if undetected at its inception itself, can lead to extensive wastage of the tubes of the steam generator and prolonged shutdown. Air ingress into the argon cover gas and leak of hydrocarbon oil used as cooling fluids of the shafts of the centrifugal pumps of sodium are the sources of oxygen and carbon impurities in sodium. Continuous monitoring of the concentration of dissolved hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in sodium coolant will help identifying their ingress at inception itself. An electrochemical hydrogen sensor based on CaHBr-CaBr 2 hydride ion conducting solid electrolyte has been developed for detecting the steam leak during normal operating conditions of the reactor. A nickel diffuser based sensor system using thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and Pd-doped tin oxide thin film sensor has been developed for use during low power operations of the reactor or during its start up. For monitoring carbon in sodium, an electrochemical sensor with molten Na 2 CO 3 -LiCO 3 as the electrolyte and pure graphite as reference electrode has been developed. Yttria Doped Thoria (YDT) electrolyte based oxygen sensor is under development for monitoring dissolved oxygen levels in sodium. Fabrication, assembly, testing and performance of

  17. An aviation security (AVSEC) screening demonstrator for the detection of non-metallic threats at 28-33 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick; Hutchinson, Simon; Southgate, Matthew; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    The unique selling proposition of millimetre wave technology for security screening is that it provides a stand-off or portal scenario sensing capability for non-metallic threats. The capabilities to detect some non-metallic threats are investigated in this paper, whilst recommissioning the AVSEC portal screening system at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The AVSEC system is a large aperture (1.6 m) portal screening imager which uses spatially incoherent illumination at 28-33 GHz from mode scrambling cavities to illuminate the subject. The imaging capability is critically analysed in terms of this illumination. A novel technique for the measurement of reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient is investigated and this then use to characterise the signatures of nitromethane, hexane, methanol, bees wax and baking flour. Millimetre wave images are shown how these liquids in polycarbonate bottles and the other materials appear against the human body.

  18. The assessment of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys for ultra high vacuum applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriguet, P.J.-L.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in steels and nickel alloys may create leak-paths under Ultra High Vacuum conditions. This paper shows the application of the ASTM E45 standard to the assessment of these inclusions and gives some design recommendations. Three case-histories encountered at the Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking and a possible explanation of the phenomenon are also presented. (Author)

  19. Accurate determination of non-metallic impurities in high purity tetramethylammonium hydroxide using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Xie, Hualin; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The content of non-metallic impurities in high-purity tetramethylammonium hydroxide (HPTMAH) aqueous solution has an important influence on the yield, electrical properties and reliability of the integrated circuit during the process of chip etching and cleaning. Therefore, an efficient analytical method to directly quantify the content of non-metallic impurities in HPTMAH aqueous solutions is necessary. The present study was aimed to develop a novel method that can accurately determine seven non-metallic impurities (B, Si, P, S, Cl, As, and Se) in an aqueous solution of HPTMAH by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The samples were measured using a direct injection method. In the MS/MS mode, oxygen and hydrogen were used as reaction gases in the octopole reaction system (ORS) to eliminate mass spectral interferences during the analytical process. The detection limits of B, Si, P, S, Cl, As, and Se were 0.31, 0.48, 0.051, 0.27, 3.10, 0.008, and 0.005 μg L-1, respectively. The samples were analyzed by the developed method and the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) was used for contrastive analysis. The values of these seven elements measured using ICP-MS/MS were consistent with those measured by SF-ICP-MS. The proposed method can be utilized to analyze non-metallic impurities in HPTMAH aqueous solution. Table S2 Multiple potential interferences on the analytes. Table S3 Parameters of calibration curve and the detection limit (DL). Table S4 Results obtained for 25% concentration high-purity grade TMAH aqueous solution samples (μg L-1, mean ± standard deviation, n = 10).

  20. The interaction between non-metallic inclusions and surface roughness in fatigue failure and their influence on fatigue strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberifar, S.; Mashreghi, A.R.; Mosalaeepur, M.; Ghasemi, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fatigue strength of a tested steel was affected by inclusions and surface notches. ► Inclusions were the main fatigue crack sources even in rough specimens. ► The stress intensity factor represented the behavior of inclusions properly. ► In rough steels the effect of inclusions was intensified by surface roughness. ► The critical inclusion size increased when surface roughness was removed. -- Abstract: In this study, the influence of non-metallic inclusions on the fatigue behavior of 30MnVS6 steel containing different inclusion sizes and surface roughness has been investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine fatigue fracture origins. It was concluded that the non-metallic inclusions were dominant fatigue crack initiation sites in both smooth and rough specimens. This was justified by the calculation of stress intensity factor generated by both surface roughness and non-metallic inclusions, based on Murakami’s model. In addition, it was found that for a given stress, the critical inclusion size could be increased by eliminating the surface roughness.

  1. Cleavage of hydrogen by activation at a single non-metal centre - towards new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Sławomir J

    2015-05-28

    Molecular surfaces of non-metal species are often characterized by both positive and negative regions of electrostatic potential (EP) at a non-metal centre. This centre may activate molecular hydrogen which further leads to the addition reaction. The positive EP regions at the non-metal centres correspond to σ-holes; the latter sites are enhanced by electronegative substituents. This is why the following simple moieties; PFH2, SFH, AsFH2, SeFH, BrF3, PF(CH3)2 and AsF(CH3)2, were chosen here to analyze the H2 activation and its subsequent splitting at the P, As, S, Se and Br centres. Also the reverse H-H bond reforming process is analyzed. MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed for systems corresponding to different stages of these processes. The sulphur centre in the SFH moiety is analyzed in detail since the potential barrier height for the addition reaction for this species is the lowest of the moieties analyzed here. The results of calculations show that the SFH + H2 → SFH3 reaction in the gas phase is endothermic but it is exothermic in polar solvents.

  2. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  3. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  4. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  5. Non-Metallic Inclusions and Hot-Working Behaviour of Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the production of medium-Mn steels with an increased Al content. The special attention is focused on the identification of non-metallic inclusions and their modification using rare earth elements. The conditions of the thermomechanical treatment using the metallurgical Gleeble simulator and the semi-industrial hot rolling line were designed for steels containing 3 and 5% Mn. Hot-working conditions and controlled cooling strategies with the isothermal holding of steel at 400°C were selected. The effect of Mn content on the hot-working behaviour and microstructure of steel was addressed. The force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were determined. The identification of structural constituents was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The addition of rare earth elements led to the total modification of non-metallic inclusions, i.e., they replaced Mn and Al forming complex oxysulphides. The Mn content in a range between 3 and 5% does not affect the inclusion type and the hot-working behaviour. In contrast, it was found that Mn has a significant effect on a microstructure.

  6. AES and SIMS analysis of non-metallic inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammer, Katharina; Rosner, M; Poeckl, G; Hutter, H

    2003-05-01

    In the final step of secondary metallurgical steel processing, calcium is added. Besides Mg, Ca is the most powerful deoxidiser and desulfurisation agent. It reacts with dissolved oxygen and sulfur and reduces oxides and sulfides thereby forming non-metallic inclusions. Within this paper we present the analysis of such inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel. Depending on the time of quenching of the steel sample, different structures were revealed by REM, Auger and SIMS: If the steel was quenched immediately after Ca-addition, non-metallic inclusions that appeared to have "cavities" could be detected with SEM. SIMS investigations of these particles showed ring-shaped structures and revealed that the ring is made up of Al, Ca, Mg, O and S. No secondary ions however could be retrieved from the core inside the ring, thus leaving the nature of the "cavities" unclear. If the steel sample was quenched 3 min after Ca addition, inclusions did not have a ring-shaped structure but a compact one.

  7. ULC/ORD-C80.1 : the standard for aboveground non-metallic tanks for fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, G. [Underwriters' Lab. of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-09-01

    As a rule, flammable and combustible liquids were stored in aboveground tanks made of steel. Non-metallic materials are now being used for a new generation of aboveground tanks. Corrosion is a problem faced by most tank owners in many parts of Canada. Saltwater mist, sand blasting and bacteria growth formed in the condensation water at the bottom of the tank in the Maritimes affects an aboveground tank installed outdoors and close to the seashore. European non-metallic aboveground tanks for fuel oil first arrived on the North American market, and are now followed by designs from Canada. Requirements for these tanks were developed and tested by the Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada (ULC). It is a not-for-profit, independent organization accredited by the Standards Council of Canada to perform safety, certification, testing, quality registration, and standards development. The minimum criteria for non-metallic aboveground tank construction are contained in the ULC/ORD-C80.1 document. They can be constructed of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP), single or double wall, or they can be double wall tanks consisting of primary plastic tanks within metallic secondary containment. Other tanks are made of the blow molded high-density polyethylene. To simulate an in-house installation, fire tests were performed where a tank filled with fuel was exposed to pool fire for 30 minutes. A successful test meant the tank had not ruptured nor leaked during and after the test. Testers had to observe that any collapse occurred above the liquid level, and that violent explosion of any part of the tank or its content did not occur. The design requirements were evaluated by performing an analysis of the temperature chart: maximum vapour temperature inside the tank was 358 Celsius, while the liquid reached a maximum temperature of 91 Celsius and the outside temperature reached 600 Celsius. Primary tank pressure did not exceed 17 kilo Pascal. Building simulation of venting installation

  8. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin-part I: definition and indication of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    This position paper proposes a definition and naming standard for removable partial dentures (RPDs) using thermoplastic resin, and presents a guideline for clinical application. A panel of 14 experts having broad experience with clinical application of RPDs using thermoplastic resin was selected from members of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. At a meeting of the panel, "non-metal clasp denture" was referred as the generic name of RPDs with retentive elements (resin clasps) made of thermoplastic resin. The panel classified non-metal clasp dentures into two types: one with a flexible structure that lacks a metal framework and the other having a rigid structure that includes a metal framework. According to current prosthetic principles, flexible non-metal clasp dentures are not recommended as definitive dentures, except for limited cases such as patients with a metal allergy. Rigid non-metal clasp dentures are recommended in cases where patients will not accept metal clasps for esthetic reasons. Non-metal clasp dentures should follow the same design principles as conventional RPDs using metal clasps. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics and Modification of Non-metallic Inclusions in Titanium-Stabilized AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Dirk; Garbers-Craig, Andrie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes an investigation into the improvement of castability, final surface quality and formability of titanium-stabilized AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel on an industrial scale. Non-metallic inclusions found in this industrially produced stainless steel were first characterized using SEM-EDS analyses through the INCA-Steel software platform. Inclusions were found to consist of a MgO·Al2O3 spinel core, which acted as heterogeneous nucleation site for titanium solubility products. Plant-scale experiments were conducted to either prevent the formation of spinel, or to modify it by calcium treatment. Modification to spherical dual-phase spinel-liquid matrix inclusions was achieved with calcium addition, which eliminated submerged entry nozzle clogging for this grade. Complete modification to homogeneous liquid calcium aluminates was achieved at high levels of dissolved aluminum. A mechanism was suggested to explain the extent of modification achieved.

  10. Standard practice for process compensated resonance testing via swept sine input for metallic and Non-Metallic parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a general procedure for using the process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) via swept sine input method to identify metallic and non-metallic parts’ resonant pattern differences that can be used to indentify parts with anomalies causing deficiencies in the expected performance of the part in service. This practice is intended for use with instruments capable of exciting, measuring, recording, and analyzing multiple whole body mechanical vibration resonant frequencies within parts exhibiting acoustical ringing in the audio, or ultrasonic, resonant frequency ranges, or both. PCRT is used in the presence of manufacturing process variance to distinguish acceptable parts from those containing significant anomalies in physical characteristics expected to significantly alter the performance. Such physical characteristics include, but are not limited to, cracks, voids, porosity, shrink, inclusions, discontinuities, grain and crystalline structure differences, density related anomalies...

  11. Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions from Nickel Base Superalloys by Electromagnetic Levitation Melting in a Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjili, Mohsen Hajipour; Halali, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Samples of INCONEL 718 were levitated and melted in a slag by the application of an electromagnetic field. The effects of temperature, time, and slag composition on the inclusion content of the samples were studied thoroughly. Samples were compared with the original alloy to study the effect of the process on inclusions. Size, shape, and chemical composition of remaining non-metallic inclusions were investigated. The samples were prepared by Standard Guide for Preparing and Evaluating Specimens for Automatic Inclusion Assessment of Steel (ASTM E 768-99) method and the results were reported by means of the Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel (ASTM E 45-97). Results indicated that by increasing temperature and processing time, greater level of cleanliness could be achieved, and numbers and size of the remaining inclusions decreased significantly. It was also observed that increasing calcium fluoride content of the slag helped reduce inclusion content.

  12. Regularities of Filamentary Channels Formation During Formation of Nanostructured Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings in Microplasma Galvanostatic Mode in Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Konstantinova, T. A.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the theoretical models describing the growth of filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings formed by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. The authors identified dependences of the number of pores on the coating thickness. The paper presents graphic dependences of the number of filamentary channels on the process time and the coating thickness. These dependences allow calculating through and surface porosity, and in cases, when the pores are filled with functional material, they allow calculating the concentration distribution of this functional material throughout the coating thickness. The theoretical models enhance our understanding of the nature of anode processes and can be used to describe and forecast the growth and filling of porous coatings, so they can also be used to create functional and bioactive materials.

  13. The uncertainties calculation of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of heterogeneous non-metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мaryna O. Golofeyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of heterogeneous non-metallic materials and structures needs measurement of reliable values of dissipation characteristics, as well as common factors of their change during the loading process. Aim: The aim of this study is to prepare the budget for measurement uncertainty of dissipative properties of composite materials. Materials and Methods: The method used to study the vibrational energy dissipation characteristics based on coupling of vibrations damping decrement and acoustic velocity in a non-metallic heterogeneous material is reviewed. The proposed method allows finding the dependence of damping on vibrations amplitude and frequency of strain-stress state of material. Results: Research of the accuracy of measurement method during the definition of decrement attenuation of fluctuations in synthegran was performed. The international approach for evaluation of measurements quality is used. It includes the common practice international rules for uncertainty expression and their summation. These rules are used as internationally acknowledged confidence measure to the measurement results, which includes testing. The uncertainties budgeting of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of materials were compiled. Conclusions: It was defined that there are two groups of reasons resulting in errors during measurement of materials dissipative properties. The first group of errors contains of parameters changing of calibrated bump in tolerance limits, displacement of sensor in repeated placement to measurement point, layer thickness variation of contact agent because of irregular hold-down of resolvers to control surface, inaccuracy in reading and etc. The second group of errors is linked with density and Poisson’s ratio measurement errors, distance between sensors, time difference between signals of vibroacoustic sensors.

  14. Larval exposure to field-realistic concentrations of clothianidin has no effect on development rate, over-winter survival or adult metabolic rate in a solitary bee, Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; Fowler, Robert; Niven, Jeremy E; Gilbert, James D; Goulson, Dave

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different. Studies that have included solitary bees have produced mixed results regarding the impact of neonicotinoid exposure on survival and reproductive success. While the majority of studies have focused on the effects of adult exposure, bees are also likely to be exposed as larvae via the consumption of contaminated pollen. Here we examined the effect of exposure of Osmia bicornis larvae to a range of field-realistic concentrations (0-10 ppb) of the neonicotinoid clothianidin, observing no effect on larval development time, overwintering survival or adult weight. Flow-through respirometry was used to test for latent effects of larval exposure on adult physiological function. We observed differences between male and female bees in the propensity to engage in discontinuous gas exchange; however, no effect of larval clothianidin exposure was observed. Our results suggest that previously reported adverse effects of neonicotinoids on O. bicornis are most likely mediated by impacts on adults.

  15. Larval exposure to field-realistic concentrations of clothianidin has no effect on development rate, over-winter survival or adult metabolic rate in a solitary bee, Osmia bicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nicholls

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different. Studies that have included solitary bees have produced mixed results regarding the impact of neonicotinoid exposure on survival and reproductive success. While the majority of studies have focused on the effects of adult exposure, bees are also likely to be exposed as larvae via the consumption of contaminated pollen. Here we examined the effect of exposure of Osmia bicornis larvae to a range of field-realistic concentrations (0–10 ppb of the neonicotinoid clothianidin, observing no effect on larval development time, overwintering survival or adult weight. Flow-through respirometry was used to test for latent effects of larval exposure on adult physiological function. We observed differences between male and female bees in the propensity to engage in discontinuous gas exchange; however, no effect of larval clothianidin exposure was observed. Our results suggest that previously reported adverse effects of neonicotinoids on O. bicornis are most likely mediated by impacts on adults.

  16. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  17. Theory of defects in non-metallic solids. Progress report, 1 August 1985-31 July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, A.B.

    1986-07-01

    A general method based on ab initio quantum mechanical modelling and also utilizing semi-classical modelling of a type introduced by Mott-Littleton in 1938 is being implemented to describe the effects of a point defector impurity and/or their interaction in a solid system in a self consistent way. The initial thrust has been to define the scope of the model: in particular, trying to obtain a general model sufficient for describing any point defect of impurity problem in any non-metallic solid system, in the validation of the several concepts necessary for such a model, in the generalization of some necessary theoretical formalism, and finally in a series of initial studies designed to test both the concepts and the validity of the implementation of them. These latter studies include a study of the excitonic spectrum of several alkali halides, the study of a charged neutral defect system in the alkali halides and a study of whether or not these methodologies are capable of predicting the lattice geometries of several of the alkali halides. These studies are significant in several ways. They establish among other things the size of cluster needed for such a study, the utility norm conserving core replacing pseudopotentials, the need for treating relativistic effects including spin orbit, Darwin and mass velocity terms and the necessity of including multiplet structure in an appropriate way for localized excitations

  18. Ab-Initio Description and Prediction of Properties of Carbon-Based and Other Non-Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayoko, D.; Zhao, G. L.; Hasan, S.

    2001-01-01

    We have resolved the long-standing problem consisting of 30%-50% theoretical underestimates of the band gaps of non-metallic materials. We describe the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method that rigorously circumvents the basis-set and variational effect presumed to be a cause of these underestimates. We present ab-initio, computational results that are in agreement with experiment for diamond (C), silicon (Si), silicon carbides (3C-SiC and 4H-SiC), and other semiconductors (GaN, BaTiO3, AlN, ZnSe, ZnO). We illustrate the predictive capability of the BZW method in the case of the newly discovered cubic phase of silicon nitride (c-Si3N4) and of selected carbon nanotabes [(10,0), and (8,4)]. Our conclusion underscores the inescapable need for the BZW method in ab-initio calculations that employ a basis set in a variational approach. Current nanoscale trends amplify this need. We estimate that the potential impact of applications of the BZW method in advancing our understanding of nonmetallic materials, in informing experiment, and particularly in guiding device design and fabrication is simply priceless.

  19. Separation of Non-metallic Inclusions from a Fe-Al-O Melt Using a Super-Gravity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gaoyang; Song, Bo; Guo, Zhancheng; Yang, Yuhou; Song, Mingming

    2018-02-01

    An innovative method for separating non-metallic inclusions from a high temperature melt using super gravity was systematically investigated. To explore the separation behavior of inclusion particles with densities less than that of metal liquid under a super-gravity field, a Fe-Al-O melt containing Al2O3 particles was treated with different gravity coefficients. Al2O3 particles migrated rapidly towards the reverse direction of the super gravity and gathered in the upper region of the sample. It was hard to find any inclusion particles with sizes greater than 2 μm in the middle and bottom areas. Additionally, the oxygen content in the middle region of the sample could be reduced to 0.0022 mass pct and the maximum removal rate of the oxygen content reached 61.4 pct. The convection in the melt along the direction of the super gravity was not generated by the super-gravity field, and the fluid velocity in the molten melt consisted only of the rotating tangential velocity. Moreover, the motion behavior of the Al2O3 particles was approximatively determined by Stokes' law along the direction of super gravity.

  20. Effectiveness of Shot Peening In Suppressing Fatigue Cracking At Non-Metallic Inclusions In Udimet(Registered Trademark)720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Robert L.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Prescenzi, Anthony; Biles, T.; Bonacuse, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy disk alloys can be reduced over an order of magnitude by cracking at inherent non-metallic inclusions. The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of shot peening in suppressing LCF crack initiation and growth at surface nonmetallic inclusions. Inclusions were carefully introduced at elevated levels during powder metallurgy processing of the nickel-base disk superalloy Udimet 720. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on machined specimens with and without shot peened test sections at 427 C and 650 C. The low cycle fatigue lives and failure initiation sites varied as functions of inclusion content, shot peening, and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in as-machined specimens with the introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions intersecting the specimen surface. These inclusions reduced fatigue life by up to 100X, when compared to lives of material without inclusions residing at specimen surface. Large inclusions produced the greatest reductions in life for tests at low strain ranges and high strain ratios. Shot peening improved life in many cases by reducing the most severe effects of inclusions.

  1. Deformation and fracture properties of metals with non-metallic inclusions; Verformung und Bruch von Metallen mit nichtmetallischen Einschluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, S.; Soppa, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-12-31

    Microstructural effects due to formation of non-uniform lines of non-metallic inclusions in the matrix are examined with respect to their macro-, meso-, and micromechanical effects in the alloy Al(6061) reinforced by SiC inclusions. A comparative analysis of results obtained with various microstructures reveals essential differences in the formation of shear bands, stress peaks, and strain concentrations in the material structure. The maxima and the distribution of those field variables are determined not only by the arrangement of inclusions clusters in the stringers but also depend on the presence and number of single-particle inclusions in pure matrix material. The banding of the microstructure causes a strongly anisotropic behaviour in terms of stress and strain distributions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Gefuegeeinfluesse aufgrund unterschiedlich starker zeiliger Anordnungen der Teilchen in der Matrix im Hinblick auf ihre makro-, meso- und mikromechanischen Auswirkungen am Beispiel einer SiC-teilchenverstaerkten Aluminiumlegierung Al(6061) untersucht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse verschiedener Gefuege zeigt wesentliche Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Ausbildung von Scherbaendern, Spannungsspitzen und von Dehnungskonzentrationen im Werkstoffgefuege. Die Maxima und die Verteilung dieser Feldgroessen sind nicht nur abhaengig davon, wie die Teilchen in den Zeilen angeordnet sind, sondern auch davon, ob einzelne Teilchen in reinen Matrixbereichen vorhanden sind. Die Zeiligkeit des Gefueges fuehrt zu einem stark anisotropen Verhalten hinsichtlich Spannungs- und Dehnungsverteilungen. (orig.)

  2. Non-metallic nanomaterials in cancer theranostics: a review of silica- and carbon-based drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Xin-Chun; Luo, Yun-Ling; Chang, Yung-Chen; Hsieh, You-Zung; Hsu, Hsin-Yun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in nanomaterials has brought great opportunities to cancer theranostics, which aims to combine diagnostics and therapy for cancer treatment and thereby improve the healthcare of patients. In this review we focus on the recent progress of several cancer theranostic strategies using mesoporous silica nanoparticles and carbon-based nanomaterials. Silicon and carbon are both group IV elements; they have been the most abundant and significant non-metallic substances in human life. Their intrinsic physical/chemical properties are of critical importance in the fabrication of multifunctional drug delivery systems. Responsive nanocarriers constructed using these nanomaterials have been promising in cancer-specific theranostics during the past decade. In all cases, either a controlled texture or the chemical functionalization is coupled with adaptive properties, such as pH-, light-, redox- and magnetic field- triggered responses. Several studies in cells and mice models have implied their underlying therapeutic efficacy; however, detailed and long-term in vivo clinical evaluations are certainly required to make these bench-made materials compatible in real bedside circumstances. (review)

  3. Difference in x-ray scattering between metallic and non-metallic liquids due to conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Junzo

    1987-01-01

    X-ray scattered intensity from a liquid metal as an electron-ion mixture is described using the structure factors, which are exactly expressed in terms of the static and dynamic direct correlation functions. This intensity for a metal is shown to differ from the usual scattered intensity from a non-metal in two points: the atomic form factor and the incoherent (Compton) scattering factor. It is shown that the valence electron form factor, which constitutes the atomic form factor in a liquid metal, leads to a determination of the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors by combining the ionic structure factor. It is also shown that a part of the electron structure factor, which appears as the incoherent x-ray scattering, is usually approximated as the electron structure factor of the jellium model in the case of a simple metal. As a by-product, the x-ray scattered intensity from a crystalline metal and the inelastic scattering from a liquid metal are given by taking account of the presence of conduction electrons. In this way, we clarify some confusion which appeared in the proposal by Egelstaff et al for extracting the electron-electron correlation function in a metal from x-ray and neutron scattering experiments. A procedure to extract the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors in a liquid metal is proposed on the basis of formula for scattered intensity derived here. (author)

  4. Effect of non-metallic precipitates and grain size on core loss of non-oriented electrical silicon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayi; Ren, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Lifeng

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the number density and size of non-metallic precipitates and the size of grains on the core loss of the 50W800 non-oriented electrical silicon steel sheets were investigated. The number density and size of precipitates and grains were statistically analyzed using an automatic scanning electron microscope (ASPEX) and an optical microscope. Hypothesis models were established to reveal the physical feature for the function of grain size and precipitates on the core loss of the steel. Most precipitates in the steel were AlN particles smaller than 1 μm so that were detrimental to the core loss of the steel. These finer AlN particles distributed on the surface of the steel sheet. The relationship between the number density of precipitates (x in number/mm2 steel area) and the core loss (P1.5/50 in W/kg) was regressed as P1.5/50 = 4.150 + 0.002 x. The average grain size was approximately 25-35 μm. The relationship between the core loss and grain size (d in μm) was P1.5/50 = 3.851 + 20.001 d-1 + 60.000 d-2.

  5. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  6. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin. Part II: Material properties and clinical features of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-04-01

    This position paper reviews physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic resin used for non-metal clasp dentures, and describes feature of each thermoplastic resin in clinical application of non-metal clasp dentures and complications based on clinical experience of expert panels. Since products of thermoplastic resin have great variability in physical and mechanical properties, clinicians should utilize them with careful consideration of the specific properties of each product. In general, thermoplastic resin has lower color-stability and higher risk for fracture than polymethyl methacrylate. Additionally, the surface of thermoplastic resin becomes roughened more easily than polymethyl methacrylate. Studies related to material properties of thermoplastic resin, treatment efficacy and follow-up are insufficient to provide definitive conclusions at this time. Therefore, this position paper should be revised based on future studies and a clinical guideline should be provided. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of nuclear analysis methods to the certification of BCR reference materials for non-metals in non-ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of reference materials for oxygen in different non-ferrous metals have been certified by BCR in the frame of a multidisciplinary Community project. The contribution of nuclear analysis methods is illustrated by several examples concerning the optimization of sample preparation techniques, the analysis of low and high oxygen non-ferrous metals and the extension of the program to other non-metals, especially nitrogen and carbon. (author)

  8. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of 232 Th and 238 U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the equipment for all

  9. The Effect of Cooling Conditions on the Evolution of Non-metallic Inclusions in High Manganese TWIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Nan; Yang, Jian; Xin, Xiu-Ling; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Long-Yun

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of cooling conditions on the evolution of non-metallic inclusions in high manganese TWIP steels was investigated based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations. In addition, the formation and growth behavior of AlN inclusions during solidification under different cooling conditions were analyzed with the help of thermodynamics and dynamics. The inclusions formed in the high manganese TWIP steels are classified into nine types: (1) AlN; (2) MgO; (3) CaS; (4) MgAl2O4; (5) AlN + MgO; (6) MgO + MgS; (7) MgO + MgS + CaS; (8) MgO + CaS; (9) MgAl2O4 + MgS. With the increase in the cooling rate, the volume fraction and area ratio of inclusions are almost constant; the size of inclusions decreases and the number density of inclusions increases in the steels. The thermodynamic results of inclusion types calculated with FactSage are consistent with the observed results. With increasing cooling rate, the diameter of AlN decreases. When the cooling rate increases from 0.75 to 4.83 K s-1, the measured average diameter of AlN decreases from 4.49 to 2.42 μm. Under the high cooling rate of 4.83 K s-1, the calculated diameter of AlN reaches 3.59 μm at the end of solidification. However, the calculated diameter of AlN increases to approximately 5.93 μm at the end of solidification under the low cooling rate of 0.75 K s-1. The calculated diameter of AlN decreases with increasing cooling rate. The theoretical calculation results of the change in diameter of AlN under the different cooling rates have the same trend with the observed results. The existences of inclusions in the steels, especially AlN which average sizes are 2.42 and 4.49 μm, respectively, are not considered to have obvious influences on the hot ductility.

  10. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  11. Effect of inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions on crack path deflection in G42CrMo4 steel at different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions can result from the steel casting process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the damaging effect of an inhomogeneous distribution of nonmetallic inclusions on the crack extension behavior. To this end, the fracture toughness behavior in terms of quasi-static J-a curves was determined at room temperature. Additionally, dynamic fracture mechanics tests in an instrumented Charpy impact-testing machine were performed. The fracture surface of fracture mechanics specimens was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that an inhomogeneous distribution significantly affected the path and, therefore, the plane of crack growth. Especially clusters of non-metallic inclusions with a size of up to 200 μm exhibited a very low crack growth resistance. Due to the damaging effect of the clusters, the growing crack was strongly deflected towards the cluster. Furthermore, crack tip blunting was completely inhibited when inclusions were located at the fatigue precrack tip. Due to the large size of the non-metallic inclusion clusters, the height difference introduced by crack path deflection was significantly larger than the stretch zone height due to the crack tip blunting. However, the crack path deflection introduced by a cluster was not associated with a toughness increasing mechanism. The e dynamic loading ( 1 0.5 5 s MPam 10   K did not result in a transition from ductile fracture to brittle fracture. However, the crack growth resistance decreased with increased loading rate. This was attributed to the higher portion of relatively flat regions where the dimples were less distinct.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of metallic and non-metallic materials in various media in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laske, D.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1983-10-01

    The final underground disposal of radioactive wastes necessitates container materials with a good long-term resistance against corrosion from both external agents and the solidification matrix inside. For low- and medium-level active waste, repositories in anhydrite sites, among others, are under consideration. Sheet and plate samples from 14 metallic and 8 non-metallic materials have been tested for 5 years in a tunnel in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG for their corrosion resistance in the tunnel atmosphere, anhydrite powder, gypsum powder, gypsum, and cement. From the metallic materials tested, only chromium-nickel steel is corrosion resistant to all the media present. Zinc plated and tin plated iron sheet as well as aluminium and aluminium alloys are corrosion resistant only in the atmosphere of the tunnel, and lead plated iron sheet is resistant also in cement. Aluminium is dissolved in cement. Uncovered iron sheet undergoes severe corrosion. The non-metallic coatings tested (lacquer, stove lacquer, or synthetic resins) partially flake off already after one year's testing and are therefore not appropriate for iron sheet corrosion protection. No influence of the different media has been observed after 5 years on the 8 plastic materials tested (6 without, and 2 with glass fiber reinforcement). (author)

  13. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  14. Thermal spin filtering effect and giant magnetoresistance of half-metallic graphene nanoribbon co-doped with non-metallic Nitrogen and Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Zheng, Anmin; Gao, Guoying; Yao, Kailun

    2018-03-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function are performed to investigate the thermal spin transport properties of single-hydrogen-saturated zigzag graphene nanoribbon co-doped with non-metallic Nitrogen and Boron in parallel and anti-parallel spin configurations. The results show that the doped graphene nanoribbon is a full half-metal. The two-probe system based on the doped graphene nanoribbon exhibits various excellent spin transport properties, including the spin-filtering effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the single-spin negative differential thermal resistance effect and the sign-reversible giant magnetoresistance feature. Excellently, the spin-filtering efficiency can reach nearly 100% in the parallel configuration and the magnetoresistance ratio can be up to -1.5 × 1010% by modulating the electrode temperature and temperature gradient. Our findings indicate that the metal-free doped graphene nanoribbon would be a promising candidate for spin caloritronic applications.

  15. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  16. Tailoring the electronic structure of β-Ga2O3 by non-metal doping from hybrid density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiyan; Guo, Yating; Dong, Hao; Zhou, Xin

    2015-02-28

    A systematic study using density functional theory has been performed for β-Ga2O3 doped with non-metal elements X (X = C, N, F, Si, P, S, Cl, Se, Br, and I) to evaluate the effect of doping on the band edges and photocatalytic activity of β-Ga2O3. The utilization of a more reliable hybrid density functional, as prescribed by Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof, is found to be effective in predicting the band gap of β-Ga2O3 (4.5 eV), in agreement with the experimental result (4.59 eV). Based on the relaxed structures of X-doped systems, the defect formation energies and the plots of density of states have been calculated to analyze the band edges, the band gap states and the preferred doping sites. Our results show that the doping is energetically favored under Ga-rich growth conditions with respect to O-rich growth conditions. It is easier to replace the threefold coordinated O atom with non-metal elements compared to the fourfold coordinated O atom. X-doped systems (X = C, Si, P) show no change in the band gap, with the presence of discrete midgap states, which have adverse effect on the photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic redox ability can be improved to a certain extent by doping with N, S, Cl, Se, Br, and I. The band alignments for Se-doped and I-doped β-Ga2O3 are well positioned for the feasibility of both photo-oxidation and photo-reduction of water, which are promising photocatalysts for water splitting in the visible region.

  17. An overview of recent progress using low-cost and cost-effective composite materials and processes to produce SSC magnet coils and associated non-metallic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoplastic and thermoset polymer systems have been used in high-energy physics applications throughout the world for many years. Like other industries and industrial communities, the materials and processes requirements of these polymers have recently taken on new meanings. New accelerators and other machines are pushing all material parameters beyond limits. New polymeric and composite materials are being developed, invented, and formulated, as is new process and application equipment. This is a decade of change. Composite materials are being chosen for performance characteristics and cost-effective processing as well. The information that follows will note some of the recent progress in the development of composite materials and processes for producing low-cost and cost-effective, high-quality, non-metallic composite components for use in SSC magnets and in other accelerators. The materials and methods for making composite molds, tools, and structural parts for magnet coils and other components are demonstrated. New, unique, and innovative approaches for processing thermoset polymers are presented. The formulated polymer systems are used to form semi and structural insulators, spacers, supports, coil end parts, blocks, housings, adhesives, and other composite applications

  18. Natural fibre reinforced non-asbestos organic non-metallic friction composites: effect of abaca fibre on mechanical and tribological behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng; Ma, Yunhai; Che, Junjian; Duanmu, Lingjian; Zhuang, Jian; Tong, Jin

    2018-05-01

    To obtain a natural fibre reinforced non-asbestos organic non-metallic friction composite with good wear resistance and environmental-friendly performances, friction composites reinforced with different lengths of abaca fibre were fabricated by a compression molder equipment and evaluated by using a constant-speed friction test machine. The worn surface morphologies were observed and analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Experimental results show that the length of abaca fibre had no significant effect on the density and hardness, but was obvious on impact strength. The impact strength increased and then decreased with the increasing of length of abaca fibres. Abaca fibres, especially short fibre (lengths of 5 mm, 10 mm), could improve the wear resistance of the friction composites. Meanwhile, the increase of test temperature could result in the increasing of wear rates of the friction composites. A large amount of secondary plateaux presented on the worn surface of specimens FC1 and FC2 which showe relatively smooth worn surfaces and yield the better wear resistance performance.

  19. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    Some previous work on Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth was documented. New calculations have been made to show that for large rf skin depths, the temperature of the sample depends in a systematic way on only three dimensionless parameters; these characterize the rf power level, the surface heat transfer coefficient, and the ambient temperature. Critical values are given for the ambient temperature below which curves of sample temperature versus RF power level are S-shaped. Based on this improvement in understanding, our previous numerical results, valid for arbitrary skin depths, are being prepared for publication. Work continues toward the measurement of the solid-liquid surface tensions of non-metallic materials via the grain-boundary groove technique. Degassed samples of GeO 2 have been obtained, but the necessary temperature caused damage to the quartz tube in our present apparatus, necessitating a new design. While the new apparatus is under construction, sodium sulfate will be used as a prototype material to enable work on the optical system. Use of an astronomical telescope in conjunction with the optical viewpoint leads to poor image quality so we are considering the substitution of a microscope with a large working distance. Previous difficulties with numerical calculation of the temperature profiles in the system have been alleviated by using finer grid sizes for the finite difference scheme. Further effort has been expended to form the basis of new work on the application of Onsager's theory of reciprocity to transport phenomena in solids

  20. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  1. Construction of stable Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrids with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yinhua, E-mail: yms418@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Liu, Peipei; Chen, YeCheng; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Yang, Haijian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Hong, Yuanzhi; Li, Fan; Ni, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Yan, Yongsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Gregory, Duncan H, E-mail: duncan.gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrids were synthesized. • The hybrid nitrides showed enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. • The Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability. • The hole is the main photoactive specie for the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrid was successfully synthesized by a facile impregnation method. The photocatalytic activity of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitrides was evaluated by the degradation of organic dye rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, and the result indicated that all Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples exhibited distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activities for the degradation of RhB than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The optimal Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite sample, with Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} mass ratio of 2%, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity, and its degradation rate constant was 2.71 times as high as that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of this Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/metal-free nitride was predominantly attributed to the synergistic effect which increased visible-light absorption and facilitated the efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes. The Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability and reusability. The possible mechanism for improved photocatalytic performance was proposed. Overall, this work may provide a facile way to synthesize the highly efficient metal/metal-free hybrid nitride photocatalysts with promising applications in environmental purification and energy conversion.

  2. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar...

  3. Selection of lixiviant System for the alkaline in-situ Leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone and measuring the dissolution behaviour of some metals and non-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Y.; Shah, S.S.; Siddiq, M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory simulation study was carried out to check the possibility of alkaline in-situ leaching of uranium from an arkosic type of sandstone recovered from a specific location at a depth of 300-500 m. The ore body was overlaying impervious clay shale below the water table. Different CO/sub 3/ containing soluble salts were tested as complexing agent of the UO/sup +2/ ions along with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent. The lixiviant system, comprising NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ as complexing agent along with H/Sub 2/O/sub 2/ as oxidizing agent in concentrations of 5 g/L and 0.5 g/L respectively, was found to be the most efficient for the leaching of uranium among the 25 different compositions employed. Along with uranium, the dissolution behaviour of 15 other metals, non-metals and radicals, including eight transition metals, was also observed in the lixiviant employed. These were Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO/sub 4/, CO/sub 3/, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo. It was found that the leaching of uranium compared to non-transition et als/radicals followed the trend Cl > SO > U > Na > K > Mg > Ca > CO. The comparison of uranium leaching to the transition metals was in the order U > Cr > Mo > V > Ti > Cu > Zn > Mn > Fe. Physical parameters like pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity were also measured for the fresh and pregnant lixiviants. It was found that the leaching of uranium is directly related to the concentration of native soluble hexavalent uranium, contact time of the lixiviant and ore and to some extent with the total concentration of uranium as well as the porosity and permeability of the ore. (author)

  4. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

    2010-10-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998-2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed 'Diesel exhaust' factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log-log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE.

  5. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum; Implementacao e aplicacao de metodologia para dosagem de metais e nao metais em aguas de drenagem de solos adubados com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the

  6. Catalysis under Irradiation in the Presence of Non-Metallic Solids; Catalyse sous irradiation en presence de solides non metalliques; Radiatsionnyj kataliz pri nalichii'nemetallicheskikh tverdykh tel; Radiocatalisis en presencia de solidos no metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coekelbergs, R.; Crucq, A.; Decot, J.; Degols, L.; Frennet, A.; Lienard, G.; Timmerman, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire, Institut Interuniversitaire des Sciences Nucleaires et Ecole Royale Militaire, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1963-11-15

    Catalytic processes induced by radiation in the presence of non-metallic solids are discussed, attention being given exclusively to the effects associated with modification of the steady state concentration of charge carriers. The effect of such modification on the kinetics and equilibrium of heterogeneous reactions is quantitatively estimated within the framework of the electronic theory of catalysis, due regard being paid to the electronic characteristics of the surface of the solid. In conclusion, the relationship between these phenomena, catalyst activation and transfer of energy, as previously described, is discussed. (author) [French] Les auteurs discutent des processus catalytiques induits par les radiations en presence de solides non metalliques. Ils considerent exclusivement les effets lies a la modification de la concentration stationnaire des porteurs de charge.- L'influence de cette modification sur la cinetique et l'equilibre des reactions heterogenes est evaluee quantitativement dans le cadre de la theorie electronique de la catalyse et en tenant compte de caracteristiques electroniques de la surface du solide. Enfin, ils discutent la relation existant entre ces phenomenes, l'activation des catalyseurs et le transfert d'energie decrits anterieurement. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan los procesos cataliticos inducidos por las radiaciones en presencia de solidos no metalicos. Consideran exclusivamente los efectos vinculados con la modificacion de la concentracion estacionaria de los portadores de carga. Sobre la base de la teoria electronica de la catalisis y teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas electronicas de la superficie del solido, determinan cuantitativamente la influencia de aquella modificacion sobre la cinetica y el equilibrio de las reacciones heterogeneas. Por ultimo, analizan la relacion que existe entre estos fenomenos, la activacion de los catalizadores y la transmision de energia descritas anteriormente. (author) [Russian

  7. Service life evaluation of non-metallic containment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    A Service Life Evaluation Program (SLEP) was successfully completed for expansion joint seals used in the pressure relief duct of Pickering NGS, an eight unit CANDU station. These seals are part of the containment boundary, are difficult to replace and then only during station outages which are scheduled at ten year intervals. The SLEP, consisting of an accelerated aging program and a qualification test, was undertaken to determine the service life of the seals such that they would be capable of remaining functional following a combination of service life, a design basis accident and a subsequent seismic event. The Arrhenius model of aging was used for the accelerated aging program. Samples of seal material were subjected to oven aging at five temperatures, 150, 160, 170, 180 and 190 deg C. Tensile properties and hardness were measured at various aging times and Arrhenius plots constructed. Based on changes in elongation, activation energies of 1.2 eV and 1.1 eV were calculated for the reinforcing fabric and the silicone cover rubber, respectively. Hardness measurements were also taken but as expected, no precise quantitative aging relationship could be determined from material hardness. For the qualification test a representative length of seal was installed and field-spliced in a test frame built to simulate the installed configuration of the seal. It then underwent accelerated aging equivalent to the service life, followed by LOCA irradiation exposure to LOCA conditions of humidity, temperature and pressure and a design-basis seismic event. Finally, a pressure test to approximately five times design pressure was successfully performed to demonstrate the remaining margin of safety. Periodic air leakage tests indicated no deterioration in sealing performance and no physical deterioration was apparent. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Doped Graphene as Non-Metallic Catalyst for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana MARINOIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming a commercial development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, a low cost, sustainable and high performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR with capability to replace/reduce rare metals, are high desirable. In this paper, we present a class of doped graphene, namely iodinated graphene with highly ORR electrochemical performances, synthesized by using the electrophilic substitution method. The prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, Raman spectroscopy, surface area measurement by BET method, that revealed the structure and morphology. The most highly iodinated graphene was tested in a single cell by measuring the cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performances were evaluated and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, when a single cathodic peak at 0.2 V with a current density of – 3.67 mA cm-2 for the Pt/C electrode was obtained. The best electrochemical performances in terms of electrochemical active area, was obtained for a new concept of cathode composed from Pt/C – iodine doped graphene, when a well-defined peak centred at 0.23 V with a current density of approx. – 9.1 mA cm-2 was obtained, indicating a high catalytic activity for ORR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16216

  9. Study of non-metallic inclusion sources in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khons, Ya.; Mrazek, L.

    1976-01-01

    A study of potential inclusion sources was carried out at the Tvinec steel plant using an unified labelling procedure for different sources. A lanthanum oxide labelling method has been used for refractories with the subsequent La determination in steel by the neutron activation analysis. Samarium and cerium oxides and the 141 Ce radionuclide have been used in conjunction with the testing. The following sources of exogenous inclusions have been studied: 1)Refractory material comprising fireclay and corundum for steel-teeming trough in open-heart furnaces; 2) Fireclay bottom-pouring refractories; 3) Steel-teeming laddle lining; 4) Heat-insulating and exothermic compounds for steel ingots; 5) Vacuum treatment plant lining; 6) Open-hearth and electric arc furnace slag. The major oxide inclusion source in steel was found to be represented by the furnace slag, since it forms about 40 p.c. of all oxide inclusions. The contributions of the remaining sources did not exceede 5 p.c. each

  10. Study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Fukuoka, Noboru; Honda, Makoto; Kondo, Tadashi; Morishima, Kouichi; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    The production of point defects induced by reactor and the thermal behavior of defects in sintered AlN and c-BN have been investigated using the optical absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. The absorption band at 370 nm (AlN) and the structureless absorption over the visible region are observed. These specimens also show ESR signals with g-value 2.007 (AlN), 2.006 (BN), which are probably caused by N vacancies with a trapped electron. In addition to these experiments, the difference of the photoluminescence(PL) lines on neutron irradiated CZ-Si and FZ-Si has been also studied. The models of the defect associated with neutron irradiation are discussed. (author)

  11. Metal non-metal transitions in doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.

    1989-12-01

    A disordered Hubbard model with diagonal disorder is used to examine the electron localization effects associated with both disorder and electron-electron interaction. Extensive results are reported on the ground state properties and compared with other theories. In particular two regimes are observed; when the electron-electron interaction U is greater than the disorder parameter and when is smaller. Furthermore the effect of including conduction-band minima into the calculation of metal-insulator transitions in doped Si and Ge is investigated with use of Berggren approach. Good agreement with experiments are found when both disorder and interactions are included. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Non-metals in metals `98; Nichtmetalle in Metallen `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, D. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The major topics discussed at the symposium are: (1) Thermodynamics and cinetics, (2) chemical, physical and physico-chemical examination methodology, (3) materials properties. 13 of the 25 papers presented at the symposium have been analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Themenschwerpunkte des diesjaehrigen Symposiums `Nichtmetalle in Metallen` sind: 1. Thermodynamik und Kinetik, 2. Chemische, physikalische und physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungsmethoden, und 3. Werkstoffeigenschaften. Von den insgesamt 25 Vortraegen wurden 13 Beitraege separat aufgenommen. (orig./MM)

  13. Reproductive potential and nesting effects of Osmia rufa (Syn. Bicornis) female (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giejdasz, K.; Fliszkiewicz, M.; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 75-85 ISSN 1643-4439 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megachilidae * reproduction * nest Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jas.2016.60.issue-1/jas-2016-0003/jas-2016-0003.xml

  14. Metamorphosis is induced by food absence rather than a critical weight in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body size influences nearly every aspect of organismal performance. Adult body size in holometabolous insects is determined by the size of the insect at metamorphosis. Thus, the mechanisms regulating the onset of metamorphosis have occupied insect physiologists for almost a century. Much of this res...

  15. The thermal environment of the nest affects body and cell size in the solitary red mason bee (Osmia bicornis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, Justyna; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Many ectotherms grow larger at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This pattern, known as the temperature-size rule, is often accompanied by plastic changes in cell size, which can mechanistically explain the thermal dependence of body size. However, the theory predicts that thermal plasticity in cell size has adaptive value for ectotherms because there are different optimal cell-membrane-to-cell-volume ratios at different temperatures. At high temperatures, the demand for oxygen is high; therefore, a large membrane surface of small cells is beneficial because it allows high rates of oxygen transport into the cell. The metabolic costs of maintaining membranes become more important at low temperatures than at high temperatures, which favours large cells. In a field experiment, we manipulated the thermal conditions inside nests of the red mason bee, a solitary bee that does not regulate the temperature in its nests and whose larvae develop under ambient conditions. We assessed the effect of temperature on body mass and ommatidia size (our proxy of cell size). The body and cell sizes decreased in response to a higher mean temperature and greater temperature fluctuations. This finding is in accordance with predictions of the temperature-size rule and optimal cell size theory and suggests that both the mean temperature and the magnitude of temperature fluctuations are important for determining body and cell sizes. Additionally, we observed that males of the red mason bee tend to have larger ommatidia in relation to their body mass than females, which might play an important role during mating flight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specification analysis of plutonium fuels for non-metallic impurities. I. Estimation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, G H; Sethuraman, P R; Venkataramana, P; Natarajan, P R

    1975-01-01

    An analytical method for the estimation of carbon in plutonium samples in the range of 10-400 ..mu..g by conductometry has been developed. In the first step of the method, the entire carbon in sample is converted into CO/sub 2/ which in the second step is completely absorbed in barium hydroxide solution in conductivity of the solution.

  17. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Sadoques, George A. (Inventor); Carra, Michael R. (Inventor); Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A motor for use in a volatile environment includes a rotor exposed to the volatile environment, electronics for rotating the rotor, an impervious ceramic barrier separating the electronics and the rotor, and a flexible seal for preventing the volatile environment from contacting the electronics and for minimizing vibratory and twisting loads upon the barrier to minimize damage to the barrier.

  18. Evolution of Non-metallic Inclusions and Precipitates in Oriented Silicon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Yang, Wen; Ren, Qiang; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Lifeng

    2018-06-01

    The evolution of inclusions in oriented silicon steel during the manufacturing process was carried out by chemical composition analysis, non-aqueous electrolytic corrosion, and thermodynamic calculation. The morphology, composition, and size of inclusions were analyzed introducing field emission scanning electron microscope. The oxides were mainly formed during the secondary refining, and the nitrides, sulfides, and compounds were formed during the solidification and cooling of steel in the processes of continuous casting and hot rolling.

  19. Alteration of non-metallic barriers and evolution of solution chemistry in salt formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Becker, D.; Hagemann, S.; Meyer, Th.; Noseck, U.; Rubel, A.; Mauke, R.; Wollrath, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) materials considered in Germany for the sealing of repositories in salt formations are presented. Their long term behaviour in terms of interactions with salt solutions is discussed and evaluated. The discussed EBS materials are crushed salt, self sealing salt backfill, bentonite and salt concrete. Whereas the knowledge concerning the geochemical, geomechanical, hydrological and thermal behavior of crushed salt and salt concrete is well advanced further research is needed for other EBS materials. The self healing salt backfill has also been investigated in depth recently. In order to fully qualify this material large scale in situ experiments are still needed. The present knowledge on compacted bentonites in a salt environment is not yet sufficient for reliable predictions of the long-term performance in salt formations. The sealing concept of the low- and intermediate-level Radioactive Waste Repository Morsleben (ERAM) in a former rock salt and potash mine is presented. This concept is based on cementitious materials, i.e. salt concrete. The geochemical stability of different salt concretes in contact with brines expected in ERAM is addressed. It is shown how the results from leaching experiments and geochemical modelling are used in the safety analyses and how the chemical boundary conditions prevailing in the EBS influence the development of the permeability of the sealing system and thus control the radionuclide release. As a result of modelling the behaviour of the seals in the safety assessment it is shown, that the seals are corroded within a time span of about 20 000 years. The influence of the uncertainty in the model parameters on the safety of the repository was assessed by a variation of the initial permeability of the seal. The maximum dose rate resulting from the radionuclide release from ERAM is nearly independent of the variation of the initial permeability within four orders of magnitude. (authors)

  20. Specification analysis of plutonium fuels for non-metallic impurities. I - estimation of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, G.H.; Sethuraman, P.R.; Venkataramana, P.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical method for the estimation of carbon in plutonium samples in the range of 10-400 μg by conductometry has been developed. In the first step of the method, the entire carbon in sample is converted into CO 2 which in the second step is completely absorbed in barium hydroxide solution in conductivity of the solution. (M.G.B.)

  1. Embedding of solid high-level wastes into metal and non-metal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, J. van; Eschrich, H.; Dobbels, F.; Favre, P.; Sterner, H.

    1980-03-01

    The primary objective of embedding solidification high-level waste forms of high specific activity into a matrix material is to obtain final waste composites with moderate inner temperatures, even at large waste loadings per meter cylinder length. Secondary objectives are to produce a non-porous, crack-free composite product with a durability superior to that of the embedded waste form itself. The temperature distribution in composite material composed of vitreous beads embedded into a metal matrix (vitromets) are compared with that in a vitreous block, of equal heat generation per meter height, during short- and long-term storage. It was found that for storage under water, inner temperatures below 100 0 C are assured in vitromets, produced from short-cooled high-level wastes, and containing high waste loadings per metercanister height. The chemical and mechanical stability, as well as the thermal conductivity have been examined for vitromets containing various matrix materials whereby emphasis is imparted to lead- and aluminum alloys. The corrosion of lead- and aluminum alloys in distilled water, brine solution and dry salt has been examined at temperatures up to 230 0 C and pressures up to 3.5 MPa. Some lead alloys were found to exhibit superior corrosion resistance in these chemical environments than certain reference borosilicate glasses. The deformation behavior of vitromets under axial compression has been investigated at different temperatures and varying height diameter ratios. The maturity of the vitromet production is finally demonstrated by presenting process data from hot-laboratory scale and cold semi-industrial scale production units. (author)

  2. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mills, R H [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  3. Treatment of transverse patellar fractures : a comparison between metallic and non-metallic implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.H.G.; Hamer, den A.; Traa, W.A.; Oomen, P.J.A.; Maffulli, N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Several methods of transverse patellar fixation have been described. This study compares the clinical outcome and the occurrence of complications of various fixation methods. Sources of data: The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Google were searched.

  4. Interaction of Non-Metallic Inclusion Particles with Advancing Solidification Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Praca zajmuje się zjawiskiem oddziały wania przemieszczającego frontu krystalizacji na cząstki wydzieleń niemetalicznych. Analizowano zachowanie pojedynczej cząstki wydzielenia w pobliżu poziomego i pionowego frontu. Scharakteryzowano siły działające na cząstkę w pobliżu frontu i sformułowano warunek równowagi, z którego wynika szybkość krytyczna frontu. Wyniki obliczeń zilustrowano w postaci wykresów.

  5. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  6. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-01-01

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made

  7. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs

  8. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seni, C.; Mills, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs

  9. Economic and ecologic importance of the non - metalic deposits in basalt maars of Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vass Dionýz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available By investigation of the basalt maars infill in Luèenská kotlina Depression the diatomite and alginite deposits have been found. Both maars belong to Podreèany basalt formation, Pontian (Late Miocene in age. By technological investigation it was proved the diatomite can be used in the building trade as raw materil for light tiles convenient especially for the construction of the saddle roof with attic appatments. The alginite can be used in the agriculture and horticulture, as a fertiliser becouse of humus, nutritive end same trace elements, a desodorant in livestoc feedlots, a water and nutritive elements trap to distribute them for the growing plants. The alginite can be used as well as in pharmacy and in different industrial branches. Both deposits are of high significance for the ecology and the nature protection.

  10. Feasibility investigation of non-metallic and light weight metallic materials for light weight compressor pistons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Bergsma, O.K.; Eijk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Steel and aluminium have been the traditional materials of choice for pistons. In order to reduce moving mass-related vibrational problems, a feasibility assessment is made of the application of other materials in a project for the research group of the EFRC. In particular, polymer and metal matrix

  11. Non-metallic dopant modulation of conductivity in substoichiometric tantalum pentoxide: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Robert J.; Fox, Brian P.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2017-06-01

    We apply density-functional theory calculations to predict dopant modulation of electrical conductivity (σo) for seven dopants (C, Si, Ge, H, F, N, and B) sampled at 18 quantum molecular dynamics configurations of five independent insertion sites into two (high/low) baseline references of σo in amorphous Ta2O5, where each reference contains a single, neutral O vacancy center (VO0). From this statistical population (n = 1260), we analyze defect levels, physical structure, and valence charge distributions to characterize nanoscale modification of the atomistic structure in local dopant neighborhoods. C is the most effective dopant at lowering Ta2Ox σo, while also exhibiting an amphoteric doping behavior by either donating or accepting charge depending on the host oxide matrix. Both B and F robustly increase Ta2Ox σo, although F does so through elimination of Ta high charge outliers, while B insertion conversely creates high charge O outliers through favorable BO3 group formation, especially in the low σo reference. While N applications to dope and passivate oxides are prevalent, we found that N exacerbates the stochasticity of σo we sought to mitigate; sensitivity to the N insertion site and some propensity to form N-O bond chemistries appear responsible. We use direct first-principles predictions of σo to explore feasible Ta2O5 dopants to engineer improved oxides with lower variance and greater repeatability to advance the manufacturability of resistive memory technologies.

  12. Evidence for the direct ejection of clusters from non-metallic solids during laser vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, L.A.; Yang, Y.A.; Xia, P.; Junkin, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the formation of molecular scale particles or clusters of alkali halides and semiconductors during laser vaporization of solids. By measuring the abundances of cluster ions produced in several different source configurations, the authors have determined that clusters are ejected directly from the source sample and do not need to grow from atomic or molecular vapor. Using samples of mixed alkali halide powders, the authors have found that unalloyed clusters are easily produced in a source that prevents growth from occurring after the clusters leave the sample surface. However, melting the sample or encouraging growth after vaporization lead to the production of alloyed cluster species. The sizes of the ejected clusters are initially random, but the population spectrum quickly becomes structured as hot, unstable-sized clusters decay into smaller particles. In carbon, large clusters with odd number of atoms decay almost immediately. The hot even clusters also decay, but much more slowly. The longest lived clusters are the magic C 50 and C 60 fullerenes. The mass spectrum of large carbon clusters evolves in time from structureless, to only the even clusters, to primarily C 50 and C 60 . If cluster growth is encouraged, the odd clusters reappear and the population spectrum again becomes relatively structureless

  13. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2014-01-01

    . The remaining 8 pollen types were from entomophilous plants. Based on the results it is estimated that a mean of 220,000 O. rufa cocoons would be needed per hectare if the species were to be an effective, supplementary pollinator of P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer. Practical, economic and environmental considerations...... investigates the activity and food preferences of this species during flowering of sour cherry (P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer). Female O. rufa provisioned a mean of 2.96 ± 1.44 cells each with 6.24 ± 1.46 pollen types during the receptive period of flowering . In all 17 different pollen types were collected...... of which the most dominant were Salix (41.4% ± 9.34%) and Acer (33.24% ± 8.81%), followed by Betula (8.16% ± 5.08%), P. cerasus (8.16% ± 1.79%) and Fagus (3.56% ± 1.96%). P. cerasus was present in all samples. Nine pollen types were from anemophilous plants and represented 87.94% of the pollen collected...

  14. Research on interaction of laser light and non-metals. Evaluation of laser irradiation behavior to concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In this study the response of hardened cement pastes, which are a major component of concrete, to laser irradiation was investigated under various experimental conditions aiming at the future application to “laser-processing” of concrete. (1) 75 tests were performed with combinations of following experimental conditions: (a) a water/cement ratio of the hardened cement pastes was either of 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35; (b) a laser power density was either of 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 W/cm 2 ; and (c) laser irradiation duration was ranging from 1 to 40 seconds. It was found that hardened cement paste subjected to laser irradiation explodes very easily to be hollowed in all the experimental conditions; this response is applicable to “laser-drilling” of a hardened cement paste. The “laser-drilling” speeds up following to laser power increment or to irradiation time extension. It was also found that samples tend to melt rather than explode under the irradiation with a smaller laser power density (100 W/cm 2 ) at a high water/cement ratio (0.35). (2) Totally 75 laser irradiation tests for fixed mortar blocks were performed with combinations of following experimental conditions: (a) fine aggregate in the mortar blocks was either of quartz, limestone, or Nachiguro-ishi; (b) a laser power density was either of 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 W/cm 2 ; and (c) laser irradiation duration was ranging from 0.2 to 40 seconds. Although it was found that all kinds of the mortar fuse under laser irradiation after all, difference in the response to laser irradiation among the mortars was also found; energy density required to fuse the mortar including limestone was larger than that required to fuse the mortar including quartz or Nachiguro-ishi. (author)

  15. Effect of non-metallic inclusions on hydrogen-induced cracking of API5L X100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, T.Y.; Liu, Z.Y.; Cheng, Y.F. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    In this work, the type, composition and distribution of inclusions contained in an API5L X100 steel were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A hydrogen-charging at various current densities was used to introduce hydrogen into the steel, and the correlation between HIC and the inclusions was established. The microstructure of the steel consists of a leather-like bainitic ferrite matrix, with martensite/austenite as the second phase particles. At least four types of inclusions are contained in API5L X100 steel, elongated MnS inclusions and spherical Al-, Si- and Ca-Al-O-S-enriched inclusions. In particular, the majority of inclusions in the steel are Al-enriched. Upon hydrogen-charging, hydrogen blisters and HIC could be caused in the steel in the absence of external stress. The cracks are primarily associated with the Al- and Si-enriched inclusions, rather than the elongated MnS inclusion. The critical amount of hydrogen resulting in HIC of the tested API5L X100 steel is determined to be 3.24 ppm under condition in this work. (author)

  16. Significance of bioleaching method in dissolution of iron and in the quality improvement of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Štyriaková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple laboratory bioleaching experiments for the iron removal with heterotrophic bacteria on natural raw materials were conducted to explore a simple cyclic operation for a potential use at the industrial scale. Heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus spp. growing in the presence of feldspar raw materials are able to dissolve iron. Anaerobic conditions Quickly formed by bacteria enable a simple manipulation with the sample solution. Insoluble Fe(III in the feldspars sample could be enzymatically dissolved as Fe3+ and also reduced to soluble Fe2+ by silicate bacteria of Bacillus spp. This metal was efficiently removed from the feldspars sample as documented by a Fe2O3 decrease (from 0.29 % to 0.12 % after bioleaching in the conical flask and by a Fe2O3 decrease (from 0.29 % to 0.19 % after bioleaching in the percolate column. Bioleaching of Fe was more effective in the conical flask. Iron-bearing minerals can be easily removed by magnetic separation, but ultra fine iron particles are difficult to treat by conventional mineral processing methods. Thus bioleaching is an attractive alternative for effective removal of iron minerals. The removal of iron with the whiteness increase should give a product, which is fit for industrial ceramic applications.

  17. Determination of non-metallic elements in actinide complexes by oxygen flask combustion (OFC): chlorine and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruikar, P.B.; Nagar, M.S.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The oxygen flask combustion followed by ion selective electrode measurement has been found to be the most suitable from the point of view of elegance and simplicity for the determination of chlorine and fluorine in actinide complexes. The method has been found to be particularly suitable for glove box adaptation. This report describes the determination of chlorine and fluorine in several uranium complexes, some plutonium complexes and organic analytical standards by this method. The precision and accuracy of the measurements in the milligram level has been found to be quite satisfactory. (author). 16 refs., 11 tabs

  18. Non-metal single/dual doped carbon quantum dots: a general flame synthetic method and electro-catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhi; Tang, Di; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Chuanxi; Kong, Weiqian; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2015-03-01

    A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction.A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, UV-Vis absorption, PL, Raman, FTIR, XPS, CV, and LSV data of single/dual doped CQDs, a table for the calculated mass concentrations of different atoms in various B, N, P or S containing CQDs and a table for summary of the ORR performance of various catalysts in an O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07116f

  19. Inkjet printing of Chitlac-nanosilver—a method to create functional coatings for non-metallic bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nganga, Sara; Moritz, Niko; Jakobsson, Kristina; Vallittu, Pekka K; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Nyman, Johan O; Sandler, Niklas; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Travan, Andrea; Donati, Ivan; Crosera, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites, based on bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate thermoset polymer matrix reinforced with E-glass fibers have been successfully used in cranial reconstructions and the material has been approved for clinical use. As a further refinement of these implants, antimicrobial, non-cytotoxic coatings on the composites were created by an immersion procedure driven by strong electrostatic interactions. Silver nanoparticles (nAg) were immobilized in lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac) to prepare the bacteriostatic coatings. Herein, we report the use of inkjet technology (a drop-on-demand inkjet printer) to deposit functional Chitlac-nAg coatings on the thermoset substrates. Characterization methods included scanning electron microscopy, scanning white light interferometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Inkjet printing enabled the fast and flexible functionalization of the thermoset surfaces with controlled coating patterns. The coatings were not impaired by the printing process: the kinetics of silver release from the coatings created by inkjet printing and conventional immersion technique was similar. Further research is foreseen to optimize printing parameters and to tailor the characteristics of the coatings for specific clinical applications. (note)

  20. Inkjet printing of Chitlac-nanosilver--a method to create functional coatings for non-metallic bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Sara; Moritz, Niko; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Jakobsson, Kristina; Nyman, Johan O; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Travan, Andrea; Crosera, Matteo; Donati, Ivan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Sandler, Niklas

    2014-10-22

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites, based on bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate thermoset polymer matrix reinforced with E-glass fibers have been successfully used in cranial reconstructions and the material has been approved for clinical use. As a further refinement of these implants, antimicrobial, non-cytotoxic coatings on the composites were created by an immersion procedure driven by strong electrostatic interactions. Silver nanoparticles (nAg) were immobilized in lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac) to prepare the bacteriostatic coatings. Herein, we report the use of inkjet technology (a drop-on-demand inkjet printer) to deposit functional Chitlac-nAg coatings on the thermoset substrates. Characterization methods included scanning electron microscopy, scanning white light interferometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Inkjet printing enabled the fast and flexible functionalization of the thermoset surfaces with controlled coating patterns. The coatings were not impaired by the printing process: the kinetics of silver release from the coatings created by inkjet printing and conventional immersion technique was similar. Further research is foreseen to optimize printing parameters and to tailor the characteristics of the coatings for specific clinical applications.

  1. A General Qualitative Study of Point and Extended Defects and Their Interactions in Non-Metallic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    4758 (1982). 140. A. B. Kunz and J. T. Waber, Concerning the Trapping of Positrons in Ionic Solids, in Positron Annihilation , P. G. Coleman, S. C...than in "clear" specimens of this material. In view of these results, we have undertaken an ESR study of both "clear" (Norton Company) MgO and...34cloudy" (Super Refractories) MgO . The abbreviated results and conclusions of our study on these two I specimens of magnesium oxide are a result of

  2. Effects of photocatalytic activity of metal and non-metal doped Tio2 for Hydrogen production enhancement - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aqilah Sulaiman, Siti; Zaky Noh, Mohamad; Nadia Adnan, Nurul; Bidin, Noriah; Razak, Siti Noraiza Ab

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide TiO2 is well-known materials that has become an efficient photocatalyst for environmental sustainability. Known as solar driven catalysis, TiO2 is considered as the most promising way to alleviate environmental issues caused by the combustion of fossil fuels and to meet worldwide demands for energy. Much effort has been concerned on TiO2 band gap modification to become a visible-light-activated photocatalysts of TiO2 because it can only be excited by UV light irradiation due to its large band gap. Modifications like metals and nonmetals doping has been proposed in the past decades. This reviews survey recent advanced preparation methods of doped-TiO2 including various types of doping methods for various types of dopants and provides general review on further modifications. The characterizations techniques used in order to determine the structural, morphological and optical properties of modified TiO2 is also discussed. Further, a new method of TiO2 modification is proposed in this mini review paper.

  3. High-frequency current application in industry for heating of non-metallic materials. Session 4 N. 4. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezmenov, F V; Dashkevich, I P; Dobrovolskaya, V I; Fedorova, I G; Shamov, A N; Vasiliev, A S

    1984-01-01

    Large scale industrial development of induction heating requires high operating efficiencies. This resulted in extending the research and development in the fiels of static frequency inverters and its circuits. Medium frequency sub-stations for centralized feeding of heating units are widely introduced into industry. Techno-economical parameters of induction heating strongly depend of proper choice and monitoring of heating conditions. Systems of analog and digital control for electro-heat processes and for power source operational conditions are considered. Large attention is drawn to the development of high capacity radio frequency power source for welding. Some questions arising from the computer design techniques adopted for industrial heating uits and power sources are described. Modes of combined solution of two and three-dimensional systems as well as hydrodynamic problems are presented.

  4. Effects of Non-metallic Inclusions on Hot Ductility of High Manganese TWIP Steels Containing Different Aluminum Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Nan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Xin, Xiu-Ling; Xu, Long-Yun

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of inclusions in Fe-16Mn- xAl-0.6C ( x = 0.002, 0.033, 0.54, 2.10 mass pct) steels have been investigated and their effects on hot ductility of the high manganese TWIP steels have been discussed. Ductility is very poor in the steel containing 0.54 mass pct aluminum, which is lower than 20 pct in the temperature range of 873 K to 1473 K (600 °C to 1200 °C). For the steels containing 0.002 and 2.10 mass pct aluminum, ductility is higher than 40 pct in the same temperature range. The hot ductility of steel containing 0.033 mass pct aluminum is higher than 30 pct throughout the temperature range under examination. With increasing aluminum content, the main inclusions in the steels change along the route of MnO/(MnO + MnS) → MnS/(Al2O3 + MnS) → AlN/(Al2O3 + MnS)/(MgAl2O4 + MnS) → AlN. The thermodynamic results of inclusion types calculated with FactSage software are in agreement with the experimental observation results. The inclusions in the steels containing 0.002 mass pct aluminum do not deteriorate the hot ductility. MnS inclusions whose average size, number density, and volume ratio are 1.12 μm, 15.62 mm-2, and 2.51 × 10-6 in the steel containing 0.033 mass pct aluminum reduce the ductility. In the steel containing 0.54 mass pct aluminum, AlN inclusions whose average size, number density, and volume ratio are 0.878 μm, 16.28 mm-2 and 2.82 × 10-6 can precipitate at the austenite grain boundaries, prevent dynamic recrystallization and deteriorate the hot ductility. On the contrary, in the steel containing 2.10 mass pct aluminum, the average size, number density and volume ratio of AlN inclusions change to 2.418 μm, 35.95 mm-2, and 2.55 × 10-5. They precipitate in the matrix, which do not inhibit dynamic recrystallization and thereby do not lead to poor hot ductility.

  5. Determination for the Entrapment Criterion of Non-metallic Inclusions by the Solidification Front During Steel Centrifugal Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, the three-dimensional fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification in steel centrifugal continuous casting strands were simulated. The volume of fluid model was used to solve the multiphase phenomena between the molten steel and the air. The entrapment and final distribution of inclusions in the solidified shell were studied with the discussion on the effect of rotation behavior of the caster system. Main results indicate that after applying the rotation of the shell, the fluid flow transformed from a recirculation flow to a rotation flow in the mold region and was driven to flow around in the casting direction. As the distance below the meniscus increased, the distribution of the tangential speed of the flow and the centrifugal force along one diameter of the strand became symmetrical gradually. The jet flow from the nozzle hardly impinged on the same location on the shell due to the rotation of the shell during solidification. Thus, the shell thickness on the same height was uniform around, and the thinning shell and a hot spot on the surface of shell were avoided. Both of the measurement and the calculation about the distribution of oxide inclusions along the radial direction indicated the number of inclusions at the side and the center was more than that at the quarter on the cross section of billet. With a larger diameter, inclusions tended to be entrapped toward the center area of the billet.

  6. Radiation physics of non-metallic crystals. Volume III, No. 3. Radiatsionnaya fizika nemetallicheskikh kristallov. Tom III, Chast 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konozenko, I D [ed.

    1971-01-01

    Separate articles are presented on studies concerned with radiation phenomena in ionic crystals and dielectrics. Topics include energy losses and electron escape in monocrystals, non-stationary acoustic absorption in monocrystals, charge behavior in radioactive dielectrics, the effects of electron radiation on the electroconductivity of organic dielectrics, adsorption of polyatomic gases in adsorbents, catalysis and inhibition of solid inorganic salt radiolysis, and the formation of additive paramagnetic centers in gamma radiated salts of alkaline earth metals. 253 references.

  7. Theory of defects in non-metallic solids. Progress report, 1 August 1985-31 December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    A general method based upon ab initio quantum mechanical modeling of the region of a solid in the vicinity of a defect or impurity and upon the use of classical modeling of more remote regions in a self-consistent way is being undertaken. This project is termed ICECAP and represents a collaboration between MTU, Harwell AERE and the University of Manitoba. The initial progress has been in defining the scope of the model, validation of the several concepts, generation of some necessary theoretical formalism, and finally in an initial study of the excitonic spectra of several alkali iodides. This latter study is significant in several ways. It establishes: the size of cluster needed for such studies; the utility of norm-conserving core replacing pseudo potentials; the need of treating spin-orbit and multiple structure in a proper way for localized excitation

  8. Influence of Femtosecond Laser Parameters and Environment on Surface Texture Characteristics of Metals and Non-Metals - State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatish, A.; Soundarapandian, S.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the surface functionality by ultrashort pulsed laser texturing has received the considerable attention from researchers in the past few decades. Femtosecond lasers are widely adopted since it provides high repeatability and reproducibility by minimizing the heat affected zone (HAZ) and other collateral damages to a great extent. The present paper reports some recent studies being made worldwide on femtosecond laser surface texturing of metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, thinfilms and advanced nanocomposites. It presents the state of the art knowledge in femtosecond laser surface texturing and the potential of this technology to improve properties in terms of biological, tribological and wetting performance. Since the texture quality and functionality are enhanced by the proper selection of appropriate laser parameters and ambient conditions for individual application, reporting the influence of laser parameters on surface texture characteristics assume utmost importance.

  9. Microchemical Analysis of Non-Metallic Inclusions in C-Mn Steel Shielded Metal Arc Welds by Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    transformation ( CCT ) diagram Figure 2.2. The microstructures that develop are determined by the cooling rate, alloying element and oxygen content of the weld...TIME Figure 2.2 CCT Diagram for the weld metal of low-carbon, low-alloy steels [From Ref. 2] To assist material scientists in microstructure

  10. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid--liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report for period, 1 December 1976--30 November 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkerka, R.F.; Hartzell, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    Modeling of the process of Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth (ICZG) was completed. Both one-dimensional models (for infinitely long samples and induction coils) and two-dimensional models show similar S-curve instabilities on heating, but the two-dimensional models serve to define the shape of the molten zone. Molten zone shape was found to be a sensitive function of rf skin depth in the solid and induction coil geometry. Changes in these parameters lead to zone shapes which change from convex to concave. Practical guidelines were established for the suitability of the ICZG process by calculating a maximum rf frequency to obtain a suitable surface-to-center temperature difference in the sample and a minimum frequency to avoid heating instabilities. For there to be an allowable frequency range, it is necessary that 2hR/sub s//k greater than 1, where h is the surface heat transfer coefficient, R/sub s/ is the sample radius, and k is its thermal conductivity; this limits ICZG to poor conductors (nonmetals), except for very large samples and forced surface cooling. Experiments on silicon were used to verify the heating instability quantitatively. Internal susceptors were tried to heat oxides at low frequencies but led to local overheating and cracking. 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Bani Ismail; A. Al-Majali; K. Al-Qudah

    2007-01-01

    Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10) included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group...

  12. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  13. Research on Lessening of Bonding Effects Between the Metallic and Non-Metallic Surfaces Through the Graphite Films Deposited with Pulsed Electrical Discharges Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, L.; Topala, P.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research on the physics of natural graphite film formation, the establishment of chemical composition and functional properties of the graphite films, formed on metal surfaces, as a result of the action of plasma in the air environment, at a normal pressure, under the electrical discharge in impulse conditions (EDI). The researchings were performed in the frame of doctoral thesis “Research on lessening of the bonding effects between the metallic and nonmetallic surfaces through the graphite films” and aimed to identify the phenomena that occur at the interface metal/ film of graphite, and to identify also the technological applications that it may have the surface treatment for submitting the films of graphite on metallic surfaces achieved through an innovative process of electrical pulsed discharges. After the research works from the PhD theme above mentioned, a number of interesting properties of graphite pellicle have been identified ie reducing of metal surface polarity. This led to drastic decreases for the values of adhesion when bonding of metal surfaces was performed using a structural polyurethane adhesive designed by ICECHIM. Following the thermo-gravimetric analysis, performed of the graphite film obtained by process of electrical pulsed discharges, have been also discovered other interesting properties for this, ie reversible mass additions at specific values of the working temperature Chemical and scanning electron microscopy analysis have revealed that on the metallic surface subjected to electrical pulsed discharges process, outside the graphite film, it is also obtained a series of spatial formation composed of carbon atoms fullerenes type which are responsible for the phenomenon of addition of mass.

  14. Gas-phase sample introduction techniques for the determination of some non-metals by ICP-AES, MIP-AES AND ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    Various gas-phase sample introduction methods in analytical atomic spectrometry have been documented for up to 30 elements, but only a few of these methods with less than one-third of the analytes exhibit adequate, competitive performance characteristics. Most attractive are the chemical systems based on (i) reactions in aqueous media, (ii) with fast kinetics of chemical vapor generation and easy stripping off of vapors from solution, (iii) reliable interference control, (iv) with high and reducible chemical yields of volatile products which are (v) readily atomized, excited or ionized in a plasma, so as to provide adequate sensitivity and low limits of detection (LOD). Some significant advantage of gas-phase sample introduction over the widely-used pneumatic nebulization of liquid (solution) samples are (1) high chemical yields and transport efficiency, (2) separation from troublesome matrices, (3) enrichment, (4) automation in flow injection and continuous flow mode, (5) good sample throughput rates, (6) competitive LODs and RSDs, (7) commercially available accessories, (8) economically affordable and (9) speciation potentialities. To the contrary, the major disadvantages and limitations are (1) complex, on line-chemistry involved, (2) specific sample pre-treatment required, (3) effect of oxidation and binding state of analyte, (4) chemical interferences, (5) foaming and aerosol formation, (6) numerous instrumental and chemical parameters for optimization, (7) applicability to a limited number of analytes, (8) limited linear ranges and (9) poor-multi-element capabilities.

  15. Actinide-pnictide (An-Pn) bonds spanning non-metal, metalloid, and metal combinations (An=U, Th; Pn=P, As, Sb, Bi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rookes, Thomas M.; Wildman, Elizabeth P.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Wooles, Ashley J.; Gregson, Matthew; Tuna, Floriana; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Balazs, Gabor; Scheer, Manfred [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2018-01-26

    The synthesis and characterisation is presented of the compounds [An(Tren{sup DMBS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] and [An(Tren{sup TIPS}){Pn(SiMe_3)_2}] [Tren{sup DMBS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 2}Bu{sup t}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb, Bi; An=Th, Pn=P, As; Tren{sup TIPS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiPr{sup i}{sub 3}){sub 3}, An=U, Pn=P, As, Sb; An=Th, Pn=P, As, Sb]. The U-Sb and Th-Sb moieties are unprecedented examples of any kind of An-Sb molecular bond, and the U-Bi bond is the first two-centre-two-electron (2c-2e) one. The Th-Bi combination was too unstable to isolate, underscoring the fragility of these linkages. However, the U-Bi complex is the heaviest 2c-2e pairing of two elements involving an actinide on a macroscopic scale under ambient conditions, and this is exceeded only by An-An pairings prepared under cryogenic matrix isolation conditions. Thermolysis and photolysis experiments suggest that the U-Pn bonds degrade by homolytic bond cleavage, whereas the more redox-robust thorium compounds engage in an acid-base/dehydrocoupling route. (copyright 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  16. Localization of plastic yield and fracture mechanism in high-strength niobium alloy with ultra-fine particles of non-metallic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyumentsev, A.N.; Gonchikov, V.Ch.; Korotaev, A.D.; Pinzhin, Yu.P.; Tyumentseva, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The regularities of localization of plastic flow in high-strength dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy are studied. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure of strain localization zones the mechanism of stability losses of plastic flow including, the processes of diffusion of nonequilibrium vacancies in fields of nonuniform stresses, is proposed. The role of diffuse strain mechanisms during reorientation of the crystalline lattice is discussed. The regularities of fracture of high-strength alloy under conditions of rotational-shift instability of plastic flow are investigated

  17. An Overview on Impact Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Collapsible Metallic and Non-Metallic Energy Absorbers used in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, R. B.; Mali, K. D.

    2018-04-01

    Collapsible impact energy absorbers play an important role of protecting automotive components from damage during collision. Collision of the two objects results into the damage to one or both of them. Damage may be in the form of crack, fracture and scratch. Designers must know about how the material and object behave under impact event. Owing to above reasons different types of collapsible impact energy absorbers are developed. In the past different studies were undertaken to improve such collapsible impact energy absorbers. This article highlights such studies on common shapes of collapsible impact energy absorber and their impact behaviour under the axial compression. The literature based on studies and analyses of effects of different geometrical parameters on the crushing behaviour of impact energy absorbers is presented in detail. The energy absorber can be of different shape such as circular tube, square tube, and frustums of cone and pyramids. The crushing behaviour of energy absorbers includes studies on crushing mechanics, modes of deformation, energy absorbing capacity, effect on peak and mean crushing load. In this work efforts are made to cover major outcomes from past studies on such behavioural parameters. Even though the major literature reviewed is related to metallic energy absorbers, emphasis is also laid on covering literature on use of composite tube, fiber metal lamination (FML) member, honeycomb plate and functionally graded thickness (FGT) tube as a collapsible impact energy absorber.

  18. Tuning metal–graphene interaction by non-metal intercalation: a case study of the graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Bing; Chen, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces has been proposed as one of the most promising methods for large-scale preparation of high-quality graphene. However, the presence of the substrate could significantly affect the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene and intercalation of metals is an established route for decoupling the graphene from the substrate. Taking a graphene/Ni(1 1 1) surface as an example, we suggest reactive oxygen as an effective intercalation element to recover the linear dispersion of graphene based on density functional theory calculation, in which vdW interactions are treated using the optB88-vdW functional. The possible intercalation configurations at different coverage are considered and the geometry and electronic structure are analyzed in detail. Our results indicate that the energy favorable structures change from top-fcc to bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation and the binding between the graphene and the O/Ni(1 1 1) substrate becomes stronger at high oxygen coverage even than pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate. Most interestingly, the electronic structure of pristine graphene is found to be almost restored, especially for the bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation, and the Dirac points move towards the high energy region relative to the Fermi level. A graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system is thus suggested as a p-type doped strongly bound Dirac system. Detailed analysis using projected energy band and differential charge density indicates that the intercalated oxygen atoms react with the Ni (1 1 1) surface strongly, which not only blocks the strong interaction between Ni and graphene but also passivates oxygen 2p states. The intercalation mechanisms distinguished from the conventional metal intercalation will be useful to understand other complex intercalation systems. (paper)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ montmorillonite nanocomposites by in situ polycondensation catalyzed by non-metal-based compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprapan, Kulwadee; Phattanarudee, Siriwan

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by using non-toxic catalysts, i.e., phthalic acid and succinimide, via in situ polycondensation in presence of silicate. Concentrations of catalysts and clay were varied in a range of 0-3% wt and 0-0.5% wt, respectively. The reaction condition was controlled at 180 degrees C for 24 hr under a reduced pressure. Viscosity average molecular weight of the synthesized polymers and nanocomposites were characterized and compared using an Ubbelohde viscometer. Pattern of silicate distribution in the composites was investigated by X-ray diffraction to correlate with thermal properties evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the addition of catalysts at 2% wt gave the highest product yield (55-60%). The presence of silicate affected on molecular weight reduction, and the diffracted patterns suggested an intercalated structure. With a small amount of added filler, a significant improvement in thermal property and crystallinity of the resultant composites was obtained compared to those of the catalyzed polymers, in which the composites with succinimide exhibited overall better thermal stability and higher crystallinity than the ones prepared with phthalic acid.

  20. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.

    2009-01-01

    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  1. Modification of non metallic materials under the influence of the radiation and thermal retrogradation of these modifications; Modification de materiaux non metalliques sous l'influence des rayonnements et retrogradation thermique de ces modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, G; Perio, P; Gigon, J; Tournarie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The action of the radiation on solids constitute an extremely vast domain of study, which the CEA hardly begins. There is not a very long time, indeed, that we have relatively intense fluxes (6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons by cm{sup 2}.s{sup -} {sup 1} in the center of the reactor core of Saclay). Materials submitted to radiations, were followed by the evolution of a certain number of physical properties. The study of thermal retrogradation, at moderate temperature, of the modifications provoked by the irradiation were also followed. We will limit, in this report, to expose our experiences on graphite and lithium fluoride. (M.B.) [French] L'action des rayonnements sur les solides constitue un domaine extremement vaste dont l'etude, au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, commence a peine. Il n'y a pas tres longtemps, en effet, que nous disposons de flux relativement intenses (6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1} au centre de la pile de Saclay). Dans les materiaux soumis au rayonnement nous suivons l'evolution d'un certain nombre de proprietes physiques et nous etudions la retrogradation thermique, a temperature moderee, des modifications provoquees par l'irradiation. Nous nous bornerons ici a exposer nos experiences sur le graphite et le fluorure de lithium. (M.B.)

  2. The diesel exhaust in miners study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Yereb, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Portengen, L.; Stewart, P.A.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the

  3. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components; Efecto de segundas fases no metalicas sobre el comportamiento a fatiga de componentes de acero con elevadas solicitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-07-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. The role of nuclear methods in the study of surface compositions. Their use in the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Project on 'RMs for non-metals in non-ferrous metals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaglia, L.; Weber, G.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of high-purity materials poses the problem of the analysis of the elements present at very low concentrations, even below 1 μg/g. For different analysis methods an important source of systematic errors is surface pollution. Although nuclear methods have shown to be well suited for the quantitative study of surfaces, their possibilities remain insufficiently known for most non-nuclear laboratories. Therefore, the first part of this report was conceived as a simple but complete as possible review of the existing nuclear techniques and gives also a description of their principal characteristics. The second part treats special uses of some of these techniques, especially the study of surface-mass interferences in the case of the assay of light elements in metals and alloys. This problem is discussed in the framework of the certification of reference materials, and is based upon experiences collected in a ten-year Community effort, which enabled the expression of general considerations concerning the treatment, conditioning and storage of reference materials

  5. Effectiveness of managed populations of wild and honey bees as supplemental pollinators of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) under different climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ was rec......Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer...

  6. 76 FR 33879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... (Osmia spp. or Chalicodoma spp.), and miner bees (Anthophora spp.) (Hurd 1979, pp. 1762, 1765, 2042, 2073... Community Conservation Planning Act; (5) land acquisition and management by Federal, State, or local... provide a planning tool for future improvements; provide for sustainable multipurpose use of the resources...

  7. From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

  8. Pollinators and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Bee-Fungicide Workshop at NACREW, there will be updates on the latest evidence characterizing how fungicides may cause colony declines in native bee species. Findings will cover recent work with Bombus impatiens and Osmia lignaria. Discussions will be focusing on how the US cranberry ...

  9. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose...

  10. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  11. Development of Non-Metallic Fuel Elements for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor; Mise au point d'elements combustibles non metalliques pour un reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par un gaz; Razrabotka nemetallicheskikh teplovydelyashchikh ehlementov dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Elementos combustibles no metalicos para un reactor de temperatura elevada refrigerado por gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, B.; Schafer, L.; Spener, G. [NUKEM, Nuklear-Chemie und -Metallurgie G.m.b.H., Wolfgang bei Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    In connection with fuel element development work for the high-temperature gas-coolcd reactor of the Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.m.b.H., two different fuel element concepts were considered and developed. In both cases the fuel element consists of a graphite ball of 6 cm in diam. which contains the fuel insert, a cylindrical pellet of about 20 mm in diam. and 16 mm in height. The two concepts differ in the type of the.fuel insert as well as in the preparation of the graphite ball. In the first concept the fuel insert consists of a mixture of UC{sub 2} and graphite which is prepared by blending U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and graphite, pressing them into pellets and reacting the two components in a vacuum furnace at 1800{sup o}C. The atomic ratio of U : C is 1:45. Since this type of fuel pellet does not retain the fission products completely the surrounding graphite sphere had to be made impervious to fission products by impregnation in order to obtain a fission-product retaining element. Permeabilities of the order of 10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}/s could be achieved. In the second concept the fuel insert consists of a solid solution of UC in ZrC and is coated with a layer of ZrC. The molar ratio of UC to ZrC is 1 : 20. The fuel pellet preparation was accomplished by the following procedure: UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and graphite were mixed and pressed into pellets. The pellets were reacted to the carbides. Ball milling of the carbides was followed by hot pressing at temperatures o f 2000{sup o}C. Densities of more than 95% of the theoretical density could be achieved. A full description of the preparation and of some physical properties of the fuel pellets is given in the paper. A sufficient fission gas retention behaviour of this type of fuel insert which allows it to be put into unimpregnated graphite balls is expected. Other advantages of this kind of fuel are discussed. (author) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes de combustibles destines au reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par un gaz, de la societe Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau GmbH, on a retenu et mis au point deux types differents d'elements combustibles. Dans les deux cas, l'element combustible est constitue par une sphere en graphite de 6 cm de diametre enrobant un noyau de matiere combustible ayant la forme d'une pastille cylindrique d'environ 20 mm de diametre et de 16 mm de hauteur. Les deux types different par le noyau aussi bien que par la preparation de la sphere en graphite. Dans le premier type, le noyau est un melange d'UO{sub 2} et de graphite. La preparation consiste a melanger U{sub 3}O{sub 8} et du graphite, a les comprimer en pastilles et a faire reagir les deux composants du melange dans un four sous vide a 1800{sup o}C. Le rapport atomique U : C est 1:45. Etant donne que ce type de pastille ne retient pas completement les produits de fission, il a fallu impregner la sphere en graphite, de maniere a la rendre etanche aux produits de fission. On a pu realiser des permeabilites de l'ordre de 10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}/s . Dans le deuxieme type, le noyau est une solution solide de UC dans ZrC; il est revetu d'une couche de ZrC. Le rapport molaire UC : ZrC est 1 : 20. La preparation de la pastille de combustible s'effectue de la maniere suivantes UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} et le graphite sont melanges et comprimes en pastilles. On fait reagir le melange pour obtenir les carbures. Le broyage des carbures est suivi d'un pressage a chaud a des temperatures de l'ordre de 2000{sup o}C. On est parvenu a des densites egales a 95% de la densite theorique. Les auteurs decrivent en detail la preparation des pastilles de combustible et mentionnent un certain nombre de leurs proprietes physiques. On pense qu'en raison de leur capacite de retention des gaz de fission, des noyaux de ce type pourront etre enrobes dans des spheres en graphite non impregne. L'etude fait encore etat d'autres avantages de ce genre de combustible. [Spanish] En relacion con el perfeccionamiento de los elementos combustibles destinados al reactor de alta temperatura refrigerado por gas de la Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau GmbH, se investigaron y desarrollaron dos conceptos de elemento combustible. El elemento consiste en ambos casos en una esfera de grafito de 6 cm de diametro que encierra una pastilla cilindrica de combustible de unos 20 mm de diametro y 16 mm de altura. La diferencia entre ambos conceptos estriba en el tipo de combustible y en la forma de preparar las esferas de grafito. En el primero, el combustible se prepara mezclando U{sub 3}O{sub 8} y grafito, prensando esta mezcla en pastillas y haciendo que ambos componentes reaccionen en un horno al vacio a 1800{sup o}C. La razon atomica U : C es 1:45. Como este tipo de pastilla combustible no retiene cuantitativamente los productos de fision, fue necesario impregnar la esfera de grafito para hacerla impermeable y mejorar su poder de retencion. De este modo, se lograron permeabilidades del orden de 10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}/s . Con arreglo al segundo concepto, el combustible consiste en una solucion solida de UC en ZrC recubierta de una capa de ZrC. La razon molar UC : ZrC asciende a 1 : 20. La pastilla combustible se preparo del modo siguiente: se mezclaron UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} y grafito y se prensaron en pastillas que se hicieron reaccionar para obtener los carburos, que a su vez se trituraron en un molino de bolas, para volver a prensarse a 2000{sup o}C. De este modo, se alcanzaron densidades superiores al 95% del valor teorico. La memoria describe en detalle la preparacion y algunas de las propiedades fisicas de las pastillas combustibles. Se espera que este tipo de combustible retenga suficientemente los gases de fision y permita el empleo de esferas de grafito no impregnadas. La memoria examina tambien otras ventajas de esos combustibles. [Russian] V svyazi s rabotami po sovershenstvovaniyu seplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem ''Obshchestvom stroitel'stva reaktorov Braun- Boveri/Krupp'' byli rassmotreny i razrabotany dva razlichnykh vida teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov. Oba varianta ispol'zuyut grafitovyj sharik diametrom b sm, soderzhashchij tsilindricheskuyu tabletku topliva diametrom okolo 20 mm i vysotoj 16 mm. Oba vida teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov razlichayutsya po tipu toplivnoj tabletki, a takzhe po metodu izgotovleniya grafitnogo sharika. Tabletka pervogo vida sostoit iz smesi UO{sub 2} i grafita, poluchennoj smeshivaniem U{sub 3}O{sub 8} s grafitom, pressovaniem tabletok i posleduyushchim vzaimodejstviem komponentov v vakuumnoj pechi pri 1800{sup o}C. Atomnoe otnoshenie U : C ravnyaetsya 1:45. Vvidu togo, chto takoj tip toplivnoj tabletki ne uderzhivaet polnost'yu produktov delenii, prishlos' obespechit' nepronitsaemost' grafitnogo sharika putem propitki, chtoby poluchit' teplovydelyayushchij ehlement, uderzhivayushchij produkty deleniya. Udalos' dostich' koehffitsientov fil'tratsii poryadka 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/sek. Toplivnaya tabletka vtorogo vida sostoit iz tverdogo rastvora UC v ZrC i pokryta sloem ieh ZrC. Molyarnoe otnoshenie UC:ZrC ravnyaetsya 1:20. Izgotovlenie toplivnykh tabletok provodilos' sleduyushchim sposobom: iz smesi UO{sub 2},ZrO{sub 2} i grafita otpressovyvalis' tabletki, v kotorykh komponenty vzaimodejstvovali do obrazovaniya karbidov. Izmolotye v sharovoj mel'nitse karbidy podvergalis' goryachej pressovke pri temperaturakh okolo 2000{sup o}C. Pri ehtom dostigalis' plotnosti bolee chem 95% teoreticheskoj. V rabote dano podrobnoe opisanie metoda izgotovleniya, a takzhe ukazany nekotorye fizicheskie svojstva toplivnykh tabletok. Ehtot tip toplivnykh tabletok udovletvoritel'no uderzhivaet gazoobraznye produkty deleniya, tak chto okazalos' vozmozhnym vklyuchit' ikh v nepropitannye grafitnye shariki. Obsuzhdayutsya i prochie preimushchestva reaktornykh topliv podobnogo roda. (author)

  12. The Application of Non-Metallic Core Materials in a High-Temperature Reactor Experiment; Utilisation de materes non metalliques dans le coeur d'un reacteur experimental a haute temperature; Ispol'zovanie nemetallicheskikh materialov dlya aktivnoj zony vysokotemperaturnogo opytnogo reaktora; Empleo de materiales no metalicos en el nucleo de un reactor experimental de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddle, R. A.U.; Shepherd, L. R. [Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Dragon Project, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The OECD High-Temperature Reactor Project (DRAGON) was set up to develop the technology of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and, as part of this development, to construct and operate a 20-MW(t) reactor experiment. The reactor, which is now nearing completion, is a helium-cooled system with a coreoutlet temperature of 750{sup o}C; it employs U{sup 235} fuel with thorium as a fertile material. A particular feature of this system is the absence of any metals in the core. Because of the high temperatures involved, namely, up to 1050{sup o}C at fuel element surfaces and above, 1500{sup o}C in-the hottest regions of the fuel, refractory nonmetallic materials are employed. All the core material is incorporated within the fuel element which leads to a high ratio of heat transfer surface area to core volume and hence permits a high average power density leading to a relatively compact system. Each fuel element consists of a cluster of graphite tubes, containing the fissile and fertile materials as carbides incorporated in graphite pellets. A purge flow of the helium coolant passing through the centre of each fuel rod is extracted from the base whence it passes into a helium processing plant to remove fission products and other impurities before being returned to the reactor. This procedure reduces the escape of fission products from the very hot ceramic fuel into the primary coolant stream. Problems associated with the development and production of ceramic fuel bodies and graphite for this reactor, and the behaviour of these materials under operating conditions are outlined. Some experience from irradiation and in-pile loop investigations are reported. The main emphasis in this programme is on the development of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor for application as an economic power producing system. (author) [French] Les objectifs du Projet DRAGON de l'OCDE (reacteur a haute temperature) sont les suivants: ameliorer la technologie des reacteurs a haute temperature refroidis par un gaz, construire et exploiter, dans le cadre de ce projet, un reacteur experimental de 20 MWth. Le reacteur - dont la construction touche a sa fin - est refroidi a l'helium; la temperature de sortie du coeur est de 750{sup o}C; il emploie de l'uranium-235 comme combustible et du thorium comme matiere fertile. Il est caracterise par l'absence de tout metal dans le coeur du reacteur. En raison'des hautes temperatures, qui peuvent atteindre 1050{sup o}C a la surface des elements combustibles et s'elever au dessus de 1500{sup o}C dans les regions les plus chaudes du combustible, on emploie des materiaux refractaires non metalliques. Le fait que tous les constituants du coeur sont reunis dans l'element combustible permet d'obtenir un rapport eleve entre la surface de transfert de la chaleur et le volume du coeur, d'ou une puissance specifique moyenne elevee pour un ensemble de dimension relativement faible. Chaque element combustible est constitue par un faisceau de tubes de graphite contenant les matieres fissiles et fertiles sous forme de carbure incorpore a des pastilles de graphite. Un courant refroidisseur d'helium traverse le centre de chaque barreau de combustible d'ou il ressort par la base pour etre conduit dans une installation de purification dans laquelle il est debarrasse des produits de fission et autres impuretes avant d'etre achemine de nouveau vers le reacteur. Cette methode permet de reduire la fuite des produits de fission qui, s'echappant du combustible ceramique porte a tres haute temperature, entrent dans le circuit de refroidissement primaire. Les auteurs exposent les problemes lies a la mise au point et a la fabrication du graphite et des elements combustibles ceramiques destines a ce reacteur ainsi que le comportement de ces materiaux dans les conditions de fonctionnement. Ils indiquent les resultats de recherches en pile et dans des boucles d'irradiation. Dans ce programme, tout l'effort se concentre sur la mise au point de reacteurs a haute temperature refroidis par un gaz, qui soient rentables pour la production d'electricite. (author) [Spanish] El proyecto DRAGON de la O.C.F.E., relativo a un reactor de alta temperatura, se emprendio con el fin de perfeccionar la tecnologia de esa categoria de reactores refrigerados por gas y, como parte de esta labor, con objeto de construir y explotar un reactor experimental de 20 MW (t). El reactor, cuya construccion esta por terminarse, es del tipo refrigerado por helio, con una temperatura de salida del nucleo de 750{sup o}C; como combustible se utiliza {sup 235}U y torio como materiaj fertil. Una particularidad de este reactor es la ausencia de materiales metalicos en su nucleo. En razon de la elevada temperatura de funcionamiento, a saber, hasta 1050{sup o}C en la superficie de los elementos combustibles y superior a 1500{sup o}C en las regiones mas calientes de los mismos se utilizan meteriales refractarios no metalicos. Todos los materiales del nucleo se hallan incorporados en los elementos combustibles, lo que permite alcanzar una amplia superficie de transmision de calor en relacion con el volumen del nucleo y, por tanto, una potencia especifica media elevada que hace posible reducir las dimensiones del sistema. Cada elemento combustible esta formado-por un haz-de tubos de grafito que contienen los materiales fisionables y fertiles en forma de carburos incorporados en pastillas de grafito. Una corriente purgadora de helio refrigerante que atraviesa la zona-central de cada barra de combustible es extraida por la base, desde donde pasa a una instalacion de tratamiento para eliminar los productos de fision y otras impurezas antes de retornar el helio al reactor. Por este procedimiento se reduce el escape de productos de fision del combustible ceramico, cuya temperatura es muy elevada, al circuito primario de refrigeracion. Se exponen los problemas inherentes al estudio y produccion de combustibles ceramicos y de grafito para este reactor, asi como al comportamiento de estos materiales en condiciones de funcionamiento normales. Se comunican los resultados de las investigaciones sobre irradiacion, asi como de los trabajos efectuados en los circuitos del reactor. El objetivo principal de este programa es el perfeccionamiento de los reactores de elevada temperatura refrigerados por gas para aplicarlos a la generacion de electricidad en condiciones rentables. (author) [Russian] Proekt vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora (DRAGON)sozdan dlya razrabotki tekhnologii vysokotemperaturnykh reaktorov s gazovym okhladitelem; v nem predusmatrivalos' sooruzhenie i ehkspluatatsiya opytnogo reaktora na 20 mgvt (tepl.). Reaktor, sooruzhenie kotorogo budet vskore zakoncheno, predstavlyaet soboj sistemu, okhlazhdaemuyu geliem; temperatura na vykhode iz aktivnoj zony budet dostigat' 750{sup o}C. V nem budet ispol'zovat'sya U-235 v kachestve goryuchego i torij v kachestve vosproizvodyashchego materiala. Kharakternoj osobennost'yu sistemy yavlyaetsya otsutstvie kakogo-libo metalla v aktivnoj zone. Vvidu togo, chto v reaktore dolzhny razvivat'sya ves'ma vysokie temperatury,' a imenno, 1050{sup o}C na poverkhnosti teplovydelyayushchego ehlementa i do 1500{sup o}C v naibolee sil'no nagrevaemykh tochkakh topliva, dlya ego sooruzheniya ispol'zovany ogneupornye nemetallicheskie materialy. Vse veshchestvo aktivnoj zony sosredotocheno v teplovydelyayushchem ehlemente, blagodarya chemu sootnoshenie mezhdu poverkhnost'yu teploperedachi i ob{sup e}mom aktivnoj zony dostigaet bol'shogo znacheniya, i, sledovatel'no, pozvolyaet dostigat' vysokoj srednej plotnosti ehnergii v sravnitel'no kompaktnoj sisteme. Kazhdyj teplovydelyayushchij ehlement sostoit ieh gruppy grafitovykh trubok, zapolnennykh grafitovymi tabletkami, soderzhashchimi rasshcheplyayushcheesya i vosproizvodyashchee veshchestva v vide karbidov. Gelievyj okhladitel' prokhodit po osi. kazhdogo teplovydelyayushchego sterzhnya i vyvoditsya u ego osnovaniya, okhladitel' zatem napravlyaetsya v ochistitel'nuyu ustanovku, gde iz nego udalyayutsya produkty deleniya i drugie primesi, posle chego tsikl povtoryaetsya. Takaya protsedura pozvolyaet snizit' popadanie produktov deleniya ieh sil'no nagretogo keramicheskogo topliva v pervichnyj potok okhladitelya. (author)

  13. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around of the world are striving to understand and ensure that risks in utilities they govern are effectively managed while they must satisfy all expectations of their stakeholders. For this purpose there are now organisms and standardized management systems to manage financial risks, environmental hazards, industrial safety and occupational health risk. However, operational and reliability risks in the business lack an equivalent oversight body or an organizing framework through which enterprises can asses such risks , or define standards to which can be held accountable.The emergent understanding of asset management across all industry sectors has triggered a subsequent need for a standardized approach. This article identifies the key elements of asset management process and explains the benefits of the application of its elements with reference to two specific cases: the Barrancabermeja Refinery of Ecopetrol S.A. and  Sumicol S.A.Las empresas de todo el mundo se esfuerzan por comprender y asegurar que los riesgosen sus activos tangibles estén regidos bajo una administración eficaz y, a su vez, debenencargarse de cumplir con todas las expectativas de sus grupos de interés. Con estepropósito hoy en día existen organismos y sistemas de gestión estandarizados paraadministrar los riesgos financieros, ambientales, de seguridad de industrial y saludocupacional. Sin embargo, los riesgos operativos y de confiabilidad en el negocio hasta elmomento carecen de un órgano de supervisión equivalente, o un marco de organización através del cual las empresas pueden evaluar estos riesgos o definir las normas a las quepueden ser considerados responsables.El entendimiento emergente de la gestión efectiva de activos en todos los sectoresde la industria ha provocado una necesidad de un enfoque estandarizado. Este artículoidentifica los elementos clave del proceso de gestión de activos y explica los beneficiosde la aplicación de sus elementos tomando como referencia dos casos específicos: laRefinería de Barrancabermeja de Ecopetrol S.A. y Sumicol S.A.

  14. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  15. Concept Study of Multi Sensor Detection Imaging and Explosive Confirmation of Mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarczyk, Larry

    1998-01-01

    ...) cannot detect non-metallic mines and detection sensitivity degrades in magnetic soil. Because metal detection sensitivity can be increased to detect low metal content in some non-metallic mines, some alarms significantly increase...

  16. Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier – Del 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning Bang; Calabuig, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Part 3 of a checklist for the taxa of bees occurring in Denmark, dealing with the families Melittidae and Megachilidae, and covering 53 species. The remaining two families (Halictidae and Apidae) will be dealt with in future papers. The following two species are hereby recorded...... as belonging to the Danish bee fauna: Melitta tricincta Kirby, 1802 and Hoplosmia spinulosa (Kirby, 1802). Megachile pyrenaea Pérez, 1890 and Osmia bicolor (Schrank, 1781) are excluded from the Danish checklist. Species that have the potential to occur in Denmark are discussed briefly....

  17. 75 FR 52614 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model ERJ 170-100 SU Series Airplanes; Seats With Non-Traditional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire in the cabin had been minimized and was not..., non-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The applicable..., seats were designed with a metal frame covered by fabric, not with large, non-metallic panels. Seats...

  18. 77 FR 2032 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... noted physical characteristics that are painted, varnished, or coated with plastic or other non-metallic..., varnished or coated with plastic or other non- metallic substances; (2) SAE grades (formerly AISI grades) of... differences in cost attributable to differences in physical characteristics of the merchandise pursuant to...

  19. Desynchronizations in bee-plant interactions cause severe fitness losses in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Mariela; Krauss, Jochen; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist. Using flight cages, we simulated (i) a perfect synchronization (from a bee perspective): bees and flowers occur simultaneously, (ii) a mismatch of 3 days and (iii) a mismatch of 6 days, with bees occurring earlier than flowers in the latter two cases. A mismatch of 6 days caused severe fitness losses in all three bee species, as few bees survived without flowers. Females showed strongly reduced activity and reproductive output compared to synchronized bees. Fitness consequences of a 3-day mismatch were species-specific. Both the early-spring species Osmia cornuta and the mid-spring species Osmia bicornis produced the same number of brood cells after a mismatch of 3 days as under perfect synchronization. However, O. cornuta decreased the number of female offspring, whereas O. bicornis spread the brood cells over fewer nests, which may increase offspring mortality, e.g. due to parasitoids. The late-spring specialist Osmia brevicornis produced fewer brood cells even after a mismatch of 3 days. Additionally, our results suggest that fitness losses after temporal mismatches are higher during warm than cold springs, as the naturally occurring temperature variability revealed that warm temperatures during starvation decreased the survival rate of O. bicornis. We conclude that short temporal mismatches can cause clear fitness losses in solitary bees

  20. SOCIAL COMPLEXITY AND LEARNING FORAGING TASKS IN BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ MARISOL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social complexity and models concerning central place foraging were tested with respect to learning predictions using the social honey bee (Apis mellifera and solitary blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria when given foraging problems. Both species were presented the same foraging problems, where 1 only reward molarity varied between flower morphs, and 2 only reward volume varied between flower morphs. Experiments utilized blue vs. white flower patches to standardize rewards in each experimental situation. Although honey bees learned faster than blue orchard bees when given a molarity difference reward problem, there was no significant difference in learning rate when presented a volume difference reward problem. Further, the rate at which blue orchard bees learned the volume difference problem was not significantly different from that with which honey bees learned about reward molarity differences. The results do not support the predictions of the social complexity theory, but do support those of the central place model

  1. To bier nye for den danske fauna (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Hans Thomsen; Calabuig, Isabel; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the district catalogue on Danish bee species, an additional two species are hereby published as new records for the country: Osmia parietina Curtis, 1828 and Sphecodes rufiventris (Panzer, 1798). This brings the Danish bee fauna to a current total of 288 species, closing...... in on the number of bee species recorded for Sweden and Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. By a mistake in the catalogue on the names and distributions of Central European bees by Warncke (1986), both these new species were already listed as occurring in Denmark. This error was inherited in several recent printed...... and online catalogues on bee distributions. However, this error is hereby clarified and the recent recordings presented. This paper outlines the general biology and how to identify the two species O. parietina and S. rufiventris, and presents the details of the recording of the specimens and their respective...

  2. Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, B A; Bullock, J M; Shore, R F; Heard, M S; Pereira, M G; Redhead, J; Ridding, L; Dean, H; Sleep, D; Henrys, P; Peyton, J; Hulmes, S; Hulmes, L; Sárospataki, M; Saure, C; Edwards, M; Genersch, E; Knäbe, S; Pywell, R F

    2017-06-30

    Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide. We use large field experiments to assess the effects of neonicotinoid-treated crops on three bee species across three countries (Hungary, Germany, and the United Kingdom). Winter-sown oilseed rape was grown commercially with either seed coatings containing neonicotinoids (clothianidin or thiamethoxam) or no seed treatment (control). For honey bees, we found both negative (Hungary and United Kingdom) and positive (Germany) effects during crop flowering. In Hungary, negative effects on honey bees (associated with clothianidin) persisted over winter and resulted in smaller colonies in the following spring (24% declines). In wild bees ( Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis ), reproduction was negatively correlated with neonicotinoid residues. These findings point to neonicotinoids causing a reduced capacity of bee species to establish new populations in the year following exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Schwarz, Ryan S; Descamps, Tine; Yañez, Orlando; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Martin-Hernandez, Raquel; Bartolomé, Carolina; De Smet, Lina; Higes, Mariano; Wenseleers, Tom; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Neumann, Peter; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Evans, Jay D; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-09-01

    Trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, Lotmaria passim (Evans and Schwarz, 2014). However, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. Research on the related bumble bee parasites Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki revealed a fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which enabled species discrimination. In search of fragment length polymorphisms for differential diagnostics in honey bee trypanosomatids, we studied honey bee trypanosomatid cell cultures of C. mellificae and L. passim. This research resulted in the identification of fragment length polymorphisms in ITS1 and ITS1-2 markers, which enabled us to develop a diagnostic method to differentiate both honey bee trypanosomatid species without the need for sequencing. However, the amplification success of the ITS1 marker depends probably on the trypanosomatid infection level. Further investigation confirmed that L. passim is the dominant species in Belgium, Japan and Switzerland. We found C. mellificae only rarely in Belgian honey bee samples, but not in honey bee samples from other countries. C. mellificae was also detected in mason bees (Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta) besides in honey bees. Further, the characterization and comparison of additional markers from L. passim strain SF (published as C. mellificae strain SF) and a Belgian honey bee sample revealed very low divergence in the 18S rRNA, ITS1-2, 28S rRNA and cytochrome b sequences. Nevertheless, a variable stretch was observed in the gp63 virulence factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the Metatranscriptome of Eight Social and Solitary Wild Bee Species Reveals Novel Viruses and Bee Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonvaere, Karel; Smagghe, Guy; Francis, Frédéric; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2018-01-01

    Bees are associated with a remarkable diversity of microorganisms, including unicellular parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The application of next-generation sequencing approaches enables the identification of this rich species composition as well as the discovery of previously unknown associations. Using high-throughput polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing, we investigated the metatranscriptome of eight wild bee species ( Andrena cineraria, Andrena fulva, Andrena haemorrhoa, Bombus terrestris, Bombus cryptarum, Bombus pascuorum, Osmia bicornis , and Osmia cornuta ) sampled from four different localities in Belgium. Across the RNA sequencing libraries, 88-99% of the taxonomically informative reads were of the host transcriptome. Four viruses with homology to insect pathogens were found including two RNA viruses (belonging to the families Iflaviridae and Tymoviridae that harbor already viruses of honey bees), a double stranded DNA virus (family Nudiviridae ) and a single stranded DNA virus (family Parvoviridae ). In addition, we found genomic sequences of 11 unclassified arthropod viruses (related to negeviruses, sobemoviruses, totiviruses, rhabdoviruses, and mononegaviruses), seven plant pathogenic viruses, and one fungal virus. Interestingly, nege-like viruses appear to be widespread, host-specific, and capable of attaining high copy numbers inside bees. Next to viruses, three novel parasite associations were discovered in wild bees, including Crithidia pragensis and a tubulinosematid and a neogregarine parasite. Yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia were identified in solitary bees. This study gives a glimpse of the microorganisms and viruses associated with social and solitary wild bees and demonstrates that their diversity exceeds by far the subset of species first discovered in honey bees.

  5. Study of the Metatranscriptome of Eight Social and Solitary Wild Bee Species Reveals Novel Viruses and Bee Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schoonvaere

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bees are associated with a remarkable diversity of microorganisms, including unicellular parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The application of next-generation sequencing approaches enables the identification of this rich species composition as well as the discovery of previously unknown associations. Using high-throughput polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA sequencing, we investigated the metatranscriptome of eight wild bee species (Andrena cineraria, Andrena fulva, Andrena haemorrhoa, Bombus terrestris, Bombus cryptarum, Bombus pascuorum, Osmia bicornis, and Osmia cornuta sampled from four different localities in Belgium. Across the RNA sequencing libraries, 88–99% of the taxonomically informative reads were of the host transcriptome. Four viruses with homology to insect pathogens were found including two RNA viruses (belonging to the families Iflaviridae and Tymoviridae that harbor already viruses of honey bees, a double stranded DNA virus (family Nudiviridae and a single stranded DNA virus (family Parvoviridae. In addition, we found genomic sequences of 11 unclassified arthropod viruses (related to negeviruses, sobemoviruses, totiviruses, rhabdoviruses, and mononegaviruses, seven plant pathogenic viruses, and one fungal virus. Interestingly, nege-like viruses appear to be widespread, host-specific, and capable of attaining high copy numbers inside bees. Next to viruses, three novel parasite associations were discovered in wild bees, including Crithidia pragensis and a tubulinosematid and a neogregarine parasite. Yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia were identified in solitary bees. This study gives a glimpse of the microorganisms and viruses associated with social and solitary wild bees and demonstrates that their diversity exceeds by far the subset of species first discovered in honey bees.

  6. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  7. REM effect on nonmetallic inclusion composition and heat resistance in an austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farafonov, V.K.; Shtejnberg, M.M.; Kikhtin, M.V.; Cheremnykh, V.P.; Vojnov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were made to elucidate the effect of rare earths (lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium, cerium) on the composition of non-metallic inclusions and heat resistance of an austenitic chromium-nickel steel. Common sulfide and oxide inclusions are shown to be substituted by rare earth sulfide and oxide inclusions at RE metal content in the steel up to 0.1%. Further increase of RE metal content results in increasing non-metallic inclusions containing RE metals, phosphorus and non-ferrous impurities. Creep rate changes insignificantly at RE metal content up to 0.1%, and then it sharply grows with the quantity of non-metallic inclusions in the steel

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . TWA2 Surface chemical analysis Wide ranging reference materials, metallic UK and non-metallic. TWA3 Ceramics Alumina, zirconia-alumina USA. TWA4 Polymer blends Polycarbonate/polyethylene blend, Canada. Orgalloy R-6000 ...

  9. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul

    2011-01-01

    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  10. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  11. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. ... geometry of prototype, layer density, part orientation, types of BF media, weight of media and finish cycle time, ... Sadhana | News.

  12. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... metal and non-metal atoms have found a great research interest in recent years. ... Stability function, dissociation energy and LUMO-HOMO gap analysis reveal the ... LUMO and HOMO orbital analysis suggests that electronic redistribution ...

  13. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo', Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates [fr

  14. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  15. Uranium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in uranium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 , particularly adapted for a low content. The method is quantitative for metallic impurities and qualitative for non metallic impurities [fr

  16. Geothermal systems materials: a workshop/symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Sixteen papers are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each. Summaries of workshops on the following topics are also included in the report: non-metallic materials, corrosion, materials selection, fluid chemistry, and failure analysis. (MHR)

  17. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flat spring joins the two eye rims and the tension it exerts on the nose serves to hold the unit in... inner windings of comfort cable temples; metal parts permanently encased in a non-metallic covering; and...

  18. A finite element thermal analysis of various dowel and core materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Varghese

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Non-metallic dowel and core materials such as fibre reinforced composite dowels (FRC generate greater stress than metallic dowel and core materials. This emphasized the preferable use of the metallic dowel and core materials in the oral environment.

  19. Study on low frequency probe characterization for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Pauzi Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been widely used in metal and non-metal material. For non-metal material such as concrete, a probe emitting low frequency ultrasonic wave is applied. This paper describes the comparison between three custom made probes using same design and piezoelectric crystal. The only difference is the backing material, which comprise of three different materials. Characterization of each transducer is compared in order to understand the effects of backing material in the probe. (Author)

  20. On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Friedrich; Slocombe, Daniel R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    The classification of a chemical element as either 'metal' or 'non-metal' continues to form the basis of an instantly recognizable, universal representation of the periodic table (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23; Poliakoff M. & Tang S. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373: , 20140211). Here, we review major, pre-quantum-mechanical innovations (Goldhammer DA. 1913 Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes; Herzfeld KF. 1927 Phys. Rev. 29: , 701-705) that allow an understanding of the metallic or non-metallic status of the chemical elements under both ambient and extreme conditions. A special emphasis will be placed on recent experimental advances that investigate how the electronic properties of chemical elements vary with temperature and density, and how this invariably relates to a changing status of the chemical elements. Thus, the prototypical non-metals, hydrogen and helium, becomes metallic at high densities; and the acknowledged metals, mercury, rubidium and caesium, transform into their non-metallic forms at low elemental densities. This reflects the fundamental fact that, at temperatures above the absolute zero of temperature, there is therefore no clear dividing line between metals and non-metals. Our conventional demarcation of chemical elements as metals or non-metals within the periodic table is of course governed by our experience of the nature of the elements under ambient conditions. Examination of these other situations helps us to examine the exact divisions of the chemical elements into metals and non-metals (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  2. Foraging Activity of Four Bee Species on Sesame Flowers During Two Successive Seasons in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman M. Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging activity of four bee species, Apis mellifera L., Osmia spp., Ceratina tarsataMorawitz and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola on sesame flowers was studied during two successiveseasons of 2011 and 2012. Experimental observations were made during four periodsof the day: 9:00-11:00 am, 11:00 am-1:00 pm, 1:00-3:00 pm and 3:00-5:00 pm, startingfrom initial flowering until the final session. Observation time was five minutes during eachperiod and four bee species were observed visiting each square meter area. Five spots of 1m2 area were selected randomly, and the number of different species of bees visiting wascounted for five minutes by using electronic stopwatch, voice recorder and digital videocamera. The results of the study indicated that the four bee species were most abundanton sesame flowers between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm, and between 1:00 and 3:00 pm. Amongthe bees, Apis mellifera was the predominant species, followed by Ceratina tarsata, in theseason of 2011, while a reverse order of the two was recorded in 2012. The average timespent per flower was highly significantly different among these four species.

  3. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mazzei

    Full Text Available Deformed wing virus (DWV is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection.

  4. Introduction of Non-Native Pollinators Can Lead to Trans-Continental Movement of Bee-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedtke, Shannon M; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Montgomery, Graham A; Danforth, Bryan N

    2015-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators for many flowering plants, including agriculturally important crops such as apple. As geographic ranges of bees or their host plants change as a result of human activities, we need to identify pathogens that could be transmitted among newly sympatric species to evaluate and anticipate their effects on bee communities. We used PCR screening and DNA sequencing to evaluate exposure to potentially disease-causing microorganisms in a pollinator of apple, the horned mason bee (Osmia cornifrons). We did not detect microsporidia, Wolbachia, or trypanosomes, which are common pathogens of bees, in any of the hundreds of mason bees screened. We did detect both pathogenic and apathogenic (saprophytic) fungal species in the genus Ascosphaera (chalkbrood), an unidentified species of Aspergillus fungus, and a strain of bacteria in the genus Paenibacillus that is probably apathogenic. We detected pathogenic fungal strains in asymptomatic adult bees that therefore may be carriers of disease. We demonstrate that fungi from the genus Ascosphaera have been transported to North America along with the bee from its native range in Japan, and that O. cornifrons is exposed to fungi previously only identified from nests of other related bee species. Further study will be required to quantify pathogenicity and health effects of these different microbial species on O. cornifrons and on closely-related native North American mason bees that may now be exposed to novel pathogens. A global perspective is required for pathogen research as geographic ranges of insects and microorganisms shift due to intentional or accidental introductions.

  5. Synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid insecticide and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicide in three bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgolastra, Fabio; Medrzycki, Piotr; Bortolotti, Laura; Renzi, Maria Teresa; Tosi, Simone; Bogo, Gherardo; Teper, Dariusz; Porrini, Claudio; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Bosch, Jordi

    2017-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been identified as an important factor contributing to bee diversity declines. Nonetheless, uncertainties remain about their impact under field conditions. Most studies have been conducted on Apis mellifera and tested single compounds. However, in agricultural environments, bees are often exposed to multiple pesticides. We explore the synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid (clothianidin) and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicide (propiconazole) in three bee species (A. mellifera, Bombus terrestris, Osmia bicornis) following oral exposure in the laboratory. We developed a new approach based on the binomial proportion test to analyse synergistic interactions. We estimated uptake of clothianidin per foraging bout in honey bees foraging on seed-coated rapeseed fields. We found significant synergistic mortality in all three bee species exposed to non-lethal doses of propiconazole and their respective LD 10 of clothianidin. Significant synergism was only found at the first assessment times in A. mellifera (4 and 24 h) and B. terrestris (4 h), but persisted throughout the experiment (96 h) in O. bicornis. O. bicornis was also the most sensitive species to clothianidin. Our results underscore the importance to test pesticide combinations likely to occur in agricultural environments, and to include several bee species in environmental risk assessment schemes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-11-01

    Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) compete with honey bees in cages in order to compare the reproduction of red mason bees under different honey bee densities. Three treatments were applied, each replicated in four cages of 18 m³ with 38 red mason bees in all treatments and 0, 100, and 300 honey bees per treatment with 10-20% being foragers. Within the cages, the flower visitation and interspecific displacements from flowers were observed. Niche breadths and resource overlaps of both bee species were calculated, and the reproduction of red mason bees was measured. Red mason bees visited fewer flowers when honey bees were present. Niche breadth of red mason bees decreased with increasing honey bee density while resource overlaps remained constant. The reproduction of red mason bees decreased in cages with honey bees. In conclusion, our experimental results show that in small and isolated flower patches, wild bees can temporarily suffer from competition with honey bees. Further research should aim to test for competition on small and isolated flower patches in real landscapes.

  7. Busy Bees: Variation in Insect Flower-Visiting Rates across Multiple Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Couvillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified insect visitation rates by counting how many flowers/inflorescences were probed per unit time for five plant species (four native and one garden: California lilac, bramble, ragwort, wild marjoram, and ivy growing in Sussex, United Kingdom, by following individual insects (n=2987 from nine functional groups (honey bees (Apis mellifera, bumble bees (Bombus spp., hoverflies, flies, butterflies, beetles, wasps, non-Apidae bees, and moths. Additionally, we made a census of the insect diversity on the studied plant species. Overall we found that insect groups differed greatly in their rate of flower visits (P<2.2e-16, with bumble bees and honey bees visiting significantly more flowers per time (11.5 and 9.2 flowers/minute, resp. than the other insect groups. Additionally, we report on a within-group difference in the non-Apidae bees, where the genus Osmia, which is often suggested as an alternative to honey bees as a managed pollinator, was very speedy (13.4 flowers/minute compared to the other non-Apidae bees (4.3 flowers/minute. Our census showed that the plants attracted a range of insects, with the honey bee as the most abundant visitor (34%. Therefore, rate differences cannot be explained by particular specializations. Lastly, we discuss potential implications of our conclusions for pollination.

  8. Complejidad social y aprendizaje de tareas de forrajeo en abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las predicciones sobre aprendizaje derivadas de los modelos de complejidad social y forrajeo central, fueron sometidas a prueba usando una especie de abeja social (Apis mellifera y una especie de abeja solitaria (Osmia lignaria, a las cuales les fue ofrecida una tarea de aprendizaje en el contexto de forrajeo de néctar. Ambas especies fueron expuestas a las mismas condiciones de forrajeo, donde 1 se cambió únicamente la molaridad de la recompensa entre las formas florales, y 2 se cambió únicamente el volumen de la recompensa. Los experimentos se hicieron con parches de flores artificiales utilizando dos variedades de color floral (azul y blanco para estandarizar las recompensas de néctar en cada situación experimental. Aunque las abejas sociales aprendieron más rápido que las solitarias cuando se les presentó un problema de diferencia de molaridad en la recompensa, no hubo una diferencia significativa con respecto al aprendizaje de diferencias en volumen de néctar. Adicionalmente, la tasa a la cual O. lignaria aprendió diferencias en el volumen de la recompensa, no difirió de la tasa a la cual A. melifera aprendió las diferencias de concentración del néctar. Los resultados no apoyan las predicciones de la teoría de la complejidad social, pero soportan las del modelo de forrajeo central.

  9. Reproduction and survival of a solitary bee along native and exotic floral resource gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladini, Jennifer D; Maron, John L

    2014-11-01

    Native bee abundance has long been assumed to be limited by floral resources. This paradigm has been established in large measure because more bees are often found in areas supporting greater floral abundance. This could result from attraction to resource-rich sites as well as greater local demographic performance in sites supporting high floral abundance; however, demographic performance is usually unknown. Factors other than floral resources such as availability of nest sites, pressure from natural enemies, or whether floral resources are from a mixed native or mostly monodominant exotic assemblage might influence survival or fecundity and hence abundance. We examined how the survival and fecundity of the native solitary bee Osmia lignaria varied along a gradient in floral resource abundance. We released bees alongside a nest block at 27 grassland sites in Montana (USA) that varied in floral abundance and the extent of invasion by exotic forbs. We monitored nest construction and the fate of offspring within each nest. The number of nests established was positively related to native forb abundance and was negatively related to exotic forb species richness. Fecundity was positively related to native forb species richness; however, offspring mortality caused by the brood parasite Tricrania stansburyi was significantly greater in native-dominated sites. These results suggest that native floral resources can positively influence bee populations, but that the relationship between native floral resources and bee population performance is not straightforward. Rather, bees may face a trade-off between high offspring production and low offspring survival in native-dominated sites.

  10. Range expansion of the Asian native giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Féon, Violette; Aubert, Matthieu; Genoud, David; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Westrich, Paul; Geslin, Benoît

    2018-02-01

    In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008-2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees.

  11. Studying microstructure of heat resistant steel deoxidized by barium ferrosilicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Issagulov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the nature and distribution of non-metallic inclusions in the heat-resistant steel 12H1MF (0,12 % С, 1 % Сr, 0,5 - 0,6 Mo, 0,5 % V, ferrosilicobarim. As a reference, used by steel, deoxidized silicon. Melting was carried out in a laboratory, research-metallic inclusions, their shape and distribution, pollution index were studied according to conventional methods. Studies have shown that ferrosilicobarim deoxidation in an amount of 0,1 - 0,2 %, reduce the overall pollution index of non-metallic inclusions and change the nature of their distribution.

  12. Modeling of formation of binary-phase hollow nanospheres from metallic solid nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Vollath, D.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous formation of binary-phase hollow nanospheres by reaction of a metallic nanosphere with a non-metallic component in the surrounding atmosphere is observed for many systems. The kinetic model describing this phenomenon is derived by application of the thermodynamic extremal principle. The necessary condition of formation of the binary-phase hollow nanospheres is that the diffusion coefficient of the metallic component in the binary phase is higher than that of the non-metallic component (Kirkendall effect occurs in the correct direction). The model predictions of the time to formation of the binary-phase hollow nanospheres agree with the experimental observations

  13. Environmental Tax Reforms and Mitigation for Energy-intensive Industries: Some Lessons from European Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector).......The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector)....

  14. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  15. Cryogenic support member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is described for restraining a cryogenic system comprising; a rod having a depression at a first end. The rod is made of non-metallic material. The non-metallic material has an effectively low thermal conductivity; a metallic plug; and a metallic sleeve. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod and assembled thereto such that the plug is disposed inside the depression of the rod. The sleeve is disposed over the depression in the rod and the rod is clamped therebetween. The shrink-fit clamping the rod is generated between the metallic plug and the metallic sleeve

  16. Role of ion chromatography in the chemical characterization of PFBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Das, D.K.; Prakash, Amrit; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) is multi-element technique with the feasibility of determination of metallic as well as non metallic impurities on a single instrument. IC has been used for various analytical purposes in nuclear industry. lt has advantages of low capital investment, small sample size, less radioactive waste generation, comparable precision to spectroscopic techniques and ease of fume hood/glove box adaptation. Present paper describes the determination of trace metallic (alkali, alkaline earth, transition and lanthanide metal ions) and non metallic impurities in PFBR MOX fuel

  17. Hydrothermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralization on the site Marianka (Small Carpathians); Hydrotermalna Pb-Zn sulfidicka mineralizacia na lokalite Marianka (Male Karpaty)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubac, A [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra mineralogie a petrologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Hydrothermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralization at Marianka village in Small Carpathians occurs in Palaeozoic metapelit rocks of Tatricum crystalline. Mineralization consists of ore lenses. Banded texture of ores is typical. The main ore minerals are sphalerite and galenite accompanied by bournonit, boulangerit, meneghinit, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, marcasite and pyrotite. Quartz is the main non-metallic mineral. Other non-metallic minerals are calcite, ankerite, siderite and dolomite. Micro-thermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz indicate creation of mineralization probably from low salinic fluids (0.1 to 20 wt.% NaCl equiv.), at 100 to 150 grad C. (authors)

  18. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MULTI STAGE CUTTING OIL FILTER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ABHIJIT S. GETME , ADITENDRA JAISWAL

    2018-01-01

    Multistage oil filtration system is a system used to filter out all the metallic, non metallic particles from the cutting fluid, which is used during the machining processes. Basic procedures we are using in it are: centrifugal process, magnetic filtration, paper filtration.

  19. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; DeWald, A.P.; Chienping Ju; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1993-01-05

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  20. Positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, R.

    1978-01-01

    Part one studies the principle of this method in the case of metallic solids in order to bring out clearly which parameters relative to defects are accessible. The limits of the method are established in the case of pure metals and alloys. Part two examines non-metallic solids such as semiconductors, alkaline halides, oxides, quartz and ice [fr

  1. Optimization of IC/HPLC as a rapid analytical tool for characterization of total impurities in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A.G.; Kapoor, Y.S.; Mahanty, B.N.; Fulzele, A.K.; Mallik, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Use of ion chromatography in the determination of metallic and non metallic impurities has been studied and observed to be very satisfactory. In the present paper the total time was monitored in all these experiments and compared with the conventional analytical techniques. (author)

  2. [The clinical application of zirconium-dioxide-ceramics. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Dóra; Zsigmond, Ágnes; Károlyházy, Katalin; Kispély, Barbara; Hermann, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Due to its outstanding physical, mechanical and esthetic properties, zirconium-dioxide is one of the most popular non-metal denture, capable of surpassing PFM in most cases. The recent advances of CAD/CAM technology makes it a good alternitve. Here we show the usefulness of zirconium-dioxide in everyday dental practice through three case reports.

  3. Study of silver removal from scrap jewellery by way of the flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion on the proposed solution of using the fl otation process to separate metals from non-metallic components present in the scrap generated while jewellery goods are being ground. For the sake of the studies analysed, a dedicated laboratory station was established.

  4. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  5. Nasrin et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(S):170 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Chondrokola Rosh (CKR) is a traditional metallic Ayurvedic preparation widely used by the rural and ethnic people of. Bangladesh in dysuria. It is a preparation of various roasted metals (Hg and Cu), non-metal (sulphur and Mica) and medicinal herbs. Considering the controversy over the risk of toxic heavy metals in ...

  6. Matematické modelování interakce laserového záření s nekovovými materiály

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Marek; Chmelíčková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2003), s. 47-54 ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010353; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser * mathematical model * cutting * drilling * non-metal Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  7. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  8. Biofilms associated with poultry processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D; Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria were enumerated on non-metallic surfaces and stainless steel test pieces attached to equipment surfaces by swabbing and a mechanical dislodging procedure, respectively, in a South African grade B poultry processing plant. Changes in bacterial numbers were also monitored over time on metal test pieces. The highest bacterial counts were obtained from non-metallic surfaces such as rubber fingered pluckers and plastic defeathering curtains which exceeded the highest counts found on the metal surfaces by at least 1 log CFU cm-2. Gram-negative bacterial counts on all non-metallic surface types were at least 2 log CFU cm-2 lower than corresponding aerobic plate counts. On metal surfaces, the highest microbial numbers were obtained after 14 days exposure, with aerobic plate counts ranging from 3.57 log CFU cm-2 to 5.13 log CFU cm-2, and Gram-negative counts from 0.70 log CFU cm-2 to 3.31 log CFU cm-2. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of bacterial cells on non-metallic and metallic surfaces associated with poultry processing. Rubber 'fingers', plastic curtains, conveyor belt material and stainless steel test surfaces placed on the scald tank overflow and several chutes revealed extensive and often confluent bacterial biofilms. Extracellular polymeric substances, but few bacterial cells were visible on test pieces placed on evisceration equipment, spinchiller blades and the spinchiller outlet.

  9. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G.

    2000-03-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components.

  10. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  11. Radiation curable polymer coatings. January 1972-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1972-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and compositions used in radiation-curable polymer coatings. Protective and decorative coatings on metallic and non-metallic substrates curable with light, including ultraviolet, are disclosed. Abrasion-resistant coating techniques are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 186 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Characterization of the structure and chemistry of defects in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Ruehle, M.; Seidman, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Research programs, presented at the materials research symposium, on defects in materials are presented. Major areas include: point defects, defect aggregates, and ordering; defects in non-metals and semiconductors; atomic resolution imaging of defects; and gain boundaries, interfaces, and layered materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  13. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical extraction and analysis laboratory for further subsampling. There are two options for the... container, approved for shipment of the sample, to the chemical extraction and analysis laboratory, for the..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of...

  14. 40 CFR 761.353 - Second level of sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... At the chemical extraction and analysis laboratory, pour the 19-liter subsample onto a plastic sheet..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off...

  15. Proceedings of the 7. Symposium on geology from southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents papers on the following subjects: regional geology of the proterozoic and fanerozoic, metallic and non metallic resources, tectoni-sedimentary evolution of the eastern margin Brazil basins and petroleum geology applied to the Santos, Campos and Espirito Santo basins, engineering and environmental geologies, ornamental rocks/building materials/mineral waters/industrial ores

  16. Analysis of carbides and inclusions in high speed tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, K.T.; Dahl, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of fatigued specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The aim was to quantify the distribution of cracked carbides and non-metallic inclusions on the fracturesurfaces as well as on polished cross...

  17. Introduction into modern materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brostow, W.

    1984-01-01

    This book is divided into the following headings: Preliminary remarks on mathematics, statistical mechanics, intermolecular interactions; gases and fluids - general fundamentals, liquids and solutions, crystals, metals and alloys, non-metallic solids, composites; thermodynamic properties, mechanical properties, electric conductivity, dielectric and magnetic properties, surface effects, and materials testing - an outline. (orig./MM) With 128 figs., 21 tabs [de

  18. An Interactive Neural Network System for Acoustic Signal Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-28

    of environmental sounds. These include machinery noise ( Talamo , 1982), the sounds of metallic (Howard, 1983) and non-metallic impacts (Warren...backscattering of sound by spherical and elongated objects. JASA, 86, 1499-1510. Talamo , J. D. C. (1982). The perception of machinery indicator

  19. Toxicological Studies of “Chondrokola rosh”, an Ayurvedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chondrokola Rosh (CKR) is a traditional metallic Ayurvedic preparation widely used by the rural and ethnic people of Bangladesh in dysuria. It is a preparation of various roasted metals (Hg and Cu), non-metal (sulphur and Mica) and medicinal herbs. Considering the controversy over the risk of toxic heavy metals in ...

  20. 75 FR 12965 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Seats With Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire in the cabin had been minimized and was not...-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The applicable..., seats were designed with a metal frame covered by fabric, not with large, non-metallic panels. Seats...

  1. 77 FR 57481 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Models EMB-135 and EMB-145 Series; Airplane Seats with Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... flammability of seat cushions. With the seat design being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire..., large, non-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The.... At the time the applicable rules were written, seats were designed with a metal frame covered by...

  2. 77 FR 67251 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 757 Series Airplanes; Seats with Non-Traditional, Large, Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... metal, the contribution to a fire in the cabin had been minimized and was not considered a threat. For...-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The applicable... designed with a metal frame covered by fabric, not with large, non-metallic panels. Seats also met the then...

  3. 78 FR 76734 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Seats...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Series Airplanes; Seats With Non-Traditional, Large, Non- Metallic Panels AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with seats that include non-traditional... base and significant common design elements. The fuselage is aluminum alloy material, blended double...

  4. The presence of antimony in various dental filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokhia, Anat; Combe, E.C.; Lilley, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Antimony was determined in a number of non-metallic dental materials currently used for tooth restoration. The method applied was instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of antimony in some of the brands tested was found to be as high as 900 fold that in the normal hard dental tissues. (author)

  5. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that identified and evaluated commercially available and state-of-the-art polymer-based material options for manufacturing industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. A heat exchanger concept was also developed and its performance evaluated with heat transfer modeling tools.

  6. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  7. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H. H.; Donders, Johanna C. E.; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Kleipool, Roeland P.; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel

  8. 30 CFR 75.337 - Construction and repair of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sealed areas. (b) Prior to sealing, the mine operator shall— (1) Remove insulated cables, batteries, and other potential electric ignition sources from the area to be sealed when constructing seals, unless it... after April 18, 2008, the seal at the lowest elevation shall have a corrosion-resistant, non-metallic...

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gold–gold sulfide core-shell nanorods exhibited a number of optical absorption peaks which arose because of their structural characteristics. ... Optical properties of iron core–iron oxide shell nanocomposites when analysed by effective medium theory led to the result of a metal non-metal transition for particle diameters ...

  10. Development of techniques for furthering the use of isotope radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Jagasia, N.S.; Malhotra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography techniques in the non-conventional applications such as : (a) hot radiography - a method for examination of radioactive materials, and (b) thin section radiography for inspection of biological specimen and non-metallic specimen are described. Also, a process used for the reproduction of gamma-graphs of welds and castings has been discussed in detail. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 761.346 - Three levels of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Three levels of sampling. 761.346... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  12. 40 CFR 761.348 - Contemporaneous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contemporaneous sampling. 761.348... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crucial point of this project is the certification of the total purity of high purity materials, each representing one element of the periodic table. A variety of different analytical methods was necessary to determine the trace contents of metallic and non-metallic impurities from almost the whole periodic table in the high purity ...

  14. In situ performance and potential applications of a thermal bed-load measurement method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods to detect the flow condition at the pipeline invert are reviewed. New results of a small heated plate inserted into a non-metallic pipe are presented. This thermal method is based on mini-heaters and can detect erratic flow behaviour near...

  15. Experimental and Numerical Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laé, E.; Duval, H.; Rivière, C.; Le Brun, P.; Guillot, J.-B.

    Ceramic foam filtration is widely used to enable removal of non metallic inclusions from liquid aluminium. Its performances have been largely studied in the literature and some discrepancies remain amongst the published results. Consequently, a research program was deployed to evaluate the performances of a range of ceramic foam filters used under various conditions and to understand the inclusions capture mechanisms.

  16. Seminar of the expert committee ultrasonic testing. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This seminar volume contains 13 papers focusing on the following topics: 1. Test methods in the automotive sector, 2. Characterization of metallic and non-metallic materials, 3. Industrial test approaches, 4. Fiber composite materials and structures, and 5. Defect characterization using imaging techniques. One paper was separately analyzed for this database. [de

  17. CERAMIC PROPERTIES OF PUGU KAOLIN CLAYS. PART I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    has indicated the presence of high levels of iron oxide (~ 1.43%) which could ..... attributed this increase in strength to the formation of a dense and thin layer close ... of the Non-metallic Minerals and the Silicate Industry in Tanzania, Kimambo, ...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    used as building blocks for the formation of metal– non-metal clusters. In this study, we report the pos- sible existence and reactivity of a variety of all- metal and ..... 9. (a) Sen K D and Jorgenson C K 1987 Structure and bonding, electronegativity (eds Berlin: Springer) vol. 66; (b) Parr R G, Donnelly R A, Levy M and Palke W.

  19. Technical Cooperation. Project No. 77.210.9. Geological German Mission in Uruguay. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, W.

    1983-01-01

    This report shows the result of work carried out in the framework of the German mission in Uruguay. The main results obtained were the general inventory of non metallic raw as well as important raw materials investigation such as bentonite, limestone, fluorite, graphite, talc and materials for construction

  20. Density functional theory study of structure, electronic and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... magnetic properties of non-metal (Group 13) doped stable. Rhn(n = 2−8) ... Deformed electron density was found to be higher in the case of Rh5B, Rh4Al, Rh7Al and ...... systems: Modeling of surface alloys and alloy surfaces.

  1. Development of Solar Grade Silicon (SoG-Si) Feedstock by Recycling SoG-Si Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifeng Zhang; Anping Dong; Lucas Nana Wiredu Damoah

    2013-01-24

    Experiment results of EM separation show that the non-metallic inclusions were successfully pushed to the boundary layer of the crucible under EM force. Larger frequency and smaller current generate smaller thickness of accumulated inclusions. More detailed EM separation experiments are undergoing to investigate the factors that affect the removal efficient of inclusions from SoG-Si

  2. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, G.

    2000-01-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    foreign body from the oral cavity/oropharynx into the nasopharynx is less common. These foreign bodies may be animate or inanimate, metallic or non metallic, organic or non-organic in nature. Some of the items commonly reported in the nasopharynx include the following: metal curtain rail hook, safety pin, coin, toys, bead, ...

  4. Impact of soil water content on landmine detection using radar and thermal infared sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.-H.; Miller, T.W.; Tobin, H.; Borchers, B.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Land mines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of land mines sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic land mines remains very difficult. Most landmine detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content,

  5. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2015-01-01

    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent too...

  6. Mixing induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at Fe/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Experimental results show that high electronic excitation can also induce structural modifications in metallic sys- tems similar to those in non-metallic systems. This means that all Se-dependent effects induced in different materials are probably related to some basic energy transfer mecha- nism between the incident ion and ...

  7. The electrorheological properties of nano-sized SiO2 particle materials doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Liao Fuhui; Li Junran; Zhang Shaohua; Chen Shumei; Wei Chenguan; Gao Song

    2006-01-01

    Electrorheological (ER) materials of pure SiO 2 and SiO 2 doped with rare earths (RE = Ce, Gd, Y) (non-metallic glasses (silicates)) were prepared using Na 2 SiO 3 and RECl 3 as starting materials. The electrorheological properties are not enhanced by all rare earth additions. The material doped with Ce exhibits the best ER performance

  8. 33 CFR 183.620 - Natural ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the aggregate area of those openings exceeds 2 percent of the area between the compartments, except as... vents into that compartment; or (5) Contains a non-metallic fuel tank: (i) With an aggregate... permeability rate. (b) Each supply opening required in § 183.630 must be located on the exterior surface of the...

  9. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten samples were collected respectively from kitchen, laundry and toilet wastewaters were collected and physical, chemical, metallic and non-metallic analysis were carried out on the various samples collected following standard procedures. @JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Sept, 2011, Vol. 15 (3) 431 - 437 ...

  10. Development of Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    The status of the development of a multi-monostatic stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at The Department of Applied Electronics (IAE), The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is presented. The feasibility of the used approach is demonstrated by the successful detection of small me...... metallic and non-metallic objects with a diameter of 54 mm buried in loamy soil....

  11. Modeling population dynamics of solitary bees in relation to habitat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulbrich

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand associations between habitat, individual behaviour, and population development of solitary bees we developed an individual-based model. This model is based on field observations of Osmia rufa (L (Apoideae: Megachilidae and describes population dynamics of solitary bees. Model rules are focused on maternal investment, in particular on the female’s individual decisions about sex and size of progeny. In the present paper, we address the effect of habitat quality on population size and sex ratio. We examine how food availability and the risk of parasitism influence long-term population development. It can be shown how population properties result from individual maternal investment which is described as a functional response to fluctuations of environmental conditions. We found that habitat quality can be expressed in terms of cell construction time. This interface factor influences the rate of open cell parasitism as the risk for a brood cell to be parasitized is positively correlated with the time of its construction. Under conditions of scarce food and under resulting long provision times even low parasitism rates lead to a high extinction risk of the population, whereas in rich habitats probabilities of extinction are low even for high rates of parasitism. For a given level of food and parasitism there is an optimum time for cell construction which minimizes the extinction risk of the population. Model results demonstrate that under fluctuating environmental conditions, decreasing habitat quality leads to a decrease in population size but also to rapid shifts in sex ratio.

  12. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  13. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Husemann, Martin; Japoshvili, George; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Zhusupbaeva, Aigul; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives. We screened members of pollinator communities (honey bees, bumble bees and other wild bees belonging to four families) collected from apple orchards in Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan for six common honey bee-associated RNA virus complexes encompassing nine virus targets. The Deformed wing virus complex (DWV genotypes A and B) had the highest prevalence across all localities and host species and was the only virus complex found in wild bee species belonging to all four studied families. Based on amplification of negative-strand viral RNA, we found evidence for viral replication in wild bee species of DWV-A/DWV-B (hosts: Andrena haemorrhoa and several Bombus spp.) and Black queen cell virus (hosts: Anthophora plumipes, several Bombus spp., Osmia bicornis and Xylocopa spp.). Viral amplicon sequences revealed that DWV-A and DWV-B are regionally distinct but identical in two or more bee species at any one site, suggesting virus is shared amongst sympatric bee taxa. This study demonstrates that honey bee associated RNA viruses are geographically and taxonomically widespread, likely infective in wild bee species, and shared across bee taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant–insect interactions: the role of ecological stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy budget of organisms is a primary factor used to generate hypotheses in ecosystem ecology and evolutionary theory. Therefore, previous studies have focused on the energy costs and benefits of adaptations, the efficiency of energy acquisition and investment, and energy budget limitations. The maintenance of stoichiometric balance is equally important because inconsistency between the chemical composition of the consumer’s tissues and that of its food sources strongly affects the major life-history traits of the consumer and may influence the consumer’s fitness and shape plant–herbivore interactions. In this short review, the framework of ecological stoichiometry is introduced, focusing on plant–insect interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. The use of the trophic stoichiometric ratio (TSR index is presented as a useful tool for indicating the chemical elements that are scarce in food and have the potential to limit the growth and development of herbivores, thereby influencing plant – herbivorous insect interactions. As an example, the elemental composition and stoichiometry of a pollen consumer (mason bee Osmia bicornis and its preferred pollen are compared. The growth and development of O. bicornis may be colimited by the scarcity of K, Na, and N in pollen, whereas the development of the cocoon might be colimited by the scarcity of P, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Ca, and N. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen shows high taxonomical variability in the concentrations of bee-limiting elements. The optimized collection of pollen species based on the elemental composition may represent a strategy used by bees to overcome stoichiometric mismatches, influencing their interactions with plants. It is concluded that the dependence of life-history traits on food stoichiometry should be considered when discussing life history evolution and plant–herbivore interactions. The TSR index may serve as a convenient and powerful tool

  15. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schoonvaere

    Full Text Available The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV and Ganda bee virus (GABV based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  16. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented. Two circular study sites were delineated next to each other in northeast Germany and comprised almost 65 km 2 each. At the reference site, study fields were drilled with clothianidin-free OSR seeds while at the test site the oilseed rape seeds contained a coating with 10 g clothianidin and 2 g beta-cyfluthrin per kg seeds (Elado®). The comparison of environmental conditions at the study sites indicated that they are as similar as possible in terms of climate, soil, land use, history and current practice of agriculture as well as in availability of oilseed rape and non-crop bee forage. Accordingly, local environmental conditions were considered not to have had any confounding effect on the results of the monitoring of the bee species. Furthermore, the study area was found to be representative for other oilseed rape cultivation regions in Europe.

  17. Introduction of Non-Native Pollinators Can Lead to Trans-Continental Movement of Bee-Associated Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Hedtke

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators for many flowering plants, including agriculturally important crops such as apple. As geographic ranges of bees or their host plants change as a result of human activities, we need to identify pathogens that could be transmitted among newly sympatric species to evaluate and anticipate their effects on bee communities. We used PCR screening and DNA sequencing to evaluate exposure to potentially disease-causing microorganisms in a pollinator of apple, the horned mason bee (Osmia cornifrons. We did not detect microsporidia, Wolbachia, or trypanosomes, which are common pathogens of bees, in any of the hundreds of mason bees screened. We did detect both pathogenic and apathogenic (saprophytic fungal species in the genus Ascosphaera (chalkbrood, an unidentified species of Aspergillus fungus, and a strain of bacteria in the genus Paenibacillus that is probably apathogenic. We detected pathogenic fungal strains in asymptomatic adult bees that therefore may be carriers of disease. We demonstrate that fungi from the genus Ascosphaera have been transported to North America along with the bee from its native range in Japan, and that O. cornifrons is exposed to fungi previously only identified from nests of other related bee species. Further study will be required to quantify pathogenicity and health effects of these different microbial species on O. cornifrons and on closely-related native North American mason bees that may now be exposed to novel pathogens. A global perspective is required for pathogen research as geographic ranges of insects and microorganisms shift due to intentional or accidental introductions.

  18. Ecology and Economics of Using Native Managed Bees for Almond Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Insu; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Artz, Derek R; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2018-02-09

    Native managed bees can improve crop pollination, but a general framework for evaluating the associated economic costs and benefits has not been developed. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis to assess how managing blue orchard bees (Osmia lignaria Say [Hymenoptera: Megachildae]) alongside honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]) can affect profits for almond growers in California. Specifically, we studied how adjusting three strategies can influence profits: (1) number of released O. lignaria bees, (2) density of artificial nest boxes, and (3) number of nest cavities (tubes) per box. We developed an ecological model for the effects of pollinator activity on almond yields, validated the model with published data, and then estimated changes in profits for different management strategies. Our model shows that almond yields increase with O. lignaria foraging density, even where honey bees are already in use. Our cost-benefit analysis shows that profit ranged from -US$1,800 to US$2,800/acre given different combinations of the three strategies. Adding nest boxes had the greatest effect; we predict an increase in profit between low and high nest box density strategies (2.5 and 10 boxes/acre). In fact, the number of released bees and the availability of nest tubes had relatively small effects in the high nest box density strategies. This suggests that growers could improve profits by simply adding more nest boxes with moderate number of tubes in each. Our approach can support grower decisions regarding integrated crop pollination and highlight the importance of a comprehensive ecological economic framework for assessing these decisions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonvaere, Karel; De Smet, Lina; Smagghe, Guy; Vierstraete, Andy; Braeckman, Bart P; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV) and Ganda bee virus (GABV) based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  20. Natural islands and habitat islands as refuges of vegetation cover and wild bees. The case of the Lednica Landscape Park in western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has contributed to the identification of the apifauna of central Wielkopolska. The study identified 161 bee species, accounting for 34.2% of the Polish bee fauna. The highest contribution (28.7% of the fauna comes from four species, namely Andrena haemorrhoa, A. helvola, Evylaeus calceatus and Osmia rufa, while Bombus terrestris and Evylaeus pauxillus are two subdominants. The assemblages of Apiformes in the study area are characterised by a significant contribution of spring-associated species, which is probably an effect of the presence of numerous willow thickets offering abundant host plants (mainly Salix sp. div.. Both the islands and the surroundings of the lake have a unique species composition, and there are differences in the proportions of the individual dominant species. The overall abundance of bees varies greatly, with mean seasonal density figures on Ostrów Lednicki Island being more than twice as high as that on the mainland grassland, with a distinct predominance of bumblebees. The exceptional richness of Apiformes, including bumblebees, on Ostrów Lednicki should be regarded as the basis for treating this island as a life refuge for bumblebees and including it and its environs in the list of sites of Community importance (SCI. A simultaneous study of the vegetation cover contributed significant data on the vascular plant flora and plant communities of the Lednica Landscape Park. For example, it was the first such investigation of Mewia Island. The study revealed the importance of marginal habitats (natural islands and habitat islands for the preservation of protected and endangered plant species and plant communities receding from an agricultural landscape.

  1. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  2. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  3. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  4. Metallosis: A diagnosis not only in patients with metal-on-metal prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Catarina A.; Candelária, Isabel S.; Oliveira, Pedro B.; Figueiredo, Antonio; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Although the real actual incidence of metallosis is unknown, it is described as a rare diagnosis with a 5% estimated incidence in the hip prosthetic replacements. The adoption of non-metallic articular prosthetic devices, made of polyethylene and ceramic, is the main reason to the diminishing number of reported cases. We present a case of metallosis with a clinical systemic presentation in a patient with a non-metallic hip prosthesis, which occurred due to a fracture of the acetabular liner component, leading to abnormal metal–metal contact. The metallic debris leads to a massive local and systemic release of cytokines. Revision is necessary whenever osteolysis and loosening of the prosthesis occur. Imaging evaluation, especially CT, has a central role in diagnosis and planning the surgical treatment

  5. Melting method for radioactive solid wastes and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Abe, Takashi; Nakayama, Junpei; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Sakamoto, Koichi

    1998-11-17

    Upon melting radioactive solid wastes mixed with radioactive metal wastes and non metal materials such as concrete by cold crucible high frequency induction heating, induction coils are wound around the outer circumference of a copper crucible having a water cooling structure to which radioactive solid wastes are charged. A heating sleeve formed by a material which generates heat by an induction heating function of graphite is disposed to the inside of the crucible at a height not in contact with molten metals in the crucible vertically movably. Radioactive solid wastes are melted collectively by the induction heat of the induction coils and thermal radiation and heat conduction of the heating sleeve heated by the induction heat. With such procedures, non metal materials such as concrete and radioactive metal wastes in a mixed state can be melt collectively continuously highly economically. (T.M.)

  6. Surface changes of poly-L-lactic acid due to annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juřík, P.; Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Kolskáa, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-11-01

    Surface modifications are very important part of both current cutting-edge research and modern manufacturing. Our research is focused on poly-L-lactic acid, which is biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that offers applications in modern medicine. We observed morphological changes of the surface of metalized samples due to annealing and studied effect of modifications on total surface area and pore surface and volume. We observed that annealing of non-metalized samples had most pronounced effect up to the 70°C, after which all observed parameters dropped significantly. Metallization has changed behaviour of the samples significantly and resulted in generally lower surface area and porosity when compared to non-metalized samples.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of heat-resistant cast steel filtration from the results of structure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asłanowicz M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Filtration guarantees castings characterised by high quality and free from any non-metallic inclusions, which are formed at the stage of melting and pouring of liquid metal. This article discusses the problem of the effectiveness of filtration process taking as an example heat-resistant cast steel poured into ceramic moulds. In investigations, foamed zircon filters made by FerroTerm Sp. z o.o. The effectiveness of filtration was described and examined using the results of metallographic examinations, including macro- and micro-structure examinations of metal and of cast metal/ceramic filter interface, and measurements of the content of non-metallic inclusions. The methods of investigations were presented, the obtained results were described, and relevant conclusions were drawn, all of them unmistakably indicating a very beneficial effect that filtration has on molten metal quality. Łódź, Poland, were used.

  8. Local-moment formation and metal–nonmetal transition in Ca1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electron-doped metallic states of Ca1−x Yx VO3 and Ca1−x Yx TiO3 change into non- metallic states around x ∼ 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. The residual resistivity in the metallic states increases with increasing effective magnetic moment or coefficient of T2 term of resistivity. The effective moment reaches ∼ 0.5 ...

  9. Immobilisation of ions by bio-sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of these proceedings is to focus attention on the application of biotechnological routes, as alternatives to existing processes, to the recovery/removal of metallic and non-metallic species from waste or process liquids. The use of biomasses e.g. bacteria, filamentous fungi and brewers yeasts to immobilise toxic species in effluents and as scavengers of pollutants has been studied extensively. (U.K.)

  10. New solution of driving systems with the torsionally flexible metal coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof FILIPOWICZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At work a conception was presented of structure of the new type of driving systems with the metal flexible torsional coupling. Depending on needs, from the type it coupled machines, applied in driving arrangements, it can have a different structural form. the advantages of the new coupling among others is the great permanence of a lack of non-metallic susceptible elements, possibility of moving great torques and considerable relieving momentary overload.

  11. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  12. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of Cu , Sn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    method. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Sn2+), and non-metal anion, N3−, were substituted into the K5Sb5P2O20 for pos- ... in the photocatalytic reaction was studied using their appropriate scavengers. Keywords. ... K5Sb5P2O20 and exchange of its potassium with copper and tin ions ... distilled water and dried in air at 100. ◦. C.

  13. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  14. Ionic liquids in the synthesis of nanoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasova, Natalia P; Smetannikov, Yurii V; Zanin, A A

    2010-01-01

    Data on the usage of the novel green solvents, ionic liquids, in the synthesis of nanoobjects and their stabilization are considered. The information is structured according to the resulting products of the synthetic processes: nanoparticles of noble metals, nanoparticles of non-metals, nanoparticles of metal oxides and chalcogenides, nanocomposites, and highly dispersed polymers. The conclusion is made that the ionic liquids might determine the structure and the properties of the nanoobjects, thus opening new fundamental and technological horizons in nanochemistry.

  15. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  16. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  17. Cryostats for SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, O.A.; Locatelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    A non metallic and non magnetic cryostat, with a very low thermal budget and a container type autonomy was developed, to condition S.Q.U.I.D. magnetometers which maximum sensitivity reaches 10 -14 Tesla Hertzsup(-1/2). This instrumentation puts in hand new concepts of composite materials, thermal shock and vibration resistant, multilayer thermal radiative insulation also to the prouve of vibrations with thermal equivalent emissivity lower than 10 -3

  18. Metalcasting competitiveness research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises eleven separate reports: prediction of non- metallic particle distribution, electromagnetic separation of inclusions from molten Al alloy, clean steel castings, waste stream identification and treatment, elastic wave lithotripsy for removal of ceramic from investment castings, metal penetration in sand molds, mold-metal interface gas composition, improved Alloy 718, specifications for iron oxide additions to no-bake sands, criteria functions for defect prediction, and computer-aided cooling curve analysis.

  19. Identification of an operon involved in fluoride resistance in Enterobacter cloacae FRM

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Jian; Liu, Lihui; Zhu, Tao; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Bin; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2017-01-01

    Fluorine is ubiquitous and the most active non-metal element in nature. While many microorganisms have developed fluoride resistance as a result of the widespread and prolonged application of oral hygiene products, the mechanisms used by these organisms to overcome fluoride toxicity are incompletely understood. In this study, a fluoride-resistant strain, Enterobacter cloacae FRM, was identified which could grow well at a fluoride concentration of 4,000?mg/L. According to comparative genomics,...

  20. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  1. Proceedings of the two day national workshop on advanced materials for engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Alexis, S.; Jayakumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    The subjects like material preparation, material forming, material properties, materials testing, material mechanics, material structure, metal materials, non-metallic materials, composite materials, medical materials, chemical materials, food materials, electrician/electrical materials, building materials, biological materials, electronic/magnetic/optical materials, advanced materials applications in engineering are included in the workshop. Processing of advanced materials, studies on novel ceramic coatings, high strength, light weight and nanostructured materials are discussed in this proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Fuel and Fuel System Materials Compatibility Test Program for A JP-8+100 Fuel Additive. Volume 1: Thermal Stability Additive Package BetzDearborn Spec Aid(Registered) 8Q462

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    SAE Rings, Sealing, Butadiene-Acrylonitrile ( NBR ), Rubber Fuel and Low Temperature Resistant 60 - 70 MIL-R-83248C Rubber , Fluorocarbon...KAPTON/TEFLON (COMPOSITE) WIRE I.I.10 34 VI. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Non-Metallics MIL-HDBK-149B Military Standardization Hand Book Rubber ...ASTM D-1414 Standard Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings ASTM D-412 Type II Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic

  3. Proceedings of the international symposium for research scholars on metallurgy, materials science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered in this symposium are: steels, functional materials posters, computational materials science, casting and solidification, polymer matrix composites, posters electronic materials, environmental degradation processing of non-metallic materials posters, energy materials, materials forming technology, biomaterials, magnetic materials, mechanical behaviour of materials posters, phase transformations and physical metallurgy, surface engineering, nanostructured materials, ceramics, processing of metals, materials joining technology and optical materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. ART OF METALLOGRAPHY: POSSIBILITIES OF DARK-FIELD MICROSCOPY APPLICATION FOR COLORED OBJECTS STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Anisovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the method of dark field microscopy for the study of colored objects of material technology was researched. The capability of corrosive damage analysis and determination of the thickness of the metal coating were demonstrated. The performance capability of analysis of «reflection» in the dark field during the study of non-metallic materials – orthopedic implants and fireclay refractory were tested. An example of defect detection of carbon coating was displayed.

  5. Determination of Three-Dimensional Morphology and Inner Structure of Second-Phase Inclusions in Metals by Non-Aqueous Solution Electrolytic and Room Temperature Organic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Guo; Keming Fang; Hanjie Guo; Yiwa Luo; Shengchao Duan; Xiao Shi; Wensheng Yang

    2018-01-01

    The secondary-phase particles in metals, particularly those composed of non-metallic materials, are often detrimental to the mechanical properties of metals; thus, it is crucial to control inclusion formation and growth. One of the challenges is determining the three-dimensional morphology and inner structures of such inclusions. In this study, a non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and a room-temperature organic technique were developed based on the principle of electrochemistry to deter...

  6. IAEA INTOR workshop report, group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kensuke; Kondo, Tatsuo; Nasu, Shoichi; Takamura, Saburo; Oku, Tatsuo

    1979-10-01

    For materials data base assessment, selected properties of the materials important in INTOR are evaluated on the basis of data obtained in Japan. Materials covered are austenitic steels, non-magnetic steels, and titanium alloys as structural materials; helium and water for coolant; lithium oxide for breeder; aluminum and copper for stabilizer and organic insulator as magnet materials; graphite for non-metallic materials. (author)

  7. Hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleman, T.S.; Rao, D.; Verghese, K.; Zumwalt, L.

    1979-01-01

    A review of hydrogen diffusion, dissolution and permeation in metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, halides and hydrides is presented. Results are organized by compound and an effort has been made to resolve differences between measured results where wide disparities exist. The document has been prepared to provide needed data for the development of fusion reactor blankets but the results should be generally useful in technologies that involve interactions between hydrogen and non-metals

  8. Technological Aspects of Low-Alloyed Cast Steel Massive Casting Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnara J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors have undertaken the attempt of explaining the causes of cracks net occurrence on a massive 3-ton cast steel casting with complex geometry. Material used for casting manufacturing was the low-alloyed cast steel with increased wear resistance modified with vanadium and titanium. The studies included the primary and secondary crystallization analysis with use of TDA and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of non-metallic inclusions.

  9. Revised Safety Instruction 41 (IS41 REV.)

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Revised Safety Instruction No. 41 (IS41 REV.), entitled 'The use of plastic and other non-metallic materials at CERN with respect to fire safety and radiation resistance' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335806/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  10. 12th US/North American mine ventilation symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, K.G. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered include: ventilation planning for metal/non-metal and coal mines, spontaneous combustion, heat and humidity, miner's act and mine seals, numerical modeling, coal mine methane, mine dust, tunnel ventilation, mine fans, diesel emissions control, mine fires, and general ventilation design and monitoring. The papers, talks and presentations are available for free download from the www.smenet.org site; printed copies of the proceedings are no longer available.

  11. Problems in development of pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The tendency of steels to intercrystalline fracture at low stresses is the main factor, limiting fracture resistance of steels in agressive media at conventional and elevated temperatures. The reasons for the phenomenon are analyzed. In particular, the role of grain boundary segregations of non-metallic impurities is pointed out. The ways of the problem solving both at the expense of corresponding microstructure control and by means of selection of the steel chemical composition are considered

  12. Influence of microscopic casting defects on fatigue endurance of ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nový František

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, there are published results about fatigue endurance of ductile cast iron obtained at high-frequency sinusoidal cyclic push-pull loading in the ultra-high cycle fatigue region. The main attention was focused on the fatigue lifetime data scatter caused by the influence of microscopic casting defects (microshrinkages, microbubbles, microcracks, non-metallic inclusions and local clusters of big graphitic nodules.

  13. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  14. Self-diffusion of plutonium in uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Matzke, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the following, first data on the tracer diffusion of Pu-238 in (Usub(0.8)Pusub(0.2)N are reported and some aspects of the diffusion mechanism are discussed. Two sets of specimens with different non-metal to metal ratios were used, and on one of the materials the Pu diffusion rates were measured as a function of nitrogen partial pressure at three different temperatures

  15. Lattice instability in the non-superconducting compound EuMo6S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, R.; Junod, A.; Lachal, B.; Muller, J.; Yvon, K.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements were performed on bulk Eusub(1.1)Mo 6 S 8 together with low-temperature X-ray powder diffractometry. These investigations revealed a structural phase transition (occuring at 109 K) from the room-temperature rhombohedral structure to a low-temperature triclinic distorted structure in which the compound exhibits a non-metallic behavior. (author)

  16. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  17. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliano, M.; Nolasco, Pedro A.; Silva, João J. R. Fraústo da; Silva, José Armando L.

    2012-01-01

    Metalloids in origin and evolution of life. Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  18. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliano, Manuel; Nolasco, Pedro A.; Silva, João J. R. Fraústo da; Silva, José Armando L. da

    2012-01-01

    Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  19. Os semimetais na origem e evolução da vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aureliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metalloids have characteristics between metals and non-metals which give them, in some cases, specific properties. At least two of this chemical elements, boron and silicon, are essential to a significant number of living organisms and since some years ago it has been observed that the same metalloids may be involved in the synthesis and stabilization of some molecules relevant to the origin of life.

  20. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  1. Use of large pieces of printed circuit boards for bioleaching to avoid 'precipitate contamination problem' and to simplify overall metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhapure, N N; Dhakephalkar, P K; Dhakephalkar, A P; Tembhurkar, V R; Rajgure, A V; Deshmukh, A M

    2014-01-01

    Very recently bioleaching has been used for removing metals from electronic waste. Most of the research has been targeted to using pulverized PCBs for bioleaching where precipitate formed during bioleaching contaminates the pulverized PCB sample and making the overall metal recovery process more complicated. In addition to that, such mixing of pulverized sample with precipitate also creates problems for the final separation of non metallic fraction of PCB sample. In the present investigation we attempted the use of large pieces of printed circuit boards instead of pulverized sample for removal of metals. Use of large pieces of PCBs for bioleaching was restricted due to the chemical coating present on PCBs, the problem has been solved by chemical treatment of PCBs prior to bioleaching. In short,•Large pieces of PCB can be used for bioleaching instead of pulverized PCB sample.•Metallic portion on PCBs can be made accessible to bacteria with prior chemical treatment of PCBs.•Complete metal removal obtained on PCB pieces of size 4 cm × 2.5 cm with the exception of solder traces. The final metal free PCBs (non metallic) can be easily recycled and in this way the overall recycling process (metallic and non metallic part) of PCBs becomes simple.

  2. Use of large pieces of printed circuit boards for bioleaching to avoid ‘precipitate contamination problem’ and to simplify overall metal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhapure, N.N.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Dhakephalkar, A.P.; Tembhurkar, V.R.; Rajgure, A.V.; Deshmukh, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Very recently bioleaching has been used for removing metals from electronic waste. Most of the research has been targeted to using pulverized PCBs for bioleaching where precipitate formed during bioleaching contaminates the pulverized PCB sample and making the overall metal recovery process more complicated. In addition to that, such mixing of pulverized sample with precipitate also creates problems for the final separation of non metallic fraction of PCB sample. In the present investigation we attempted the use of large pieces of printed circuit boards instead of pulverized sample for removal of metals. Use of large pieces of PCBs for bioleaching was restricted due to the chemical coating present on PCBs, the problem has been solved by chemical treatment of PCBs prior to bioleaching. In short,•Large pieces of PCB can be used for bioleaching instead of pulverized PCB sample.•Metallic portion on PCBs can be made accessible to bacteria with prior chemical treatment of PCBs.•Complete metal removal obtained on PCB pieces of size 4 cm × 2.5 cm with the exception of solder traces. The final metal free PCBs (non metallic) can be easily recycled and in this way the overall recycling process (metallic and non metallic part) of PCBs becomes simple. PMID:26150951

  3. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  4. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  5. NanoPCR observation: different levels of DNA replication fidelity in nanoparticle-enhanced polymerase chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Cenchao; Yang Wenjuan; Ji Qiaoli; Zhang Zhizhou; Maki, Hisaji; Dong Anjie

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticle-assisted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technology is getting more and more attention recently. It is believed that some of the DNA recombinant technologies will be upgraded by nanotechnology in the near future, among which DNA replication is one of the core manipulation techniques. So whether or not the DNA replication fidelity is compromised in nanoparticle-assisted PCR is a question. In this study, a total of 16 different metallic and non-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) were tested for their effects on DNA replication fidelity in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen types of nanomaterials were distinctly different in enhancing the PCR efficiency, and their relative capacity to retain DNA replication fidelity was largely different from each other based on rpsL gene mutation assay. Generally speaking, metallic nanoparticles induced larger error rates in DNA replication fidelity than non-metallic nanoparticles, and non-metallic nanomaterials such as carbon nanopowder or nanotubes were still safe as PCR enhancers because they did not compromise the DNA replication fidelity in the Taq DNA polymerase-based PCR system.

  6. Dissolution of nonmetallic inclusions at high-temperature heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubenko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature a nnealing on size, distribution and general content of non-metallic inclusions in steels is investigated. It is shown that high-temperature annealing of steel permits to reduce total amount of inclusions, their average size, as well as to control their composition and distribution in steel matrix. Partial or complete dissolution of inclusions takes place in respect to the type of non-metallic inclusions, temperature of annealing and holding duration. Cooling rate affects the investigated parameters. Under quenching the total amount of inclusions in steel is lower and average size of inclusions is larger than those under slow cooling. It is explained by precipitation of disperses ''satellites around the initial inclusions under low cooling. Composition of the satellites slightly differs from that of a ''mother's'' one. Change in composition of inclusions and creation of conditions for transition of unstable inclusions to a more stable state promotes change in properties of non-metallic inclusions that affects steel properties

  7. Resource distributions among habitats determine solitary bee offspring production in a mosaic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2007-04-01

    Within mosaic landscapes, many organisms depend on attributes of the environment that operate over scales ranging from a single habitat patch to the entire landscape. One such attribute is resource distribution. Organisms' reliance on resources from within a local patch vs. those found among habitats throughout the landscape will depend on local habitat quality, patch quality, and landscape composition. The ability of individuals to move among complementary habitat types to obtain various resources may be a critical mechanism underlying the dynamics of animal populations and ultimately the level of biodiversity at different spatial scales. We examined the effects that local habitat type and landscape composition had on offspring production and survival of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria in an agri-natural landscape in California (U.S.A.). Female bees were placed on farms that did not use pesticides (organic farms), on farms that did use pesticides (conventional farms), or in seminatural riparian habitats. We identified pollens collected by bees nesting in different habitat types and matched these to pollens of flowering plants from throughout the landscape. These data enabled us to determine the importance of different plant species and habitat types in providing food for offspring, and how this importance changed with landscape and local nesting-site characteristics. We found that increasing isolation from natural habitat significantly decreased offspring production and survival for bees nesting at conventional farms, had weaker effects on bees in patches of seminatural habitat, and had little impact on those at organic farm sites. Pollen sampled from nests showed that females nesting in both farm and seminatural habitats relied on pollen from principally native plant species growing in seminatural habitat. Thus connectivity among habitats was critical for offspring production. Females nesting on organic farms were buffered to isolation effects by switching to

  8. Nozzle erosion characterization and minimization for high-pressure rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian

    Understanding of the processes that cause nozzle throat erosion and developing methods for mitigation of erosion rate can allow higher operating pressures for advanced rocket motors. However, erosion of the nozzle throat region, which is a strong function of operating pressure, must be controlled to realize the performance gains of higher operating pressures. The objective of this work was the study the nozzle erosion rates at a broad range of pressures from 7 to 34.5 MPa (1,000 to 5,000 psia) using two different rocket motors. The first is an instrumented solidpropellant motor (ISPM), which uses two baseline solid propellants; one is a non-metallized propellant called Propellant S and the other is a metallized propellant called Propellant M. The second test rig is a non-metallized solid-propellant rocket motor simulator (RMS). The RMS is a gas rocket with the ability to vary the combustion-product species composition by systematically varying the flow rates of gaseous reactants. Several reactant mixtures were utilized in the study to determine the relative importance of different oxidizing species (such as H2O, OH, and CO2). Both test rigs are equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle test section for both motors can also incorporate a nozzle boundary-layer control system (NBLCS) as a means of nozzle erosion mitigation. The effectiveness of the NBLCS at preventing nozzle throat erosion was demonstrated for both the RMS and the ISPM motors at chamber pressures up to 34 MPa (4930 psia). All tests conducted with the NBLCS showed signs of coning of the propellant surface, leading to increased mass burning rate and resultant chamber pressure. Two correlations were developed for the nozzle erosion rates from solid propellant testing, one for metallized propellant and one for non-metallized propellants. The non-metallized propellant

  9. Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , SiB 6 , BN, Al 4 C 3 , Be 2 C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , BeO, SiO 2 , ZrO 2 ). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM) [de

  10. Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welz, Bernhard; Lepri, Fabio G.; Araujo, Rennan G.O.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Huang Maodong; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    The literature about the investigation of molecular spectra of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens in flames and furnaces, and the use of these spectra for the determination of these non-metals has been reviewed. Most of the investigations were carried out using conventional atomic absorption spectrometers, and there were in essence two different approaches. In the first one, dual-channel spectrometers with a hydrogen or deuterium lamp were used, applying the two-line method for background correction; in the second one, a line source was used that emitted an atomic line, which overlapped with the molecular spectrum. The first approach had the advantage that any spectral interval could be accessed, but it was susceptible to spectral interference; the second one had the advantage that the conventional background correction systems could be used to minimize spectral interferences, but had the problem that an atomic line had to be found, which was overlapping sufficiently well with the maximum of the molecular absorption spectrum. More recently a variety of molecular absorption spectra were investigated using a low-resolution polychromator with a CCD array detector, but no attempt was made to use this approach for quantitative determination of non-metals. The recent introduction and commercial availability of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometers is offering completely new possibilities for molecular absorption spectrometry and its use for the determination of non-metals. The use of a high-intensity continuum source together with a high-resolution spectrometer and a CCD array detector makes possible selecting the optimum wavelength for the determination and to exclude most spectral interferences.

  11. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metwaly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR, and metal detector (MD techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  12. Preparation, structure and thermal stability of Cu/LDPE nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xianping; Cai Shuizhou; Xie Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Copper/low-density-polyethylene (Cu/LDPE) nanocomposites have been prepared using a melt-blending technique in a single-screw extruder. Their structure and thermal characteristics are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of XRD, SEM and SEM-EDS Cu-mapping show that the nanocomposites are a hybrid of the polymer and the copper nanoparticles, and the copper nanoparticles aggregates were distributed uniformly in general. The results also show that the nanocomposites and the base resin, the pure LDPE, have a different crystalline structure and the same oriented characteristics owing to the presence of copper nanoparticles and the same cooling condition. The results of DSC show that the incorporation of copper nanoparticles can decrease the melting temperatures but increase the crystallization temperatures, and can lower the crystallinity degree of the matrix of the composites. The results of TGA show that the presence of copper nanoparticles can improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposites, a maximum increment of 18 deg. C is obtained comparing with the pure LDPE in this experiment. The results of TGA also show that the influence of the incorporation of the copper nanoparticles on the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites is different from that of the non-metal nanoparticles on the polymer/non-metal nanocomposites and the copper microparticles on the Cu/LDPE microcomposites. The increase of the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites will decrease when the content of the copper nanoparticles is more than 2 wt.%. The difference might be caused by the fact that the activity of the metal nanoparticles is much more higher than that of the non-metal nanoparticles, and the different size effect the different copper particles has

  13. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  14. Report for the ability to manage research works; Rapport d'habilitation a diriger des recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, P.

    2001-06-15

    This document summarizes the research work carried out by the author between 1992 and 2001 in the domain of electric arcs and hot plasmas. His participation to 4 research projects are detailed. These projects deals with: the calculation of the composition and transport coefficients in out of equilibrium plasmas; the detection of pollutant emissions; the electric discharge in the air between two non-metal liquid electrodes at atmospheric pressure; and the plasma-insulating material interaction at high pressures and temperatures. A curriculum vitae and a detailed list of publications are given. (J.S.)

  15. Lightweight Combat Vehicle S&T Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Signature management, electromagnetic shielding over potentially non-metallic surfaces • Diagnostics & prognostics for structural health assessment...Misc Project Mg 1 1 1 Al 1 1 1 AHSS 2 4 2 1 1 FRC 3 1 1 AHSS weld wire Hi Speed AL FSW MG FSW MG SP Rivets Breakthru MIFERD AHSS weld wire Al...Chrysler, AET) • Integrated “ rivets ” cast into Mg part and mechanically joined to steel. 5. Laser-Assisted Joining Process of Aluminum and Carbon Fiber

  16. Probing near-normally propagating bulk acoustic waves using pseudo-reflection geometry Brillouin spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. C.; Andrews, G. T.

    2012-09-01

    Pseudo-reflection geometry Brillouin spectroscopy can be used to probe acoustic wave dispersion approximately along the surface normal of a material system while avoiding the difficulties associated with specularly reflected light encountered in an ideal reflection configuration. As an example of its application, we show analytically that it can be used to determine both the refractive index and bulk acoustic mode velocities of optically-isotropic non-metallic materials and confirm the utility of the approach via a series of experiments on fused quartz, gallium phosphide, water, and porous silicon films.

  17. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. Applications of Friction Stir Processing during Engraving of Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kočović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing has extensive application in many technological operations. Application area of friction stir processing can be extended to the processing of non-metallic materials, such as wood. The paper examines the friction stir processing contact between a specially designed hard and temperature-resistant rotating tool and workpiece which is made of wood. Interval of speed slip and temperature level under which the combustion occurs and carbonization layer of soft material was determined. The results of the research can be applied in technological process of wood engraving operations which may have significant technological and aesthetic effects.

  19. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  20. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  1. Use of X-ray fluorescence for metal determination in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidorizzi, Lorenza

    1996-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine metals and non-metals in polyester polymers. The greatest advantage of this technique over others like Atomic Absorption or Plasma Emission is that no sample previous treatment (like calcination or acid digestion) is required. Other advantage of this method is its fastness allowing a complete analysis in just few minutes. On the other hand, this method requires metals higher than 15 ppm. Below those values there is a loss of the analysis' precision. Another advantage of this technique is the possibility of making qualitative metal analysis, scanning unknown samples and identifying the found peaks automatically. (author)

  2. The importance of element speciation in water analysis - a plea for further investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimmel, F.H.; Gremm, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water analysis is dominated by parameters given in laws and recommendations concerning water quality. Speciation has been broadly neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in defining speciation and in determining species at low concentrations. This paper addresses the physical, chemical and biological approaches to speciation and gives examples for methods which are suited for species determination in aquatic systems. Metals and non-metallic elements are covered as well. It is obvious that speciation is a key for understanding the function of aquatic ecosystems and their technical utilization. (orig.)

  3. Solvent Handbook Database System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Industrial solvents and cleaners are used in maintenance facilities to remove wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold release, and various other contaminants from parts, and to prepare the surface of various metals. However, because of growing environmental and worker-safety concerns, government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals and have restricted the use of halogenated hydrocarbons because they affect the ozone layer and may cause cancer. The Solvent Handbook Database System lets you view information on solvents and cleaners, including test results on cleaning performance, air emissions, recycling and recovery, corrosion, and non-metals compatibility. Company and product safety information is also available

  4. Prospects on the application of HTS SQUID magnetometry to nondestructive evaluation (NDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, H.

    1993-04-01

    In light of recent advances in the fabrication of low-noise HTS SQUIDs, a review is presented on the use of LTS SQUID magnetometry for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Examples are given on applications relating to defects in steel, subsurface cracks in aircraft frames, and voids in non-metallic structures. HTS SQUIDs may make a significant difference in the acceptance of these applications because sensing coils will be closer to a sample under test, there will be greater instrument portability and the problem of bringing liquid helium to remote locations will be eliminated.

  5. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  6. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  7. Pressure brazing of ceramics to metals with copper solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, M.A.; Metelkin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect on the quality of joints brazed with copper of different non metallized aluminooxide dielectrics with metals and alloys of a series of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, holding, and medium) in the course of pressure brazing is investigated. It is shown that in case of brazing with kovar and nickel the character of dependences is identical, however in all cases the joints with nickel are more durable. For the ceramics - molybdenum system characterized by weak interaction with copper solder kinetic dependences have no maximum and only under holding of more than 20 min the constant strength of 150-190 MPa is attained

  8. Study of polarization properties of fiber-optics probes with use of a binary phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, S V; Khonina, S N; Karpeev, S V

    2014-04-01

    We conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the distribution of the electric field components in the sharp focal domain when rotating a zone plate with a π-phase jump placed in the focused beam. Comparing the theoretical and experimental results for several kinds of near-field probes, an analysis of the polarization sensitivity of different types of metal-coated aperture probes is conducted. It is demonstrated that with increasing diameter of the non-metal-coated tip part there occurs an essential redistribution of sensitivity in favor of the transverse electric field components and an increase of the probe's energy throughput.

  9. Chemomechanical phenomena in the grinding of coal. Final report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1977-08-01

    Vickers microhardness, drilling rate, grinding rate and zeta-potential measurements have been made on coals of various rank in both aqueous and organic environments in order to determine whether: (a) chemomechanical (Rebinder) effects exist in coal; and (b) any such effects as do exist can be used to improve the comminution of coal. The results reveal the mechanical behavior of coal to be remarkably environment-insensitive as compared to inorganic non-metals. As a result, it is concluded that chemomechanical phenomena offer little prospect of reducing the cost of comminuting coal.

  10. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliff, A.F.; Burn, G.

    1999-04-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately.

  11. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context; Plan Mineral de la Republique du Niger : Tome IV - 1er volume : Etude specifique des principales substances minerals et leur contexte geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo' , Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates. [French] Ce volume contient l'etude detaillee des substances minerals exploitees industriellement a ce jour : l'uranium, le charbon, les materiaux non metalliques de construction et de travaux publics et les substances exploitees artisanalement qui sont : l'etain, la Colombo-tantalite, le tungstene, l'or, les phosphates et les evaporates.

  12. Advanced containment research for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Mathew, P.M.; McKay, P.; Hosaluk, L.J.; Oscarson, D.W.

    1986-09-01

    This document outlines the program on the development of advanced containment systems for the disposal of used fuel in a vault deep in plutonic rock. Possible advanced containment concepts, the strategy adopted in selecting potential container materials, and experimental programs currently underway or planned are presented. Most effort is currently directed toward developing long-term containment systems based on non-metallic materials and massive metal containers. The use of additional independent barriers to extend the lifetime of simple containment systems is also being evaluated. 58 refs

  13. Verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Having verified the calculation of dam drum pulleys found on cranes to facilitate the gamma irradiator. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. Having verified calculation of forces acting style on drums, drum diameter and length and style of press that occurred on drums. Likewise, the pulley, pulley diameter verified calculations, measures of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device is safe or not safe to use. (author)

  14. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. [ed.] [comp.

    1998-09-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Electrolytic etching of uranium and of its alloys for examination under ordinary light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouleau, M.

    1958-12-01

    The author reports a metallographic study of uranium and of some of its alloys (U-Mo with different Mo contents, U-Sn, U-Al) performed by using electrolytic etching. Samples are polished before being etched. Metallographic images are provided and results are briefly stated in terms of presence of grain boundaries, twins, platelets, pitting, metallic and non-metallic inclusions or eutectoid decomposition. The authors notice that, in some alloys with a gamma-stabilized structure, electrolytic etching allows an oxidation under reduced oxygen pressure, and then phase structure to be perfectly revealed

  16. Failure and damage analysis of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this volume present basic concepts and new developments in failure and damage analysis with focus on advanced materials such as composites, laminates, sandwiches and foams, and also new metallic materials. Starting from some mathematical foundations (limit surfaces, symmetry considerations, invariants) new experimental results and their analysis are shown. Finally, new concepts for failure prediction and analysis will be introduced and discussed as well as new methods of failure and damage prediction for advanced metallic and non-metallic materials. Based on experimental results the traditional methods will be revised.

  17. System for damping vibrations in a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-11-24

    A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.

  18. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  19. PELATIHAN TEKNIK PELAPISAN LOGAM DENGAN METODE ELEKTROPLATING UNTUK INDUSTRI KERAJINAN LOGAM DI KAMASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIAMBADI PRIAMBADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electroplating is a metal or non-metal coating process with electrolyze that use direct current (DC and electrolyte (chemical solution that has a function as medium to supply metal ions. The function of electroplating are protecting metal from corrotion attack, adding surface hardness and improving quality of metal surface. Electroplating process basically has four steps; cleaning, washing, coating and protecting. For a quality result, the coating process need a right and optimum condition of operation, such as, a right concentration of electrolyte, a right voltage or current, and a right temperature.

  20. Neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi; Takenaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    Positron annihilation angular correlation measurements have been performed for the neutron irradiated various metals and ceramics in order to obtain the information of the microvoids and positronium formation in them. Positronium (Ps) formation was observed in Nb containing a small amount of oxygen and Fe-15%Cr-16%Ni-0.006%B 10 . In practical steels such as JPCA and JFMS no Ps formation was observed. High temperature deformation might induce microvoids into metals, but the positron annihilation angular correlation measurements could not confirm this. In non-metallic materials neutron irradiated no Ps formation has so far been observed. (author)

  1. Development of structural materials to enable the electrochemical reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J. M.; Cho, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Seo, C. S.; Park, S. W

    2006-02-15

    For the development of the advanced spent fuel management process based on the molten salt technology, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling a molten salt. In this study, corrosion behavior of Fe-base superalloy, Ni-base superalloy, non-metallic material and surface modified superalloy were investigated in the hot molten salt under oxidation atmosphere. These experimental data will suggest a guideline for the selection of corrosion resistant materials and help to find the operation criteria of each equipment in aspects of high temperature characteristics and corrosion retardation.

  2. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  3. Material efficiency and the 3 Rs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available : Total primary material resource use Material/product Total Used (Kt) Quarry products 125,871 Cement, plaster, etc. 97,992 Stone and other non-metallic mineral products 43,631 Bricks and other clay-based products 5,979 Ceramic products 4... 94% of primary material resource use is ascribed to products used essentially in wet works of construction (stone, sand, cement, clay). It is unfortunately also the area most difficult to control. Although gains can be made through modular design...

  4. Study on dissolution behavior of molten solidified waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive molten solidified waste (slag) has been generated by melting non-metallic low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Slag is expected to immobilize radionuclides in the waste repository. The chemical durability of slag is an important factor for the safety assessment of the disposal in that the durability provides the source term in the assessment. Since a chemical characteristic of slag is similar to that of glass, the general information on the chemical durability of slag might be provided from previous studies on nuclear waste glass. We have investigated effects of chemical compositions of slag and alkaline environments of repository on the chemical durability of slag. (author)

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  6. Seminar of the expert committee ultrasonic testing. Abstracts; Seminar des Fachausschusses Ultraschallpruefung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This seminar volume contains 13 papers focusing on the following topics: 1. Test methods in the automotive sector, 2. Characterization of metallic and non-metallic materials, 3. Industrial test approaches, 4. Fiber composite materials and structures, and 5. Defect characterization using imaging techniques. One paper was separately analyzed for this database. [German] Dieser Seminarband enthaelt 13 Beitraege mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: 1. Pruefansaetze im Automobilbereich, 2. Charakterisierung metallischer und nicht-metallischer Materialien, 3. Pruefansaetze im industriellen Umfeld, 4. Faserverbundwerkstoffe und -strukturen, und 5. Fehlercharakterisierung mittels bildgebender Verfahren.

  7. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Ikeda, Bunko; Saito, Ryuta

    1988-02-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter VI of Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 3, and consists of two parts, i.e. Critical Issues and Innovations. The critical issues contains the analyses on poloidal field coils, operation scenario, closed loop plasma control and plasma disruptions. The innovations contains feasibility studies on high current density and high field for TF coil, use of Nb 3 Sn for PF coils, forced flow subcooled He II superconducting coils, allowable stresses in the structural material of the magnetic system and non-metallic structural materials, and design guidelines of toroidal field coil sizing. (author)

  8. Measurement of Poisson's ratio of nonmetallic materials by laser holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian T.

    1991-12-01

    By means of the off-axis collimated plane wave coherent light arrangement and a loading device by pure bending, Poisson's ratio values of CFRP (carbon fiber-reinforced plactics plates, lay-up 0 degree(s), 90 degree(s)), GFRP (glass fiber-reinforced plactics plates, radial direction) and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate, x, y direction) have been measured. In virtue of this study, the ministry standard for the Ministry of Aeronautical Industry (Testing method for the measurement of Poisson's ratio of non-metallic by laser holographic interferometry) has been published. The measurement process is fast and simple. The measuring results are reliable and accurate.

  9. Industrial investigations of the liquid steel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes have given good results. The obtained results of filtration have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location considering the limitation of the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  10. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  11. Characterization of an AISI H-13 steel for work in hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, J.; Robles, E.

    1998-01-01

    Two materials were acquired which elaborated through secondary refining processes known as electroslag refusing (ESR) and electric arc in vacuum refusing (VAR) were acquired. These materials were thermically treated, for subsequently to determine their mechanical properties in longitudinal and transversal directions with respect to rolling direction, moreover they were characterized through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction determining microstructure, carbides and non-metallic inclusions. The results of the mechanical essays allowed to evaluate the fracture toughness to this steel by the Barsom and Rolfe method. (Author)

  12. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  13. Generic structural mechanics aspects of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Structural mechanic requirements for future large superconducting fusion magnets are assessed. Current structural analysis methods and standards do not yet appear sufficient for a complete evaluation of such systems, under all potential operating and accident conditions. Recommendations are made for development of needed structural methods and specialized standards for fusion magnets. These include, among others, better composite structural methods with various failure criteria for metallic, as well as non-metallic materials, coupled thermal-electrical-structural codes, incorporating winding and fabrication effects, and use of probabilistic methods for life prediction. In order to help meet program goals for fusion commericialization, it is recommended that such work be initiated relatively soon. (orig.)

  14. Problems of high temperature superconductivity in three-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geilikman, B T

    1973-01-01

    A review is given of more recent papers on this subject. These papers have dealt mainly with two-dimensional systems. The present paper extends the treatment to three-dimensional systems, under the following headings: systems with collective electrons of one group and localized electrons of another group (compounds of metals with non-metals-dielectrics, organic substances, undoped semiconductors, molecular crystals); experimental investigations of superconducting compounds of metals with organic compounds, dielectrics, semiconductors, and semi-metals; and systems with two or more groups of collective electrons. Mechanics are considered and models are derived. 86 references.

  15. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...... damage factor is highest. Subsequently the stress history is imposed as boundary conditions in a periodic unit cell model, where an alumina inclusion is embedded in a AISI 52100 matrix. Cracks are assumed to grow radially from the inclusion under cyclic loading. The growth is predicted by means...

  16. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V

    1970-01-01

    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  17. Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Porous magnesium-based materials are biodegradable and promising for use in orthopaedic applications, but their applications are hampered by their difficult fabrication. This work reports the preparation of porous magnesium materials by a powder metallurgy technique using ammonium bicarbonate as spacer particles. The porosity of the materials depended on the amount of ammonium bicarbonate and was found to have strong negative effects on flexural strength and corrosion behaviour. However, the flexural strength of materials with porosities of up to 28 vol.% was higher than the flexural strength of non-metallic biomaterials and comparable with that of natural bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of an AISI H-13 steel for work in hot; Caracterizacion del acero H-13 AISI para trabajado en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez, J.; Robles, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Two materials were acquired which elaborated through secondary refining processes known as electroslag refusing (ESR) and electric arc in vacuum refusing (VAR) were acquired. These materials were thermically treated, for subsequently to determine their mechanical properties in longitudinal and transversal directions with respect to rolling direction, moreover they were characterized through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction determining microstructure, carbides and non-metallic inclusions. The results of the mechanical essays allowed to evaluate the fracture toughness to this steel by the Barsom and Rolfe method. (Author)

  19. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  20. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1999-09-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and its reported separately.

  1. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without o...

  2. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  3. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  4. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  5. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  6. Impact of inter-sectoral trade on national and global CO2 emissions: An empirical analysis of China and US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Zou Lele; Wei Yiming

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the CO 2 emissions embodied in Sino-US international trade using a sector approach. Based on an input-output model established in this study, we quantify the impact of Sino-US international trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. Our initial findings reveal that: In 2005, the US reduced 190.13 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of imported goods from China, while increasing global CO 2 emissions by about 515.25 Mt. Similarly, China reduced 178.62 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of US goods, while reducing global CO 2 emissions by 129.93 Mt. Sino-US international trade increased global CO 2 emissions by 385.32 Mt as a whole, of which the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors contributed an 86.71% share. Therefore, we suggest that accelerating the adjustment of China's trade structure and export of US advanced technologies and experience related to clean production and energy efficiency to China as the way to reduce the negative impact of Sino-US trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. This behavior should take into account the processing and manufacturing industries as a priority, especially the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors.

  7. Report on swelling of MX-type fuels 1973/76: Self-diffusion in MX-type nuclear fuels out-of-pile and in-pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Self-diffusion measurements of Pu-238 and U-233 have been carried out in a wide range of advanced nuclear fuels in the temperature region from 1200 to 2300 0 C. The materials studied varied in composition from carbides through carbonitrides to nitrides. In particular the effect on self-diffusion rates of factors such as non-metal/metal ratio, oxygen content increasing nitrogen contents, metallic impurity additions, the presence of second phases and fission products simulating 16, 10 and 3 a /o burn up has been established. Grain boundary diffusion rates were evaluated where possible. Carbon diffusion in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric UC and in a series of uranium carbonitride samples was also measured. The RADIF experiments (radiation induced diffusion) have provided results upon the effect of irradiation on the self-diffusion rates in the temperature range 150 to 1300 0 C. Each of the factors mentioned above is discussed in detail with special attention being given to the effects of non-metal/metal ratio, impurities and increasing the nitrogen content in carbonitride materials

  8. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  9. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  10. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega; Lazar, Tomaž; Nečemer, Marijan; Mrvar, Primož

    2013-01-01

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet

  11. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lazar, Tomaž [National Museum of Slovenia, Prešernova cesta 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nečemer, Marijan [Jožef Stefan Institut, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mrvar, Primož, E-mail: primoz.mrvar@omm.ntf.uni-lj.si [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  12. Mechanical Energy Propagation and Backscattering in Nominally Dry Soil: Imaging Buried Land Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Surajit

    2003-04-01

    The imaging of shallow buried objects in a complex medium, e.g., nominally dry sand, is an outstanding challenge. Such imaging is of relevance in connection with the detection and subsequent imaging of buried non-metallic anti-personnel land mines and in other applications. It has been shown that gentle mechanical impulses and low frequency sound waves with frequencies roughly between 150-350 Hz or so can penetrate distances of up to a foot in sand. Hence, such signals can potentially be useful in the detection and perhaps in the imaging of shallow buried objects. It is presently unclear whether high frequency signals can be effectively used to image shallow buried objects. Impulses can typically penetrate larger distances into sand and soil. Both impulses and continuous sound waves can be used for imaging shallow buried objects. The talk shall briefly review the state-of-the-art in low frequency sound propagation in soil and shall discuss the current understanding of impulse propagation and backscattering in nominally dry sand beds. It will be argued that impulse based imaging may have the potential to be a simple and fast way to detect and image small non-metallic mines. Research supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. NSF-CMS 0070055.

  13. Thermal conductivity and stability of a three-phase blend of carbon nanotubes, conductive polymer, and silver nanoparticles incorporated into polycarbonate nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Archana

    2015-04-16

    Metallic and non-metallic nanofillers can be used together in the design of polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites with improved electrical properties. Here, the preparation of three-phase blend (carbon nanotubes (CNT), silver nanoparticles, and conductive polymer) in a two-step process before incorporation in the PC is reported. First, ethylene diamine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-EDA) were decorated with Ag nanoparticles. Next, the Ag-decorated CNTs were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the high thermal conductivity instrinsic to both metallic and non-metallic phases, it is expected that the thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposite would largely differ from those of pristine PC. We thus investigated in detail how this hybrid conductive blend affected properties such as the glass transition temperature, the thermal stability, and the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite. It was found that this strategy results in improved thermal conductivity and thermal stability of the material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Transport properties of metal-metal and metal-insulator heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadlallah Elabd, Mohamed Mostafa

    2010-06-09

    In this study we present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for metallic and metal-insulator interfaces, based on density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Starting from the electronic structure of bulk Al, Cu, Ag, and Au interfaces, we study the effects of different kinds of interface roughness on the transmission coefficient (T(E)) and the I-V characteristic. In particular, we compare prototypical interface distortions, including vacancies, metallic impurities, non-metallic impurities, interlayer, and interface alloy. We find that vacancy sites have a huge effect on transmission coefficient. The transmission coefficient of non-metallic impurity systems has the same behaviour as the transmission coefficient of vacancy system, since these systems do not contribute to the electronic states at the Fermi energy. We have also studied the transport properties of Au-MgO-Au tunnel junctions. In particular, we have investigated the influence of the thickness of the MgO interlayer, the interface termination, the interface spacing, and O vacancies. Additional interface states appear in the O-terminated configuration due to the formation of Au-O bonds. An increasing interface spacing suppresses the Au-O bonding. Enhancement of T(E) depends on the position and density of the vacancies (the number of vacancies per unit cell). (orig.)

  15. Mussels as a bio-indicator of the environmental quality of the coastal water of the Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAJLO JOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was used as a pollution level indicator in the Boka Kotorska Bay of the southeastern Adriatic on the Montenegrin coast. The ever-increasing urbanization and industrialization, combined with a poor sewage system, an increase in both marine and inland traffic, as well as insufficient water circulation in the Bay itself have resulted in some level of pollution. Since heavy metals are extremely toxic and do not easily undergo biodecomposition, the results of this study supply valuable information concerning the metal pollution of the marine environment in Boka Kotorska Bay. The concentrations of the investigated metals and non-metals accumulated in the mussels were determined during the fall of 2007 using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn and V, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED–XRF to determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. ED–XRF was also used to determine the levels of non-metals and elements present in high concentrations. Comparing the data from this study in relation to data from other regions for Mytilus galloprovincialis, the mussel sampled from the Boka Kotorska Bay showed a moderate level of pollution.

  16. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of 25Mg, 28Si, 39K, 47Ti, 56Fe, 59Co, 77Se, 88Sr, 137Ba, and 208Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of 28Si, 77Se, 208Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla.

  17. Changes in surface properties caused by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines various aspects of ion implantation. Major features of ion implantation are described first, focusing on the structure of ion implantation equipment and some experimental results of ion implantation into semiconductors. Distribution of components in ion-implantated layers is then discussed. The two major features of ion implantation in relation to the distribution of implanted ions are: (1) high controllability of addition of ions to a surface layer and (2) formation of a large number of lattice defects in a short period of time. Application of ion implantation to metallic materials is expected to permit the following: (1) formation of a semi-stable alloy surface layer by metallic ion implantation, (2) formation of a semi-stable ceramic surface layer or buried layer by non-metallic ion implantation, and (3) formation of a buried layer by combined implementation of a different metallic ion and non-metallic ion. Ion implantation in carbon materials, polymers and ceramics is discussed next. The last part of the report is dedicated to macroscopic properties of an ion-implanted layer, centering on surface modification, formation of a conductive surface layer, and tribology. (Nogami, K.) 60 refs

  18. Application of hydrometallurgy techniques in quartz processing and purification: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Lei, Shaomin; Pei, Zhenyu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhangjie; Xie, Feixiang

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on separation and purification of metallic minerals by hydrometallurgy techniques, applications of the chemical techniques in separation and purification of non-metallic minerals are rarely reported. This paper reviews disparate areas of study into processing and purification of quartz (typical non-metallic ore) in an attempt to summarize current work, as well as to suggest potential for future consolidation in the field. The review encompasses chemical techniques of the quartz processing including situations, progresses, leaching mechanism, scopes of application, advantages and drawbacks of micro-bioleaching, high temperature leaching, high temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching. Traditional leaching techniques including micro-bioleaching and high temperature leaching are unequal to demand of modern glass industry for quality of quartz concentrate because the quartz products has to be further processed. High temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching provide new ways to produce high-grade quartz sand with only one process and lower acid consumption. Furthermore, the catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching realizes effective purification of quartz with extremely low acid consumption (no using HF or any fluoride). It is proposed that, by integrating the different chemical processes of quartz processing and expounding leaching mechanisms and scopes of application, the research field as a monopolized industry would benefit.

  19. X-ray beam penetration in TXRF measurement of polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak-Roy, A.R.; Hossain, T.Z.

    2000-01-01

    For TXRF measurement on single crystal silicon surface, it is generally agreed that the x-ray beam penetration is of the order of a few hundred Angstroms from the surface. However, for polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces - frequently used in semiconductor manufacturing there are evidences that x-rays penetrate much deeper revealing underlying layers. The evidences come from various measurements done with films such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and metal films such as aluminum, titanium and cobalt. A systematic study was carried out to help understand the issue further. Four sets of samples (on 8 inch wafers) were prepared to create layers buried under various deposited metal and non-metal layers. The metal layers created were aluminum, titanium and cobalt and the non-metal layers were silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. These samples were analyzed by TXRF under various angles and energies and the data were analyzed for signals from various buried layers along with their angular dependence. The results indicated deep penetration of x-ray beams. The samples were further analyzed by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and some of them by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) to obtain information about their depth profiles. This was done in order to rule out the possibility of intermixing of layers during deposition. (author)

  20. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, David J., E-mail: butcher@email.wcu.edu

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS.

  1. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  2. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  3. Recent Advances in Metal Chalcogenides (MX; X = S, Se) Nanostructures for Electrochemical Supercapacitor Applications: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthagiri, Jayaraman; Durai, Govindarajan; Rana, Abu ul Hassan Sarwar; Sangeetha, Kirubanandam; Kuppusami, Parasuraman; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have received a great deal of attention and play an important role for future self-powered devices, mainly owing to their higher power density. Among all types of electrical energy storage devices, electrochemical supercapacitors are considered to be the most promising because of their superior performance characteristics, including short charging time, high power density, safety, easy fabrication procedures, and long operational life. An SC consists of two foremost components, namely electrode materials, and electrolyte. The selection of appropriate electrode materials with rational nanostructured designs has resulted in improved electrochemical properties for high performance and has reduced the cost of SCs. In this review, we mainly spotlight the non-metallic oxide, especially metal chalcogenides (MX; X = S, Se) based nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical SCs. Different non-metallic oxide materials are highlighted in various categories, such as transition metal sulfides and selenides materials. Finally, the designing strategy and future improvements on metal chalcogenide materials for the application of electrochemical SCs are also discussed. PMID:29671823

  4. Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation.

  5. Fracture resistance of bleached teeth restored with different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Coelho Bandéca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fracture resistance of teeth submitted to internal bleaching and restored with different non-metallic post. Eighty mandibular incisors were endodontically treated and randomly divided in 10 groups (n = 8: G1- restored with composite resin (CR, G2- CR + fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC, Everstick post, Sticktech cemented with resin cement self-etch adhesive (RCS, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray, G3- CR + FRC + self-adhesive resin cement (SRC, Breeze, Pentral Clinical, G4- CR+ glass fiber post (GF, Exacto Post, Angelus + RCS, G5- CR + GF + SRC. The G6 to G10 were bleached with hydrogen peroxide (HP and restored with the same restorative procedures used for G1 to G5, respectively. After 7 days storage in artificial saliva, the specimens were submitted to the compressive strength test (N at 0.5 mm/min cross-head speed and the failure pattern was identified as either reparable (failure showed until 2 mm below the cement-enamel junction or irreparable (the failure showed <2 mm or more below the cement-enamel. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05. No significant difference (p < 0.05 was found among G1 to G10. The results suggest that intracoronal bleaching did not significantly weaken the teeth and the failure patterns were predominately reparable for all groups. The non-metallic posts in these teeth did not improve fracture resistance.

  6. Preparation, structure and properties of hafnium compounds in the system Hf-C-N-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundiers, G.D.

    1975-08-01

    Highly dense, homogenous and single phase hafnium carbonitride samples (with low oxygen content) were prepared in the whole concentration range of the ternary cubic carbonitrides. Stoichiometric hafnium oxicarbides were also prepared within the range of solubility. The procedure involved the hot pressing of powders of HfC, HfN, Hf, Hf-Oxide and carbon at temperatures of 3,000 0 C and pressures up to 550 kpf/cm 2 using a novel technique. Small single crystals of slightly substoichiometric HfN were also repared. The densification of the powders was studied as a function of the non-metal concentration. Carbonitrides with N/Hf ratio of 0.37 were prepared in a high temperature autoclave operating at medium pressures by the reaction of HfC with nitrogen. All the samples were characterized by density measurements, chemical, X-ray and metallographic analysis and in some cases with the aid of quantitative metallography and microprobe analysis. Typical properties investigated were lattice parameter, thermal expansion, microhardness and electrical resistivity as function of the non-metal content. For specific concentrations extreme values in the properties are attained. With the aid of the valence electron concentration (VEC) parameter, the properties can be correlated with the density of states of electrons at the Fermi level. (orig./HK) [de

  7. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between 1981 and 2000: a decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Ussanarassamee, Arjaree

    2005-01-01

    Industrial demand accounts for about 30% of total final energy demand in Thailand, which experienced rapid increases in energy demand. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial energy intensities over a period of 20 years (1981-2000) and identifies the factors affecting the energy consumption using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique. It is found that Thai industry has passed through four different phases of growth and energy consumption has closely followed the industrial growth pattern. Energy intensity of Thai industry decreased from 17.6 toe/million baht (constant 1988 prices) in 1981 to 15.8 toe/million baht (1988 prices) in 2000. Non-metallic mineral industry is the most intensive industry followed by basic metal, food and beverage, chemical and paper industries. The factor analysis indicates that both the structural effect and intensity effect contributed to a decline of aggregate intensity by 8% during 1981-1986 but in the rest of the periods, the two effects acted in opposite directions and thereby reducing the overall effect on aggregate intensity. Food and beverages, non-metallic mineral and chemical industries had significantly influenced the changes in aggregate intensity at sectoral level

  8. Thermal conductivity and stability of a three-phase blend of carbon nanotubes, conductive polymer, and silver nanoparticles incorporated into polycarbonate nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Archana; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Metallic and non-metallic nanofillers can be used together in the design of polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites with improved electrical properties. Here, the preparation of three-phase blend (carbon nanotubes (CNT), silver nanoparticles, and conductive polymer) in a two-step process before incorporation in the PC is reported. First, ethylene diamine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-EDA) were decorated with Ag nanoparticles. Next, the Ag-decorated CNTs were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the high thermal conductivity instrinsic to both metallic and non-metallic phases, it is expected that the thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposite would largely differ from those of pristine PC. We thus investigated in detail how this hybrid conductive blend affected properties such as the glass transition temperature, the thermal stability, and the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite. It was found that this strategy results in improved thermal conductivity and thermal stability of the material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H H; Donders, Johanna C E; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F M; Kleipool, Roeland P; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J

    2017-08-25

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel tibia plate and a titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Virtual monochromatic images were analyzed from 70 to 190 keV. Region-of-interest (ROI), used to determine fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers of soft tissues and bone, were placed in muscle, fat, cortical bone and intramedullary tibia canal. The stainless-steel implant resulted in more pronounced metal artifacts compared to both titanium implants. CT number inaccuracies in 70 keV reference images were minimized at 130, 180 and 190 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Noise, measured as the standard deviation of pixels within a ROI, was minimized at 130, 150 and 140 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Tailoring dual-energy CT protocols using implant specific virtual monochromatic images minimizes fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers in bone and soft tissues compared to non-metal reference scans.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI SUMBER DAYA ALAM FOSIL KAYU DI DAERAH GORONTALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarty Suly Eraku

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gorontalo area is part of the arc volcano - plutonic North Sulawesi predominantly volcanic rocks and intrusif rock Eocene to Quaternary. The tectonic position makes the Gorontalo area of natural resource mining prospects both metallic and non metallic minerals. One of them is a non-metal potential of petrified wood. The purpose of this study to analyze the condition of geomorphology, lithology, stratgraphy, and determine the nature of the physical characteristics of petrified wood in order to formulate feasibility as gemstones. The method used qualitative and quantitative results of the field survey which is then compiled the results of the laboratory. Field analysis in the form of geological mapping, sampling and documentation of geological data. The laboratory analysis conducted mineralogical and geochemistry analysis in the form of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. Dissemination of research results, the petrified wood in Tohupo River and Molannihu River. Petrified wood found in fluvial and alluvial sediment in tuffaceous sandstone layer with two types of  insitu and transported. Results of laboratory analysis both mineralogy and gochemistry indicates that the mineral constituent of petrified wood are Quartz (SiO2 with good quality so worty as a gemstone because of its aesthetic, translucent and hardness 7 Mohs Scale.

  11. 3D visualization of integrated ground penetrating radar data and EM-61 data to determine buried objects and their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioğlu, Selma; Daniels, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on an interactive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of two-dimensional (2D) ground penetrating radar (GPR) data and their integration with electromagnetic induction (EMI) using EM-61 data in a 3D volume. This method was used to locate and identify near-surface buried old industrial remains with shape, depth and type (metallic/non-metallic) in a brownfield site. The aim of the study is to illustrate a new approach to integrating two data sets in a 3D image for monitoring and interpretation of buried remains, and this paper methodically indicates the appropriate amplitude–colour and opacity function constructions to activate buried remains in a transparent 3D view. The results showed that the interactive interpretation of the integrated 3D visualization was done using generated transparent 3D sub-blocks of the GPR data set that highlighted individual anomalies in true locations. Colour assignments and formulating of opacity of the data sets were the keys to the integrated 3D visualization and interpretation. This new visualization provided an optimum visual comparison and an interpretation of the complex data sets to identify and differentiate the metallic and non-metallic remains and to control the true interpretation on exact locations with depth. Therefore, the integrated 3D visualization of two data sets allowed more successful identification of the buried remains

  12. Successes and failures of Ni-Cr-Mo family alloys in FGD systems of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    At first glance, operation of a typical limestone FGD system seems deceptively simple. However, the first generation scrubbers of the early to mid 70's proved to be a financial and operational disaster due to metals corroding in a rather short time period and non-metallic linings failing by blistering, debonding, cracking, flaking and peeling. Extensive research programs at various institutions and utilities to find better construction materials led to higher alloys up the ladder of the Ni-Cr-Mo family, other materials and new non-metallic coatings. This paper describes case histories showing both success and failures of the various alloys in the Ni-Cr-Mo family. This information will not only be useful to the various scrubber system suppliers and A/E's, but should be of value to utility corrosion/scrubber engineers and maintenance personnel who, on a day-to-day basis, are involved in keeping their systems functional in a cost-effective manner

  13. NaIrO3-A pentavalent post-perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremholm, M.; Dutton, S.E.; Stephens, P.W.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO 3, was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO 3 , the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO 3 . Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO 3 is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO 6 octahedra separated by layers of NaO 8 bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO 3 shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Sodium iridium(V) oxide, NaIrO 3 , synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions is found to crystallize as the post-perovskite structure and is the first example of a pentavalent ABO 3 post-perovskite. Research highlights: → NaIrO 3 post-perovskite stabilized by pressure. → First example of a pentavalent oxide post-perovskite. → Non-metallic and non-magnetic behavior of NaIrO 3 .

  14. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  15. Interatomic interaction of additive elements and their influence on the processes in the double metal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Анатоліівна Рябікіна

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern industry uses a lot of elements as additives to improve the service characteristics of metal products that are to be used for various purposes. These elements can be divided into two groups: the first group includes the elements interacting with iron and improving its characteristics (alloying elements, and the second group includes the elements, that modify the characteristics of the structure and properties in an undesirable direction. These are trace elements: S, P, O, As, and others in steel. The negative impact of these elements shows itself as banding, the formation of non-metallic inclusions, flakes, grain boundary segregations et al. The influence of the elements of the both groups on the properties of steel depends on the nature and level of interatomic interaction in the alloy. Computational and analytical study of the major impurity elements in steel impact on the interatomic bond strength and the probability of forming complexes, clusters, and chemical compounds with the basic alloying elements in the steel has been carried out in the work. The theoretical parameter which defines the strength of the ion-covalent bond of two atoms: non-metallic – metallic is the electronegativity of elements. The electronegativity difference of the metal and non-metallic elements increasing, the ionic bonding and thermodynamic stability of these compounds  increase. On the other hand, concentration of valent electrons is a universal characteristic of an atomic element which determines many of its properties, and especially the energy of interatomic interaction. Energy calculations of pairwise interatomic impurity elements: H, C, N, S, P, As interaction with Fe and major alloying elements in steel: Mn, Cr, Si, V, Al, Ti, W, Cu, Mo, Nb were made. It has been stated that all the impurity elements except phosphorus, hydrogen and arsenic have sufficient high adhesion with the majority of the metal elements in the modern steels. Phosphorus does

  16. Establishing comparability and compatibility in the purity assessment of high purity zinc as demonstrated by the CCQM-P149 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram; del Rocío Arvizu Torres, María; Manzano, Judith Velina Lara; Buzoianu, Mirella; Hill, Sarah; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike; Fisicaro, Paola; Labarraque, Guillaume; Zhou, Tao; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Miura, Tsutomu; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph; Jährling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Mariassy, Michal; Hankova, Zuzana; Sobina, Egor; Ivanovich Krylov, Anatoly; Anatolievich Kustikov, Yuri; Vladimirovich Smirnov, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, an international comparison was conducted on the determination of the purity of a high purity element. Participants were free to choose any analytical approach appropriate for their institute’s applications and services. The material tested was a high purity zinc, which had earlier been assessed for homogeneity and previously used in CCQM-K72 for the determination of six defined metallic impurities. Either a direct metal assay of the Zn mass fraction was undertaken by EDTA titrimetry, or an indirect approach was used wherein all impurities, or at least the major ones, were determined and their sum subtracted from ideal purity of 100%, or 1 kg kg-1. Impurity assessment techniques included glow discharge mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carrier gas hot extraction/combustion analysis. Up to 91 elemental impurities covering metals, non-metals and semi-metals/metalloids were quantified. Due to the lack of internal experience or experimental capabilities, some participants contracted external laboratories for specific analytical tasks, mainly for the analysis of non-metals. The reported purity, expressed as zinc mass fraction in the high purity zinc material, showed excellent agreement for all participants, with a relative standard deviation of 0.011%. The calculated reference value, w(Zn)  =  0.999 873 kg kg-1, was assigned an asymmetric combined uncertainty of  +0.000 025 kg kg-1 and  -0.000 028 kg kg-1. Comparability amongst participating metrology institutes is thus demonstrated for the purity determination of high purity metals which have no particular difficulties with their decomposition/dissolution process when solution-based analytical methods are used, or which do not have specific difficulties when direct analysis approaches are used. Nevertheless, further development is required in terms of uncertainty assessment, quantification of non-metals and the determination of purity

  17. Electrical properties of AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Martin, N. [Institut FEMTO-ST, Departement MN2S, UMR 6174 (CNRS, UFC, ENSMM, UTBM) 32, Avenue de l' Observatoire 25044 BESANCON Cedex (France); Barradas, N.P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Eyidi, D.; Beaufort, M.F.; Riviere, J.P. [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, Departement de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, BP 30179 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope Cedex (France); Vaz, F.; Marques, L. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2012-08-31

    Direct current magnetron sputtering was used to produce AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films, using an aluminum target, argon and a mixture of N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (17:3) as reactive gases. The partial pressure of the reactive gas mixture was increased, maintaining the discharge current constant. Within the two identified regimes of the target (metallic and compound), four different tendencies for the deposition rate were found and a morphological evolution from columnar towards cauliflower-type, ending up as dense and featureless-type films. The structure was found to be Al-type (face centered cubic) and the structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggested the formation of an aluminum-based polycrystalline phase dispersed in an amorphous aluminum oxide/nitride (or oxynitride) matrix. This type of structure, composition, morphology and grain size, were found to be strongly correlated with the electrical response of the films, which showed a gradual transition between metallic-like responses towards semiconducting and even insulating-type behaviors. A group of films with high aluminum content revealed a sharp decrease of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) as the concentration ratio of non-metallic/aluminum atomic ratio increased. Another group of samples, where the non-metallic content became more important, revealed a smooth transition between positive and negative values of TCR. In order to test whether the oxynitride films have a unique behavior or simply a transition between the typical responses of aluminum and of those of the correspondent nitride and oxide, the electrical properties of the ternary oxynitride system were compared with AlN{sub x} and AlO{sub y} systems, prepared in similar conditions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films were produced using magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AlN{sub x}O{sub y} film morphology, composition and

  18. Economic benefits of subsea flexible flowlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.T.; Measamer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The development of marginal off-shore hydrocarbon deposits has resulted in production of increasingly corrosive fluids, thus furthering the need for pipelines capable of operating at elevated temperatures in the presence of high concentrations of H 2 S and CO 2 gases. Conventional pipelines require the use of stainless steels or other corrosion resistant alloys which drives up the cost of materials and fabrication/installation of the system. The use of flexible pipe is assuming an important role in these applications where the selection of compatible metallic and non-metallic components have resulted in cost effective alternatives. As development of marginal and aggressive hydrocarbon reservoirs increases operators are faced with providing systems which minimize the cost of field production. This paper describes the results of economic analyses of actual field developments in order to provide a methodology for selection of an appropriate pipeline technology to minimize life cycle costs of the flowline system

  19. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladiran, M.T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries

  20. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  1. Machinability of structural steels with calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytel, S.; Zadecki, M.

    2003-01-01

    The machinability of the plain carbon and low alloy structural steels with carbon content of 0.1-0.6% is briefly discussed in the first part of the paper. In the experimental part a dependence between the addition of calcium and some changes in sulphide and oxide inclusions morphology is presented. The Volvo test for measurement of machinability index B i has been applied. Using the multiple regression methods two relationships between machinability index B i and stereological parameters of non-metallic inclusions as well as hardness of the steels have been calculated. The authors have reached the conclusion that owing to the changes in inclusion chemical composition and geometry as result of calcium addition the machinability index of the steel can be higher. (author)

  2. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending June 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This is the twenty-second in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Topics covered here are: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composites; ferritic/martensitic steels; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry damage parameters; activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; irradiation facilities; test matrices; and experimental methods

  3. Design aspects of gamma densitometers for void fraction measurements in small scale two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.; Banerjee, S.

    1981-01-01

    Design procedure for a single-beam gamma densitometer operated in the count mode is described. The design is simple, compact and is particularly suited for small scale two-phase flow experiments with thin-metal walled or non-metallic test sections. The choice of gamma sources, scintillators and signal processing systems is discussed. The procedure has been applied by the authors in the design of densitometers for two transient experiments: refilling and rewetting experiments and flow boiling experiments. Good average void measurements were obtained for relatively fast transients. It has also been shown that some useful flow parameters other than void fractions can be obtained if two or more densitometers are used, eg, the average rewetting and entrained liquid velocities in the refilling and rewetting experiments, and the average void velocity in the flow boiling experiments. (orig.)

  4. Glass heat capacity and its abrupt change in glass transition region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    cover a large range of glass formers from metallic to non-metallic glasses. To conduct this study we convert the units of all the Cp data from J/mol K and J/g K to J/g-atom K. This study will provide insight into the correlations among chemical bonding, microstructure structure, liquid fragility, glass......Glass transition (GT) has been a fascinating, but challenging subject in the condensed matter science over decades. Despite progress in understanding GT, many crucial problems still need to be clarified. One of the problems deals with the microscopic origin of abrupt change of heat capacity (Cp......) around glass transition. Here we study this problem through two approaches. First, we analyze the Cp change with temperature on homologous series of glass formers (i.e., with regular compositional substitution). Second, we do the same on non-homologous systems (e.g. without regular compositional...

  5. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  6. Dynamic energy-demand models. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Feng

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares two second-generation dynamic energy demand models, a translog (TL) and a general Leontief (GL), in the study of price elasticities and factor substitutions of nine Swedish manufacturing industries: food, textiles, wood, paper, printing, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, base metals and machinery. Several model specifications are tested with likelihood ratio test. There is a disagreement on short-run adjustments; the TL model accepts putty-putty production technology of immediate adjustments, implying equal short- and long-run price elasticities of factors, while the GL model rejects immediate adjustments, giving out short-run elasticities quite different from the long-run. The two models also disagree in substitutability in many cases. 21 refs

  7. Evaluation of structural vacancies for 1/1-Al-Re-Si approximant crystals by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K.; Suzuki, H.; Kitahata, H.; Matsushita, Y.; Nozawa, K.; Komori, F.; Yu, R. S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ohdaira, T.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.; Takagiwa, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kanazawa, I.

    2018-01-01

    The size of structural vacancies and structural vacancy density of 1/1-Al-Re-Si approximant crystals with different Re compositions were evaluated by positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements. Incident positrons were found to be trapped at the monovacancy-size open space surrounded by Al atoms. From a previous analysis using the maximum entropy method and Rietveld method, such an open space is shown to correspond to the centre of Al icosahedral clusters, which locates at the vertex and body centre. The structural vacancy density of non-metallic Al73Re17Si10 was larger than that of metallic Al73Re15Si12. The observed difference in the structural vacancy density reflects that in bonding nature and may explain that in the physical properties of the two samples.

  8. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  9. Influence of metallurgical and electrochemical factors on cracking of steels at nuclear power plants under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of metallurgical heterogeneities in steels and electrochemical factors on corrosion cracking under high temperature water environment is studied, with special emphasis on the influence of manganese sulfide inclusions and other non-metallic ones on the crack growth rate. Results show that the electro-chemical conditions for an hydrogen concentration increase in a pre-failure zone exist at a crack tip under cyclic loading; hydrogen penetrating into metals at high temperature reduces manganese sulfides, ferric carbides, and cause high pressure of gases in micro-discontinuities, thus leading to cyclic corrosion cracking; anodic (relatively to a metal matrix) inclusions are rather the cause of steel cracking resistance decrease than cathodic ones. 16 refs., 4 figs

  10. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described

  11. Sorption of tritium and tritiated water on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.; Miller, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    Sorption and desorption of tritium (HT) and tritiated water (HTO) on materials to be used in the construction of fusion facilities were studied. In ∼ 24-hour exposures in argon or room air, metal samples sorbed 8-200 μCi/m 2 of tritium from atmospheres of 5-9 Ci/m 3 HT, and non-metallic samples sorbed 60-800 μCi/m 2 from atmospheres of 14 Ci/m 3 HT. Sorption of HTO varied much more widely than HT sorption for different samples, ranging from 4 μCi/m 2 for glass to 1,300,000 μCi/m 2 for concrete samples, in 24-hour exposures to 1 Ci/m 3 HTO in room air. Time dependence of desorption in dry air showed a rapid initial process and a slower secondary process. (Author) (10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  12. Organic research section. 1984 review and 1985 programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report reviews the major activities and accomplishments of the Organic Research Section in 1984 and presents the 1985 work program. The three major areas of the Section's research work are non-metallic materials which includes applications and uses of plastics, petroleum products, coatings and elastomers; reactor waste management; and activity transport/decontamination of nuclear systems. In 1984, 50% of the Section's resources were used on studies in support of nuclear generation, 13% on reactor waste, and 37% on general activities and work in support of utilization, transmission and distribution, and thermal and hydraulic programs. About 60% of the section's work was supported by transfer and revenue funds as a result of urgent short-term work requirements which resulted in 68% of the work falling into the technical investigation, consulting and testing categories

  13. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. It is divided into the following chapters: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide components; ferritic-martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; radiation effects, mechanistic studies, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; and irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods. There were no papers for the chapters on solid breeding materials and materials engineering and design requirement. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  15. Welding of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT for cryogenic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is being given to weld resistance to cold and hot cracking at 93 and 77K and to mechanical properties of welded joints of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT, produced under the fluxes AN-17M, AN-18, AN-26, AN-45, ANF-5, 48-OF-6, ANK-45 and ANK-49 in combination with various welding wires. It is shown that welds on 03Kh12N10MT steel meet the requirements only when using 48-OF-6 or ANK-49 flux. It is noted that impact strength of welds at 77K is sufficiently affected by the volume fraction of non-metallic inclusions in weld metal

  16. Radio-over-fiber using an optical antenna based on Rydberg states of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of a direct fiber-optic link for RF transmission ("radio-over-fiber") using a sensitive optical antenna based on a rubidium vapor cell. The scheme relies on measuring the transmission of laser light at an electromagnetically induced transparency resonance that involves highly excited Rydberg states. By dressing pairs of Rydberg states using microwave fields that act as local oscillators, we encoded RF signals in the optical frequency domain. The light carrying the information is linked via a virtually lossless optical fiber to a photodetector where the signal is retrieved. We demonstrate a signal bandwidth in excess of 1 MHz limited by the available coupling laser power and atomic optical density. Our sensitive, non-metallic and readily scalable optical antenna for microwaves allows extremely low-levels of optical power (˜1 μW) throughput in the fiber-optic link. It offers a promising future platform for emerging wireless network infrastructures.

  17. A vanadium alloy for the application in a liquid metal blanket of a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstedt, H. U.; Grundmann, M.; Konys, J.; Perić, Z.

    1988-07-01

    The vanadium alloy V3Ti1Si has been corrosion tested in liquid lithium and the eutectic alloy Pb-17Li at 550°C. This alloy has a comparable corrosion resistance to the alloy V15Cr5Ti in lithium. In this molten metal it is superior to stainless steel AISI 316. In the Pb-17Li melt it is even superior to martensitic steels. The alloy has only a weak tendency to be dissolved. It is sensitive to an exchange of non-metallic elements, which causes the formation of a hardened surface layer. These chemical effects are influenced by the mass and surface ratios of the vanadium alloy to the molten metals and other structural materials. These ratios are unfavorable in the two test loops. The effects might be less pronounced in a vanadium alloy/liquid metal fusion reactor blanket.

  18. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This is the twenty-second in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Topics covered here are: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composites; ferritic/martensitic steels; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry damage parameters; activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; irradiation facilities; test matrices; and experimental methods.

  19. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  20. Atomic and electronic structure of clusters from car-Parrinello method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1994-06-01

    With the development of ab-initio molecular dynamics method, it has now become possible to study the static and dynamical properties of clusters containing up to a few tens of atoms. Here I present a review of the method within the framework of the density functional theory and pseudopotential approach to represent the electron-ion interaction and discuss some of its applications to clusters. Particular attention is focussed on the structure and bonding properties of clusters as a function of their size. Applications to clusters of alkali metals and Al, non-metal - metal transition in divalent metal clusters, molecular clusters of carbon and Sb are discussed in detail. Some results are also presented on mixed clusters. (author). 121 refs, 24 ifigs

  1. Evaporation of tetramers in Sb4n clusters and conditions for the formation of Sb2n+1 clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayane, D.; Tribollet, B.; Broyer, M.; Melinon, P.; Cabaud, B.; Hoareau, A.

    1989-01-01

    Antimony clusters are produced by the inert gas condensation technique. They are found to be built from Sb 4 units. The fragmentation by evaporation of Sb 4 units is studied as a function of the excess energy in the cluster. By this way the binding energy of the Sb 4 units in the cluster is found to be about 1.5 eV, well below the binding energy of a Sb atom in the bulk and in Sb 4 (≅3 eV). The evolution of ionization potentials of Sb 4n clusters confirms that their structure is probably non metallic. Finally the possible metastable character of this Sb 4n structure is discussed. (orig.)

  2. The liquid metal embrittlement of iron and ferritic steels in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilditch, J.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Tice, D.R.; Skeldon, P.

    1995-01-01

    The liquid metal embrittlement of iron and A508 III, 21/4Cr-1Mo and 15Mo3 steels in sodium at 200-400 o C has been studied, using dynamic straining at 10 -6 s -1 , in order to investigate the roles of microstructure and composition. The steels comprised bainitic, martensitic, tempered martensitic and ferritic/pearlitic microstructures. All materials were embrittled by sodium, the embrittlement being associated generally with quasicleavage on fracture surfaces. Intergranular cracking was also found with martensitic and ferritic/pearlitic microstructures. The susceptibility to embrittlement was greater in higher strength materials and at higher temperatures. The embrittlement was similar to that encountered previously in 9Cr steel, which depends upon the presence of non-metallic impurities in the sodium. (author)

  3. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  4. Structures and properties of (U,Pu)O2 containing non-active fission products. A simulation of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, F.

    1969-01-01

    We have made oxides with the same uranium and plutonium content, the same stoichiometry and the same fission product content as an oxide fuel (U 0,8 PuO 2 )O 1,96 after 2 per cent burn up. We have calculated the stoichiometry changes due to irradiation and checked the calculation by X rays parameters measurements. We have calculated and measured the contraction of the oxide lattice due to fission products in solid solution. Microprobe analysis of precipitates have been made and have lead to the identification of non metallic barium containing compounds and have shown the particular behaviour of molybdenum. Some physical properties have been measured especially the electrical resistivity, the thermal diffusivity and the vapour pressure of zirconium in solid solution. (author) [fr

  5. Magneto Transport of CVD Carbon in Artificial Opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yin, Ming; Arammash, Fauzi; Datta, Timir

    2014-03-01

    Magneto-transport of carbon inverse opal structures were investigated in the 2.5 to 300 K temperatures and magnetic fields in the 0-10T regime. Qualitatively, our observations lie between those reported by previous researchers. Over this temperature range, transport (in zero magnetic field) is non-metallic; the resistance decreased with rising temperature however the temperature dependent behavior is not activated, as observed with variable range hopping. In three-dimensions, such behavior can also be the result of weak localization and electron-electron interactions; in particular the change in conductivity is a polynomial in fractional powers of absolute temperature. At sub-helium temperature regimes the relative magneto resistance is measured to be ~ 0.1 percent per Tesla. Results of data analysis for several different scenarios will be reported. DOD award #60177-RT-H from the ARO.

  6. Synthesis of silicon containing materials using liquid hydrosilane compositions through direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Guruvenket; Sailer, Robert A.; Hoey, Justin

    2018-03-13

    An apparatus and a non-vapor-pressure dependent method of chemical vapor deposition of Si based materials using direct injection of liquid hydrosilane(s) are presented. Liquid silane precursor solutions may also include metal, non-metal or metalloid dopants, nanomaterials and solvents. An illustrative apparatus has a precursor solution and carrier gas system, atomizer and deposit head with interior chamber and a hot plate supporting the substrate. Atomized liquid silane precursor solutions and carrier gas moves through a confined reaction zone that may be heated and the aerosol and vapor are deposited on a substrate to form a thin film. The substrate may be heated prior to deposition. The deposited film may be processed further with thermal or laser processing.

  7. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 photocatalyst doped by transition metal ions (Fe3+, Cr3+ and V5+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Vu, Anh; Linh Bui, Thi Hai; Cuong Tran, Manh; Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Tuan Nguyen, Quoc

    2010-01-01

    Nano TiO 2 was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sample was doped with transition metal ions (V, Cr and Fe) and non-metal (N). Doped TiO 2 samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photocatalytic activity in the mineralization of xylene (vapor phase), methylene blue and active dyer PR (liquid phase) was tested. In comparison with non-doped TiO 2 , V-, Cr-, Fe-doped TiO 2 and N-doped TiO 2 samples exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity using visible light instead of UV

  9. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described

  10. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Letter, a successful simultaneous monitoring experiment of two water levels in the laboratory, as well as a trial for detecting a disturbed surface by beam-expanding is reported.

  11. Status of decommissioning and waste management in the Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of JAEA has some experiences of the decommissioning of research reactors and research laboratories including a reprocessing test facility. In order to dismantle those facilities safely, we paid much attention for the radiological protection of radiation workers taking into consideration of characteristics of each facility, especially to protect internal exposures. As the results of decommissioning activities, several thousands tons of solid radioactive wastes were generated. In the near future, we will start the treatment of these stored wastes by a super compactor, metal melting furnace and non-metal waste melting furnace to gain high volume reduction and to prepare stable waste forms for final disposal. In Japan, the clearance system was established in 2005 by amending the Nuclear Regulatory Law. The NSRI plans to release very slightly contaminated concrete debris for recycling, which was generated from the replacement of reactor core of research reactor (JRR-3), according to the clearance system. (author)

  12. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210 Po, 210 Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  13. Recovery of reactor electrical assemblies using differential de-encapsulation to remove dielectric insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubrig, J.G.; Hammerstone, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    State-of-the-art de-encapsulation technologies associated with the conventional dielectric insulation systems employed in the construction of electrical coils and power distribution systems do not allow for accurate fatigue/failure analysis or reliable recovery of costly assembly components. Differential de-encapsulation allows for the selective removal of contemporary thermoset resin based insulation systems to allow non-destructive penetration of insulation wall thicknesses to both examine critical areas and recover high performance metallic and non-metallic inserts for remanufacture; significantly reducing replacement costs and reactor downtime. The authors' analysis describes how the availability of engineering data from the selective and non-destructive removal of insulation materials will aid in the evaluation of original manufacture, materials and procedures; enabling redesign to enhance subsequent on line performance. They also discuss why the ability to recover coil and core assemblies for remanufacture will have a major economic impact on reactor management costs

  14. Ecological problems of oil wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsun, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Pollution of the environment with different wastes is one the main problems in the world. So that is why this article is devoted to consideration of questions, related to oil and its industry. During oil production (extraction, transportation, refining) different wastes (homogeneous and solid wastes) are taken out from a place of production to the environment and after this environment undergoes the pollution because of these wastes. These wastes contain first of all harmful for environment radioactive elements, then different groups of metals, non-metals and other combinations. All these forms technical pollution zones and can cause serious danger for health of people. So taking into consideration all mentioned above we must make all efforts in order to prevent such accidents

  15. Silicene catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline: A mechanistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christopher; He, Haiying

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline has broad applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The high reaction temperatures and pressures and unavoidable hazardous chemicals of current metal catalysts call for more environmentally friendly non-metal catalysts. In this study, the plausibility of silicene as a potential catalyst for nitrobenzene reduction is investigated with a focus on the distinct reaction mechanism based on the density functional theory. The direct reaction pathway was shown to be distinctly different from the Haber mechanism following PhNO2∗ → PhNO∗ → PhNHO∗ → PhNH2O∗ → PhNH2∗. The hydroxyl groups remain bound to silicene after aniline is formed and acquire a high activation barrier to remove.

  16. A Study for Shelf Life Evaluation of Rubber O-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sun Chul; Kim, Jong Seog

    2005-01-01

    Non-metallic materials stored in warehouses in nuclear power plants have shelf life. The shelf life means the maximum storage time allowable such that the install life of the material is not affected. Materials whose shelf lives expire are generally discarded. unless the shelf lives of these materials can be extended by reducing the install life. Examples of this case are rubber materials. Rubber materials are widely used for sealing of various machines. There are various life evaluation methods for rubber material. For example, the compression set is generally used for evaluation the aging condition of rubber materials used for sealing. A compression set value can be calculated according to the ASTM D395. We have tried the compression set test by using specimens with 6.99mm diameter O-ring even when ASTM D 395 recommends the use of bar specimen. Test results and comparison between O-ring and reference data of EPRI NP-6608 are presented below

  17. Molecular dynamic simulation study of molten cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganegi Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study thermodynamics and structural properties of expanded caesium fluid. Internal pressure, radial distribution functions (RDFs, coordination numbers and diffusion coefficients have been calculated at temperature range 700–1600 K and pressure range 100–800 bar. We used the internal pressure to predict the metal–non-metal transition occurrence region. RDFs were calculated at wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The coordination numbers decrease and positions of the first peak of RDFs slightly increase as the temperature increases and pressure decreases. The calculated self-diffusion coefficients at various temperatures and pressures show no distinct boundary between Cs metallic fluid and its expanded fluid where it continuously increases with temperature.

  18. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  19. ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE JUSTIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS INTO QUALITY, ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND PRODUCTS SAFETY IN SUMADIJA AND POMORAVLJE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Raonić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the project "Improvement of quality and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje", financed by EU, "The study on vindication investments into quality improvement and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje" has been made. This paper discusses the results of cost/benefit analysis that includes SME from metal-processing industry, industry for non-metalic materials production and manufacturing, agriculture and food-processing industry, tourism and catering industry. The paper also includes the indicators of total economic benefits and costs that may be the result of QMS, EMS and HACCP initiation, as well as of CE mark for the products obtaining. We illustrated necessary financial investments in relation to predicted percentage of certified SME in the region in five years period, and on this basis financial indicators of justification of investments and the proof of those investments through calculated net present values (NPV.

  20. A study on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of various organic compounds using N-Tio2 under Uv-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, Dhegam; Sailu, Chinta

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the photocatalytic degradation of mixture of four selected organic compounds are Congo Red (CR), Methylene Blue (MB), Diclofenaec (DC), 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) have been subjected to Photo catalytic degradation by Ultraviolet (λ=254nm) radiation in presence of Nitrogen-doped Titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) catalyst. This paper focused on the enhancement of photo catalysis by modification of TiO2 employing non-metal ion (Nitrogen) doping. Experiments are conducted with a mixture of equal proportions of organic compounds (CR, MB, DC, and 4-CP) with combined concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l in water in a batch reactor in presence of N-TiO2catalyst with UV light (λ=254nm). The rate of degradation of each compound is determined by using spectrophotometer. The kinetics of degradation of the selected organic compounds is followed first order rate.