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Sample records for non-medical anabolic steroid

  1. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  2. Anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, K J

    1993-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are controlled substances that are taken illicitly to enhance physical appearance and performance. In addition to the desired somatic effects, reasonably good evidence suggests that AASs are capable of influencing mood and behavior. A myriad of adverse effects have been reported. Although many of these effects appear to reverse with cessation of use, fatalities due to suicides, homicides, liver disease, heart attacks, and cancer have been reported infrequently among illicit users. Although studies are needed to quantify more precisely the long-term consequences and risks of using AASs, patterns of illicit use are particularly troublesome. The use of extremely high doses, needles, counterfeit and veterinary drugs, and multiple steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs simultaneously may further enhance the risks of using AASs. The clinician should suspect AAS use in high-risk individuals who manifest any of the possible consequences described in this article. Laboratory tests can be valuable for detection of use and assessment of consequences. Treatment approaches may borrow from proven techniques employed with other substance abusers, but should also address the special value that physical attributes and body image have for the AAS user.

  3. [Artificial illness as a result of non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povzun, S A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old female body builder who had used anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 18 years to build up muscle mass died from liver rupture. The cause of the latter was multiple abscesses caused by Actinomyces, which developed in the presence of immunodeficiency. The postmortem changes in different organs were due to hormonal imbalance. The paper gives the data available in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the effects of AASs taken in supraphysiological doses on the body and their non-medical application.

  4. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  5. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkes Jack

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955 were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and

  6. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine Doctors never prescribe anabolic steroids for building muscle in young, healthy people. (Try push-ups instead!) But doctors sometimes prescribe anabolic steroids to treat some types of anemia or disorders in ... don’t build muscles the way that anabolic steroids do, people don’ ...

  7. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  8. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  9. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  10. Anabolic steroids are fool's gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A J

    1981-10-01

    Since increases in muscle strength are proportional to increases in the cross-sectional diameter of the muscles being trained, the body must convert greater than normal amounts of amino acids available to it to increase size in athletes in training. When androgens became available in the 1930's they were used primarily to restore positive nitrogen balance in victims of starvation. Anabolic steroids, which were developed to avoid unwanted effects of androgens, were first given to weight lifters, but football players and weight throwers were soon using them. From 1965 to 1977, 25 clinical studies were published dealing with the administration of an anabolic-androgenic steroid to adult human males for evaluating changes in strength and, in 10 of these studies, in maximum oxygen consumption. In 12 of these studies, improvements were claimed from the use of these steroids; in the other 13 no improvements were observed. Other studies have shown that in healthy adult males these steroids reduce testosterone and gonadotrophin output, which reduces spermatogenesis. Alterations of normal liver function have been found in up to 80% of persons treated with C17-alkylated testosterone derivatives. Peliosis hepatitis, with liver failure and death, and fatal liver cancer have also been reported in adults so treated. Reliable methods for detecting anabolic steroids in the urine are now used in certain international competitions. Testing, announced bans, and disqualifications have not been effective in controlling the use of the drugs. The best hope for doing so lies in continuing education of athletes and their supervisors.

  11. Endocrine aspects of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F C

    1997-07-01

    Understanding of the mechanism of androgen action has been enhanced by advances in knowledge on the molecular basis of activation of the androgen receptor and the importance of tissue conversion of circulating testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and estradiol. New evidence supports the view that supraphysiological doses of anabolic steroids do have a definite, positive effect on muscle size and muscle strength. However, the nature of the anabolic action of androgens on muscle is currently unclear and may involve mechanisms independent of the androgen receptor. The dose-response relationships of anabolic actions vs the potentially serious risk to health of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) use are still unresolved. Most of the adverse effects of AAS are reversible but some are permanent, particularly in women and children. The reported incidence of acute life-threatening events associated with AAS abuse is low, but the actual risk may be underrecognized or underreported; the exact incidence is unknown. The long-term consequences and disease risks of AAS to the sports competitor remain to be properly evaluated.

  12. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  13. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  14. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    .... Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern...

  15. Anabolic steroids: implications for the nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D J; Shaw, E B

    1985-12-01

    Anabolic steroids are being used by athletes in a wide variety of sports in efforts to enhance their athletic performances. Steroid abuse is complex to evaluate due to the highly emotional subject matter and the limitations in researching anabolic steroids. This article has been written to heighten the practitioner's awareness of the problem of "sports doping" with anabolic steroids. It will provide practical information on possible consequences of steroid use and outline essential information to obtain through the history, physical exam and laboratory studies. Intervention strategies based on the three levels of prevention are described. With awareness of the problem of sports doping and knowledge of how to deal with it in primary care, the nurse practitioner can enhance the health care provided to aspiring athletes, athletes and retired athletes.

  16. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to

  17. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  18. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  19. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lök

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing ‘‘Anabolic Androgenic Steroid’’ (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  20. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavant, Marcel J; Blake, Kathleen; Griffith, Jill; Yates, Andrew; Copley, LaRae M

    2007-08-01

    Whether providing anticipatory guidance to the young adolescent patient, conducting a preparticipation examination on a young athlete, or treating a sick user of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), the primary care physician must be familiar with the adverse consequences of the use of these compounds. This article reviews the endocrine, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatic, and miscellaneous effects of AASs, highlighting effects reported in children and adolescents, and relying on consequences in adults when pediatric data is unavailable.

  1. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    B. Haji Moradi; K. Fatahi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping) is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided ...

  2. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  3. [Rhabdomyolysis in a bodybuilder using anabolic steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageloch, W; Appell, H J; Weicker, H

    1988-09-01

    The clinical course and the laboratory findings of a massive rhabdomyolysis in a male bodybuilder is presented. Particularly spectacular are the light- and electron-microscopical pictures of the histological findings. The acute renal failure as the most important and major life-threatening complication of the rhabdomyolysis is considered and the successful therapeutic procedure is described. The probability of a causal relation between anabolic steroids and rhabdomyolysis is discussed as well as the resulting consequences for the care of athletes in sports medicine.

  4. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogol, A D; Yesalis, C E

    1992-03-01

    This article has reviewed some of the hormonal and behavioral maturation that occurs during adolescence, which are characterized by remarkable physical changes and behavioral vulnerability. Risk taking of many varieties is common and drugs (including anabolic-androgenic steroids) form a part of the prevailing culture in many places. These steroids probably are not severe health hazards when taken intermittently and in low to moderate doses. The 17-alkylated derivatives are clearly the more likely to cause hepatotoxicity. Thus, the scare tactics formerly used (severe constitutional side effects) are doomed to failure. The tenuous link between these drugs and objective behavioral and addictive effects must be strengthened before health strategies based on this issue can be validated. Clearly, the lack of scientific information has impeded, if not precluded, the formulation of an effective health education strategy. The most potent deterrent to the use of steroid drugs by athletes must be the moral issue of fair play and maintaining a "level playing field." We strongly support directed research in these areas and hope that the credibility of the scientific community can be regained after its faulted "stop steroid use" campaigns based on the lack of steroid efficacy in bringing about desired results or on their dire consequences have been replaced with credible evidence to refute their use on these and other grounds.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man using anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysoczanski, Mariusz; Rachko, Maurice; Bergmann, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used worldwide to help athletes gain muscle mass and strength. Their use and abuse is associated with numerous side effects, including acute myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences.

  6. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  7. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  8. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor.

  9. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  11. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  12. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  13. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and elimin...

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  15. Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key PointsFor many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use.Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause and

  16. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  17. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nlicole M Martin; Barham K Abu Dayyeh; Raymond T Chung

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half alter his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery.This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  18. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  19. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. Howev...

  20. [Abuse of anabolic steroids and its impact on thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Rosenthal, Doris; Carvalho, Denise P de

    2007-12-01

    The use of anabolic steroids to increase physical performance and for aesthetic ends has reached alarming indices in the last three decades. Besides the desired actions, several collateral effects have been described in the literature, such as the development of some types of cancer, ginecomasty, peliosis hepatis, renal insufficiency, virilization, amongst others. The most proeminent effect on human thyroid function is the reduction of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), with consequent reductions of total serum T3 and T4, depending however on the susceptibility of the drug to aromatization and subsequent transformation into estrogen. In rats, anabolic steroids also act in the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones and seem to exert an important proliferative effect on thyroid cells. Thus, the aim of the present paper is to review data on the effect of supraphysiological doses of anabolic steroids on thyroid function, showing the danger that indiscriminate use of these drugs can cause to health.

  1. [Myocardial infarction and anabolic steroid use. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, P; Bonnefoy, E; Guérard, S; Munet, M; Velon, S; Brion, R; Touboul, P

    2000-07-01

    The potential cardiotoxicity of anabolic steroids is not well known. The authors report the case of a young man who was a top class body builder and who developed severe ischaemic cardiomyopathy presenting with an inferior wall myocardial infarction. The clinical history revealed prolonged and intensive usage of two types of anabolic steroids to be the only risk factor. This cardiotoxicity may be related to several physiopathological mechanisms: accelerated atherogenesis by lipid changes, increased platelet aggregation, coronary spasm or a direct toxic effect on the myocytes. The apparent scarcity of the reported clinical details in the literature is probably an underestimation of the consequences of this usage.

  2. Anabolic steroids: what should the emergency physician know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James T

    2005-08-01

    Anabolic steroids have not currently made their way into the daily practice of emergency physicians. The patients that use and abuse them have. In addition, those patients that are suffering from the consequences of illnesses that have excess levels of androgens are commonly evaluated in the emergency department. Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the practices of anabolic steroid users, so they can provide more beneficial council to their patients. As research continues, the emergency physician may find uses for androgens within the emergency department.

  3. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  4. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqas Farooqi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8, MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013, EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36, trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living and adverse events, including mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high

  5. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  6. Investigation of anabolic steroids in two taste aversion paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, R; Rosellini, R A; Svare, B

    1993-02-01

    The aversive effects of estradiol have been studied in two different taste aversion paradigms. A similar investigation was undertaken for the anabolic-androgenic steroids, nandralone and testosterone cypionate, using Rockland-Swiss mice. Experiments 1 and 2 used the brief exposure of a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus for taste aversion learning, and showed that anabolic steroids (1 mg) do not induce taste aversions. Instead, these hormones induced a small non-contingent increase in saccharin preference. Experiment 3 showed that daily nandralone administration (1 mg/day) had a greater anabolic effect than the same dose of testosterone cypionate. Experiment 4 paired the continuous exposure to a novel diet with daily nandralone injections, and showed that steroid treatment increased intake of the novel diet. When the novel diet was subsequently presented with the familiar diet in a two-choice preference test, there was no indication that an aversion was conditioned to the novel target diet. On the contrary, nandralone treatment significantly increased the preference for the novel diet. These experiments show that anabolic-androgenic steroids do not have aversive effects in mice, and that they may have positive consequences.

  7. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important ad

  8. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important ad

  9. Anabolic steroid usage in athletics: facts, fiction, and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M; Adams, Kent J; Stamford, Bryant A

    2004-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests the widespread usage of anabolic steroids among athletes (20-90%), particularly at the professional and elite amateur levels. In contrast, scientific studies indicate that usage is rare and no higher than 6%. Conclusions from scientific studies suggest that anabolic steroid usage declines progressively from high school to college and beyond; however, anecdotal evidence claims the opposite trend. In this clash between "hard" scientific data vs. "soft" anecdotal information, it is natural that professionals would gravitate toward scientifically based conclusions. However, in the case of anabolic steroids (a stigmatized and illegal substance), should word-of-mouth testimony from individuals closest to the issues--those who have participated in and coached sports, those who have served as drug-testing overseers, and journalists who relentlessly track leads and verify sources--be set aside as irrelevant? Not if a complete picture is to emerge. In this review, hard scientific evidence is placed on the table side-by-side with soft anecdotal evidence, without weighting or bias. The purpose is to allow the opportunity for each to illuminate the other and, in so doing, potentially bring us a step closer to determining the true extent of anabolic steroid usage in athletics.

  10. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 484: Performance enhancing anabolic steroid abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Anabolic steroids are composed of testosterone and other substances related to testosterone that promote growth of skeletal muscle, increase hemoglobin concentration, and mediate secondary sexual characteristics. These substances have been in use since the 1930s to promote muscle growth, improve athletic performance, and enhance cosmetic appearance. Although anabolic steroids are controlled substances, only to be prescribed by a physician, it is currently possible to obtain anabolic steroids illegally without a prescription. There are significant negative physical and psychologic effects of anabolic steroid use, which in women can cause significant cosmetic and reproductive changes. Anabolic steroid use can be addictive and, therefore, difficult to stop. Treatment for anabolic steroid abuse generally involves education, counseling, and management of withdrawal symptoms. Health care providers are encouraged to address the use of these substances, encourage cessation, and refer patients to substance abuse treatment centers to prevent the long-term irreversible consequences of anabolic steroid use.

  11. [Anabolic androgenic steroids in amateur sports in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; de Hon, Olivier; Levi, Marcel; de Ronde, W Pim

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands an estimated 20,000 people use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The use of AAS is particularly common in regular visitors to gyms and fitness centres. AAS are usually synthetic derivatives of testosterone with both an anabolic and an androgenic effect. AAS have many side effects like liver damage (oral use) or infections (intramuscular use), which can be explained partly by the androgenic effect and partly by the manner of use. Many of these side effects are only reported in case studies and have not been systematically investigated.

  12. Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, K J; Blow, F C; Hill, E M

    1994-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids to enhance athletic performance and physical appearance can cause numerous psychiatric and other adverse effects. In order to prevent steroid use and its negative consequences, knowledge of risk factors is needed. We conducted an anonymous survey of 404 male weight lifters from community gymnasiums who completed a 20-min, self-administered questionnaire. The sample for this study included all 35 men who were thinking about using steroids ("high-risk" nonusers), 50 randomly selected nonusers who were not thinking about using steroids ("low-risk" nonusers) and all 49 steroid users. The three groups differed in age, training characteristics, other performance-enhancers tried, body image, acquaintance with steroid users, and perception of negative consequences. When groups were compared along a continuum from low risk to high risk and from high risk to actual use, we found increasing amounts of competitive bodybuilding, performance-enhancers tried, and steroid-using acquaintances. Groups did not differ in their use of addictive substances. Nearly three-fourths of the high-risk group felt "not big enough," compared to 21% of the low-risk group and 38% of the steroid users (p steroids do work to increase satisfaction with body size, and that dissatisfaction with body size may contribute to the risk of using steroids.

  13. [Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Chaves, José Carlos; Orleans, Roberto Ghignone de

    2009-04-01

    This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a 'pumped-up' body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid use. Preventive campaigns are needed, targeting young people and combining a critical view and deconstruction of the values assigned to the body by consumer society, counteracted by high-quality information on the health risks associated with anabolic steroid use.

  14. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. In our paper, we describe a case in which use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was associated with SJS. The patient participated in competitive body-building and regularly took variable doses of AAS. Initial symptoms (headache, weakness, pharyngodynia, and fever) were ignored. After a week he presented to the Emergency Department with a burning sensation on the mouth, lips, and eyes. Painful, erythematous, maculopapular, and vesicular lesions appeared all over the body, including on the genitals. During hospitalization, he also developed a cardiac complication. The patient had not taken any drugs except AAS.

  15. Echocardiographic Findings in Power Athletes Abusing Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Hajimoradi, Behzad; Kazerani, Hashem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs. Methods Body builder athletes with continuous prac...

  16. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons’ biomechan...

  17. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth I

    2008-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system.

  18. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... steroids: A survey of 500 users. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 644-651. Quaglio, G., Fornasiero.... Affinity for the receptor is evaluated in the receptor binding assay, while the transactivation (functional... anabolic and androgenic (Zaffaroni, 1960; Ringold et al., 1959). Functional assays were also undertaken...

  19. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  20. [Use and abuse of androgens and anabolic steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alén, M

    1993-01-01

    At therapeutic dosages, androgen and anabolic steroids enhance neither muscle strength nor competitive performance. Endogenous androgen secretion is inhibited, and the net effect is negligible. The dosages taken by athletes and body-builders are 10-50 fold greater than the therapeutic dosages, and give rise to hyperandrogenic conditions. Although this improves endurance, strength and muscle development, at the same time a manifest hormone disturbance is developed with a variety of consequences. Abusers, who as a rule inject illicit preparations themselves, are also at risk of hepatitis and HIV.

  1. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  2. Anabolic androgenic steroids, an easily forgotten cause of polycythaemia and cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M S Y; Vilcassim, S; Fedele, P; Grigoriadis, G

    2016-04-01

    Excessive anabolic androgenic steroids (both exogenous and endogenous) are known causes of polycythaemia and ischaemic cardiovascular events. Despite this, they are commonly forgotten in the workup of patients. We report a case of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroid-induced polycythaemia and stroke and explore possible pitfalls for clinicians. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  4. Hepatic neoplasms associated with contraceptive and anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, K G

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between HCA (hepatocellular adenoma) and FNH (focal nodular hyperplasia) and the association of HCA and FNH with OC (oral contraceptives). FNH occurs at least twice as frequent in females as in males. A study conducted by the author revealed that only 20% of patients with FNH had symptoms and signs related to their neoplasms; in the rest, FNH was accidentally discovered during surgery for diseases of the gallbladder or at necropsy. The highly characteristic gross appearance of FNH is discribed in detail. The etiologic relationship between FNH and OC was cited in the light of frequent findings of FNH in infants and children, and of suggestions by other authors that FNH could be a direct result on OC therapy or that contraceptive steroids or conjugated estrogens accelerate the growth of FNH, a very slow growing neoplasm. Simple excision is the treatment of choice for FNH; in some cases, hepatic artery ligation is indicated. In the case of HCA, statistics show that the incidence of HCA has been increasing since 1960. Majority of patients with HCA have normal tests of hepatic function. Radiographic studies and hepatic scans may reveal HCA, but the best diagnostic method so far is angiography. Although gross appearance of HCA is variable, the features are clearly distinguishable from that of FNH. Other topics discussed include the occasional occurence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients on OC or anabolic steroids (AS), and malignant liver tumors in patients using OC or AS. Further research should be done to clarify the etiologic relationship between androgenic-anabolic steroids and hepatocellular tumors and tumorlike lesions.

  5. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2009-12-01

    The nonmedical use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) appeals to athletes across several sports, particularly those whose activity makes muscle size and strength advantageous, and in individuals (usually men) with body dysmorphic disorder. Patterns of nonmedical use, including supratherapeutic doses of illicitly obtained drugs, increase the risk for adverse psychiatric and other medical consequences. Although AAS users may be more likely to consult physicians for nonpsychiatric medical consequences than changes in their mental status, it is argued that the motivation for persistent use despite adverse consequences is sustained in large part by psychological variables. Therefore, all physicians who treat nonmedical AAS users will benefit from an understanding of these psychological variables, including the potential for AAS to cause dependence. This article aims to aid such understanding, and guidelines are suggested for assessment and treatment of nonmedical AAS users.

  6. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  7. [Effect of an anabolic steroid on the cellular immunity and postoperative evaluation of uterine cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooshika, Y; Umesaki, N; Sako, H; Kawabata, M; Sugana, T

    1984-10-01

    The effects of an anabolic steroid on the immune activity and clinical condition of patients with cancer of the uterine cervix were studied. The effects of the steroid on tumor growth were also studied in animals. The results obtained demonstrated that the anabolic steroid (1) enhanced the activity of macrophages and cell-mediated immune activity, (2) reduced the incidence of post-operative infection, (3) reduced pose-operative loss of weight of patients due to the intrinsic anabolic activity of the steroid, and (4) did not exert any influence on tumor growth. Judging from these results, administration of the anabolic steroid would appear to be effective for the improvement of the general condition of cancer patients following surgery or in terminal cases.

  8. [Successive ruptures of patellar and Achilles tendons. Anabolic steroids in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, J; Prokop, A; Skouras, E

    2008-01-01

    Derivatives of testosterone or of 19-nor-testosterone are used as anabolics for the purpose of improving performance although the effect of anabolics is known still to be under discussion. The use of anabolic steroids continues among competitive athletes despite increased controls and increasingly frequent dramatic incidents connected with them. Whereas metabolic dysfunction during anabolic use is well documented, ruptures of the large tendons are rarely reported. Within 18 months, a 29-year-old professional footballer needed surgery for rupture of the patellar tendon and of both Achilles tendons. Carefully directed questioning elicited confirmation that he had taken different anabolic steroids regularly for 3 years with the intention of improving his strength. After each operation anabolic steroids were taken again at a high dosage during early convalescence and training. Minimally invasive surgery and open suturing techniques led to complete union of the Achilles tendons in good time. Training and anabolic use (metenolon 300 mg per week) started early after suturing of the patellar tendon including bone tunnels culminated in histologically confirmed rerupture after 8 weeks. After a ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon graft with subsequent infection, the tendon and reserve traction apparatus were lost. Repeated warnings of impaired healing if anabolic use was continued had been given without success. In view of the high number of unrecorded cases in competitive and athletic sports, we can assume that the use of anabolic steroids is also of quantitative relevance in the operative treatment of tendon ruptures.

  9. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse...... with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The remaining 3 patients required implantation of a LV assist device (LVAD) and were listed for heart transplantation. No recovery of LV function in the patients treated with assist device was seen. CONCLUSION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid...

  10. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  11. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  12. Evidence for physical and psychological dependence on anabolic androgenic steroids in eight weight lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, K J; Eliopulos, G A; Blow, F C; Catlin, D H; Beresford, T P

    1990-04-01

    All eight users of anabolic androgenic steroids in a pilot survey of weight lifters reported withdrawal symptoms and continued steroid use despite adverse consequences. Psychiatric (especially, depressive) symptoms were prominent in dependent users, underscoring the importance of diagnosing steroid dependence in clinical practice.

  13. Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, A A; Melchert, R B

    1993-04-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as "the drug of greatest national health concern" while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention on the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse. Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids were correlated to myocardial infarction in weight lifters and cardiomyopathy in a former professional football player. From the total emergency room episodes where cocaine was mentioned in 1990, approximately 66% of these episodes occurred in young individuals 18-29 years of age. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children. Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms whereby exercise and/or exercise training may alter the cardiovascular responses to these drugs. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.

  14. Anabolic Steroids: Metabolism, Doping and Detection in Human and Equestrian Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A. T.; Houghton, E.; Gower, D. B.

    This chapter highlights the important aspects of detection of doping with synthetic anabolic steroids and discusses some of the problems with, and solutions to, the detection of misuse of the naturally occurring ones.

  15. Collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women during therapy with anabolic steroid or female sex hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Pødenphant, J;

    1990-01-01

    The effect of anabolic steroid therapy and estrogen-progestogen substitution therapy on serum concentration of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), a measure of collagen synthesis, in postmenopausal women was studied in two double-blind studies: (1) 39 women allocated to treatment....... We conclude that anabolic steroids stimulate type III collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women, while estrogen-progestogen therapy may have such an effect, but only to a lesser degree....

  16. PYOMYOSITIS IN ATHLETES AFTER THE USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS - CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Nivaldo Souza Cardozo; Gaspar,Eric Figueirido; Siqueira, Karina Levy [UNIFESP; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. Method: Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE), EPM-UNIFESP. Results: All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with collection of material for culturing) and antibiotic therapy was adminis...

  17. Brain connectivity aberrations in anabolic-androgenic steroid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars T. Westlye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training. 50 users tested positive for AAS based on the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio and doping substances in urine. 16 previous users and 59 controls tested negative. We estimated brain network nodes and their time-series using ICA and dual regression and defined connectivity matrices as the between-node partial correlations. In line with the emotional and behavioral consequences of AAS, current users exhibited reduced functional connectivity between key nodes involved in emotional and cognitive regulation, in particular reduced connectivity between the amygdala and default-mode network (DMN and between the dorsal attention network (DAN and a frontal node encompassing the superior and inferior frontal gyri (SFG/IFG and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, with further reductions as a function of dependency, lifetime exposure, and cycle state (on/off.

  18. Brain connectivity aberrations in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlye, Lars T; Kaufmann, Tobias; Alnæs, Dag; Hullstein, Ingunn R; Bjørnebekk, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training. 50 users tested positive for AAS based on the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio and doping substances in urine. 16 previous users and 59 controls tested negative. We estimated brain network nodes and their time-series using ICA and dual regression and defined connectivity matrices as the between-node partial correlations. In line with the emotional and behavioral consequences of AAS, current users exhibited reduced functional connectivity between key nodes involved in emotional and cognitive regulation, in particular reduced connectivity between the amygdala and default-mode network (DMN) and between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and a frontal node encompassing the superior and inferior frontal gyri (SFG/IFG) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), with further reductions as a function of dependency, lifetime exposure, and cycle state (on/off).

  19. Impaired post exercise heart rate recovery in anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, M R; Dias, R G; Laterza, M C; Rondon, M U P B; Braga, A M F W; de Moraes Moreau, R L; Negrão, C E; Alves, M-J N N

    2013-10-01

    Previous study showed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was augmented in anabolic steroids users (AASU). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the heart rate (HR) responses after maximal exercise testing would be reduced in AASU. 10 male AASU and 10 AAS nonusers (AASNU) were studied. Cardiopulmonary exercise was performed to assess the functional capacity and heart rate recovery. MSNA was recorded directly from the peroneal nerve by microneurography technique. Peak oxygen consumption (VO₂) was lower in AASU compared to AASNU (43.66±2.24 vs. 52.70±1.68 ml/kg/min, P=0.005). HR recovery (HRR) at first and second minute was lower in AASU than AASNU (21±2 vs. 27±2 bpm, P=0.02 and 37±4 vs. 45±2 bpm, P=0.05, respectively). MSNA was higher in AASU than AASNU (29±3 vs. 20±1 bursts/min, P=0.01). Further analysis showed a correlation between HRR and MSNA (r=- 0.64, P=0.02), HRR at first minute and peak VO₂ (r=0.70, P=0.01) and HRR at second minute and peak VO₂ (r=0.62, P=0.02). The exacerbated sympathetic outflow associated with a lower parasympathetic activation after maximal exercise, which impairs heart rate recovery, strengthens the idea of autonomic imbalance in AASU. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chylomicron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Aleksandra T; Maranhão, Raul C; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Negrão, Carlos E; da Silva, Jeferson L; Vinagre, Carmen G C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on chylomicron metabolism. An artificial lipid emulsion labeled with radioactive cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) mimicking chylomicrons was intravenously injected into individuals who regularly weight trained and made regular use of AAS (WT+AAS group), normolipidemic sedentary individuals (SDT group) and individuals who also regularly weight trained but did not use AAS (WT group). Fractional clearance rates (FCR) were determined by compartmental analysis for emulsion plasma decay curves. FCR-CE for the WT+AAS group was reduced (0.0073 ± 0.0079 min(-1), 0.0155 ± 0.0100 min(-1), 0.0149 ± 0.0160 min(-1), respectively; p<0.05), FCR-TG was similar for both the WT and SDT groups. HDL-C plasma concentrations were lower in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (22 ± 13; 41 ± 7; 38 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was greater in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (7243 ± 1822; 3898 ± 1232; 2058 ± 749, respectively; p<0.001). However, no difference was observed for lipoprotein lipase activity. Data strongly suggest that AAS may reduce the removal from the plasma of chylomicron remnants, which are known atherogenic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomics Approach to Anabolic Steroid Urine Profiling of Bovines Treated with Prohormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Lommen, A.; Essers, M.L.; Groot, M.J.; Hende, van J.; Doeswijk, T.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In livestock production, illegal use of natural steroids is hard to prove because metabolites are either unknown or not significantly above highly fluctuating endogenous levels. In this work we outlined for the first time a metabolomics based strategy for anabolic steroid urine profiling. Urine prof

  2. Modulation of follistatin and myostatin propeptide by anabolic steroids and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, S; Geisler, S; Hengevoss, J; Schiffer, T; Piechotta, M; Adler, M; Diel, P

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of training, anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones on myostatin-interacting proteins in order to identify manipulations of myostatin signalling. To identify whether analysis of the myostatin interacting proteins follistatin and myostatin propeptide is suitable to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids, their serum concentrations were monitored in untrained males, bodybuilders using anabolic steroids and natural bodybuilders. In addition, we analysed follistatin and myostatin propeptide serum proteins in females during menstrual cycle. Our results showed increased follistatin concentrations in response to anabolic steroids. Furthermore, variations of sex steroid levels during the menstrual cycle had no impact on the expression of follistatin and myostatin propetide. In addition, we identified gender differences in the basal expression of the investigated proteins. In general, follistatin and myostatin propeptide concentrations were relatively stable within the same individual both in males and females. In conclusion, the current findings provide an insight into gender differences in myostatin-interacting proteins and their regulation in response to anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones. Therefore our data provide new aspects for the development of doping prevention strategies.

  3. Self-Perceived Weight and Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampel, Jonathan D.; Murray, Stuart B.; Griffiths, Scott; Blashill, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic steroid misuse is a growing concern among adolescent boys, and chronic misuse is associated with multisystemic health consequences. However, little is known about weight related predictors of anabolic steroid misuse. We examined the prediction of lifetime anabolic steroid misuse as a function of self-perceived weight status among US adolescent boys. Methods Analysis was undertaken using the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative data set sampling public and private high school students throughout the United States. Data from a total of 6,000 US adolescent boys were used in the present study. Results The prevalence of ever misusing anabolic androgenic steroids was 12.6% among boys who viewed themselves as very underweight, 11.9% for boys who viewed themselves as very overweight, compared with 3.8% for boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight. Compared to boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight, boys who self-perceived themselves as very underweight (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.7–17.7, p < .001) and very overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–7.7, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risk of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. Conclusions Large effect size estimates were revealed, suggesting that anabolic androgenic steroid misuse is not solely a function of boys desiring increased mass; boys who desire leanness are also likely to misuse anabolic androgenic steroids. Future prevention efforts should target not only boys who view themselves as underweight but also those who perceive themselves as overweight. PMID:26598061

  4. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them.

  5. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  6. Anabolic Steroids: A Look at Potential Drug Testing Legislation and its Constitutional Implications.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Anabolic steroid use among American athletes has been the subject of much debate in the last half-century. Despite evidence tending to show significant health risks associated with steroid use, there remains considerable speculation as to its ultimate effects. And whether Congress should step in and provide uniform rules governing the testing of professional athletes is a question that still remains. Through this paper I intend to provide a historical account of the steroid â€&oeli...

  7. Growth Hormone and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids : Effects on Neurochemistry and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth and metabolism but also displays profound effects on the central nervous system (CNS). GH affects neurogenesis and neuroprotection, and has been shown to counteract drug-induced apoptosis in the brain. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), mainly abused for their anabolic and performance-enhancing properties, can cause several adverse effects, such as cardiovascular complications, sterility, depression, and aggression. GH and AAS are both believed to intera...

  8. The effect of anabolic steroids on the gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinski, Ryan; Fields, Karl B

    2006-04-01

    Over the past several decades we have seen an increase in the prevalence of anabolic steroid use by athletes. Because use of anabolic steroids is illicit, much of our knowledge of their side effects is derived from case reports, retrospective studies, or comparisons with studies in other similar patient groups. It has been shown that high-dose anabolic steroids have an effect on lowering high-density lipoprotein, increasing low-density lipoprotein, and increasing the atherogenic-promoting apolipoprotein A. Steroid abuse can also be hepatotoxic, promoting disturbances such as biliary stasis, peliosis hepatis, and even hepatomas, which are all usually reversible upon discontinuation. Suppression of the hypothalamic adrenal axis can also lead to profound adrenal changes that are also reversible with time. Although rare, renal side effects have also been documented, leading to acute renal failure and even Wilms' tumors in isolated cases. Much of our knowledge of these potentially severe but usually limited side effects is confounded by use of combinations of different steroid preparations and by the concomitant use with other substances. Physicians must target their efforts at counseling adolescents and other athletes about the potential harms of androgenic anabolic steroids and the legal options to improve strength and performance.

  9. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  10. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Bispo; Ana Valente; Rosário Maldonado; Rui Palma; Helena Glória; Jo(a)o Nóbrega; Paula Alexandrino

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  11. Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Valkonen, Minna; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-12-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards.

  12. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  13. Anabolic steroid use: patterns of use and detection of doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Davies, Bruce; Grace, Fergal M; Kicman, Andrew; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were the first identified doping agents that have ergogenic effects and are being used to increase muscle mass and strength in adult males. Consequently, athletes are still using them to increase physical performance and bodybuilders are using them to improve size and cosmetic appearance. The prevalence of AAS use has risen dramatically over the last two decades and filtered into all aspects of society. Support for AAS users has increased, but not by the medical profession, who will not accept that AAS use dependency is a psychiatric condition. The adverse effects and potential dangers of AAS use have been well documented. AAS are used in sport by individuals who have acquired knowledge of the half-lives of specific drugs and the dosages and cycles required to avoid detection. Conversely, they are used by bodybuilders in extreme dosages with the intention of gaining muscle mass and size, with little or no regard for the consequences. Polypharmacy by self-prescription is prevalent in this sector. Most recently, AAS use has filtered through to 'recreational street drug' users and is the largest growth of drugs in this subdivision. They are taken to counteract the anorexic and cachectic effects of the illegal psychotropic street drugs. Screening procedures for AAS in World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories are comprehensive and sensitive and are based mainly on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly more valuable. The use of carbon isotope mass spectrometry is also of increasing importance in the detection of natural androgen administration, particularly to detect testosterone administration. There is a degree of contentiousness in the scenario of AAS drug use, both within and outside sport. AAS and associated doping agents are not illegal per se. Possession is not an offence, despite contravening sporting regulations and moral codes. Until AAS are

  14. Anabolic steroids affect human periodontal health and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María Isabel; Verdugo, Fernando; Amighini, Celeste; Albaina, Olatz; Moragues, María D

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate periodontal microbiological differences between systemically healthy nonsmoker males taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) and non-AAS users and to find associations between disease severity and AAS use. Ninety-two men practicing bodybuilding were included in the study. They were divided into AAS users and a matched control nonuser group and subgrouped based on their most severe periodontal condition. Pooled subgingival samples from each individual were cultured to evaluate specific periodontopathogen infection. AAS users had significantly higher prevalence of severe periodontitis. AAS users had greater gingival inflammation and clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm than nonusers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; p = 0.09; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-6.4). AAS users were 4.9 times more likely to be infected with Prevotella intermedia than AAS nonusers (OR = 4.9; p = 0.003; 95 % CI 1.6-14.7). The OR of presenting subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 8.2 times higher in AAS users (OR = 8.2; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.9-70.8). AAS users were 5.6 times more likely to present subgingival Candida spp. than nonusers (OR = 5.6; p = 0.02; 95 % CI 1.1-27.1). AAS users were 14.8 times more likely to present subgingival Candida parapsilosis than nonusers (OR = 14.8; p < 0.0001; 95 % CI 3.1-69.2). The likelihood of AAS users presenting subgingival Candida tropicalis was 4.3 times higher than nonusers (OR = 4.3; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 1.1-16.9). A. actinomycetemcomitans was mostly isolated in individuals with severe periodontitis and was associated with subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Candida spp. AAS use may increase the risk for severe periodontitis and may cause a subgingival selection of certain Candida species. Specific periodontopathogens, such as Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans, seem to be negatively affected by AAS use. The higher risk for disease progression in AAS users may be explained by the

  15. Screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2005-04-29

    Anabolic steroids have the capability of improving athletic performance and are banned substances in the Olympic games as well as in horseracing and equestrian competitions. The control of their abuse in racehorses is traditionally performed by detecting the presence of anabolic steroids and/or their metabolite(s) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this approach usually requires tedious sample processing and chemical derivatisation steps and could be very insensitive in detecting certain steroids. This paper describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the detection of anabolic steroids that are poorly covered by GC-MS. Enzyme-treated urine was processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a Bond Elut Certify cartridge, followed by a base wash for further cleanup. Separation of the steroids was carried out on a reversed-phase DB-8 column using 0.1% acetic acid and methanol as the mobile phase in a gradient elution programme. The mass spectrometer for the detection of the steroids was operated in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Urine samples fortified with 15 anabolic steroids (namely, androstadienone, 1-androstenedione, bolasterone, boldione, 4-estrenedione, gestrinone, methandrostenolone, methenolone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, norbolethone, normethandrolone, oxandrolone, stenbolone, trenbolone and turinabol) at low ng/mL levels were consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention times of the targeted ion masses in blank urine samples. The method specificity, sensitivity, precision, recoveries, and the performance of the enzyme hydrolysis step were evaluated. The successful application of the method to analyse methenolone acetate administration urine samples demonstrated that the method could be effective in detecting anabolic steroids and their metabolites in horse

  16. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Gheshlaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and hematocrit (Hct levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively. No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes.

  17. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CBI rec

  18. Deltoid compartment syndrome as a complication of lateral decubitus positioning for contralateral elbow surgery in an anabolic steroid abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, Julian D; Cowling, Paul D; Izod, Christopher; Burton, David Jc

    2014-07-01

    Compartment syndrome as a result of patient positioning for surgery is a rare but serious complication. Compartment syndrome as a result of anabolic steroid use is more rare. We present a unique case of compartment syndrome related to anabolic steroid use and patient positioning for complex distal humerus fracture fixation and also provide a review of the literature related to this topic.

  19. Deltoid compartment syndrome as a complication of lateral decubitus positioning for contralateral elbow surgery in an anabolic steroid abuser

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome as a result of patient positioning for surgery is a rare but serious complication. Compartment syndrome as a result of anabolic steroid use is more rare. We present a unique case of compartment syndrome related to anabolic steroid use and patient positioning for complex distal humerus fracture fixation and also provide a review of the literature related to this topic.

  20. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis and renal failure secondary to anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prashant V; Feng, Zhen-Zhou; Gordon, Stuart C

    2009-08-01

    The illegal enrichment of anabolic androgenic steroids in over-the-counter dietary supplements is well documented, but the health consequences have not been widely recognized. Three recent reports document cholestatic jaundice and nephropathy due to these compounds. We present 3 additional cases of anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity and 1 case of renal failure, and we review the literature and the relevant features of this growing health concern. Recognition of this entity could obviate the need for invasive diagnostic testing and hospitalization and facilitate diagnosis and appropriate counseling.

  1. Invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy athlete due to long-term anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene A; Thompson, Christopher F; Kedeshian, Paul A; Palma-Diaz, Fernando; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a potentially fatal infection that affects immunocompromised patients. Prognosis is generally poor despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments. We present the first reported case of invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy 18-year-old male athlete who was taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The effects of excessive AAS use on the immune system are not fully understood, but there may be consequences at supraphysiological concentrations. This case demonstrates potential immunomodulatory effects of anabolic steroids and highlights a previously unknown cause of invasive fungal sinusitis.

  2. Anabolic steroids impair the exercise-induced growth of the cardiac capillary bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarakis, C V; Bloch, W; Hartmann, G; Hollmann, W; Addicks, K

    2000-08-01

    Concomitant application of anabolic-androgenic steroids and physical exercise can induce cardiac hypertrophy. These experiments investigate the still unknown response of the cardiac myocytes and capillaries to the combined influence of various anabolic steroids and muscular exercise. Female SPF-NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: a) sedentary control, b) exercise (treadmill running); c) sedentary receiving Dianabol; d) exercise + Dianabol; e) exercise + Oral-Turinabol. After 3 and 6 weeks the left ventricular papillary muscles were studied morphometrically. Evaluated variables: minimal myocyte diameter, number of capillaries around a single myocyte, capillary density and intercapillary distance. Only the anabolic steroids + exercise groups showed a mild myocyte hypertrophy. In contrast, only exercise alone caused a significant increase of the capillary density after both experimental periods; e.g. capillary density after 6 weeks (capillaries/mm2, mean values +/- standard deviation, p turinabol + exercise (4,053 +/- 306). Moreover, unlike all other regimens, only exercise alone shortened the intercapillary distance. Finally, exercise without drugs induced the greatest increase in the number of capillaries around a single myocyte. Anabolic steroids combined with exercise: 1) induce mild hypertrophy of the cardiac myocytes, 2) impair the cardiac microvascular adaptation to physical conditioning. The microvascular impairment may cause a detrimental alteration of the myocardial oxygen supply, especially during muscular exercise.

  3. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Use and Perceived Use in Nonathlete College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M.; Adams, Kent J.; Debeliso, Mark; Stamford, Bryant A.; Newman, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the use and perceived use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among nonathlete college students. Participants: The authors surveyed a sample of 485 nonathlete college students at a major metropolitan university. Methods: They administered a survey on use and perceived use of AAS to the students. Results:…

  4. Body image, disordered eating and anabolic steroid use in female bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating practices are common among sports and activities that require low body fat or low body weight for enhanced performance. Competitive Bodybuilding is a sport that requires participants to be exceptionally lean and mesomorphic, thus participants may be vulnerable to developing unhealthy eating and weight control practices, as well as using anabolic steroids. This study compares competitive female bodybuilders (CFBBs) and recreational female weight-training controls (RFWTs) on a broad scope of eating related and general psychological characteristics. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, body modification practices (including anabolic steroids), lifetime rates of eating disorders, and general psychological characteristics, were completed by 20 CFBBs and 25 RFWTs. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, bulimic practices, and anabolic steroid use were reported among CFBBs, and to a lesser degree, RFWTs. Differences between groups on general psychological factors were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. CFBBs appear to share many eating-related features with women with bulimia nervosa but few psychological traits. Longitudinal research is needed to ascertain whether women with disordered eating or a history of bulimia nervosa disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuilding, and/or whether competitive bodybuilding fosters body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, bulimia nervosa, and anabolic steroid use.

  5. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  6. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, E.; Keizer, H.A.; Kuipers, H.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    The data of the present case demonstrate that the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) may lead to serious health effects. Although most clinical attention is usually directed towards peripheral side effects, the most serious central side effect, hypothalamic-pituitary-dysfunction, is often o

  7. Multiple Intussusceptions Associated with Polycythemia in an Anabolic Steroid Abuser, A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Y.; Shah, N.; Thomas, AB; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    Intussusceptions are generally associated with mechanical lead points or localized inflammation that function as foci for intestinal telescoping. We present the case of a patient whose abuse of anabolic steroids resulted in the development of multiple simultaneous intussusceptions. Our patient had no additional identifiable risk factors for intussusception. Consistent with previous reports, corticosteroid induced polycythemia and its consequent hyperviscosity led to intravascular sludging and...

  8. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS...

  9. Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Poelmans, S.; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Bizec, B. le; Draisci, R.; Sterk, S.S.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Courtheyn, D.; Hoof, N. van; Macrì, A.; Wasch, K. de

    2004-01-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used

  10. Liver pathology associated with the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    This review examines the liver-damaging side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  11. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wu, Ed X

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3beta-17beta-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI.

  12. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  13. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  14. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health.

  15. Analysis of anabolic steroids in hair: time courses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Wang, Mengye

    2009-09-01

    Sensitive, specific, and reproducible methods for the quantitative determination of eight anabolic steroids in guinea pig hair have been developed using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. Methyltestosterone, stanozolol, methandienone, nandrolone, trenbolone, boldenone, methenolone and DHEA were administered intraperitoneally in guinea pigs. After the first injection, black hair segments were collected on shaved areas of skin. The analysis of these segments revealed the distribution of anabolic steroids in the guinea pig hair. The major components in hair are the parent anabolic steroids. The time courses of the concentrations of the steroids in hair (except methenolone, which does not deposit in hair) demonstrated that the peak concentrations were reached on days 2-4, except stanozolol, which peaked on day 10 after administration. The concentrations in hair appeared to be related to the physicochemical properties of the drug compound and to the dosage. These studies on the distribution of drugs in the hair shaft and on the time course of their concentration changes provide information relevant to the optimal time and method of collecting hair samples. Such studies also provide basic data that will be useful in the application of hair analysis in the control of doping and in the interpretation of results.

  16. Bigger, Faster, Stronger! An Overview of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and their Use and Impact on the Sport Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, A.; Walton, H

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in sport is no longer confined to the power disciplines and has become a wide-spread issue throughout the general population. AAS are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and display both anabolic and androgenic properties. It is the anabolic properties that are responsible for the muscle binding characteristics and are the main attraction for users. The primary purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the use of AAS in ...

  17. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users.

  18. Multi-organ damage induced by anabolic steroid supplements: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaha Ali A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of anabolic supplements and other related drugs for body building and to enhance athletic performance is nowadays widespread and acutely pervasive all around the world. This alarming increase in the use of anabolic and amino acid supplements has been linked to a diverse array of pathologies. As previously reported, the abuse of androgenic steroids is not without severe physiological, psychiatric and physical costs. The case we report here describes multi-organ damage resulting from the abuse and uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements, mainly testosterone. Case presentation A 24-year-old white man presented with abdominal pain concomitant with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analysis revealed hypercalcemia, elevated liver enzymes and high levels of amylase, lipase and creatine protein kinase. Conclusion Amino acid as well as anabolic supplements may lead to abnormal functioning of many organs, which could be fatal in some instances. This mandates worldwide and concerted efforts to educate the public, especially the youth, about the dangers of these increasingly abused drugs.

  19. Myocardial Scar Detected by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in a Competitive Bodybuilder With Longstanding Abuse of Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Stefan; Jabbour, Claude; Huseynov, Aydin; Borggrefe, Martin; Haghi, Dariusch; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The self-administration intake of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is a widespread practice in competitive bodybuilders. Structural changes within the myocardium following AAS abuse including hypertrophy, restricted diastolic function as well as systolic dysfunction and impaired ventricular inflow have been reported. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 39-year-old bodybuilder with a more than 20-year history of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse presenting with i...

  20. Effects of anabolic steroids on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anabolic steroids are known to improve body composition and muscle strength in healthy people. However, whether anabolic steroids improve the physical condition and function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains undetermined. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the current evidence regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify randomised controlled trials that examine the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. Weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine differences between anabolic steroid administration and control conditions. RESULTS: Eight eligible studies involving 273 COPD patients were identified in this meta-analysis. Significant improvements were found in body weight (0.956 kg, fat-free mass (1.606 kg, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (-6.336 and symptom score (-12.148. The apparent improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure (2.740 cmH2O and maximal expiratory pressure (12.679 cmH2O were not significant. The effects on handgrip strength, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, predicted FEV1 percent, PaO2, PaCO2 and six-min walk distance were negative, with WMDs of -0.245 kg, -0.096 L/sec, -1.996% of predicted, -1.648 cmHg, -0.039 cmHg and -16.102 meters, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence available from the published literature suggests that the benefit of anabolic steroids on COPD patients cannot be denied. However, further studies are needed to identify the specific benefits and adverse effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients and to determine the optimal populations and regimes of anabolic steroids in COPD patients.

  1. Multiple Intussusceptions Associated with Polycythemia in an Anabolic Steroid Abuser, A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Y; Shah, N; Thomas, A B; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    Intussusceptions are generally associated with mechanical lead points or localized inflammation that function as foci for intestinal telescoping. We present the case of a patient whose abuse of anabolic steroids resulted in the development of multiple simultaneous intussusceptions. Our patient had no additional identifiable risk factors for intussusception. Consistent with previous reports, corticosteroid induced polycythemia and its consequent hyperviscosity led to intravascular sludging and mesenteric ischemia with associated bowel wall thickening. The localized intestinal induration then served as mechanical foci for intussusception. Due to the illicit nature of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse, the physiologic effects of supraphysiologic doses are sparsely reported and poorly understood. The scope of AAS abuse and its consequences are likely under-reported and under-recognized within the medical community. Our case presented a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with which we aim to increasing awareness and clinical suspicion for AAS among healthcare personnel.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction associated with anabolic steroids in a young HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, P; Mirzai-tehrane, M; Sedighi, A

    1999-07-01

    The use and abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids have increased over the past decade and pose a medical and public health problem. In addition to their use by athletes to increase muscle mass and improve performance, people with wasting and malignant diseases are finding that the agents improve both their physical appearance and strength. Unfortunately, anabolic steroids are associated with a number of adverse effects, not the least of which is acute myocardial infarction, which occurred in a 39-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the association and to counsel patients carefully about this and other untoward effects that may occur with the agents.

  3. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; Del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders...

  4. New analytical methodologies for doping control – detection of anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation submitted to Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia - Universidade Nova de Lisboa in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Biochemistry - Biotechnology) The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and other banned substances to enhance athletic performance has important health and social implications. The AAS are a major group included in the prohibited list of the world anti-doping agency (WADA) as well as of major sports authorities. This class...

  5. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C.; Munk, Peter L.; Nicolaou, Savvas [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  6. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  7. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

  8. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  9. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids.

  10. Hair analysis of anabolic steroids in connection with doping control-results from horse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anielski, P

    2008-07-01

    Doping control of anabolic substances is normally carried out with urine samples taken from athletes and horses. Investigation of alternative specimens, e.g. hair samples, is restricted to special cases, but can also be worthwhile, in addition to urine analysis. Moreover, hair material is preferred in cases of limited availability or complicated collection of urine samples, e.g. from horses. In this work, possible ways of interpretation of analytical results in hair samples are discussed and illustrated by practical experiences. The results demonstrate the applicability of hair analysis to detect anabolic steroids and also to obtain further information about previous abuse. Moreover, the process of incorporation of steroids into hairs is described and the consequences on interpretation are discussed, e.g. on the retrospective estimation of the application date. The chosen examples deal with the detection of the anabolic agent testosterone propionate. Hair samples of an application study, as well as a control sample taken from a racing horse, were referred to. Hair material was investigated by a screening procedure including testosterone, nandrolone and several esters (testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, decanoate, undecanoate, cypionate; nandrolone decanoate, dodecanoate and phenylpropionate; limits of detection (LODs) between 0.1 and 5.0 pg/mg). Confirmation of testosterone propionate (LOD 0.1 pg/mg) was carried out by an optimised sample preparation. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) and tert-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives were detected by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).

  11. Collapsing glomerulopathy following anabolic steroid use in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Matthai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG is a proliferative podocytopathy, increasingly recognized in a variety of disease conditions. We report a case of CG in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy (IgAN who presented with acute kidney injury, marked proteinuria and hypertension following a short period of anabolic steroid use. Although CG has been associated with long-term anabolic steroid use among body builders, there is no data on the effect of anabolic steroid use in persons with underlying renal disease like IgAN. We postulate that development of CG in our patient could be temporally linked to intake of body-building steroids along with a predisposing background renal disease of IgAN.

  12. Tandem mass spectrometry approach for the investigation of the steroidal metabolism: structure-fragmentation relationship (SFR) in anabolic steroids and their metabolites by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated.

  13. Clinical review 138: Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, S; Wahlstrom, J T; Dobs, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the preclinical and clinical literature relevant to the efficacy and safety of anabolic androgen steroid therapy for palliative treatment of severe weight loss associated with chronic diseases. Data sources were published literature identified from the Medline database from January 1966 to December 2000, bibliographic references, and textbooks. Reports from preclinical and clinical trials were selected. Study designs and results were extracted from trial reports. Statistical evaluation or meta-analysis of combined results was not attempted. Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are widely prescribed for the treatment of male hypogonadism; however, they may play a significant role in the treatment of other conditions as well, such as cachexia associated with human immunodeficiency virus, cancer, burns, renal and hepatic failure, and anemia associated with leukemia or kidney failure. A review of the anabolic effects of androgens and their efficacy in the treatment of these conditions is provided. In addition, the numerous and sometimes serious side effects that have been known to occur with androgen use are reviewed. Although the threat of various side effects is present, AAS therapy appears to have a favorable anabolic effect on patients with chronic diseases and muscle catabolism. We recommend that AAS can be used for the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting and in severely catabolic patients with severe burns. Preliminary data in renal failure-associated wasting are also positive. Advantages and disadvantages should be weighed carefully when comparing AAS therapy to other weight-gaining measures. Although a conservative approach to the use of AAS in patients with chronic diseases is still recommended, the utility of AAS therapy in the attenuation of severe weight loss associated with disease states such as cancer, postoperative recovery, and wasting due to pulmonary and hepatic disease should be

  14. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  15. Anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate reduces hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jonas; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2003-10-03

    Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated body weight, food intake and hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels following administration of different doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. In order to distinguish changes induced by the steroid treatment per se from those resulting from the reduced food intake and growth rate, we also compared the effect of nandrolone decanoate on AgRP and POMC mRNA expression with both normally fed, and food restricted control groups. We here report that administration of nandrolone specifically reduces arcuate nucleus POMC mRNA levels while not affecting the expression level of AgRP. The effect on POMC expression was not observed in the food restricted controls, excluding the possibility that the observed effect was a mere response to the reduced food intake and body weight. These results raise the possibility that some of the metabolic and behavioural consequences of AAS abuse may be the result of alterations in the melanocortin system.

  16. A ten-year assessment of anabolic steroid misuse among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, J C; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, J L

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000-2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000-2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region.

  17. Estimation of half-wave potential of anabolic androgenic steroids by means of QSER Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴益民; 刘辉; 牛兰利; 陈聪; 陈晓青; 刘又年

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) of anabolic androgenic steroids was studied on the half-wave reduction potential (E1/2) using quantum and physico-chemical molecular descriptors. The descriptors were calculated by semi-empirical calculations. Models were established using partial least square (PLS) regression and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The QSPR results indicate that the descriptors of these derivatives have significant relationship with half-wave reduction potential. The stability and prediction ability of these models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and external test set.

  18. A qualitative exploration of the motivations underlying anabolic-androgenic steroid use from adolescence into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background This study explored the direct experience of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS use by young men, with an emphasis on how motivations progressed from adolescent initiation to more entrenched usage. Participants and procedure Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals ranging in experience of AAS use, from novice to experienced users. Results The results indicated that the young adult men progressed through a clear transition whereby their motives for using these substances changed from a mere desire to compete with other men to more internalised body image problems. Conclusions The findings presented suggest a more complex relationship between AAS use and body image pathology than previously suggested.

  19. CHAMP Symposium on Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Melissa L; Deuster, Patricia A; Kupchak, Brian R

    2016-07-01

    The Consortium of Health and Military Performance hosted a symposium in April 2015 entitled "Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know" in response to concerns from the field regarding Anabolic Androgenic Steroids use by U.S. service members. The symposium was attended by military and civilian subject-matter experts in sports medicine and anabolic steroids and was held at the United Service Organizations (Naval Support Activity Bethesda) in Bethesda, Maryland. The expert panel was charged to define the way ahead in terms of androgen use, education, research, relevant policies and guidelines, and other concerns with particular relevancy to Special Operations Forces. The conference concluded with the following recommendations on these several key issues (1) connecting with users, (2) education and intervention, (3) knowledge and research gaps, and (4) establishing an information clearinghouse and clinical repository.

  20. Micronucleus as biomarkers of cancer risk in anabolic androgenic steroids users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L da Cunha Menezes; da Cruz, L A; Cerqueira, E de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, Jrc

    2017-03-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS. Blood was collected from 15 AAS users bodybuilders (G1), 20 non-users bodybuilders (G2) and 20 non-users sedentary (G3). MN analysis was performed on a minimum of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The occurrence of MN was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in individuals of G1 compared to G2 and G3. The results indicate the sensitivity of CBMN in human lymphocytes in the identification of chromosomal damage in consequence of AAS.

  1. Changes in the miRNA profile under the influence of anabolic steroids in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christiane; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2011-03-21

    miRNAs are regulatory RNA molecules. The analytical interest rose over the past 10 years especially in clinical diagnostics as miRNAs show specific expression patterns in several human diseases like diabetes or cancer. Therefore, it is expected that miRNA profiles might be used as biomarkers in early diagnosis. The idea of establishing biomarkers is also present in veterinary drug analysis, e.g. in the surveillance of illegal use of anabolics. Transcriptomics is a promising approach in the detection of anabolics misuse. However, miRNA expression patterns have shown their superiority over mRNA patterns in clinical diagnostics. Thus, the influence of anabolic steroids on miRNA expression in bovine liver should be investigated and an expression pattern should be validated, which might be used as a treatment biomarker. An animal experiment was conducted with 18 heifers equally allocated to a control and a treatment group, which was implanted with TBA plus E2. Liver samples were screened for miRNA expression using PCR arrays. Expression of 11 prominent miRNAs was validated via single assay qPCR. Herein, the following expression pattern could be found with an up-regulation of miR-29c and miR-103 and a down-regulation of miR-34a, miR-181c, miR-20a and miR-15a (panabolic treatment screening.

  2. The androgenic anabolic steroid tetrahydrogestrinone produces dioxin-like effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyo Youl; Kim, Sun-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, athletes have used androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs) in an inappropriate and veiled manner with the aim of improving exercise performance or for cosmetic purposes. Abuse of AASs triggers adverse effects such as hepatocarcinogenesis, heart attacks, and aggressive behavior. However, AAS-induced toxicity is not completely understood at the molecular level. In the present study, we showed, by performing a dioxin response element (DRE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, that tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), a popular and potent androgen receptor agonist, has dioxin-like effects. In addition, we showed that THG increased cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity. The gene encoding CYP1A1 is involved in phase 1 xenobiotic metabolism and a target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Using the AhR antagonist CH-223191, we also examined whether the effects of THG on DRE activation depended on AhR. Our results suggest that synthetic anabolic steroids may have dioxin-like side effects that can disturb endocrine systems and may cause other side effects including cancer through AhR.

  3. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Kathleen; Brennan, Joseph J; Mathews, Robin; Setaro, John F; Kort, Smadar

    2008-01-01

    The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent "stacked" use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.

  4. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  5. Uxoricide and dismemberment in a case of illicit anabolic steroid use: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seppänen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite abounding evidence for the harmful effects of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, they are commonly misused for competitive and body-image reasons. Steroids are often used in the context of poly-drug misuse, which may mask their specific effects on behaviour, such as increasing aggression. We present our case report as a concrete example of current steroid-related substance-misuse trends. A 25-year old Finnish male with various psychiatric and drug-related symptomology, but almost no previous history of aggressive behaviour, battered his wife to death and mutilated her body after a five-week steroid regimen.

  6. Anabolic Steroids Reduce Muscle Degeneration Associated With Rotator Cuff Tendon Release in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Flück, Martin; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wieser, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with irreversible atrophy, fatty infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis of the corresponding muscle. Anabolic steroids can prevent musculotendinous degeneration during retraction and/or can reverse these changes after operative repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. The infraspinatus tendon was released in 18 alpine sheep. All sheep underwent repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit after 16 weeks and were sacrificed after 22 weeks; 6 sheep served as controls, 6 sheep were treated with weekly intramuscular injection of 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate after infraspinatus (ISP) repair (group N6W), and 6 sheep were treated with 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate immediately after tendon release (group N22W). Muscle biopsy specimens were taken before tendon release and after 16 and 22 weeks. Muscle volume and fatty infiltration (on MRI), myotendinous retraction, and muscle density (on computed tomography) were measured immediately after ISP release, after 6 weeks, and before ISP repair and sacrifice. Muscle volume on MRI decreased to a mean (±SD) of 80% ± 8% of the original volume after 6 weeks, remained stable at 78% ± 11% after 16 weeks, and decreased further to 69% ± 9% after 22 weeks in the control group. These findings were no different from those in group N22W (72% ± 9% at 6 weeks, 73% ± 6% at 16 weeks, and 67% ± 5% at 22 weeks). Conversely, the N6W group did not show a decrease in ISP volume after repair; this finding differed significantly from the response in the control and N22W groups. Fatty infiltration (on MRI) continuously increased in the control group (12% ± 4% at tendon release, 17% ± 4% after 6 weeks, 50% ± 9% after 16 weeks, and 60% ± 8% after 22 weeks) and the N6W group. However, application of anabolic steroids at the time of tendon release (N22W group) significantly reduced fatty infiltration after 16 (16% ± 5%; P < .001) and 22 weeks (22

  7. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The use of an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) to improve nutritional status after esophageal resection for carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton, S J; Zgainski, B; Grenier, I; Allister, K; Hiller, L; McManus, K G; Steyn, R S

    1999-01-01

    Anabolic steroids increase appetite and muscle mass. This randomized, double-blind trial investigates any nutritional benefits of anabolic steroid in patients after surgery for esophageal cancer. Forty patients were recruited: 19 patients had five injections of 50 mg nandrolone decanoate and 21 patients received placebo over 3 months, starting 1 month after surgery. Measurements of body weight, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and appetite were taken over a 6-month period. Nutrition was optimized by dietary advice and by esophageal dilatation if required. Percent ideal weight, percent ideal MAMC and appetite score did not show significant differences between steroid and placebo groups, but there was a trend to an increase over 6 months for percent ideal MAMC in the test group. With this protocol, we have experienced minimal side-effects. However, we have not demonstrated any therapeutic benefit with low-dose steroid. An increased dose schedule over a longer period might produce a significant response.

  9. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards...... and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids....... Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic...

  10. Anabolic steroids after total knee arthroplasty. A double blinded prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohmann Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty is reported to improve the patient's quality of life and mobility. However loss of mobility and pain prior to surgery often results in disuse atrophy of muscle. As a consequence the baseline functional state prior to surgery may result in poorer outcome "post surgery" and extended rehabilitation may be required. The use of anabolic steroids for performance enhancement and to influence muscle mass is well established. The positive effects of such treatment on bone and muscle could therefore be beneficial in the rehabilitation of elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of small doses of Nandrolone decanoate on recovery and muscle strength after total knee replacement and to establish the safety of this drug in multimorbid patients. Methods This study was designed as a prospective double blind randomized investigation. Five patients (treatment group with a mean age of 66.2 (58-72, average BMI of 30.76 (24.3-35.3 received 50 mg nandrolone decanoate intramuscular bi-weekly for 6 months. The control group (five patients; mean age 65.2, range 59-72; average BMI 31.7, range 21.2-35.2 was injected with saline solution. "Pre-operatively" and "post-operatively" (6 weeks, 3,6,9 and 12 months all patients were assessed using the knee society score (KSS, isokinetic strength testing and functional tests (a sit-to-stand and timed walking tests. In addition, a bone density scan was used preoperatively and 6 month postoperatively to assess bone mineral density. Results Whilst the steroid group generally performed better than the placebo group for all of the functional tests, ANOVA failed to reveal any significant differences. The steroid group demonstrated higher levels of quadriceps muscle strength across the postoperative period which reached significance at 3 (p = 0.02, 6 (p = 0.01, and 12 months (p = 0.02. There was a significant difference for the KSS at 6 weeks (p = 0.02, 6 (p

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an anabolic steroid like dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, and tetrahydrogestrinone (THG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Luu-The, Van; Martel, Céline; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Calvo, Ezequiel; Morissette, Jean; Labrie, Claude

    2006-07-01

    We have recently taken advantage of the unique power of DNA microarrays to compare the genomic expression profile of tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) with that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, thus clearly demonstrating that THG is an anabolic steroid. In 2004, the U.S. Controlled Substances Act has been modified to include androstenedione (4-dione) as an anabolic steroid. However, despite the common knowledge that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the precursor of testosterone, DHEA has been excluded from the list of anabolic steroids. We thus used the same DNA microarray technology to analyze the expression profile of practically all the 30,000 genes of the mouse genome modulated by DHEA and DHT in classical androgen-sensitive tissues. Daily subcutaneous injections of DHT (0.1mg) or DHEA (3mg) for 1 month in gonadectomized C57BL6/129 SV mice increased ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weight (p or =30%), in the prostate (ventral+dorsal), seminal vesicles and preputial glands, respectively, compared to tissues from gonadectomized control animals. After 7 days of daily treatment with DHEA and DHT, 629, 919 and 562 probe sets were commonly modulated in the same tissues while after 27 days of treatment, 1195, 5127 and 2883 probe sets were modulated, respectively. In analogy with the data obtained with THG, the present microarray data provide an extremely precise and unquestionable genomic signature and proof of the androgenic/anabolic activity of DHEA. Such data add to the literature showing that DHEA is transformed into androgens in the human peripheral tissues as well as in laboratory animal species, including the monkey, thus exerting potent androgenic/anabolic activity. The present microarray approach to identify anabolic compounds is applicable to all potential androgenic/anabolic compounds.

  12. GC-MS quantitative analysis of black market pharmaceutical products containing anabolic androgenic steroids seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-06-01

    The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of glucuronide-conjugated anabolic steroid metabolites: method validation and interlaboratory comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintikka, L.; Kuuranne, T.; Leinonen, A.; Thevis, M.; Schanzer, W.; Halket, J.; Cowan, D.; Grosse, J.; Hemmersbach, P.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Kostiainen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous and direct detection of 12 glucuronide-conjugated anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) metabolites in human urine is described. The compounds selected were the main metabolites detected in huma

  14. Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use Is Associated with Increased Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Male Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akçakoyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of long-term supraphysiologic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS on atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD in male bodybuilders. We clearly demonstrated that long-term consumption of supraphysiologic doses of AAS is associated with higher values of inter- and intra-AEMD in healthy young bodybuilders.

  15. Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use Is Associated with Increased Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Male Bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakoyun, Mustafa; Gündoğdu, Recep; Bulut, Mustafa; Tabakcı, Mehmet Mustafa; Açar, Göksel; Avcı, Anıl; Şimşek, Zeki; Demir, Serdar; Kargın, Ramazan; Emiroğlu, Mehmet Yunus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of long-term supraphysiologic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) in male bodybuilders. We clearly demonstrated that long-term consumption of supraphysiologic doses of AAS is associated with higher values of inter- and intra-AEMD in healthy young bodybuilders. PMID:24883314

  16. Outline of a typology of men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness and strength training environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in fitness and strength training environments have revealed great variance in users’ approach to AAS use and more specifically their approach to health risks and desired objectives. However, there have only been few attempts...

  17. Rotator cuff muscles lose responsiveness to anabolic steroids after tendon tear and musculotendinous retraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hoppeler, Hans; Frigg, Robert; Farshad, Mazda

    2012-11-01

    Long-standing rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with retraction, loss of work capacity, irreversible fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Although continuous musculotendinous relengthening can experimentally restore muscular architecture, restoration of atrophy and fatty infiltration is hitherto impossible. Continuous relengthening with pharmacological stimulation of muscle growth using an anabolic steroid or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) can reverse atrophy and fatty infiltration as well as improve the work capacity of chronically retracted rotator cuff muscles in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen weeks after tenotomy of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, atrophy and fatty infiltration had developed in the retracted ISP muscle. The musculotendinous unit was continuously relengthened in 14 sheep during 6 weeks: Four sheep were treated without pharmacological stimulation, 4 with intramuscular administration of an anabolic steroid, and 6 with IGF before final repair and rehabilitation (12 weeks). Changes were documented by intraoperative measurements of muscle work capacity, histology, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Musculotendinous relengthening by continuous traction resulted in gains of length ranging from 0.7 cm in the IGF group to 1.3 cm in the control group. Fatty infiltration progressed in all groups, and the muscle's cross-sectional area ranged from 71% to 74% of the contralateral side at sacrifice and did not show any differences between groups in weight, volume, histological composition, or work capability of the muscle. The contralateral muscles in the anabolic steroid group, however, showed significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation) muscle work capacity of 10 ± 0.9 N·m than the contralateral muscles of the control group (6.8 ± 2.4 N·m) (P muscle fiber area as well as by an unusual gain in the animals' weight after injection of the anabolic steroid. Subcutaneous continuous

  18. Oxidative stress and myocardial dysfunction in young rabbits after short term anabolic steroids administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Ioannis; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Champsas, Maria Christakis; Stagos, Demetrios; Rentoukas, Elias; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on the short term effects of repeated low level administration of turinabol and methanabol on cardiac function in young rabbits (4 months-old). The experimental scheme consisted of two oral administration periods, lasting 1 month each, interrupted by 1-month wash-out period. Serial echocardiographic evaluation at the end of all three experimental periods was performed in all animals. Oxidative stress markers have also been monitored at the end of each administration period. Treated animals originally showed significantly increased myocardial mass and systolic cardiac output, which normalized at the end of the wash out period. Re-administration led to increased cardiac output, at the cost though of a progressive myocardial mass reduction. A dose-dependent trend towards impaired longitudinal systolic, diastolic and global myocardial function was also observed. The adverse effects were more pronounced in the methanabol group. For both anabolic steroids studied, the low dose had no significant effects on oxidative stress markers monitored, while the high dose created a hostile oxidative environment. In conclusion, anabolic administration has been found to create a possible deleterious long term effect on the growth of the immature heart and should be strongly discouraged especially in young human subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2010-04-01

    This article and others that focused on the clinical features, mechanisms, and epidemiology of skeletal muscle loss and wasting in chronic diseases, which include chronic kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS, were presented at a symposium entitled "Cachexia and Wasting: Recent Breakthroughs in Understanding and Opportunities for Intervention," held at Experimental Biology 2009. The clinical and anabolic efficacy of specific growth factors and anabolic steroids (eg, growth hormone, testosterone, megestrol acetate) in malnutrition and other catabolic states has been the subject of considerable research during the past several decades. Research on the effects of these agents in cachexia or wasting conditions, characterized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, focused on patients with AIDS in the early 1990s, when the devastating effects of the loss of body weight, lean body mass, and adipose tissue were recognized as contributors to these patients' mortality. These same agents have also been studied as methods to attenuate the catabolic responses observed in cancer-induced cachexia and in wasting induced by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and other conditions. This article provides an updated review of recent clinical trials that specifically examined the potential therapeutic roles of growth hormone, testosterone, oxandrolone, and megestrol acetate and emerging data on the orexigenic peptide ghrelin, in human cachexia and wasting.

  20. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  1. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  2. Anabolic steroid use in adolescents: identification of those at risk and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Mary K; Schiller, Jonathan R; Hulstyn, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Success in sports is often defined by winning, which drives athletes to use performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) to gain an advantage over opponents. Over the past 20 years, use of PEDs by Olympic and professional athletes has led to public discussion regarding potential negative health effects and ethical implications of their use. Unfortunately, PEDs are not isolated to professional athletes, as PED use in adolescents has increased dramatically. Many professional organizations, including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), have taken a stance against PED use in sports. The AAOS believes neither anabolic steroids nor their precursors should be used to enhance performance or appearance, and that these substances should be banned in all sports programs. Pediatricians and orthopedists are often the first physicians to see these young athletes. It is critical for these physicians to recognize the significance of the problem, have the knowledge to inform adolescents, dissuade them from future use, and provide viable alternatives for meeting performance goals.

  3. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  4. Synchronous quadriceps tendon rupture and unilateral ACL tear in a weightlifter, associated with anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Christopher; Dalton, David M; Galbraith, John G; Masterson, Eric L

    2016-05-06

    Synchronous quadriceps tendon rupture is rare. A 29-year-old man, an amateur weight lifter, taking androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS), developed sudden onset bilateral pain and swelling of his anterior thighs when attempting to squat 280 kg (620 lb). Examination revealed gross swelling superior to the patella and palpable gaps in both quadriceps tendons. He underwent successful operative repair. MRI revealed a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the right knee. This was not reconstructed. Only a few case reports of the association between AAS and quadriceps rupture exist in the literature, with none to the best of our knowledge in the past 10 years. ACL rupture coexisting is very rare, with only two reported cases.

  5. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

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    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  6. Use of androgenic anabolic steroids by patients under treatment for substance use disorder: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mario Xerfan do Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study reports several case studies about the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS by patients under treatment for substance use disorder (SUD. Ten subjects were interviewed, two women and eight men, ranging from 25 to 43 years old. Regarding treatment regime, eight subjects were inpatients and two, outpatients. ASSIST-WHO and MINI-SUD scales and a semi-structured interview were used as research instruments. Seven subjects reported the use of AAS within fewer than twelve months from the interview date. Mental health professionals did not previously question none of the subjects were about the use of AAS. We discuss the efficacy of the chosen instruments to assess AAS use.

  7. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...... tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls...... predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively....

  8. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Lucio; Graziani, Grazia

    2007-05-01

    Anabolic steroid and peptide hormones or growth factors are utilized to increase the performance of athletes of professional or amateur sports. Despite their well-documented adverse effects, the use of some of these agents has significantly grown and has been extended also to non-athletes with the aim to improve appearance or to counteract ageing. Pre-clinical studies and epidemiological observations in patients with an excess of hormone production or in patients chronically treated with hormones/growth factors for various pathologies have warned about the potential risk of cancer development and progression which may be also associated to the use of certain doping agents. Anabolic steroids have been described to provoke liver tumours; growth hormone or high levels of its mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been associated with colon, breast, and prostate cancers. Actually, IGF-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis either by triggering other growth factors or by interacting with pathways which have an established role in carcinogenesis and cancer promotion. More recently, the finding that erythropoietin (Epo) may promote angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis or modulate chemo- or radiosensitivity in cancer cells expressing the Epo receptor, raised the concern that the use of recombinant Epo to increase tissue oxygenation might favour tumour survival and aggressiveness. Cancer risk associated to doping might be higher than that of patients using hormones/growth factors as replacement therapy, since enormous doses are taken by the athletes often for a long period of time. Moreover, these substances are often used in combination with other licit or illicit drugs and this renders almost unpredictable all the possible adverse effects including cancer. Anyway, athletes should be made aware that long-term treatment with doping agents might increase the risk of developing cancer.

  9. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are appearance and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) used in competitive athletics, in recreational sports, and by body-builders. The global lifetime prevalence of AASs abuse is 6.4% for males and 1.6% for women. Many AASs, often obtained from the internet and dubious sources, have not undergone proper testing and are consumed at extremely high doses and in irrational combinations, also along with other drugs. Controlled clinical trials investigating undesired side effects are lacking because ethical restrictions prevent exposing volunteers to potentially toxic regimens, obscuring a causal relationship between AASs abuse and possible sequelae. Because of the negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, in men AASs cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, infertility, and erectile dysfunction (anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism). Should spermatogenesis not recover after AASs abuse, a pre-existing fertility disorder may have resurfaced. AASs frequently cause gynecomastia and acne. In women, AASs may disrupt ovarian function. Chronic strenuous physical activity leads to menstrual irregularities and, in severe cases, to the female athlete triad (low energy intake, menstrual disorders and low bone mass), making it difficult to disentangle the effects of sports and AASs. Acne, hirsutism and (irreversible) deepening of the voice are further consequences of AASs misuse. There is no evidence that AASs cause breast carcinoma. Detecting AASs misuse through the control network of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) not only aims to guarantee fair conditions for athletes, but also to protect them from medical sequelae of AASs abuse.

  10. THE PROFILE OF TAMOXIFEN USER DUE TO GYNECOMASTIA INDUCED BY ANABOLIC STEROIDS FOR BODYBUILDERS OR BODYBUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to valorization of body appearance, the seek for a good physic body gets a central importance in externalization of subjectivity and in the construction the identities of the people. Because of this, them invest time to look for devices to streamline results to get a perfect body, between mechanisms used there is the use of anabolic steroids (AS. With the rapid response this kind of treatment, there are aware concerns their side effects such as gynecomastia which is characterized by breast enlargement of man. In an attempt to prevent this effect aesthetically uncomfortable, the users seek take medicines such as tamoxifen to reverse or prevent this situation without proper prescription or monitoring of a pharmacist professional, as well as almost all treatments with EA which are made clandestinely. This work aimed to describe profile among consumers seeking the tamoxifen therapy to prevent or treat gynecomastia induced using EA. The target audience was composed of bodybuilders men that were making anabolic cycles, aiming fast muscular hypertrophy. Two questionnaires were applied, one to the drugstores that sell these drugs and one for bodybuilders who buy these drugs. Tamoxifen user profile found in this study shows that they are young people aged 18 to 35 years old, seeking muscle hypertrophy strength. As the natural results are slow, influenced by training friends, start using EA, even declaring know about the risks to health. Use along with these steroids, tamoxifen, in an attempt to prevent or treat gynecomastia, get the medication in drugstores without a prescription and without the pharmacist questioning, demonstrating that pharmaceutical care is still not fully deployed and functioning

  11. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: ramifications for brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders.

  12. Interactions between opioids and anabolic androgenic steroids: implications for the development of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, research on doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has revealed that these compounds are often used in combination with other drugs of abuse. It seems that misuse of AAS probably involves more than a desire to enhance appearance or sports performance and studies have revealed that steroids are commonly connected with alcohol, opioids, tobacco, and psychotropic drugs. We have observed that AAS may interact with the endogenous opioids, excitatory amino acids, and dopaminergic pathways involved in the brain reward system. Furthermore, our studies provide evidence that AAS may induce an imbalance in these signal systems leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. In fact, studies performed in various clinics have shown that individuals taking AAS are likely to get addicted to opioids like heroin. This chapter reviews current knowledge on interactions between AAS and endogenous as well as exogenous opioids based not only on research in our laboratory but also on research carried out by several other clinical and preclinical investigators.

  13. In vivo MRI quantification of individual muscle and organ volumes for assessment of anabolic steroid growth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 T scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R=0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions.

  14. Current status and bioanalytical challenges in the detection of unknown anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; De Brabanter, Nik; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are prohibited in sports due to their anabolic effects. Doping control laboratories usually face the screening of AAS misuse by target methods based on MS detection. Although these methods allow for the sensitive and specific detection of targeted compounds and metabolites, the rest remain undetectable. This fact opens a door for cheaters, since different AAS can be synthesized in order to evade doping control tests. This situation was evidenced in 2003 with the discovery of the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone. One decade after this discovery, the detection of unknown AAS still remains one of the main analytical challenges in the doping control field. In this manuscript, the current situation in the detection of unknown AAS is reviewed. Although important steps have been made in order to minimize this analytical problem and different analytical strategies have been proposed, there are still some drawbacks related to each approach.

  15. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport.

  16. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods. We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/dr...

  17. Anabolic treatment with GH, IGF-I, or anabolic steroids in patients with HIV-associated wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Schambelan, Morris

    2002-09-01

    Wasting, and particularly loss of metabolically active lean tissue, contributes to increased mortality, accelerated disease progression, and impairment of strength and functional status in patients with HIV infection. A variety of protein anabolic agents, including growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone, nandrolone decanoate, oxandrolone, and oxymetholone, have been studied in patients with HIV-associated wasting. Overall, these studies have demonstrated that treatment with protein anabolic agents can increase lean body mass (LBM) and in some cases provide functional benefits and improvements in quality of life. Further research is needed to determine whether such treatment prolongs survival or reduces the overall health care burden of HIV infection. The advances in identification of successful treatments for HIV-associated wasting can provide a model for using these therapies in other catabolic states, including end-stage renal disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiac cachexia.

  18. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

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    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  19. Anabolic steroids have long-lasting effects on male social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2010-04-02

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood.

  20. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  1. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  2. The significance of anabolic androgenic steroids in a Swedish prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klötz, Fia; Petersson, Anna; Hoffman, Orsolya; Thiblin, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse psychiatric effect, violent behavior, and criminality. The aim of this study was to further investigate the motives for and consequences of AAS use, with focus on violent and antisocial behavior. Fifty-nine prisoners were interviewed on their use of AAS, and their history was mapped with Addiction Severity Index interviews. Of these prisoners, 56% admitted previous use of AAS, of whom 24% declared to have committed violent crimes in connection with use of AAS. However, the only significant difference between users and nonusers with regard to criminal history when measured with the Addiction Severity Index was that the AAS users more often stated that they had been prosecuted for crimes labeled as "other crimes," which did not include violent crimes. The reported side effects of AAS corresponded well to those previously reported. These results indicate that use of AAS is common among Swedish prisoners and that the motives and consequences of such use are similar to what has been observed in other AAS-using populations. Furthermore, this study supports earlier notions that misuse of AAS might cause violent behavior, but only in certain individuals and mainly in combination with other substances.

  3. Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Folke; Garle, Mats; Rane, Anders

    2008-05-31

    The use of doping agents, particularly anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public-health concern. We review the prevalence of misuse, the evidence that some drugs improve performance in sport, their side-effects, and the long-term consequences of AAS misuse for society at large. There is substantial under-reporting of the side-effects of AAS to health authorities. We describe neuropsychiatric side-effects of AAS and their possible neurobiological correlates, with particular emphasis on violent behaviour. Analytical methods and laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency can detect the misuse of all doping agents; although the analysis of testosterone requires special techniques, and recently discovered interethnic differences in testosterone excretion should be taken into account. The prevention of misuse of doping agents should include random doping analyses, medical follow-ups, pedagogic interventions, tougher legislation against possession of AAS, and longer disqualifications of athletes who use AAS.

  4. Altered gonadal steroidogenesis in critical illness: is treatment with anabolic steroids indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, D I

    2001-12-01

    The physiology of the reproductive system changes dramatically with the onset of major illness. The serum testosterone concentrations fall to pre-pubertal levels secondary to a decreased secretion of gonadotropins and a decreased Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone. At the same time, the serum oestrogen concentration rises as the result of an increased rate of peripheral aromatization. The clinical consequences of these marked changes are not yet well understood. One line of evidence argues for the administration of anabolic steroids (derivatives of testosterone) to critically ill patients to improve their catabolic state. Another line of evidence in animal models suggests that testosterone may suppress the immune system and myocardial function in critical illness. No clinical trials of oestrogen administration to critically ill patients have been reported, although two animal studies suggest that oestrogen may have a positive effect on survival. This chapter reviews changes in the physiology of the reproductive system in major illness as well as current evidence regarding the clinical effects of androgens and oestrogens in critical illness and their potential therapeutic roles.

  5. What can allostasis tell us about anabolic-androgenic steroid addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Yehuda, Rachel; Alfano, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic hormones used by individuals who want to look better or perform better in athletics and at the gym. Their use raises an interesting paradox in which drug use is associated with a number of health benefits, but also the possibility of negative health consequences. Existing models of AAS addiction follow the traditional framework of drug abuse and dependence, which suggest that harmful use occurs as a result of the drug's ability to hijack the motivation-reward system. However, AASs, unlike typical drugs of abuse, are not used for acute intoxication effects or euphoria. Rather, AASs are used to affect the body through changes to the musculoskeletal system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as opposed to stimulating the reward system. We offer an allostatic model of AAS addiction to resolve this inconsistency between traditional drug addiction and AAS addiction. This allostatic framework provides a way to (a) incorporate exercise into AAS misuse, (b) identify where AAS use transitions from recreational use into a drug problem, and (c) describe individual differences in vulnerability or resilience to AASs. Implications for this model of AAS addiction are discussed.

  6. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

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    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.

  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  8. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids and social subjugation on behavior and neurochemistry in male rats.

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    Frahm, Krystle A; Lumia, Augustus R; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Strong, Randy; Roberts, James L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2011-01-01

    Early abuse and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) both increase aggression. We assessed the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of AAS, alone or in combination with social subjugation (SS), an animal model of child abuse. On P26, gonadally intact male rats began SS consisting of daily pairings with an adult male for 2 weeks followed by daily injections of the AAS, testosterone on P40. As adults, males were tested for sexual and aggressive behaviors towards females in various hormonal conditions and inter-male aggression in a neutral setting using home or opponent bedding. Neurotransmitter levels were assessed using HPLC. Results showed that AAS males displayed significantly more mounts toward sexually receptive, vaginally obstructed females (OBS) and displayed significantly more threats towards ovariectomized females. SS males mounted OBS females significantly less and were not aggressive toward females. The role of olfactory cues in a neutral setting did not affect aggression regardless of treatment. AAS significantly increased brainstem DOPAC and NE. SS decreased 5HIAA, DA, DOPAC, and NE in brainstem. 5HIAA was significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex of all experimental groups. We conclude that AAS and SS differentially affect behavior towards females as well as neurotransmitter levels.

  9. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

  10. Urinary Concentrations of Steroids in Bulls under Anabolic Treatment by Revalor-XS® Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Biancotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the European ban of using anabolics in food-producing animals, growth promoters might still be illegally used in the European Union. To control the food chain and guarantee consumers’ health, there is a need of highly sensitive analytical methods for the identification of marker residues of such treatments. In the present study, a group of bulls (n=16 received trenbolone acetate (200 mg and estradiol (40 mg by a commercial ear implant during a time range of 71 days, and a second group (n=16 was kept for control. The aim of the research was to measure the residual urinary concentrations of the administered drugs (β-trenbolone and β-estradiol, their main metabolites (α-trenbolone and α-estradiol, and possible alterations of the urinary profile of other endogenous hormones metabolically related. The analytical method was based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed average urinary concentrations of α-trenbolone and α-estradiol during treatment in the range of (0.81÷2.1 ng mL−1 and (0.96÷4.4 ng mL−1, respectively, whereas β-trenbolone and β-estradiol exhibit urinary concentrations lower than 0.22 ng mL−1 in both cases. Data obtained from the urinary profiles of endogenous steroids indicate that they could be useful to indirectly detect the ongoing treatment.

  11. Physical provocation of pubertal anabolic androgenic steroid exposed male rats elicits aggression towards females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2006-09-01

    Human studies suggest that anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) users are aggressive towards women. This study used a rat model to evaluate whether AAS potentiated aggression towards females and the conditions under which this occurs. Gonadally intact pubertal male rats received one of the following AAS treatments (5 mg/kg s.c. 5 days/week for nine weeks): testosterone (T), stanozolol (S), testosterone + stanozolol (T + S), or vehicle control. Each rat was tested with 3 conspecific stimuli: ovariectomized females (OVX), estrogen only females (E), and estrogen + progesterone females (E + P). The response to physical provocation was tested under three conditions: without physical provocation, provocation of the experimental male, and provocation of the conspecific female. Provocation was a mild tail pinch. Both aggressive and sexual behaviors were measured during each test. In the absence of physical provocation, AAS males were not aggressive towards females. However, provocation significantly increased aggression in males treated with testosterone but only towards OVX females. In the presence of E or E + P females, all animals displayed sex behavior, not aggression. Thus, factors such as the nature of the AAS and the hormonal status of the females are important in determining whether male rats will be aggressive towards females. However, the most salient factor determining aggression towards females is the presence of provocation in combination with high levels of testosterone.

  12. Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2007-01-01

    Previous results showed that male rats pubertally exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) displayed aggression towards females in response to physical provocation. This experiment examined two factors that may modulate AAS-induced behavior towards females: olfactory cues and frustration. Gonadally intact males began one of three AAS treatments at puberty (D40): testosterone propionate (T), stanozolol (S), T+S, or vehicle control. To test for the relevance of olfactory cues in the elicitation of behavior toward females, a hidden neighbor paradigm was used. The proximal stimulus was an ovariectomized (OVX) female, estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) female, or an E+P female with tape-obstructed vagina (OBS). Distal olfactory cues from a hidden neighbor were delivered from a separate cage connected to the testing arena. The vaginally obstructed, sexually receptive female (OBS) was used to determine the effects of frustration on behavior by AAS males. Both sexual and aggressive behaviors were measured. The presence of distal olfactory cues had no effect on either sexual or aggressive behavior. In the presence of E+P and OBS females, all males displayed sex behaviors, not aggression. However, AAS males displayed significantly more aggression towards proximal OVX females than controls. AAS males mounted OBS females significantly more than controls, indicating a persistence of once rewarded behavior. These results suggest (1) proximal cues of the conspecific female are more salient than distal olfactory cues in determining behavior and (2) AAS males display frustration-induced persistence in response to vaginally obstructed receptive females.

  13. Acute myocardial infarction and renal infarction in a bodybuilder using anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Erkan; Demirci, Deniz; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Calık, Ali Nazmi

    2010-06-01

    A 41-year-old male bodybuilder was admitted with acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient had been using oxymetholone and methenolone to increase his performance for 15 years and quitted smoking three years before. He underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bare metal stenting for total occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery. Angiography also showed a critical lesion in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five hours after primary PCI, the patient had severe right flank pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed a large renal infarction in the right kidney. Subcutaneous enoxaparin was added to dual antiplatelet treatment. Doppler renal ultrasound performed on the eighth day showed findings of reperfusion in the right kidney and normal-size kidneys. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated disappearance of previously detected thrombus remnant in the left ventricle and only mild hypokinesia around the apical and middle segments of the inferior and inferoseptal walls. The patient was discharged on the 10th day. Renal arteriography during elective LAD intervention 18 days after discharge showed complete revascularization, stent patency, and improved blood flow. This is the first case of renal infarction that developed in the early hours of primary PCI, despite effective anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment. Intensive coronary artery and left ventricular thrombi may be explained by the use of anabolic steroids.

  14. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm(3) , Pfat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated. PMID:26074746

  16. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J Abram; Coward, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  17. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

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    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  18. The Cutaneous Bacterial Microflora of the Bodybuilders Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Taheri, Mohammad; Ghanbari Asad, Ali; Khani, Soghra; Ahrari, Iman; Pakshir, Keyvan; Khashei, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse by the athletes has dramatically increased during the recent decades. These substances might increase the skin lipids and enhance the cutaneous microbial proliferation. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the potential side effects of AAS on the bacterial microflora colonization of the bodybuilders` skin. Patients and Methods: The skin samples of 94 male bodybuilders (71 AAS users, 23 non-AAS users) and 46 subjects of the control group, with similar gender and age, were cultured and incubated in both aerobic condition to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic condition for Propionibacterium acnes. The isolated bacteria were identified by standard microbiological techniques. Results: The skin lesions were more frequent in the body builders than the controls. Moreover, statistically significant differences were also observed in skin lesions among the AAS users and the non-AAS user athletes. The prevalence of S. aureus and P. acnes in the athletes was higher than that of the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in distribution of P. acnes between the bodybuilders who used AAS and those who did not. Conclusions: A higher number of bacterial flora was found in the bodybuilders particularly those using AAS in comparison to the controls, which might be due to the influence of these AAS on the skin microflora and transmission of the bacteria through the direct contact of the naked skin with the exercise instruments. PMID:25789120

  19. Comparative safety evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators and anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have been in use for decades for the treatment of short stature, severe burns, HIV wasting syndrome, osteoporosis, and anemia. However, their lack of selective effects on certain symptoms and unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties has limited their long-term usage in clinics. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have some advantages over AASs; they are highly specific for androgen receptors, are orally available, and, most importantly, act as strong receptor agonists in skeletal muscle and bone, and as weak agonists or antagonists in androgen-responsive tissues such as the prostate and sebaceous glands. The exact molecular mechanism, however, has not been fully elucidated. This article includes a toxicological review of major AASs, and a comparative safety analysis of major AASs and SARMs in clinical trials to evaluate the therapeutic potential of SARMs. Based on the robust tissue selectivity of SARMs over AASs, they are worth considering as a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of various muscle-wasting diseases.

  20. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  1. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats

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    Rafael Areas Vargas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS, including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a control rats, with 105 days of age (C105 (n = 7; (b control rats with 65 days of age (C65 (n = 9, injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil; (c treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105 (n = 10 and (d treated rats with 65 days of age (T65 (n = 13. The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105 and 121 days of age (C65 and T65 and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The weight (p < 0.001 and volume (p = 0.004 of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509, but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089. Concerning

  2. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  3. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

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    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  4. The effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on primary myocardial cell cultures.

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    Melchert, R B; Herron, T J; Welder, A A

    1992-02-01

    Although recent case reports suggest that anabolic-androgenic steroids may be directly injurious to the cardiovascular system, the direct myocardial cellular consequences of abuse of these drugs are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the concentration- and time-dependent effects of testosterone cypionate (TC), stanozolol (S), and fluoxymesterone (F) on primary myocardial cell cultures. Evaluation of drug effects were made in 4-d-old primary myocardial cell cultures obtained from 3- to 5-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The cultures were exposed to 1 x 10(-4) M, 1 x 10(-6) M, and 1 x 10(-8) M concentrations of TC, S, and F each for 1, 4, and 24 h. Cellular injury was evaluated by alterations in beating activity, induction of morphological alterations, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, neutral red retention, and tetrazolium (MTT) formazan production. Significant alterations in beating activity were observed in the 1 x 10(-4) M TC group in which no beating activity was seen at 1, 4, and 24 h. Morphological integrity was disrupted for the 1 x 10(-4) M TC group at 24 h where destruction of the monolayer was observed. Unlike the cultures treated with the three concentrations of both S and F, significant LDH release was seen at 4 and 24 h with those cultures exposed to 1 x 10(-4) M TC. In the evaluation of neutral red retention, 1 x 10(-4) M TC at 24 h showed a significant decrease in ability to retain the dye.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate on ischemic preconditioning in isolated heart of sedentary rats

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    Zahra Akbari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that use of supraphysiologocal doses of anabolic adrogenic steroids (AAS associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects including ventricular hypertrophy, increased susceptibility to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, impairment of exercise-induced cardioprotection and sudden cardiac death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 8 weeks treatment of AAS nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, on ischemic preconditioning (IPC phenomena in isolated hearts of sedentary rats. Materials and Methods: Three groups of animals were studied in the present study. Control ischemia/reperfusion injury group (IR, 2- Ischemic preconditioned group before main test ischemia and reperfusion (IPC+IR, and 3- Nandrolone treated ischemic preconditioned group before main test ischemia and reperfusion (Nan+IPC+IR. After two months of nandrolone and/or its solvent, the isolated Langendorff perfused rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. The IPC was induced by three cycles of 3-min occlusion and 3-min reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD before main test ischemia. Heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, rate pressure product (RPP, Max dp/dt, Min dp/dt and coronary flow were recorded during experiment. Infarction size was measured after 120 min reperfusion by TTC staining. Results: Eight weeks’ nandrolone treatment decreased body weight and increased cardiac to body weight ratio in treated rats. Nandrolone increased pre-ischemic base line cardiac function parameters in the rat hearts. Cardiac function recovery parameters in different time points during reperfusion were also greater in nandrolone treated rats compared to their respective controls. IPC decreased infarct size in the rats (P<0.05. Nandrolone could not significantly change the infarct size lowering effect of IPC in the rat heart. Conclusion: The present study revealed

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroids in police cases in Sweden 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lood, Yvonne; Eklund, Arne; Garle, Mats; Ahlner, Johan

    2012-06-10

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are considered drugs of abuse and are controlled substances in Sweden since 1999. Traditionally AAS have been used by elite athletes to enhance performance, but in recent years it has become an increasing problem outside elite sport among athletes, bodybuilders and criminals. Use of AAS is associated with psychiatric side effects such as aggression, depression and violent behavior. Supraphysiological doses and long term use can cause serious physical harm such as cardiovascular toxicity and even premature death. We investigated and evaluated the drug analytical findings in forensic cases from suspected perpetrators in cases from the police where a screening for AAS was requested to get information about the prevalence of AAS use and the occurrence of poly-drug abuse. The study was based on samples submitted from the police authorities to the Department of Forensic Toxicology in Sweden during the period 1999-2009. Urines were analyzed by methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. We also analyzed the prevalence of AAS use at the prison and probation services. A total number of 12,141 urine samples (6362 police cases and 5779 inmates) were analyzed and 33.5% of the cases from the police and 11.5% of the inmates were tested positive for AAS. The users of AAS were mainly in 99.2% men with a mean age of 26.2±6.2 years whereas the women were 29.5±6.5 years old. The most frequently used AAS was nandrolone followed by testosterone and methandienone. Other illicit and licit drugs were detected in 60% of the cases from the police, strongly indicating a frequent poly-drug abuse among users of AAS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously. After reaching stable drug intake, self-administration behavior was extinguished to examine drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Other behavioral parameters presumed to influence drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors were examined to gain more insight into the behavioral specificity of nandrolone treatment. Finally, animals were sacrificed for analysis of CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We found that nandrolone-treated rats self-administered up to 2 times more cannabinoid than vehicle-treated rats, but behaved similarly to control rats when tested for drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Enhanced cannabinoid intake by nandrolone-treated rats was not accompanied by changes in locomotor activity, sensorimotor gating, or memory function. However, our molecular data show that after chronic WIN self-administration nandrolone-treated rats display altered CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We hypothesize that increased cannabinoid self-administration in nandrolone-treated rats results from a nandrolone-induced decrease in reward function, which rats seem to compensate by voluntarily increasing their cannabinoid intake. Altogether, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats and might represent a potential risk factor for abuse of

  8. Vulnerability and the intention to anabolic steroids use among Iranian gym users: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Jalilian, Farzad; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza

    2012-02-01

    This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of 253 Iranian gym users' intentions to use the anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) perceived behavioral control accounted for 63% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to use the AAS. There is some support to use the TPB to design and implement interventions to modify and/or improve individuals' beliefs that athletic goals are achievable without the use of the AAS.

  9. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fontana

    Full Text Available In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks. The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-LDLr(-/+ were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed and/or training (Ex mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M. The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was

  10. Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte Anabolic steroids in sports

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    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são produzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculinidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarcopenias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento da força física e da massa muscular; entretanto, os efeitos sobre o desempenho atlético permanecem, ainda, controversos. Os EAA podem causar diversos efeitos colaterais, como psicopatologias, câncer de próstata, doença coronariana e esterilidade. Estudos epidemiológicos apontam a problemática acerca do uso de EAA, nos esportes; todavia, no Brasil não existem publicações substanciais sobre esse tema. Esta revisão analisa esse assunto, procurando despertar a curiosidade e o interesse dos leitores para a produção científica de novos trabalhos relacionados ao tema.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are hormones that include or are derivatives of testosterone. They are produced in the testicles and in the adrenal cortex. AAS promote development of sexual characteristics associated with the male sex. They are applied as a general rule in the treatment of sarcopenia, hypogonadism, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. In relation to sports, they are used to increase strength and muscle mass. Their effects on athletics performance are still controversial. AAS can cause several side-effects, such as mental disease, prostate cancer, coronary disease, and sterility. There are no epidemiologic studies regarding the use of AAS in Brazil . This review intends to deal with this matter widely and aims at stimulating curiosity and interest in order to provide new publications about this issue.

  11. Men regret anabolic steroid use due to a lack of comprehension regarding the consequences on future fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J R; Scovell, J; Ramasamy, R; Rajanahally, S; Coward, R M; Smith, R P; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether men with anabolic-steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH) seeking testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) regretted their decision to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and what their reasons were for this regret. An anonymous, prospective survey was distributed to 382 men seeking follow-up treatment for hypogonadism. Prior AAS use was confirmed by self-report, and men were categorised based upon whether they regretted (R) or did not regret (NR) their use of AAS. The average patient age was 40 ± 0.9 years (n = 79) and 15.2% expressed regret over AAS use. No demographic differences were identified between those who regretted AAS use (n = 12) and those who did not (n = 67). Regret was not related to ASIH diagnosis or to AAS-related side effects like increased aggression, mood disorders, erectile dysfunction, acne, fluid retention or dyslipidemia. Those who regretted AAS use were significantly more likely to have not comprehended the negative impact on future fertility (P < 0.030). Actual fertility issues were comparable in men who regretted AAS use (16.7%) and those who did not (13%). A total of 15.2% of men regretted using AAS. A lack of awareness regarding the negative long-term effects on fertility was the primary factor related to regret of AAS use in men with ASIH.

  12. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  13. Wernicke's encephalopathy and anabolic steroid drug abuse. Is there any possible relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, P; Katsanoulas, C; Timplalexi, G; Lathyris, D; Vasiliagkou, S; Antoniadou, E

    2012-10-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a reversible, neurologic disorder due to thiamine deficiency which is mainly related to chronic alcohol abuse. We report a case of a young male patient, who was bodybuilder and anabolic drug user, in whom encephalopathy was diagnosed after a short medical course in the ICU after a major upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) and hypovolemic shock. His clinical condition was typical for Wernicke's encephalopathy and although neuroimaging tests were not indicative, the patient received thiamine supplement therapy, which resulted in rapid clinical improvement. The diagnosis was based only on clinical sings and anabolic drug abuse was considered as a possible predisposing factor for the manifestation of the syndrome.

  14. Use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate associated to strength training in Wistar rats - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15513

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic steroids have been constantly used among athletes and physically active individuals. Adverse effects of such use are reported in the literature. However, little is known about the effects of anabolic steroid use associated with strength training. Thus, this research aimed to identify possible morphophysiological alterations in Wistar rats treated with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate and submitted to strength training. Twenty Wistar rats were divided in four groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hormone (SH, trained control (TC and trained hormone (TH. After the experimental protocol period, animals were killed and body weight, adiposity, renal and hepatic injury markers, plasmatic lipid profile, glycemia, and insulinemia were determined. The experimental conditions strength training and nandrolone decanoate (isolated or associated were positively correlated to a reduction on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The association of strength training with nandrolone decanoate was the most effective condition to increase muscle mass. Heart and kidneys weights, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration were also negatively modified. The data demonstrated effects of anabolic steroids in body composition, with better results when associated with strength training, but collateral effects were observed.

  15. Heart lesions associated with anabolic steroid abuse: comparison of post-mortem findings in athletes and norethandrolone-induced lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, Laurent; Belhani, Dalila; Vaillant, Fanny; Tabib, Alain; Gomez, Ludovic; Descotes, Jacques; Dehina, Leila; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Malicier, Daniel; Timour, Quadiri

    2009-07-01

    Among 15,000 forensic post-mortem examinations performed on the coroner's order over a 24-year period (January 1981-December 2004) in the area of Lyon, France (population: 2,000,000), 2250 cases of unexpected cardiac sudden death were identified retrospectively according to WHO criteria. Of these, 108 occurred during recreational sport and 12 occurred in athletes. In the latter category, a history of anabolic steroid abuse was found in 6 cases, whereas pre-existing ordinary cardiac lesions were observed in the 6 remaining cases. To shed light on the possible role of anabolic steroids in the induction of cardiac lesions, an experimental study was conducted in rabbits that were treated orally with norethandrolone 8mg/kg/day for 60 days, and sacrificed at day 90. The histopathological examination of the heart from treated animals showed coronary thrombosis associated with left ventricle hypertrophy in 3 cases, and lesions analogous to toxic or adrenergic myocarditis in all other treated animals. These findings were very similar to those observed after cardiac sudden death in the 6 athletes with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. In addition, elevated caspase-3 activity in the heart of treated rabbits as compared to controls suggests that apoptosis is involved in the induction of norethandrolone-induced cardiac lesions. These results confirm the cardiotoxic potential of anabolic steroid abuse.

  16. Solid phase extraction for multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids and related substances from calf urine using C18 and alumina columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, JP; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for anabolic steroids and related substances in calf urine is reported, that is suitable as a screening method for illegal growth promoters. Two types of sorbent were used: a reversed phase C18 material and a polar alumina material. After overnight enzymatic deconjuga

  17. Cardiomyopathy and Cerebrovascular Accident Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)

  18. Effects of Solvent and Ion Source Pressure on the Analysis of Anabolic Steroids by Low Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Zhao, Wan; Lu, Deen; Pan, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Solvent and ion source pressure were two important factors relating to the photon induced ion-molecule reactions in low pressure photoionization (LPPI). In this work, four anabolic steroids were analyzed by LPPI mass spectrometry. Both the ion species present and their relative abundances could be controlled by switching the solvent and adjusting the ion source pressure. Whereas M•+, MH+, [M - H2O]+, and solvent adducts were observed in positive LPPI, [M - H]- and various oxidation products were abundant in negative LPPI. Changing the solvent greatly affected formation of the ion species in both positive and negative ion modes. The ion intensities of the solvent adduct and oxygen adduct were selectively enhanced when the ion source pressure was elevated from 68 to 800 Pa. The limit of detection could be decreased by increasing the ion source pressure.

  19. Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse in a Young Bodybuilder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Hardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many different etiological factors are involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We report the case of HCC in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder with extensive anabolic androgenic (AAS steroid abuse. Case Presentation. Because of increasing epigastric and abdominal pain, abdominal ultrasound was performed in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder. A hyperechoic lesion in the liver was detected in segment VI. The magnetic resonance imaging showed hepatomegaly and confirmed the lesion, which showed features of a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. Laboratory values were inconspicuous. After laparoscopic segmentectomy the histological examination revealed HCC. Conclusion. While the development of HCA in the liver by chronic intake of AAS is well known, little is known about the association with HCC. The presented case may indicate aetiological association of chronic intake of AAS and the development of HCC.

  20. Side-effects of topical androgenic and anabolic substances and steroids: a short review:

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina,Uwe

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing interest, including androgenic and anabolic substances (AAS). The uncritical use may be associated with severe adverse effects. We observed five patients with different patterns of adverse reaction to AAS: twofemales and three males, they were identified when seeking medical help andadvice. The following adverse effects from of AAS have been observed: deepening of the voice due to topical use of AAS in an anti-cellulite cream; circumscribed hypertrichosis and late onset...

  1. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  2. Treatment of idiopathic short stature: effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, aromatase inhibitors and anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of sex steroid action on the growth plate can, at least theoretically, increase adult height in children and adolescents with idiopathic short stature. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy during adolescence has been shown effective in a placebo-controlled study, but to obtain clinically significant increases in adult height, the treatment duration must be lengthy (several years). Furthermore, such treatment seems to compromise bone health and, because of the resulting delay in pubertal development, likely has psychosocial consequences. Therefore, GnRH analogs are no longer recommended to augment height in adolescents with short stature and normally timed puberty. Aromatase inhibitors are probably more effective than GnRH analogs in promoting increased adult height in children with short stature and, unlike GnRH analogs, do not delay pubertal development in males. However, due to a dearth of safety data with aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of short stature, their use outside a research setting is currently not recommended. Positive effects of anabolic steroids on adult height have not been documented.

  3. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  4. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-06-10

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. EXTENDED THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AS MODEL OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROID USE BY INDONESIAN BODYBUILDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Shine Pintor Siolemba Patiro; Basu Swastha Dharmmesta; Sahid Susilo Nugroho; Bayu Sutikno

    2016-01-01

    This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of Indonesian bodybuilders’ intentions to use anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influence an Indonesian bodybuilder’s intention to use AAS and offer a better understanding of AAS use behavior based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) p...

  6. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids-Use and Correlates among Gym Users-An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotta Rehnman; Erika Sjöblom; Stefan Holgersson; Håkan Leifman

    2011-01-01

    he purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to t...

  7. Determination of the prevalence of anabolic steroids, stimulants, and selected drugs subject to doping controls among elite sport students using analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Sauer, Michael; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Mareck, Ute; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-08-01

    Drug abuse by adolescents has been investigated in various surveys that reported correlations between age, gender, and activity. However, none of these studies included chemical analyses to help substantiate the statements of participants. In the present study, the urine specimens of 964 students (439 females, 525 males; mean age 22.1 years, s = 1.7), who applied to study sports sciences at university, were assessed for anabolic steroids, stimulants, and selected drugs prohibited in sports. In total, 11.2% of the urine specimens provided contained drugs covered by doping controls. The most frequently detected compound was the major metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (9.8%) followed by various stimulants related to amphetamine and cocaine (1.0%). Indications of anabolic steroid use were found in 0.4% of urine samples but originated from contraceptives containing norethisterone. The present study provided unambiguous data on the status quo of drug (ab)use by adolescents hoping for a career related to elite sport or sports sciences. No use of anabolic steroids was detected. However, evidence for stimulants and tetrahydrocannabinol administration was obtained, although not reported by any participant, which highlights the issue of under-reporting in surveys based solely on questionnaires.

  8. Predicting intentions for long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid use among men: a covariance structure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James; Carr, Sasha; Sanjuan, Pilar; Park, Steff

    2006-09-01

    Long-term use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) is associated with both positive and negative effects. The authors examined possible mechanisms by which these effects contribute to AAS satisfaction and predict intentions for future AAS use. Five hundred male AAS users completed an interactive Web-based instrument assessing the psychological and physical effects of AAS use. Covariance structure modeling was used to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of AAS consequences on satisfaction with AASs and intentions for future AAS use. Results suggest that gain in muscle mass and psychological benefits from AAS use uniquely contributed to both AAS satisfaction and intentions for future use. Side effects from AAS use also uniquely contributed to AAS satisfaction, but ancillary drug use was found to partially mediate this relationship, suggesting that the satisfaction of experienced AAS users is enhanced by their mastery of side effects through the use of ancillary drugs. The final model explained 29% of the variance in intentions for future AAS use. Mechanisms for sustained AAS use and implications for intervention and prevention strategies are discussed.

  9. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  10. Bodybuilders who consume anabolic steroids and its relationship with their physical self description and their physical social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Arbinaga Ibarzábal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physical and social anxiety and the physical self description in 55 male bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids and 95 non users are determined, the consumption is being valued through the Fat Free Body Mass (Kouri, Pope and Katz, 1995. On the SPAS scale (Hart, Leary and Rejeski, 1989 the consumers give higher values to the non consumers in the total score (t=2,721 p=0,008 and in the “expectation towards a negative assessment” (t=2,710 p=0,008 and very slight differences in the “comfort with their physical presence” (t=1,939 p=0,054. In self description, valued through the PSDQ (Marsh and Sutherland, 1994, it is shown that non users get a higher score in self description (t=2,431 p=0,016. Nevertheless, there are no differences given in the global scores in self description of the physical form (t=1,542 p=0,125. Inverse and significant correlations are observed between the two scales; with the dimension “physical self description” (r=-0,583 p=0,000 and with “self description of the physical form” (r=-0,337 p=0,000.

  11. A cellular memory mechanism aids overload hypertrophy in muscle long after an episodic exposure to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Ingrid M; Bruusgaard, Jo C; Eftestøl, Einar; Gundersen, Kristian

    2013-12-15

    Previous strength training with or without the use of anabolic steroids facilitates subsequent re-acquisition of muscle mass even after long intervening periods of inactivity. Based on in vivo and ex vivo microscopy we here propose a cellular memory mechanism residing in the muscle cells. Female mice were treated with testosterone propionate for 14 days, inducing a 66% increase in the number of myonuclei and a 77% increase in fibre cross-sectional area. Three weeks after removing the drug, fibre size was decreased to the same level as in sham treated animals, but the number of nuclei remained elevated for at least 3 months (>10% of the mouse lifespan). At this time, when the myonuclei-rich muscles were exposed to overload-exercise for 6 days, the fibre cross-sectional area increased by 31% while control muscles did not grow significantly. We suggest that the lasting, elevated number of myonuclei constitutes a cellular memory facilitating subsequent muscle overload hypertrophy. Our findings might have consequences for the exclusion time of doping offenders. Since the ability to generate new myonuclei is impaired in the elderly our data also invites speculation that it might be beneficial to perform strength training when young in order to benefit in senescence.

  12. Addition of an anabolic steroid to strength training promotes muscle strength in the nonparetic lower limb of poststroke hemiplegia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-09-01

    In this prospective observer-blinded open-label nonrandomized controlled trial, 25 inpatients with hemiplegia 1-8 months after stroke were assigned to an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS; n = 14) or a control (n = 11) group: the former received 100 mg metenolone enanthate by intramuscular injection once a week for 6 weeks along with rehabilitation therapy including muscle strength training of the nonparetic lower limb, which consisted of 100 repetitions of isokinetic reciprocal knee extension/flexion (60 degrees /s) on a dynamometer once a day for 5 days a week over 6 weeks, and the latter received rehabilitation therapy alone. The maximal peak torque of the nonparetic lower limb, including the isokinetic (60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s), isotonic, and isometric muscle strength of knee extension/flexion, measured every 2 weeks, was compared with the baseline values. Significant increases in peak torque were seen at 2 weeks in 9 of the 10 conditions and at 6 weeks in 8 of the 10 conditions tested for the AAS group but in only 1 and 5 conditions for the control group, respectively. While no contraindications for AAS were encountered, the combination of AAS and muscle strength training tended to have a positive effect on muscle strength after stroke.

  13. Oxandrolone induced lean mass gain during recovery from severe burns is maintained after discontinuation of the anabolic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demling, Robert H; DeSanti, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    Weight loss and lean mass loss from burn induced catabolism can be more rapidly restored when the anabolic steroid oxandrolone is added to optimum nutrition compared to nutrition alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether the regained lean body mass (LBM) is retained 6 months after stopping oxandrolone. Forty-five severe burn patients, entering the recovery phase were randomized into a nutrition group alone or with the addition of oxandrolone, 20mg per day upon admission to the acute burn rehabilitation (RH) unit. Oxandrolone was discontinued after at least 80% of the involuntary weight loss occurring in the acute burn period, was restored. Body composition was measured using bioelectric impedence analysis (BIA). We found that patients receiving oxandrolone, in the rehabilitation unit, regained weight and lean mass two to three times faster than with nutrition alone. The difference was statistically significant (Ppatients were discharged from RH on a nutrition and exercise program and monitored in the outpatient burn center. After 6 months, body weight and body composition were again measured. We found that the body weight and lean mass which was restored during RH, was maintained 6 months after discontinuation of oxandrolone. Lost lean mass was not yet restored in the nutrition alone group. We can conclude that body weight and lean mass which is lost, due to burn induced catabolism, can be effectively restored in the post-burn recovery period with oxandrolone. The body weight and lost lean mass which is regained, is maintained 6 months after stopping the drug.

  14. Potentially harmful advantage to athletes: a putative connection between UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism and renal disorders with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

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    Barker James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective With prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, occasional incidents of renal disorders have been observed. Independently, it has also been established that there are considerable inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences, in particular with reference to the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17 gene, in metabolising these compounds. This report postulates the association of deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene with the occurrence of renal disorders on chronic exposure to AAS. Presentation of the hypothesis The major deactivation and elimination pathway of AASs is through glucuronide conjugation, chiefly catalyzed by the UGT2B17 enzyme, followed by excretion in urine. Excretion of steroids is affected in individuals with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene. We hypothesize that UGT2B17 deficient individuals are more vulnerable to developing renal disorders with prolonged use of AAS owing to increases in body mass index and possible direct toxic effects of steroids on the kidneys. Elevated serum levels of biologically active steroids due to inadequate elimination can lead to prolonged muscle build up. An increase in body mass index may cause renal injuries due to sustained elevated glomerular pressure and flow rate. Testing the hypothesis In the absence of controlled clinical trials in humans, observational studies can be carried out. Real time PCR with allelic discrimination should be employed to examine the prevalence of different UGT2B17 genotypes in patients with impaired renal function and AAS abuse. In individuals with the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism, blood tests, biofluid analyses, urinalysis, and hair analyses following the administration of an anabolic steroid can be used to determine the fate of the substance once in the body. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis is upheld, anabolic steroid users with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene may be

  15. Lacunar Infarction Associated with Anabolic Steroids and Polycythemia: A Case Report

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    George W.J. Harston

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lacunar infarction is traditionally ascribed to lipohyalinosis or microatheroma. We report the case of 40-year-old man, without traditional risk factors for ischemic stroke, who presented to the Emergency Department with recurrent episodes of transient right-sided weakness and paresthesia. Lacunar infarction was confirmed on diffusion-weighted MRI and blood tests showed a marked polycythemia. Quantitative magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated dramatically abnormal perfusion throughout both cerebral hemispheres, and transcranial Doppler revealed reduced cerebral artery velocities, both consistent with the proposed mechanism of hyperviscosity. His symptoms settled with treatment of the polycythemia and workup did not find another cause of ischemic stroke. We propose that hyperviscosity secondary to steroid-induced polycythemia caused ischemia in this case and not lipohyalinosis or microatheroma, to which lacunar disease is commonly attributed.

  16. Relationships between structure, ionization profile and sensitivity of exogenous anabolic steroids under electrospray ionization and analysis in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between the ionization profile, sensitivity, and structures of 64 exogenous anabolic steroids (groups I-IV) was investigated under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. The target analytes were ionized as [M + H](+) or [M + H-nH2 O](+) in the positive mode, and these ions were used as precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring analysis. The collision energy and Q3 ions were optimized based on the sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-20 ng/mL for the 64 steroids. The LODs for 38 compounds, 14 compounds and 12 compounds were in the range of 0.05-1, 2-5 and 10-20 ng/mL, respectively. Steroids including the conjugated keto-functional group at C3 showed good proton affinity and stability, and generated the [M + H](+) ion as the most abundant precursor ion. In addition, the LODs of steroids using the [M + H](+) ion as the precursor ion were mostly distributed at low concentrations. In contrast, steroids containing conjugated/unconjugated hydroxyl functional groups at C3 generated [M + H - H2 O](+) or [M + H - 2H2 O](+) ions, and these steroids showed relatively high LODs owing to poor stability and multiple ion formation. An LC-MS/MS method based on the present ionization profile was developed and validated for the determination of 78 steroids (groups I-V) in human urine.

  17. Screening for anabolic steroids and related compounds in illegal cocktails by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Vissers, J.P.C.; Fuchs, R.E.M.; Velde, van J.W.; Lommen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Findings of illegal hormone preparations such as syringes, bottles, cocktails, and so on, are an important information source for the nature of the current abuse of anabolic steroids and related compounds as growth-promoting agents in cattle. A new screening method for steroids in cocktails is prese

  18. Study of body composition, lung function, and quality of life following use of anabolic steroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Mradul Kumar; Khan, Naushad Ahmad; Malhotra, Varun; Kumar, Suman; Mawari, Govind; Hira, Harmanjit Singh

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation and is associated with weight loss and decreased muscle strength and exercise capacity. A double-blinded randomized controlled trial of 32 male COPD patients (age, 54.94 ± 11.27 years) was carried out to assess effects of anabolic steroid in terms of a daily high-protein, high-calorie diet alone or one combined with anabolic steroids on body composition, lung function, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Outcomes were assessed by anthropometric and spirometric measurements, peak expiratory flow rate, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), hand grip test, and HRQL index scores. Measurements were made at baseline and end of treatment (6 weeks). All patients showed significant difference (P pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric measurements after 6 weeks of intervention (within-group changes); however, no significant improvement occurred in the pulmonary function parameters between the groups. The difference in exercise capacity (6MWT) and HRQL scores in the treatment group were statistically significant (P < .001) compared with control group after 6 weeks of intervention. In the treatment group, the average 6MWT distance increased from 213.5 m to 268.5 m at 6-week follow-up, and HRQL scores increased from 101.25 to 118.45. Also, HRQL and 6MWT parameters were positively correlated in response to steroid supplementation at the end of the study. Weekly administration of anabolic steroids during 6 weeks increased exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with COPD.

  19. Heterozygous Inactivation of the Nuclear Receptor PXR/NR1I2 in a Patient With Anabolic Steroid-Induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Roman; Krawczyk, Marcin; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Kruk, Beata; Preis, Rebecca; Trottier, Jocelyn; Barbier, Olivier; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of liver damage due to steroid consumption is increasing due to the omnipresence of the idealized body image and the widespread availability of drugs via the Internet. The genetic factors underlying individual susceptibility are not presently known. Case Presentation A male patient developed cholestatic liver injury two weeks after a two-month course of anabolic steroids. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 24 cholestasis-related genes revealed a heterozygous two-basepair deletion in exon 1 of the pregnane X receptor gene (PXR). Serum bile salt levels showed marked imbalances, strongly resembling the changes observed in patients with biliary obstruction. Conclusions This case of PXR haploinsufficiency reveals transcriptional regulatory functions activated in the liver under xenobiotic stress by steroids, which appear to require two functional copies of the nuclear receptor gene. Deranged bile salt levels outline the central role of PXR in bile acid synthesis, modification, and export. PMID:27799961

  20. EXTENDED THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AS MODEL OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROID USE BY INDONESIAN BODYBUILDERS

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    Shine Pintor Siolemba Patiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of Indonesian bodybuilders’ intentions to use anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influence an Indonesian bodybuilder’s intention to use AAS and offer a better understanding of AAS use behavior based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The three predictor variables of (1 attitude, (2 subjective norms, and (3 perceived behavioral control accounted for the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to reuse the AAS. Likewise, (1 attitude and (2 intention accounted for of the variation in the outcome measure of the reuse of AAS. This research combined two methods which are qualitative and quantitative. The respondents who were used in this research are professional bodybuilders located in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, and Yogyakarta. The result of this research shows that the attitude of bodybuilders in using AAS tends to have values that are adopted by themselves. The result of this research differs from Bagozzi et al (1989 who stated that attitude influenced behavior directly as a nonpurposeful reaction or indirectly through intention as an aimed response. The result of this research clearly shows that attitude can influence behavior directly as a purposeful reaction, because the bodybuilders consume AAS to achieve a particular purpose and it is strengthened by achievement value in themselves. This research suggests also that attitude and subjective norms are not causally independent. They appear to reflect similar beliefs and to influence each other. These results differ from Titah and Barki (2009, as suggested by Chang (1998 and Aarts et al. (1998, who stated that a person whose positive subjective norms move them toward overt behavior, it will lead to a positive attitude toward the behavior. Future research directions are suggested regarding several areas

  1. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  2. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

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    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  3. Risk Factors for Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Male Weightlifters: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse, though an important public health problem, remains inadequately studied. Almost all AAS abusers are male and lift weights, but the risk factors for AAS use among male weightlifters remain poorly understood. Methods We recruited 233 experienced male weightlifters, of whom 102 (44%) reported lifetime AAS use, and assessed their childhood and adolescent attributes retrospectively using structured clinical interviews and computerized questionnaires. This “cross-sectional cohort” approach—a design that we have formally presented in the recent methodological literature—utilizes a study cohort, not selected for outcomes of interest, and assesses exposures and outcomes retrospectively. We hypothesized that conduct disorder and body-image concerns would be major risk factors for subsequent AAS use among male weightlifters. Results Within our study population, many attributes showed little association with AAS use, but conduct disorder and body-image concerns showed strong associations. For individuals with prior conduct disorder vs. those without, the hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for subsequent AAS use was 2.2 [1.5, 3.4]. For individuals in the middle vs. lowest tertile of scores on a retrospective adolescent “muscle-dysmorphia” scale, the hazard ratio was 1.5 [0.84, 2.6]; for the highest vs. lowest tertile, the hazard ratio was 3.3 [2.0, 5.3]; and for the linear trend of hazard ratios, P weightlifters. Thus, assessment of these attributes may help to identify individuals most likely to require interventions to discourage this form of substance abuse. PMID:21839424

  4. Online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Du; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Lee, Su Duk; Han, Kwan Seok; Wang, Yu; Han, Sang Beom

    2017-10-25

    A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity. The urine was extracted by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction, and hydrolyzed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. Then, the sample was automatically loaded on the TurboFlow Cyclone extraction column for removal of further matrix, followed by separation on a fused core C18 column before MS/MS detection. Optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. All analytes were rapidly detected within 10min with high sensitivity (picogram to nanogram per milliliter level), and no interference was observed. The linearity range was from 0.1-10ng/mL for nine steroids and 1.0-50ng/mL for the others, with correlation of coefficient values over 0.995. Precision and accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 14.5% and 1.7 to 12.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of anabolic steroids in horse urine after administration of a model drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)

    2011-08-26

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for

  6. Frequency of use, awareness, and attitudes toward side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption among male medical students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Samadi, Roya; Dolatabadi, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption in male students studying at the university and their awareness, attitude, and role of sports activities; the present descriptive study was conducted on 271 volunteers in 2008. The data collected by self-report questionnaires was analyzed by descriptive inferential statistics. The prevalence of consumption was 3.3%, and it was significantly higher in those with a history of bodybuilding or athletic performance. The overall awareness rate was low, and the attitude was too optimistic. It seems that unawareness, incorrect attitude, and history of athletic performance increases the risk of consumption.

  7. Synthesis of some potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory metabolites by fungal transformation of anabolic steroid oxymetholone

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    Khan Naik Tameen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotransformation of organic compounds by using microbial whole cells provides an efficient approach to obtain novel analogues which are often difficult to synthesize chemically. In this manuscript, we report for the first time the microbial transformation of a synthetic anabolic steroidal drug, oxymetholone, by fungal cell cultures. Results Incubation of oxymetholone (1 with Macrophomina phaseolina, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium lini produced 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxy-methyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-1-en-3-one (2, 2α,17α-di(hydroxyl-methyl-5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3, 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-2α,3β,17β-triol (4, 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-androst-1,4-dien-3-one (5, 17β-hydroxy-2α-(hydroxy-methyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3-one (6, and 2α-(hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3β-17β-diol (7. Their structures were deduced by spectral analyses, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 2–5 were identified as the new metabolites of 1. The immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity of compounds 1–7 were evaluated by observing their effects on T-cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and normal cell growth in MTT assays, respectively. These compounds showed immunosuppressant effect in the T-cell proliferation assay with IC50 values between 31.2 to 2.7 μg/mL, while the IC50 values for ROS inhibition, representing anti-inflammatory effect, were in the range of 25.6 to 2.0 μg/mL. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion Microbial transformation of oxymetholone (1 provides an efficient method for structural transformation of 1. The transformed products were obtained as a result of de novo stereoselective reduction of the enone system, isomerization of double bond, insertion of double bond and hydroxylation. The transformed products, which showed significant

  8. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

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    Halldorsson Vidar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. Method We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11031 Icelandic high school students. Results Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this

  9. Synthesis of some potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory metabolites by fungal transformation of anabolic steroid oxymetholone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotransformation of organic compounds by using microbial whole cells provides an efficient approach to obtain novel analogues which are often difficult to synthesize chemically. In this manuscript, we report for the first time the microbial transformation of a synthetic anabolic steroidal drug, oxymetholone, by fungal cell cultures. Results Incubation of oxymetholone (1) with Macrophomina phaseolina, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium lini produced 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxy-methyl)-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-1-en-3-one (2), 2α,17α-di(hydroxyl-methyl)-5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3), 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-2α,3β,17β-triol (4), 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-17α-methyl-androst-1,4-dien-3-one (5), 17β-hydroxy-2α-(hydroxy-methyl)-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3-one (6), and 2α-(hydroxymethyl)-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3β-17β-diol (7). Their structures were deduced by spectral analyses, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 2–5 were identified as the new metabolites of 1. The immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity of compounds 1–7 were evaluated by observing their effects on T-cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and normal cell growth in MTT assays, respectively. These compounds showed immunosuppressant effect in the T-cell proliferation assay with IC50 values between 31.2 to 2.7 μg/mL, while the IC50 values for ROS inhibition, representing anti-inflammatory effect, were in the range of 25.6 to 2.0 μg/mL. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion Microbial transformation of oxymetholone (1) provides an efficient method for structural transformation of 1. The transformed products were obtained as a result of de novo stereoselective reduction of the enone system, isomerization of double bond, insertion of double bond and hydroxylation. The transformed products, which showed significant

  10. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  11. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. Method We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11031 Icelandic high school students. Results Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this should not be done at the

  12. Determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and ratios in urine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and isotope pattern deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch-Motellón, J; Sancho, J V; Ibáñez, M; Pozo, O; Roig-Navarro, A F

    2017-09-15

    An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for the determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS has been developed using the isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD) mathematical tool. The method has been successfully validated for testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone, employing their respective deuterated analogs using two certified reference materials (CRM). Accuracy was evaluated as recovery of the certified values and ranged from 75% to 108%. Precision was assessed in intraday (n=5) and interday (n=4) experiments, with RSDs below 5% and 10% respectively. The method was also found suitable for real urine samples, with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) below the normal urinary levels. The developed method meets the requirements established by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the selected steroids for Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) measurements, except in the case of androsterone, which is currently under study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25 μM of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0 ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples.

  14. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctrl+c to copy Additional Drug Facts Other Articles of Interest NIDA Notes Prevention Program Reduces Substance Use By Participants' Friends Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year Nora's ...

  15. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... y los efectos del abuso de los esteroides. Games Drugs + Your Body It isn't pretty—see the ugly truth about how drug abuse can affect the body. Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. Blog Posts How Does Pro Football Tackle Players’ Drug Use? February 01, 2016 / ...

  16. Comparison between triple quadrupole, time of flight and hybrid quadrupole time of flight analysers coupled to liquid chromatography for the detection of anabolic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen; Elbardissy, Hisham; Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Ventura, Rosa; Delbeke, Frans T

    2011-01-17

    Triple quadrupole (QqQ), time of flight (TOF) and quadrupole-time of flight (QTOF) analysers have been compared for the detection of anabolic steroids in human urine. Ten anabolic steroids were selected as model compounds based on their ionization and the presence of endogenous interferences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were evaluated. QqQ allowed for the detection of all analytes at the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (between 2 and 10 ng mL(-1) in urine). TOF and QTOF approaches were not sensitive enough to detect some of the analytes (3'-hydroxy-stanozolol or the metabolites of boldenone and formebolone) at the established MRPL. Although a suitable accuracy was obtained, the precision was unsatisfactory (RSD typically higher than 20%) for quantitative purposes irrespective of the analyser used. The methods were applied to 30 real samples declared positives either for the misuse of boldenone, stanozolol and/or methandienone. Most of the compounds were detected by every technique, however QqQ was necessary for the detection of some metabolites in a few samples. Finally, the possibility to detect non-target steroids has been explored by the use of TOF and QTOF. The use of this approach revealed that the presence of boldenone and its metabolite in one sample was due to the intake of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Additionally, the intake of methandienone was confirmed by the post-target detection of a long-term metabolite.

  17. Direct analysis in real time - high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS): a high throughput strategy for identification and quantification of anabolic steroid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doué, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pouponneau, Karinne; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    High throughput screening is essential for doping, forensic, and food safety laboratories. While hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) remains the approach of choice, recent ambient MS techniques, such as direct analysis in real time (DART), offer more rapid and more versatile strategies and thus gain in popularity. In this study, the potential of DART hyphenated with Orbitrap-MS for fast identification and quantification of 21 anabolic steroid esters has been evaluated. Direct analysis in high resolution scan mode allowed steroid esters screening by accurate mass measurement (Resolution = 60 000 and mass error  0.99), dynamic range (from 1 to 1000 ng mL(-1) ), bias (<10%), sensitivity (1 ng mL(-1) ), repeatability and reproducibility (RSD < 20%) were evaluated as similar to those obtained with hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. This innovative high throughput approach was successfully applied for the characterization of oily commercial preparations, and thus fits the needs of the competent authorities in the fight against forbidden or counterfeited substances.

  18. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (horses (mares and geldings).

  19. Culto ao corpo e uso de anabolizantes entre praticantes de musculação Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar as motivações para a prática da musculação e uso de anabolizantes, assim como as representações e usos sociais do corpo entre usuários de anabolizantes praticantes de musculação. Foi realizado um estudo etnográfico com observação participante em academias de musculação de bairros de classe média e classes populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, e realização de 43 entrevistas em profundidade com usuários de anabolizantes. A prática da musculação e o uso de anabolizantes, tanto entre usuários de classe média quanto populares, são motivados sobretudo por razões estéticas. A insatisfação com corpo real em comparação ao padrão ideal disseminado pela mídia, o receio de ser desvalorizado ou excluído do grupo de pares, o capital simbólico associado ao corpo "trabalhado" e o imediatismo na obtenção dos resultados favorecem o uso de anabolizantes. Faz-se necessária a realização de campanhas de prevenção voltadas para os jovens que aliem a visão crítica na desconstrução dos valores associados ao corpo na sociedade de consumo à veiculação de informação de qualidade sobre os riscos à saúde no consumo de anabolizantes.This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a "pumped-up" body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid

  20. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman ANGOORANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months, weekly duration of the sporting activity (h, purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively, and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires.Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD: 25.7 (7.1, ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%. Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse.Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. Keywords: Anabolic agents, Ergogenic, Doping, Iran, Body-building, Sports, Athlete

  1. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Cevik, E.; Gerssen, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening,

  2. Piomiosite em atletas após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes: relato de casos Pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Souza Cardozo Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relato da conduta de cinco casos de piomiosite em atletas após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Nos últimos 10 anos foram avaliados cinco atendimentos a atletas no Centro de Traumatologia do Esporte (CETE - EPM - Unifesp que desenvolveram piomiosite após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Todos os pacientes foram diagnosticados clínica e laboratorialmente e por exames de imagem, sendo realizado tratamento cirúrgico (com coleta de material para cultura e antibioticoterapia. Em quatro casos, os locais de administração foram nos membros superiores e, em um dos casos, nos glúteos bilaterais, além dos membros superiores. Nos cinco casos, houve a ocorrência de leucocitose com neutrofilia no hemograma e, após a limpeza cirúrgica, os germes habituais da pele (S. aureus e S. viridans foram encontrados na cultura das secreções. A delimitação do abscesso, assim como o estudo do plano muscular em que se encontrava, foi realizada por meio do estudo de imagem com ultrassonografia e ressonância magnética. Todos responderam à antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro e, em dois casos, foi necessário mais de um procedimento cirúrgico devido ao surgimento de mais de um ponto de abscesso com tempo de evolução diferente. O uso de esteroides anabolizantes por alguns atletas pode trazer consequências graves; a intervenção rápida, enérgica e multidisciplinar se faz necessária nesses casos para se evitar resultados não desejáveis. O tratamento adequado curou os atletas completamente, com retorno ao esporte no mesmo nível.OBJECTIVE: To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. METHOD: Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE, EPM-UNIFESP. RESULTS: All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with

  3. Use of hydrogen as a carrier gas for the analysis of steroids with anabolic activity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Guerra, J A; Prado, P; García-Tenorio, S Vargas

    2011-10-14

    Due to the impact in the media and the requirements of sensitivity and robustness, the detection of the misuse of forbidden substances in sports is a really challenging area for analytical chemistry, where any study focused on enhancing the performance of the analytical methods will be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of using hydrogen instead of helium as a carrier gas for the analysis of anabolic steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization. There are several drawbacks related with the use of helium as a carrier gas: it is expensive, is a non-renewable resource, and has limited availability in many parts of the world. In contrast, hydrogen is readily available using a hydrogen generator or high-pressure bottled gas, and allows a faster analysis without loss of efficiency; nevertheless it should not be forgotten that due to its explosiveness hydrogen must be handled with caution. Throughout the study the impact of the change of the carrier gas will be evaluated in terms of: performance of the chromatographic system, saving of time and money, impact on the high vacuum in the analyzer, changes in the fragmentation behaviour of the analytes, and finally consequences for the limits of detection achieved with the method.

  4. Biochemical and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats submitted to different protocols of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelles, Guilherme Lopes; Bueno, Andressa; de Oliveira, Juliana Sorraila; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; França, Raqueli Teresinha; da Silva, Cássia Bagolin; Machado, Márcia Silveira Netto; Petry, Letícia do Santos; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; de Andrade, Cinthia Melazzo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3). For each protocol, a control group was used, and they received 0.1 ml of olive oil intramuscularly. Blood and fragments of liver and kidney were collected for alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, triglycerides, urea, reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total thiols, and glutathione evaluation. The results show that the BU in doses of 5 (day 30) and 2.5 mg kg(-1) (day 60) changes the ALT seric activity, possibly showing a hepatotoxic effect. High doses of BU may lead to increased levels of cholesterol (protocol P1) possibly due to inhibition of the normal steroid biosynthesis process. All protocols used caused changes in the redox balance of the organs studied (except in the liver, protocol P2), which indicates that these drugs might be harmful even at low doses.

  5. Screening for anabolic steroids in sports: analytical strategy based on the detection of phase I and phase II intact urinary metabolites by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Esquivel, Argitxu; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa

    2015-04-10

    In order to improve the detection capabilities of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in sports, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method for the simultaneous detection of AAS phase I and phase II intact urinary metabolites (glucuronides and sulfates) was developed. A total of 36 metabolites (7 unconjugated; 19 glucuronides and 10 sulfates) corresponding to 15 of the most reported AAS were included. Analytes were extracted from urine using C18 cartridges. LC and MS conditions were studied in-depth to determine the most sensitive and selective conditions for each analyte. A selected reaction monitoring method was set up. The optimization of the experimental parameters for 13 metabolites not available as standards was performed using excretion study urines. Extraction recoveries were above 77% for all 23 validated analytes. Intra-day precision was lower than 21%, and LODs were in the range 0.25-4ng/mL for 18 of the 23 analytes. Matrix effect was evaluated using post column infusion and ranged from 92 to 147%. The method was successfully applied to excretion study urines of different exogenous AAS. The suitability of the strategy was demonstrated with methyltestosterone and stanozolol excretion study urines by achieving detection times of 22 and 21 days, respectively. The method is compliant with the World Antidoping Agency requirements for most of the studied compounds. It represents a cost-effective approach that improves the detection capabilities of AAS by increasing the sensitivity for some metabolites and by including recently described phase II long-term metabolites not detectable using the current screening strategy.

  6. Polypharmacy, Infectious Diseases, Sexual Behavior, and Psychophysical Health Among Anabolic Steroid-Using Homosexual and Heterosexual Gym Patrons in San Francisco's Castro District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Perry, Paul J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Newsom, Lindsay; Mann, Amber A; Mkrtchyan, Hermine; Pope, Harrison G

    2017-06-07

    Limited studies based in England and Australia reported misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among homosexual men to enhance body image. Anecdotally, AAS are also being misused by homosexual men in the United States. Since many AAS and certain performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are administered via injection, this poses a potential vector for the spread of infectious disease in an already at-risk population. This study compared and contrasted homosexual and heterosexual male gym clients regarding use of AAS and PEDs, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, seroprevalence of infectious disease, engagement in risky injection practices and sexual behaviors, and presence of psychiatric conditions. Recruitment and data collection occurred outside four exercise gyms in the San Francisco Castro District area between October 25, 2014 and March 10, 2015. Two hundred and twenty homosexual men and 73 heterosexual men completed the 114-item cross-sectional survey. Ten percent of homosexual men reported lifetime AAS use. Homosexual men had almost four times more sexual partners and were over 14 times more likely to knowingly have unprotected intercourse with a known HIV positive person than heterosexual men. In addition, a quarter of homosexual men who injected drugs admitted to sharing used syringes or needles with another person. Conclusions/Importance: The current study is the first to confirm AAS use among homosexual men in the United States. Homosexual men partook in high-risk sexual behaviors and injection practices which may place them at greater risks for contracting and spreading HIV and other infectious diseases.

  7. Anabolic androgenic steroids--use and correlates among gym users--an assessment study using questionnaires and observations at gyms in the Stockholm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifman, Håkan; Rehnman, Charlotta; Sjöblom, Erika; Holgersson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to the questionnaire, 3.9% of men reported life time use of AAS, 1.4% use during the past 12 months and 0.4% AAS use during past 30 days. Not only were there similar patterns found in the two methods, i.e., similar age and gender distributions for AAS use, but analyses of concordance showed that gyms with a higher prevalence of self-reported AAS-use and supplement use (questionnaire) showed a significantly higher proportion of observer-assessed AAS users. Analyses of individual predictors showed that AAS users were almost always young men, regular weight trainers and more often users of drugs and nutritional supplements. The higher prevalence of AAS use among gym users than in the general population makes the former an appropriate target group for AAS prevention. The connection between supplements, drugs and AAS use suggests that effective AAS prevention need to focus on several risk factors for AAS use. The clear resemblance in estimates between the observation and questionnaire data strengthen the credibility of the two methods.

  8. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F; Garrostas, L; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H](+) or [M + H-2TMSOH](+) ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL(-1). Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected.

  10. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  11. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raro, M.; Portolés, T.; Pitarch, E.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernández, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Garrostas, L. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, J.; Ventura, R.; Segura, J. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Experimental and Health Sciencies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Pozo, O.J., E-mail: opozo@imim.es [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H]{sup +} or [M + H-2TMSOH]{sup +} ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL{sup −1}. Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected. - Highlights: • APCI source has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous AAS in urine. • Suitable

  12. Detection of anabolic and androgenic steroids and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Wai Him; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-04-14

    Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood. As a result, there is a high risk that such AASs could escape detection in their official race-day samples although they may have been used during the long period of training. Hair analysis, on the other hand, can afford significantly longer detection windows. In addition, the identification of synthetic ester derivatives of AASs in hair, particularly for the endogenous ones, can provide unequivocal proof of their exogenous origin. This paper describes the development of a sensitive method (at sub to low parts-per-billion or ppb levels) for detecting 48 AASs and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Decontaminated horse hair was pulverised and subjected to in-situ liquid-liquid extraction in a mixture of hexane - ethyl acetate (7:3, v/v) and phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.5), followed by additional clean-up using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. The final extract was analysed using UHPLC-HRMS in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with both full scan and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). This method was validated for qualitative identification purposes. Validation data, including method specificity, method sensitivity, extraction recovery, method precision and matrix effect are presented. Method applicability was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of testosterone propionate in a referee hair sample. To our knowledge, this was

  13. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  14. Androgenic-anabolic steroids and the Olympic Games%雄激素类固醇激素与奥运会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth D. Fitch

    2008-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) have been misused by athletes at the Olympic Games, both before and after they were prohibited in sport in 1974. Systematic doping with AAS occurred in the German Democratic Republic(GDR) from 1965 to 1989 which assisted that country to win many medals at Olympic Games, especially in female events. Currently, AAS are the most frequent category of prohibited substances detected in the urine of athletes both globally and at the last two Summer Olympic Games. Scientific confirmation that AAS are effective in enhancing sports performance was difficult because ethical approval was difficult for research involving male subjects taking massive doses of androgens as some athletes and bodybuilders did. Methods to detect AAS have evolved gradually over the past three decades and currently, despite an impressive array of sophisticated analytical equipment and methods, anti-doping authorities and analytical scientists continue to face challenges as have occurred from the use by athletes of designer AAS during the past few years. The future development and use of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) can be anticipated to pose problems in the years ahead. Endocrinologists should be aware that on occasions, replacement testosterone (T) therapy may be authorized in sport as a therapeutic use exemption (TUE)and these circumstances are discussed.%即使在1974年被禁用后,雄激素类固醇激素(AAS)仍然一直被参加奥运会的运动员滥用.掺杂有AAS的药物于1965年到1989年之间出现在德意志民主共和国(GDR),这些药物帮助GDR在奥运会上赢得了许多奖牌,尤其在女子项目上.AAS是目前在全世界和近两届夏季奥运会上在运动员尿检中检测到的最常见的违禁药物.获得科学证据证实AAS提高运动成绩的有效性是十分困难的,因为在研究工作中让男性实验者服用某些运动员和健美人士服用的大剂量的雄激素是很难获得伦理学批准

  15. Biotransformation of a potent anabolic steroid, mibolerone, with Cunninghamella blakesleeana, C. echinulata, and Macrophomina phaseolina, and biological activity evaluation of its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mahwish; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Wahab, Atia-Tul-; Yousuf, Sammer; Fatima, Narjis; Naveed Shaikh, Nimra; Rahman, Atta-Ur-; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Seven metabolites were obtained from the microbial transformation of anabolic-androgenic steroid mibolerone (1) with Cunninghamella blakesleeana, C. echinulata, and Macrophomina phaseolina. Their structures were determined as 10β,17β-dihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (2), 6β,17β-dihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (3), 6β,10β,17β-trihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (4), 11β,17β-dihydroxy-(20-hydroxymethyl)-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (5), 1α,17β-dihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (6), 1α,11β,17β-trihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (7), and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-7α,17α-dimethylestr-4-en-3-one (8), on the basis of spectroscopic studies. All metabolites, except 8, were identified as new compounds. This study indicates that C. blakesleeana, and C. echinulata are able to catalyze hydroxylation at allylic positions, while M. phaseolina can catalyze hydroxylation of CH2 and CH3 groups of substrate 1. Mibolerone (1) was found to be a moderate inhibitor of β-glucuronidase enzyme (IC50 = 42.98 ± 1.24 μM) during random biological screening, while its metabolites 2-4, and 8 were found to be inactive. Mibolerone (1) was also found to be significantly active against Leishmania major promastigotes (IC50 = 29.64 ± 0.88 μM). Its transformed products 3 (IC50 = 79.09 ± 0.06 μM), and 8 (IC50 = 70.09 ± 0.05 μM) showed a weak leishmanicidal activity, while 2 and 4 were found to be inactive. In addition, substrate 1 (IC50 = 35.7 ± 4.46 μM), and its metabolite 8 (IC50 = 34.16 ± 5.3 μM) exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa cancer cell line (human cervical carcinoma). Metabolite 2 (IC50 = 46.5 ± 5.4 μM) also showed a significant cytotoxicity, while 3 (IC50 = 107.8 ± 4.0 μM) and 4 (IC50 = 152.5 ± 2.15 μM) showed weak cytotoxicity against HeLa cancer cell line. Compound 1 (IC50 = 46.3 ± 11.7 μM), and its transformed products 2 (IC50 = 43.3 ± 7.7 μM), 3 (IC50 = 65.6 ± 2.5 μM), and 4 (IC50 = 89.4 ± 2.7

  16. Anabolizantes: conceitos segundo praticantes de musculação em Aracaju (SE Anabolizantes: conceptos según practicantes de musculación en Aracaju (SE Anabolic steroids: concepts according to muscular activity practisers in Aracaju (SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Faro Santos

    2006-08-01

    observada relación estadística significativa entre el uso de los anabolizantes en la actualidad y en el pasado (pThe objective of this research/study was to delineate the main concepts about anabolic steroids used among men that practice muscular activity in the academies of Aracaju (SE. A secondary aim was to know the prevalence of the use of such substances in a selected sample, which was constituted by men between 18 and 35 years old, with predominantly medium and superior school level. Results detected that the prevalent conception about anabolic steroids and its misdeeds, correspond to what is shown when it is used without medical prescription: the risk of abuse. Regarding benefits, it was observed the perception that such steroids can generate immediate results. It was noticed a large consumption in the researched population, who buy the drugs at pharmacies; and ingest doses above the ones recommended. Significant statistical relation was observed between the use of the anabolic steroids at the present time and in the past (p<0,05, suggesting that, people who used anabolic steroids in the past tend to maintain the use.

  17. External calibration in gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous androgenic anabolic steroids in sports doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussi, Maroula K; Angelis, Yiannis S; Cawley, Adam T; Koupparis, Michalis; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Brenna, J Thomas; Georgakopoulos, Costas G

    2011-08-19

    An alternative calibration procedure for the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) measurements of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is presented. To alleviate the need for externally calibrated CO₂ gas for GC-C-IRMS analysis of urinary steroid metabolites, calibration using an external standard mixture solution of steroids with certified isotopic composition was investigated. The reference steroids of the calibration mixture and routine samples underwent identical instrumental processes. The calibration standards bracketed the entire range of the relevant δ¹³C values for the endogenous and exogenous steroids as well as their chromatographic retention times. The certified δ¹³C values of the reference calibrators were plotted in relation to measured m/z ¹³CO₂/¹²CO₂ (i.e. R(45/44)) mass spectrometric signals of each calibrator. δ¹³C values of the sample steroids were calculated from the least squares fit through the calibration curve. The effect of the external calibration on δ¹³C values, using the same calibration standards and set of urine samples but different brands of GC-C-IRMS instruments, was assessed by an interlaboratory study in the WADA Accredited Laboratories of Sydney, Australia and Athens, Greece. Relative correspondence between the laboratories for determination of androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diacetate, and pregnanediacetate means were SD(δ¹³C)=0.12‰, 0.58‰, -0.34‰, and -0.40‰, respectively. These data demonstrate that accurate intralaboratory external calibration with certified steroids provided by United States Antidoping Agency (USADA) and without external CO₂ calibration is feasible and directly applicable to the WADA Accredited Laboratories for the harmonization of the GC-C-IRMS measurements.

  18. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models

  19. Esteróides anabólicos androgênicos e sua relação com a prática desportiva Anabolic androgenic steroids and the relation to the sportive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sousa Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são um grupo de compostos naturais e sintéticos formados a partir da testosterona ou um de seus derivados, cuja indicação terapêutica clássica está associada a situações de hipogonadismo e quadros de deficiência do metabolismo protéico. Atuando sobre os receptores androgênicos, modulam de forma indissociável tanto os efeitos androgênicos como os anabólicos. Tais substâncias variam na relação entre a atividade anabólica: androgênica, mas nenhum fármaco atualmente disponível é capaz de desencadear somente efeitos anabólicos. O primeiro relato da utilização dos EAA com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho atlético ocorreu em 1954, na Áustria, e, desde então, esta prática tornou-se amplamente difundida. Obviamente, o uso de EAA está fora dos limites competitivos e foi declarado ilegal pelos setores governamentais desportivos nacionais e internacionais. Entretanto, segundo estatísticas do Comitê Olímpico Internacional, realizadas em 2000, os EAA são o grupo de substâncias ergogênicas mais comumente utilizadas no processo de doping. Estudos mostram que altas doses de EAA podem acarretar vários efeitos adversos como atrofia do tecido testicular, tumores hepáticos e de próstata, alterações hepatocelulares, no metabolismo lipídico, de humor e de comportamento. O objetivo do presente trabalho será compilar os dados a respeito dos EAA, envolvendo as perspectivas históricas acerca do tema, a fisiologia e os tipos de EAA atualmente existentes, suas indicações terapêuticas e efeitos adversos resultantes do uso indiscriminado bem como a relação entre o uso de EAA e melhora da performance atlética.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are a group of natural and synthetic agents formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, whose classical therapeutic indications are associated to hipogonadism and deficiency of proteic metabolism. Acting on androgenic receptors

  20. Automated and sensitive determination of four anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a novel approach for clinical monitoring and doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Shao, Jing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-07-01

    A novel method for automated and sensitive analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone and methenolone in urine samples by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. The Turboflow C18-P SPE column showed the best extraction efficiency for all the analytes. Nanogram per liter (ng/L) level of AAS could be determined directly and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 ng/mL, which were much lower than normally concerned concentrations for these typical anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (0.1 ng/mL). The linearity range was from the LOQ to 100 ng/mL for each compound, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9999. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.1% to 14.5% (n=5). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine samples collected from 24 male athletes and 15 patients of prostate cancer. The proposed method provides an alternative practical way to rapidly determine AAS in urine samples, especially for clinical monitoring and doping control.

  1. Designer steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping.

  2. Prolonged in vivo administration of testosterone-enanthate, the widely used and abused anabolic androgenic steroid, disturbs prolactin and cAMP signaling in Leydig cells of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelic, Maja M; Stojkov, Natasa J; Radovic, Sava M; Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Janjic, Marija M; Kostic, Tatjana S; Andric, Silvana A

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to systematically analyze and define the effects of 1-day, 2-weeks, 10-weeks intramuscular administration of testosterone-enanthate, widely used and abused anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS), on main regulators of steroidogenesis and steroidogenic genes expression in testosterone-producing Leydig cells of adult rats. The results showed that prolonged (10-weeks) intramuscular administration of testosterone-enanthate, in clinically relevant dose, significantly increased prolactin, but decreased Prlr2 and Gnrhr in pituitary of adult rat. The levels of testosterone, Insl3, cAMP and mitochondrial membrane potential of Leydig cells were significantly reduced. This was followed by decreased expression of some steroidogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins such as Lhcgr, Prlr1/2, Tspo, Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Dax1. Oppositely, Hsd3b1/2, Hsd3b5, Hsd17b4, Ar, Arr19 increased. In the same cells, transcriptional milieu of cAMP signaling elements was disturbed with remarkable up-regulation of PRKA (the main regulator of steroidogenesis). Increased prolactin together with stimulated transcription of Jak2/Jak3 could account for increased Hsd3b1/2 and Hsd3b5 in Leydig cells following 10-weeks in vivo treatment with testosterone-enanthate. In vitro studies revealed that testosterone is capable to increase level of Prlr1, Prlr2, Hsd3b1/2, Hsd3b5 in Leydig cells. Accordingly, testosterone-induced changes in prolactin receptor signaling together with up-regulation of PRKA, Hsd3b1/2, Hsd3b5, Ar in Leydig cells, could be the possible mechanism that contribute to the establishment of a new adaptive response to maintain homeostasis and prevent loss of steroidogenic function. Presented data provide new molecular insights into the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and mammalian reproduction and are important in terms of wide use and abuse of AASs and human reproductive health.

  3. Avaliação descritiva sobre o uso de esteroides anabolizantes e seu efeito sobre as variáveis bioquímicas e neuroendócrinas em indivíduos que praticam exercício resistido Descriptive assessment on the use of anabolic steroids and their effect on the biochemical and neuroendocrine variables in practitioners of resisted exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paulino Venâncio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos esteroides anabolizantes vem se tornando um problema de saúde pública ao longo dos últimos anos. No bojo do uso abusivo, muitos efeitos deletérios são observados, na sua totalidade por disfunções dos vários sistemas fisiológicos. Sendo assim, o objetivo do estudo foi o de avaliar o eixo hipófise-gonadal, a função hormonal, as transaminases hepáticas e o perfil de hemograma de 61 voluntários distribuídos em três grupos: 20 usuários de esteroides anabolizantes praticantes de exercício físico resistido, 21 praticantes de exercício resistido sem uso de esteroides anabolizantes e 20 sedentários. Foi observada elevação do nível de creatina quinase nos dois grupos de indivíduos que se exercitavam de maneira resistida, em relação ao grupo de sedentários (p The use of anabolic asteroids has become a public health problem over the last years. Concerning their abusive use, many deleterious effects caused in their totality by dysfunction of the various physiological systems can be observed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the hypophyseal-gonadal axis, hormone function, hepatic transaminases and hemogram profile of 61 volunteers distributed in three groups: 20 anabolic steroid users, practitioners of resisted physical exercise; 21 practitioners of resisted physical exercise with no use of anabolic steroids and 20 sedentary subjects. Increase of the creatine kinase level was observed in the two exercised groups in comparison to the sedentary group (p < 0.001. Reduction of the LH and FSH gonadotrpins of the steroid users group and increase in the estradiol level were observed in comparison to the sedentary and with no steroid use groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, reduction of the HDL cholesterol fraction was observed in comparison to the two studied groups (p < 0.001. Thus, the use of anabolic steroids causes biochemical alterations which can lead to the installation of collateral effects.

  4. Morbidade hospitalar por ingestão de esteroides anabólico-androgênicos (EAA no Brasil Hospital morbidity due to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consumption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2013-04-01

    ária de 15-29 anos possuíram as maiores taxas no período estudado.INTRODUCTION: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are male sex hormones, developers and maintainers of sexual characteristics associated with masculinity and the anabolic status of somatic tissues. The physical and mental effects of AAS abuse are rare and it is almost impossible to say with certainty what adverse effects may become evident after their self-administration; however, they constitute risk of death for the individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of morbidity by AAS ingestion in Brazil in the 2000/2010 period. METHODS: Information on hospitalizations was obtained from computerized databases of the Ministry of Health. In the analysis of AAS consumption as primary or secondary diagnosis for hospital admission, the E28.1 (androgen excess, E34.5 (androgen insensitivity syndrome, T38.7 (adverse effect of and underdosing of androgens and anabolic congeners and Y42.7 (adverse effects in the therapeutic use of androgens and anabolic congeners codes of the ICD-10 were used. RESULTS: Hospitalizations by AAS were responsible for 0.001% of total admissions in the country. 1,319 admissions (mean = 119.9, SD = 99.01 were accounted. The Androgen insensitivity syndrome was the primary cause, corresponding to 55.8% of total admissions. Of of all hospitalizations, 1% of patients died and the maximum stay was of 47 days (mean = 3.8, SD = 4.7. Minas Gerais, Maranhão and Espírito Santo presented the highest rates of hospital admissions per 1,000,000 inhabitants from 2002 to 2007. Women and people aged 15-29 presented the highest hospitalization rate 82.5% and 37.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the hospitalization rate was relatively low for AAS intake; women and individuals aged 15-29 years possessed the highest rates in the period studied.

  5. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  6. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boys who are “late bloomers” or to stimulate growth among teens who are failing to grow. Some may be dealing with unscrupulous clinics or street dealers on the black market. Unfortunately, a number of vendors sell anabolic steroids ...

  7. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    JONES  KJ.  Testosterone-­‐induced  acceleration  of   recovery  from   facial   paralysis  following  crush  axotomy  of...the   facial  nerve  in   male  hamsters.  Exp  Neurol  1989;105:80-­‐85.   50.   BROWN  TJ,  KHAN  T,  JONES  KJ

  8. Manifestation of severe coronary heart disease after anabolic drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, C; Spyridopoulos, I; Kühlkamp, V; Seipel, L

    1996-02-01

    Anabolic steroids are frequently abused, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, despite the known unfavorable influence on lipid profiles. We report on a young bodybuilder who presented with ventricular tachycardia as the first manifestation of severe underlying coronary heart disease. Coronary angiogram revealed severe stenotic lesions in the right coronary artery and the left descending coronary artery, and hypokinetic regions corresponded to posterolateral and anterior myocardial infarctions. This young patient had a history without any coronary risk factors, but with a 2-year abuse of the anabolic steroid stanazolol. No report published so far has shown possible atherogenic consequences of long-term abuse of stanazolol.

  9. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids.

  10. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  11. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  12. School Sports and Adolescent Steroid Use: National Trends and Race-Ethnic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lv; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, it has been reported that 4% to 12% of male adolescents and 0.5% to 2.9% of female adolescents have used anabolic steroids to enhance sports performance or favorably alter body size. Although medical, legal, and ethical issues related to the nonmedical use of anabolic steroids have been widely publicized, a growing number of…

  13. Uso não-médico de medicamentos psicoativos entre escolares do ensino fundamental e médio no Sul do Brasil Non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among elementary and high school students in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane da Silva Dal Pizzol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar a prevalência de uso não-médico de medicamentos entre escolares da rede de ensino público e privado de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e sua distribuição em relação a fatores sócio-demográficos. Por meio de um delineamento transversal, foi aplicado um questionário de autopreenchimento a 5.057 estudantes a partir da quinta série do ensino fundamental até o terceiro ano do ensino médio. O questionário continha perguntas sobre o uso, sem receita médica, de anfetamínicos, ansiolíticos, barbitúricos, anticolinérgicos, opiáceos, orexígenos e anabolizantes. Da amostra, 7,7% consumiram ansiolíticos alguma vez na vida, 6,4% consumiram anfetamínicos, 2,2%, anabolizantes, e 1,1%, barbitúricos. Estudantes do sexo feminino apresentaram maior consumo de ansiolíticos e anfetamínicos, enquanto que o consumo de anabolizantes foi maior no sexo masculino. O padrão de consumo de medicamentos psicoativos é semelhante ao observado em adultos, sugerindo a necessidade de inclusão de crianças e adolescentes nas campanhas educativas para prevenção do uso indevido de medicamentos.The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among students at public and private schools of Passo Fundo, Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to 5,057 students from the 5th grade of elementary school to the 3rd year of high school. The questionnaire contained questions about the use of amphetamines, tranquilizers, barbiturates, anticholinergics, opioids, appetite stimulants, and anabolic steroids. Of the sample total, 7.7% had consumed tranquilizers sometime during their lives, 6.4% had used amphetamines, 2.2% had used anabolic steroids, and 1.1% had used barbiturates. Female students reported significantly greater consumption of tranquilizers and amphetamines, while anabolic

  14. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração de dois esteroides sintéticos sobre a morfologia do útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: quarenta ratas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos grupos experimentais: controle (C; solução fisiológica; tratados com decanoato de nandrolona (DN; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; composto de ésteres de testosterona (T; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; e, simultaneamente, com DN e T (7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo de cada esteroide, em uma única dose/semana, intraperitoneal, durante oito semanas. Cinco fêmeas de cada grupo foram sacrificadas e os cornos uterinos foram coletados, pesados e preparados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. As ratas restantes foram acasaladas com machos normais para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos, constituindo os grupos tratados durante o período pré-gestacional. Outro grupo de 20 ratas recebeu os tratamentos durante o período gestacional (7º-14º dias. Foi aplicada a análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, complementada com o teste de Dunn ou de Student-Newman-Kleus para análise dos dados (5% de significância. RESULTADOS: houve aumento significativo no peso corpóreo das fêmeas androgenizadas (DN: 305±50; T: 280±35; DN+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the administration of two synthetic steroids in the uterus morphology and in the reproductive parameters of adult female rats. METHODS: divided into four experimental groups: control (C; physiological solution; treated with nandrolone decanoate (DN; 7.5 mg/kg of body weight; with a testosterone esters compound (T; 7.5 mg/kg; and simultaneously with DN and T (7.5 mg/kg of each steroid, in a single intraperitoneal weekly dose, for eight weeks. Five females of each group were sacrificed and the uterine horns were collected, weighted and prepared for histological and morphometrical evaluation. The remaining rats were mated with

  15. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  16. Uso de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos por praticantes de musculação de grandes academias da cidade de São Paulo Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders in major gym centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silvia Maria Franco Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar o consumo e traçar o perfil dos usuários de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA entre praticantes de musculação em três grandes academias de ginástica na cidade de São Paulo. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado para ser respondido voluntária e anonimamente, com garantia explícita de confidencialidade para os mesmos. Os questionários ficaram disponíveis em três academias por uma semana, após ter sido feita ampla divulgação dos objetivos e importância do projeto. Responderam o questionário 209 praticantes de musculação (cerca de 3% do total. A incidência de uso de EAA foi de 19%, sendo que, destes, 8% declararam que fazem uso atualmente e 11%, que já haviam feito uso anteriormente; considerando apenas o sexo masculino, a incidência do uso foi de 24%. Os compostos mais utilizados foram estanozolol e decanoato de nandrolona. O perfil dos usuários pôde ser delineado: idade média de 27 anos (de 25 a 29 anos, predominantemente homens, motivação pela melhora na estética corporal e treinamento muscular intenso. Os EAA foram adquiridos, em sua maioria, em farmácias, sem receita médica e foram feitos uso de suplemento alimentar e outros fármacos em associação. Acreditam que os efeitos tóxicos/adversos podem ser controlados e/ou evitados com o uso de outros medicamentos e/ou acompanhamento médico. O presente trabalho mostra a necessidade de investigações mais abrangentes e aprofundadas, bem como a adoção de ações preventivas e educativas junto à população exposta aos EAA.To estimate the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS among body builders of three - professionally equipped private gym in São Paulo, Brazil, body builders answered voluntary and anonimously a structured multiple itens questionnaire which was available for a week in these gym centers. The participants were informed in advance of the aim of the study. Of the 209 body builders attending (3% of

  17. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

  18. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete’s biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4–80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  19. Anabolické steroidy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids or AAS, are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair. Non medical uses for anabolic steroids...

  20. Esteróide anabolizante inibe a angiogênese induzida pelo treinamento físico de natação em músculo sóleo de ratos normotensos Anabolic steroid impairs the angiogenesis induced by swimming training in soleus muscle of normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Paula Reno Soci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos (EAA são sintéticos de testosterona desenvolvidos para fins terapêuticos. São também utilizados por populações fisicamente ativas, que normalmente excedem nas doses, o que potencializa danos à saúde. Para estudar alguns dos efeitos de EAA sobre o sistema cardiovascular, ratos "Wistar" foram divididos em quatro grupos: sedentário controle (SC, sedentário anabolizado (SA, treinado controle (TC e treinado anabolizado (TA. Foram avaliados os efeitos da associação do uso de EAA (Decanoato de nandrolona - 5 mg/kg sc, 2x/sem e do treinamento físico de natação (TFN - 60 min/dia, 5x/sem, durante 10 sem sobre o débito cardíaco (DC e fluxo sanguíneo basal (DCbasal, Qbasal e após infusão do vasodilatador acetilcolina (DC Ach, Q Ach para observar a vasodilatação endotélio dependente (QAch, razão capilar/fibra (rc/f e expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF em músculo sóleo (predominância de fibras oxidativas. A testosterona plasmática aumentou nos grupos com uso de EAA e foi observada bradicardia de repouso como efeito do TFN. O DC foi menor para o Grupo TA, tanto na condição basal quanto sob infusão de Ach. O Qbasal não foi diferente entre os grupos no músculo estudado. O QAch foi maior no grupo TC, entretanto, no grupo TA este efeito benéfico do TFN foi prejudicado pela associação com o EAA. Aumento da rc/f e VEGF foi observado somente no grupo TC. Estes resultados sugerem que a associação do EAA ao TFN atenua a angiogênese e arteriogênese observadas como efeito do treinamento físico aeróbio e causa prejuízo ao fluxo sanguíneo muscular, o que poderia predispor o praticante de esportes e atividades físicas e usuário destas substâncias a problemas vasculares.Androgenic anabolic steroids (EAA are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, used in therapeutic dosages in medical practice and in high doses by physically active people that could be health

  1. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMhillaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming the so called androgen anabolic steroids (AAS. These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, the off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combination of different steroids, and doses largely higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. Among the AAS abusers, the frequency of side effects is higher, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because the collection of data is very difficult due to reticent subjects and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in reward process, leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The aim of this review is to discuss what is present in literature in regard to steroid abuse and alteration of reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  2. Simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones in muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry%液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱同时确证和测定肌肉中16种同化甾体激素残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿伟; 蔡雪; 林黎明; 陈亮珍; 梁成珠; 鲍蕾; 汤志旭; 牛增元; 王凤美

    2012-01-01

    采用液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱(LC-Q/Trap-MS)建立了肌肉中16种同化甾体激素类物质(ASs)残留的同时确证及测定方法.肌肉中的ASs采用乙腈超声辅助提取,正己烷脱脂,氨基固相萃取柱净化,CAPCELL PAKC18 MGⅢ柱(150 mm×2.0 mm,5.0μm)分离,0.1% (v/v)甲酸-乙腈溶液和0.1% (v/v)甲酸-5 mmol/L甲酸铵水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;预设定多反应监测( sMRM)-信息依赖性采集(IDA)-增强子离子扫描(EPI)模式检测,在线EPI谱库确证,内标法定量.结果表明,16种ASs在线性范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999);定量限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为0.029~ 0.36 μg/kg;3个添加水平(0.5、2.0和20 μg/kg)下的回收率为89.9% ~ 118%;相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.3%~16.2%.该方法准确灵敏,一次性完成16种ASs的确证和测定,可有效用于肌肉组织中ASs残留的监测分析.%A comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones (ASs, including andorgens, gestagens and their esters) in muscle samples was developed with liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q/Trap-MS). The ASs in muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile under ultrasonic assistance. The extract was defatted by n-hexane with liquid-liquid partitioning and followed by clean-up with NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The separation of ana-lytes was carried out on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG Ⅲ column (150 mm ×2.0 mm, 5. 0 μm) using mobile phases of 0.1 % ( v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution with gradient elution. A scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) in positive mode as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was adopted in mass spectrometry acquisition. On-line lab-built MS/MS library and internal standards were employed for the

  3. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, firefighters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media file collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  4. Aspectos analíticos do controle da dopagem de agentes anabolizantes em urina de atletas: avaliação de critérios de positividade Positiviness criteria for analysis of anabolic steroids by GC/MS in the urine of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Granuzzio Castilho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O abuso dos esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA está em constante ascensão, tanto nos esportes profissionais como nos esportes praticados nas academias. Essas substâncias são banidas pelo Comitê Olímpico Internacional (COI, sendo que este comitê recomenda que a metodologia usada na detecção e quantificação desses compostos em amostras biológicas dos atletas seja a cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa (GC/MS. Nesse trabalho foram avaliados, por técnica de extração líquido/líquido e posterior identificação em GC/MS-SIM, 15 EAA, dos quais três foram quantificados. Os critérios de correlação entre os íons mais característicos dos EAA analisados foram definidos como segue: os de intensidade relativa maior que 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 30%; os de intensidade relativa entre 10 e 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 50% e os de intensidade relativa menor que 10% podem apresentar uma variação de até 90%. Com a aplicação dos critérios anteriores, foi possível confirmar os resultados obtidos em oito amostras de urina de atletas, nos quais foi constatado o uso dos EAA, ficando evidenciada a importância da aplicação desses critérios de positividade na comprovação inequívoca da presença de tais substâncias em amostras biológicas.The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in sports is in a constant increase among professionals athlets and amateurs. These substances were banned by the International Olimpic Committee and the doping control of this steroids are to be performed analysing biological samples taken from this athletes using gas cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. This paper evaluates 15 AAS by means of liquid extration and subsequent GC/MS identification. Three of these AAS were also quantified. Correlation criteria among the AAS most characteristic ions were stablished for the evidence of positive samples: when comparing these ions

  5. Testosterone and other anabolic steroids as cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Christiana, J; Frishman, W H

    1999-05-01

    There has been much interest in the effect of sex hormones on cardiovascular risk factors and as a therapeutic modality in both men and women. In this article, testosterone is considered as a possible therapy for cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that the level of serum testosterone decreases in men as they age. Healthy men with low testosterone levels have increased cardiovascular risk factors, including high fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apo A-I lipoprotein. Injections of testosterone to raise the levels to midnormal range have been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Testosterone affects the clotting system by increasing thromboxane A (2) receptor activity and platelet aggregability. Testosterone has also been shown to augment the fibrinolytic system and antithrombin III activity. In men, testosterone has been shown to have antianginal effects, and endogenous levels have an inverse relationship to systolic blood pressure. Testosterone can be given in oral, injectable, pellet, and transdermal patch forms. There may be a role in administering testosterone to return men to normal physiologic range who have low serum levels. This treatment increases the risk of prostatic cancer, benign prostatism, erythrocytosis, and edema. No long-term studies of the effects of long-term testosterone replacement have been undertaken, so it is difficult to recommend this treatment as yet, but it is being considered as a therapy for augmenting skeletal muscle strength in patients with congestive heart failure.

  6. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 male bodybuilders visiting gyms in the. Jazan region of ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus, .... The survey data was ... compared with other sports. ..... serum lipid levels: a literature review.

  7. Perturbation of the Hematopoietic Profile by Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematopoietic profile in AAS abusers, during or short after their last abuse and approximately six months later. Moreover, we studied if supraphysiological doses of testosterone influence the concentration of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in healthy volunteers. Design and Methods. Subjects (N=31 were recruited through an antidoping hotline. The hematological profile was measured when the subjects entered the study and approximately 6 months later. Testosterone enanthate (500 mg was administered to healthy volunteers (N=24. Gene expression was studied in human hek293 cells exposed to 1 μM testosterone. Results. Decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocyte volume fraction, and erythrocyte counts were observed after 6 months without the use of AAS. Results in volunteers show that hemoglobin increased 3% four and 15 days after testosterone administration, whereas EPO was significantly increased by 38% four days after dose. Agreeingly, in vitro study shows that testosterone induces the mRNA level of EPO with 65% after 24-hour exposure. Conclusion. These results indicate that supraphysiological doses of testosterone may cause a perturbation in the hematopoietic profile. This is of interest in relation to the adverse cardiovascular effects observed in AAS abusers.

  8. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  9. Influence of anabolic combinations of an androgen plus an estrogen on biochemical pathways in bovine uterine endometrium and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, C.; Riedmaier, I.; Reiter, M.; Tichopad, A.; Groot, M.J.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Pfaffl, M.W.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    2011-01-01

    The application of anabolic steroids in food producing animals is forbidden in the EU since 1988, but the abuse of such drugs is a potential problem. The existing test systems are based on known compounds and can be eluded by newly emerging substances. The examination of physiological effects of

  10. Maximizing PTH Anabolic Osteoporosis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Medical and Molecular Genetics, IUSM11 5. Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IUSM12 6. Department of Pediatrics, IUSM13 7. Herman B...67 Hesse , 2012; Yu et al., 2011]. This limits its effectiveness to treat a chronic degenerative disease. Recent 68 advances in bone-forming agents...Seq significance tool. Bioinformatics. 29(15):1922-4. 665 666 Baron R, Hesse E. 2012 Update on bone anabolics in osteoporosis treatment: rationale

  11. Prevalência do uso e conhecimento de esteroides anabolizantes androgênicos por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica Prevalence of the use of anabolic androgenic steroids by physical education students and teachers who work in health clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Salim Costa Abrahin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os esteroides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são substâncias, quimicamente semelhantes à testosterona, utilizadas para o tratamento/controle de diversas doenças. Contudo, tais substâncias estão sendo empregadas de forma não terapêutica e indiscriminada com finalidades de melhora da performance esportiva e principalmente estética. OBJETIVO: analisar a prevalência do uso e o conhecimento de EAA por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica de Belém, PA. Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados um questionário fechado e anônimo, aplicado a 117 pesquisados. A comparação da prevalência do uso e o grau de conhecimento dos pesquisados sobre EAA foi realizada através de estatística não paramétrica, prova de X² (Qui-quadrado, considerando o intervalo de confiança de 95% e p Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are chemically similar to testosterone, used for the treatment/control of various diseases. However, these substances are being used in non-therapeutic and indiscriminate purposes to improve sports performance and mainly esthetics. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of AAS use and information of undergraduates and physical education teachers working in fitness centers in Belém-PA. A closed anonymous questionnaire was applied to 117 volunteers as an instrument. Comparison of the prevalence of use and degree of information of the respondents about AAS was performed using statistical non-parametric test X² (chi-square, considering the range of 95%, significant when p<0.05. The average age of the participants was 28.0 ± 6.3 years and the prevalence of AAS use was of 31.6%. The highest prevalence found was among specialist professionals (39.3%, the main motivation for the use of AAS was 75.6% to esthetics. Regarding the information, it was found that the drugs were classified as AAS: Durateston, Deca-Durabolin, Oxandrolona/Winstrol. However, these professionals took other

  12. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of conjugated steroids in urine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jong Man Yoon; Kyung Ho Lee

    2001-12-01

    This study was carried out qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the presence and the concentrations of anabolic steroids in urine collected from orally administered humans. Microanalysis of conjugated steroids by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been carried out. Following oral administration three major metabolites of anabolic steroid drugs have been detected and partially characterized. The six steroids can be analysed at the same time in 17 min. The lower detection limit was 10 ng/ml in 5 ml of urine. The conjugated steroids from urine were centrifuged to 2,430 for 10 min, the supernatant solution passed through Amberlite XAD-2 column and the steroids eluted fraction esterified by using MSTFA and TMSI. The rate of metabolism and urinary excretion seem to be reasonably fast.

  13. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Freese, Luana; Signor,Luciana; Machado,Cassio; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros,Helena Maria Tannhauser

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use...

  14. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some recommendations to minimize or prevent steroid side effects? Take your long-term control medicines as prescribed to keep your chronic lung disease under good control. This will help decrease the ...

  15. Sex steroids and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    , in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy.

  16. Reference ranges for urinary concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids, which can be used as markers for steroid misuse, in a Caucasian population of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-02-01

    The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n=2027) and female (n=1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis.

  17. New anabolic therapies for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, Salvatore; Cipriani, Cristiana; Occhiuto, Marco; Pepe, Jessica

    2017-08-05

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength. These are represented by abaloparatide (a 34-amino acid peptide which incorporates critical N-terminal residues, shared by parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein, followed by sequences unique to the latter protein) and romosozumab (an antibody to sclerostin). In the future, the availability of new anabolic treatment will allow a more extensive utilization of additive and sequential approach, with the goal of both prolonging the period of treatment and, more importantly, avoiding the side effects consequent to long-term use of traditional drugs.

  18. [Insulin as an anabolic: hypoglycemia in the bodybuilding world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C; Schüpfer, G; Wietlisbach, M; Gerber, H

    1998-07-01

    Excessive body building may be dangerous. To promote athletic performance and to improve physical appearance many of the body builders abuse anabolic-androgenic steroids and other drugs. The abuse of insulin as an anabolic medication in this athletic community was followed by a case of severe hypoglycaemia in a body builder. A 30-year old male presented with cerebral symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Directly before an international competition he tried to stimulate muscle growth by using the hypoglycaemic stimulus to the growth hormone. To achieve this he injected 70 IE of a short-acting insulin subcutaneously, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia. After the initial administration of intravenous glucose by the paramedics, he lost consciousness and showed signs of convulsions. After orotracheal intubation by an emergency physician, despite of ongoing infusion of glucose the blood glucose concentration remained low as measured in the out-of-hospital setting. Finally administration of additional glucose and glucagon in the intensive care unit was able to stabilize the metabolic system. In any case of severe hypoglycaemia, repetitive measurements of blood glucose even in the prehospital setting should be performed to detect the hypoglycaemia especially if athletes are concerned.

  19. Statistical discrimination of steroid profiles in doping control with support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Saugy, Martial; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2013-03-20

    Due to their performance enhancing properties, use of anabolic steroids (e.g. testosterone, nandrolone, etc.) is banned in elite sports. Therefore, doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) screen among others for these prohibited substances in urine. It is particularly challenging to detect misuse with naturally occurring anabolic steroids such as testosterone (T), which is a popular ergogenic agent in sports and society. To screen for misuse with these compounds, drug testing laboratories monitor the urinary concentrations of endogenous steroid metabolites and their ratios, which constitute the steroid profile and compare them with reference ranges to detect unnaturally high values. However, the interpretation of the steroid profile is difficult due to large inter-individual variances, various confounding factors and different endogenous steroids marketed that influence the steroid profile in various ways. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to statistically evaluate urinary steroid profiles composed of an extended range of steroid profile metabolites. This model makes the interpretation of the analytical data in the quest for deviating steroid profiles feasible and shows its versatility towards different kinds of misused endogenous steroids. The SVM model outperforms the current biomarkers with respect to detection sensitivity and accuracy, particularly when it is coupled to individual data as stored in the Athlete Biological Passport.

  20. Doping in sport and exercise: anabolic, ergogenic, health and clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Goebel, Catrin; Burke, Louise M; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-03-01

    The use of doping agents is evident within competitive sport in senior and junior age groups, where they are taken by non-elite as well as elite participants. They are also taken in non-sporting contexts by individuals seeking to 'improve' their physique through an increase in muscle and/or decrease in fat mass. While attaining accurate data on the prevalence of their use has limitations, studies suggest the illicit use of doping agents by athletes and non-athletes may be 1-5% in the population and greater than 50% in some groups; with the prevalence being higher in males. There is conclusive evidence that some doping agents are anabolic and ergogenic. There is also evidence that the use of doping agents such as anabolic androgenic steroids, growth hormone and other anabolic agents, erythropoietin and stimulants conveys considerable health risks that include, but are not limited to: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, mental health issues, virilisation in females and the suppression of naturally produced androgens in males. This review will outline the anabolic, ergogenic and health impacts of selected doping agents and methods that may be used in both the sporting and physique development contexts. It also provides a brief tabulated overview of the history of doping and how doping agents may impact upon the analyses of clinical samples.

  1. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under positive ion electrospray mode. (LC-PI-ESI-MS) ... for the analysis of anabolic compounds.37–44 However, both GC ..... Table 3 gives a summary of the frag-.

  2. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  3. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  4. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  5. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  6. Chemometric and chemoinformatic analyses of anabolic and androgenic activities of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ginarte, Yoanna María; Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Noheda-Marin, Pedro; Garcia de la Vega, Jose Manuel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis Alberto; Ruiz García, José Alberto; Caldera-Luzardo, José A; Alvarado, Ysaias J

    2008-06-15

    Predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models of anabolic and androgenic activities for the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone steroid analogues were obtained by means of multiple linear regression using quantum and physicochemical molecular descriptors (MD) as well as a genetic algorithm for the selection of the best subset of variables. Quantitative models found for describing the anabolic (androgenic) activity are significant from a statistical point of view: R(2) of 0.84 (0.72 and 0.70). A leave-one-out cross-validation procedure revealed that the regression models had a fairly good predictability [q(2) of 0.80 (0.60 and 0.59)]. In addition, other QSAR models were developed to predict anabolic/androgenic (A/A) ratios and the best regression equation explains 68% of the variance for the experimental values of AA ratio and has a rather adequate q(2) of 0.51. External validation, by using test sets, was also used in each experiment in order to evaluate the predictive power of the obtained models. The result shows that these QSARs have quite good predictive abilities (R(2) of 0.90, 0.72 (0.55), and 0.53) for anabolic activity, androgenic activity, and A/A ratios, respectively. Last, a Williams plot was used in order to define the domain of applicability of the models as a squared area within +/-2 band for residuals and a leverage threshold of h=0.16. No apparent outliers were detected and the models can be used with high accuracy in this applicability domain. MDs included in our QSAR models allow the structural interpretation of the biological process, evidencing the main role of the shape of molecules, hydrophobicity, and electronic properties. Attempts were made to include lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient (logP)) and electronic (hardness (eta)) values of the whole molecules in the multivariate relations. It was found from the study that the logP of molecules has positive contribution to the anabolic and androgenic

  7. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  8. Urine testing for designing steroids by liquid chromatography and androgen bioaasay detection and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Engelen, M.C.; Rutgers, P.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    New anabolic steroids show up occasionally in sports doping and in veterinary control. The discovery of these designer steroids is facilitated by findings of illicit preparations, thus allowing bioactivity testing, structure elucidation using NMR and mass spectrometry, and final incorporation in uri

  9. Urine testing for designing steroids by liquid chromatography and androgen bioaasay detection and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Engelen, M.C.; Rutgers, P.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    New anabolic steroids show up occasionally in sports doping and in veterinary control. The discovery of these designer steroids is facilitated by findings of illicit preparations, thus allowing bioactivity testing, structure elucidation using NMR and mass spectrometry, and final incorporation in uri

  10. Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization for the efficient synthesis of terpenes and steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kang; Guo, Pan; Chen, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Wenjun

    2015-03-02

    A novel enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization has been developed for the efficient construction of a series of chiral phenanthrenone derivatives bearing an all-carbon quaternary center. The effectiveness of this method in the synthesis of terpenes and steroids was demonstrated by a highly efficient synthesis of a kaurene intermediate, the facile construction of the skeleton of the anabolic steroid boldenone, and the enantioselective total synthesis of the antimicrobial diterpene natural product (-)-totaradiol.

  11. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth.

  12. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Parr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol, estradienedione (trenbolox, and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM and IGF 1 (1.3 nM. Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  13. Non-Medical Management of Raynaud’s Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    I AD-AIll 032 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA F/B &/ S I NON-MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RAYNAUD’S OISEASE,(U) I JUN 81 J B JOBE. J B...collagen disease, they are referred to as Rana d’s phenomenon or syndrome . Minimal criteria for diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease have long been established...JAMA. l945; 129:1-- s . 2. blain, A 1l1, Coiler, FA, Carver, 6i. Raynaud’s disease: A study ot criteria for prognosis. Surgery. 19)1; 2V:387-31)7. 3

  14. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Hanganu,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens. However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health against the harmful effects of these substances, which incidentally is found in products of animal origin.

  15. Anaboliske-androgene steroiders effekt på muskelstyrke, kropsvaegt og fedtfri legemsmasse hos styrketraenende maend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Jensen, K L; Gluud, C

    1989-01-01

    A review of the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men is presented. In about half of the placebo-controlled studies, a significant effect on the above mentioned response variables is found. In all cases where an effect...

  16. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace.

  17. Maximizing PTH Anabolic Osteoporosis Therapy. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of Pediatrics (Y.H., F.-C.Y.), Indiana University School of Medicine; Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research (Y.H., F.-C.Y.); Cellular and...2011;7:647–656. 2. Baron R, Hesse E. Update on bone anabolics in osteoporosis treat- ment: rationale, current status, and perspectives. J Clin

  18. [Non-medical applications for brain MRI: Ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, S; Fagot-Largeault, A; Leboyer, M; Houenou, J

    2015-04-01

    The recent neuroimaging techniques offer the possibility to better understand complex cognitive processes that are involved in mental disorders and thus have become cornerstone tools for research in psychiatry. The performances of functional magnetic resonance imaging are not limited to medical research and are used in non-medical fields. These recent applications represent new challenges for bioethics. In this article we aim at discussing the new ethical issues raised by the applications of the latest neuroimaging technologies to non-medical fields. We included a selection of peer-reviewed English medical articles after a search on NCBI Pubmed database and Google scholar from 2000 to 2013. We screened bibliographical tables for supplementary references. Websites of governmental French institutions implicated in ethical questions were also screened for governmental reports. Findings of brain areas supporting emotional responses and regulation have been used for marketing research, also called neuromarketing. The discovery of different brain activation patterns in antisocial disorder has led to changes in forensic psychiatry with the use of imaging techniques with unproven validity. Automated classification algorithms and multivariate statistical analyses of brain images have been applied to brain-reading techniques, aiming at predicting unconscious neural processes in humans. We finally report the current position of the French legislation recently revised and discuss the technical limits of such techniques. In the near future, brain imaging could find clinical applications in psychiatry as diagnostic or predictive tools. However, the latest advances in brain imaging are also used in non-scientific fields raising key ethical questions. Involvement of neuroscientists, psychiatrists, physicians but also of citizens in neuroethics discussions is crucial to challenge the risk of unregulated uses of brain imaging. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by

  19. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45/sup 0/C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17..beta... After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70/sup 0/C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17..beta.. behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17..beta..-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17..cap alpha.., 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.., and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites.

  20. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  1. [Myoanabolic steroids and selective androgen receptor modulators: mechanism of action and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós

    2009-11-01

    Interest in anabolic steroids has been renewed in the last decade with the discovery of tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators exhibiting high myotropic and small androgenic activity. An explanation put forward by us in 1982 for the mechanism of the preferential myotropic effect of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) exploits the fundamental difference between the 5alpha-reductase concentrations in skeletal muscle and androgenic target tissue. In androgenic tissue, testosterone is converted to the more potent 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone whereas nandrolone is converted to a less potent derivative. As 5alpha-reduction is negligible in skeletal muscle, this explains why nandrolone shows a greater myotropic to androgenic ratio when compared with testosterone. Anabolic steroids that do not undergo 5alpha-reduction exert myotropic-androgenic dissociation because their effect in androgenic tissues is not amplified by 5alpha-reduction. Tissue selectivity by receptor modulators may be achieved by inducing specific conformational changes of the androgen receptor that affect its interaction with transcriptional coregulators. Anabolic activity is mediated by the stimulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis therefore regulation of this synthesis by anabolic steroids would deserve detailed studies.

  2. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  3. Causes of non-medication-induced nasogastric tube occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, J; Allen, L V

    1992-03-01

    In vitro simulation of nasogastric tube delivery of enteral formulas was used to study the mechanism and prevention of non-medication-induced nasogastric tube occlusion. Enteral nutrition products--Osmolite, Ensure, Vital High Nitrogen, and Vivonex T.E.N.--were placed in glass beakers and titrated with hydrochloric acid to determine the pH at which clotting would occur. Factors such as pH, protein content, viscosity, electrolyte composition, flow rate, and tube design were evaluated to determine their effects on coagulation of formula. Addition of simethicone emulsion and docusate sodium to the formulas and siliconization of the nasogastric tubes were studies for their effect on prevention of clog formation. Clumping began to occur at pH 4.6 (the isoelectric point for casein) for Ensure and Osmolite; addition of protein supplement did not change the pH at which coagulation occurred. Vital High Nitrogen and Vivonex T.E.N. formulations did not clump in the beakers. Ensure and Osmolite coagulated within 35 seconds at pH 4.6 or less and remained unchanged at pH greater than 6.0. Addition of sodium or calcium caseinate greatly increased the tendency of the formulas to coagulate. Viscosity of the formula increased markedly as pH decreased. Addition of electrolytes had no effect on precipitation or clumping. Slow or no flow rates within nasogastric tubes placed in simulated gastric juice decreased the pH and caused clumping of formulas within the tubes in a retrograde manner. Flow time or clog formation was not affected by the addition of simethicone or docusate sodium or siliconization of the nasogastric tube.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. "Will steroids kill me if I use them once?" A qualitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    categories of inquiries were the focus of attention: 1) those addressing side effects of anabolic steroids, and 2) those addressing concerns for receiving a positive doping test after the use of supplements. Results and discussion: In the first category four different types of approaches were identified......Background: The Danish strategy for fighting the use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness centres is likely the most comprehensive of its sort in the world. It is instituted in the national anti doping organisation, Anti Doping Denmark (ADD), and consists of doping controls, educational...

  5. 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one (1-testosterone) is a potent androgen with anabolic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, A; Geyer, H; Kamber, M; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, U; Schänzer, W; Thevis, M; Vollmer, G; Zierau, O; Diel, P

    2006-08-20

    Since the begining of the year 2005, the use of steroid precursors (prohormones) is illegal in the United States; nevertheless, there is still an enormous abuse of such substances. One of the most frequently misused steroids, often declared to be a prohormone, is 1-testosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one, 1-Testo). In this study, we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action, determined its tissue specific androgenic and anabolic potency and investigated potential adverse effects. 1-Testo binds highly selective to the androgen receptor (AR) and has a high potency to stimulate AR dependent transactivation. In vivo an equimolar dose of 1-Testo has the same potency to stimulate the growth of the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the androgen sensitive levator ani muscle as the reference compound testosterone propionate (TP). Administration of 1-Testo, in contrast to TP, results in a significant increase of liver weight. Our results demonstrate that 1-Testo, even without being metabolised, is a very potent androgen. It binds selectively to the AR and transactivates AR dependent reporter genes. In vivo it has a high androgenic and anabolic potency and increases liver weight. In summary 1-Testo can be characterised as a typical anabolic steroid. It has to be assumed that consumption of this substance is associated with adverse side effects typical for this class of compounds. Therefore, a strict control of its ban is essential.

  6. What Do Athletes Know on the Effect of Steroids? An Exploratory Study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellante, Marcello; Moro, Maria Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Prost, Silvia; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Preti, Antonio; Mura, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the evidence of risks related to the use of anabolic steroids for the improvement of athletic performances, the diffusion of such drugs appears to be increasing. An exploratory study was conducted in Cagliari, Italy, to assess the level of information on this issue, to esteem the use of steroids among athletes, to measure the wellbeing of athletes and the risks related to steroid use. A sample of 192 athletes, including 142 non-agonists and 50 agonists (age range: 18 to 36) was invited to fill in a booklet including several self-report questionnaires. The questionnaire for the assessment of the beliefs regarding the effects of anabolic steroids was developed and validated for the study, while the Self Reporting Questionnaire was used for the assessment of the mental health aspects. A general lack of information on the specific effects of steroid use on general and psychic health, as well as on sportive performances was found. Athletes were also quite unaware of the diffusion of steroids among them. Since the sportive environment seems to be the main source of information, this channel should be targeted to address the prevention and information campaigns. The use of more specific tools and the investigation of the perception of reliability of the information sources as well as the social desirability issues should be explored in future studies.

  7. Caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Tina; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Neilson, James P; Kingdon, Carol; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2012-03-14

    controlled trials, upon which to base any practice recommendations regarding planned caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term. In the absence of trial data, there is an urgent need for a systematic review of observational studies and a synthesis of qualitative data to better assess the short- and long-term effects of caesarean section and vaginal birth.

  8. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  9. Confounding factors and genetic polymorphism in the evaluation of individual steroid profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module.

  10. Acute kidney injury associated with androgenic steroids and nutritional supplements in bodybuilders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Safa E.; Abbas, Alaa A.; Muhealdeen, Dana N.; Hughson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Four bodybuilders who injected anabolic steroids and ingested commercial protein (78–104 g/day) and creatine (15 g/day) products presented with serum creatinine levels between 229.84 and 335.92 µmol/L (2.6–3.8 mg/dL). Renal biopsies revealed acute tubular necrosis. Four weeks after discontinuing injections and supplements, serum creatinine was in the normal range and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 1.00 mL/s (60 mL/min), including two patients with biopsies showing >30% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The findings highlight a risk for acute and potentially chronic kidney injury among young men abusing anabolic steroids and using excessive amounts of nutritional supplements. PMID:26251708

  11. Restoration of anabolic deficit and muscle glycogen consumption in competitive orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, C; Tsai, L; Hultman, E; Tegelman, R; Pousette, A

    1990-06-01

    Consumption and restoration of muscle glycogen and changes in anabolic and catabolic steroid hormones were analyzed in five male elite orienteers during and after an orienteering competition. The magnitude of glycogen consumption and pronounced increase in serum-cortisol during the orienteering race reflect the great muscular output demands during forest running. The free testosterone/cortisol ratio was normalized to the initial level within four hours post-exercise. Synchronously, only 25% of the muscle glycogen loss was restored. Within 24 hours post-exercise all runners showed normalized levels of testosterone, cortisol and free testosterone/cortisol ratio. The glycogen content was also restored except in one of the runners. We conclude that daily orienteering competitions per se do not seem to create risks for developing a state of hormonal imbalance or significant decrease in glycogen when the carbohydrate supply is appropriate.

  12. Physiological data including evaluation of immuno-response in relation to anabolic effects on veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, J; Herlyn, D; Boehncke, E; Schulz, V; Sandersleben, J V; Hänichen, T; Geisel, O

    1976-01-01

    In a series of experiments with a total of 1480 veal calves, different aspects of treating calves with anabolic steroids were examined. The anabolics used were 17beta-estradiol (E), trenbolone acetate (T), progesterone (P), testosterone (Te), C+T, E+P, E+Te and zeranole (Z). The N-retention was estimated by examining the urea: creatinine ratio in single urine specimens during the course of two feeding trials. Increased gain due to the treatment with E (20 mg implanted/calf) + P (200 mg) and Te (200 mg), respectively, E + T (140 mg) or Z (36 mg) was during the whole experimental period. The extra gain, due to anabolics seems to contain even more protein. This conclusion may be supported by the crude protein content of meat samples. The antibody production of a total of 311 male and female calves was investigated after the application of the following steroids: E (20 mg), T (200 mg), T (200 mg), E + T, P (200 mg), Te (200 mg), E + P, E + Te, and Z. Eleven days after the implantation of the steroids the animals were immunized with alumprecipitated human serumalbumin. Antibody-titres were determined by the Antigen-Binding-Capacity Test on day 14 following immunization. In nearly all groups the antibody-titres of female calves exceeded those of male calves on the average by 75%. The immune response of all experimental groups did not differ significantly from that of the corresponding control groups. However, the results indicate that both E + T and its single components E and T exert an immunodepressive effect in male calves. While the humoral antibody formation in the calf appears not to be influenced by anabolic steroids, it cannot be decided presently whether these substances effect cell-mediated immune reactions and/or unspecific mechanisms of resistance. When estradiol (20, 200, and 500 mg) and trenbolone acetate (140, 1400, 3500 mg) alone and in combination were implanted in female calves, blood glucose, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, cholesterine and

  13. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen′s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  14. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  15. [Steroid-induced myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunina, A G; Isaev, F V; Dem'ianova, M A

    2012-01-01

    Physiological effects of glucocorticoids include the inhibition of protein synthesis and the increase in catabolic processes in muscles. Consequently, a long-term intake of steroids in high doses causes myopathy. Myopathic effects of glucocorticoids are observed during systemic as well as inhallatory use. Most frequently, steroid myopathy manifests as the weakness and hypotrophy of lower limbs muscles, weakness of respiratory muscles, dysphonia. Prevention and treatment of steroid myopathy include limitation of indications for long-term usage of glucocorticoids, alternating regimens of treatment, adequate physical activity. The current data demonstrate the efficacy of vitamin D and amino acids mixtures in the prevention and treatment of steroid myopathy.

  16. Body Builder’s Nightmare: Black Market Steroid Injection Gone Wrong: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Ehud; Ben Amotz, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In the pursuit of success in sports, some athletes are not deterred by health risks associated with the (mis)use of black market preparations of dubious origin as performance-enhancing agents. Several studies published in the recent years demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids, but also stimulants and growth hormones, are misused by numerous recreational athletes from all over the world. Trenbolone is an anabolic steroid routinely used in the finishing phase of beef production to improve animal performance and feed efficiency. A 35-year-old male patient presented to our plastic surgery clinic after self-intramuscular administration of Trenbolone to the superior gluteal area bilaterally, which led to a full-thickness defect in a cone-like distribution. The wounds underwent surgical debridement and were treated locally with mafenide acetate irrigation and wound dressings. Closure was achieved by secondary intention healing. In this report, we discuss the first documented case of full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis after black market anabolic steroid injection. This illustrates a plastic complication and resolution of a widespread but seldom reported problem.

  17. Body Builder's Nightmare: Black Market Steroid Injection Gone Wrong: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Or; Arad, Ehud; Ben Amotz, Oded

    2016-09-01

    In the pursuit of success in sports, some athletes are not deterred by health risks associated with the (mis)use of black market preparations of dubious origin as performance-enhancing agents. Several studies published in the recent years demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids, but also stimulants and growth hormones, are misused by numerous recreational athletes from all over the world. Trenbolone is an anabolic steroid routinely used in the finishing phase of beef production to improve animal performance and feed efficiency. A 35-year-old male patient presented to our plastic surgery clinic after self-intramuscular administration of Trenbolone to the superior gluteal area bilaterally, which led to a full-thickness defect in a cone-like distribution. The wounds underwent surgical debridement and were treated locally with mafenide acetate irrigation and wound dressings. Closure was achieved by secondary intention healing. In this report, we discuss the first documented case of full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis after black market anabolic steroid injection. This illustrates a plastic complication and resolution of a widespread but seldom reported problem.

  18. Anabolic actions of Notch on mature bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Ping, Yilin; Ma, Meng; Zhang, Demao; Liu, Connie; Zaidi, Samir; Gao, Song; Ji, Yaoting; Lou, Feng; Yu, Fanyuan; Lu, Ping; Stachnik, Agnes; Bai, Mingru; Wei, Chengguo; Zhang, Liaoran; Wang, Ke; Chen, Rong; New, Maria I.; Rowe, David W.; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2016-01-01

    Notch controls skeletogenesis, but its role in the remodeling of adult bone remains conflicting. In mature mice, the skeleton can become osteopenic or osteosclerotic depending on the time point at which Notch is activated or inactivated. Using adult EGFP reporter mice, we find that Notch expression is localized to osteocytes embedded within bone matrix. Conditional activation of Notch signaling in osteocytes triggers profound bone formation, mainly due to increased mineralization, which rescues both age-associated and ovariectomy-induced bone loss and promotes bone healing following osteotomy. In parallel, mice rendered haploinsufficient in γ-secretase presenilin-1 (Psen1), which inhibits downstream Notch activation, display almost-absent terminal osteoblast differentiation. Consistent with this finding, pharmacologic or genetic disruption of Notch or its ligand Jagged1 inhibits mineralization. We suggest that stimulation of Notch signaling in osteocytes initiates a profound, therapeutically relevant, anabolic response. PMID:27036007

  19. How medical services mask provision of non-medical supportive care in palliative oncology ?

    OpenAIRE

    Buthion, Valérie; Moumjid, Nora; Margier, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the context of cancer, non-medical supportive care improves quality of life. While policymakers expect it to be cheaper than high-tech medical care, we hypothesized that it is in fact embedded in and camouflaged by hospital medical services. METHODS In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we conducted qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and family caregivers in France. We first performed a functional analysis to identify non-medical supportive care functio...

  20. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  1. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  2. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination and profiling of prohibited steroids in human biological matrices. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-05-15

    The use of doping agents, once restricted to professional athletes, has nowadays become a problem of public health, since it also concerns young people and non-competing amateurs in different sports. The use is also diffused in social life for improving physical appearance and enhancing performance and even dietary supplements assumed to improve performance often contain anabolic steroids. While decades ago the so-called "classical doping agents" (like stimulants and narcotics) were used, to-day anabolic steroids are more widely diffused. Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances prepared by introducing modifications in the molecular structure of testosterone, the main natural androgenic anabolic steroid that forms in testes interstitial cells. The first report concerning the use of anabolic steroids by an athlete who searched for increased weight and power dates 1954. In 1974 the misuse of anabolic steroids in sports was banned by the International Olympic Committee and control tests were implemented in 1976 Montreal Olympic Games through radioimmunoassay analysis: the technique, however, only allows for unspecific detection of a limited number of exogenous steroids. Over the years, always new doping substances are synthesized and, as a consequence, the list of prohibited compounds is continuously updated and new suitable analytical methods for their detection and determination in biological matrices are continuously required. In doping control analysis the knowledge of steroid metabolism pathway in human body is of primary importance and the analytical methods must permit the simultaneous detection and determination not only of the forbidden precursor agents but also of their metabolites. In addition, the potential presence and amount in the biological samples of species that can interfere in the analysis should be evaluated. Also the several anabolic steroids, specifically designed to circumvent doping control, put on the market have been incorporated in the

  3. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Human Services, may, by regulation, exempt from the application of all or any part of the Act any.... See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address...

  4. Cosmetic doping--when anabolic-androgenic steroids are not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vandré Casagrande; Silva, Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da

    2014-07-01

    Doping is considered to be a major sports problem. This article describes a new threat and challenge to the sport of bodybuilding; the nonmedical use of a chemical in order to mimic muscle hypertrophy. Although muscle fillers are not new, being used for cosmetic purposes in medicine for a long time, the illegal use of muscle fillers has been increasing during the last few years and decades. The history of cosmetic doping, with particular attention to the Brazilian case, is discussed. Limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  5. Pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids: case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Nivaldo Souza Cardozo Filho; Eric Figueirido Gaspar; Karina Levy Siqueira; Gustavo Cará Monteiro; Carlos Vicente Andreoli; Benno Ejnisman; Moisés Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Relato da conduta de cinco casos de piomiosite em atletas após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Nos últimos 10 anos foram avaliados cinco atendimentos a atletas no Centro de Traumatologia do Esporte (CETE) - EPM - Unifesp que desenvolveram piomiosite após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Todos os pacientes foram diagnosticados clínica e laboratorialmente e por exames de imagem, sendo realizado tratamento cirúrgico (com coleta de material para cultura) e antibioticoterapia. Em quatro casos...

  6. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos; Brennan, Joseph J; Robin Mathews; John F Setaro; Smadar Kort

    2008-01-01

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or po...

  7. In vitro liver models are important tools to monitor the abuse of anabolic steroids in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, T.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Gelan, J.; Raus, J.

    1998-01-01

    Current veterinary residue analysis mainly focuses on the monitoring of residues of the administered parent compound. However, it is possible that larger amounts of metabolites are excreted and that they can have a prolonged excretion period. In order to unravel specific metabolic steps and to ident

  8. Isotopic fractionation of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and its relationship to doping control in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Adam T; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Trout, Graham J; Rogerson, Jill H; George, Adrian V

    2005-01-01

    The use of gas chromatography (GC)-combustion (C)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) demonstrates that a single oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 100 mg) to a male subject significantly lowers the 13C content of etiocholanolone (Et) and androsterone (A) in the subject's urine. The difference in carbon isotope ratio (d13C per thousand) values between Et and A increases from 1.6 per thousand at the time of administration to 5.1 per thousand at 26 h post-administration, indicating preferential metabolism of administered DHEA to form Et in relation to A. Multiple oral administrations of DHEA to a male subject reveals lower d13C values during the excretion period of Et (-31.7 per thousand to -34.6 per thousand) and A (-31.4 per thousand to -33.0 per thousand) to that of the d13C value of the administered DHEA (-31.3 per thousand). Reference distributions of d13C Et and d13C A constructed from normal athlete populations within Australia and New Zealand show a small natural discrimination against 13C in the formation of Et relative to A (mean=0.3 per thousand, n=167, p=0.007). Amplified differences between d13C Et and d13C A, and in vivo 13C depletion measured by GC-C-IRMS are shown to be potentially useful for doping control.

  9. In vitro liver models are important tools to monitor the abuse of anabolic steroids in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, T.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Gelan, J.; Raus, J.

    1998-01-01

    Current veterinary residue analysis mainly focuses on the monitoring of residues of the administered parent compound. However, it is possible that larger amounts of metabolites are excreted and that they can have a prolonged excretion period. In order to unravel specific metabolic steps and to ident

  10. Effects of phenylbutazone and anabolic steroids on adrenal and thyroid gland function tests in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D D; Garcia, M C

    1985-02-01

    Adrenal and/or thyroid gland function tests were evaluated in horses at various times during short-term therapy with phenylbutazone, stanozolol, and boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment or time effects on mean basal plasma cortisol concentrations in horses during treatment with the following: phenylbutazone, given twice daily (4 to 5 mg/kg, IV) for 5 days; stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was no significant effect of phenylbutazone treatment on the changes in plasma cortisol concentration during the combined dexamethasone-suppression adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly decreased from base line at 3 hours after dexamethasone administration and was significantly increased from base line at 2 hours after ACTH in all horses (P less than 0.05). Likewise, the stimulation of basal plasma cortisol concentrations at 2 hours after administration of ACTH (P less than 0.05) was not affected by treatment with stanozolol or boldenone undecylenate. There were no significant treatment effects on mean basal plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) among horses during the following treatments: stanozolol, given twice weekly (0.55 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; boldenone undecylenate, given twice weekly (1.1 mg/kg, IM) for 12 days; or nothing. There was a significant time effect on overall mean basal plasma T4 and T3 concentrations (P less than 0.05): plasma T4 was lower on day 8 than on days 1, 10, and 12; plasma T3 was higher on day 8 than on days 4 and 12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    : This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P ....01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P

  12. Muscle dysmorphia: detection of the use-abuse of anabolic adrogenic steroids in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martí, Irene; Fernández-Bustos, Juan Gregorio; Contreras Jordán, Onofre Ricardo; Sokolova, Marina

    2017-07-14

    Debido a una distorsión en la imagen corporal, las personas que padecen Dismorfia Muscular se perciben menos musculosas de lo que son en realidad. Con el fin de aumentar su musculatura, algunas de estas personas hacen uso de hormonas cuya función principal es la del aumento del tamaño muscular. Por lo que el objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia del uso de hormonas en personas afectadas por Dismorfia Muscular. 562 hombres y 172 mujeres fisicoculturistas y levantadores de pesas, a los que se le administraron diferentes cuestionarios para conocer, primero si padecían el trastorno, y después en qué porcentaje usaban hormonas la muestra afectada. Para la creación de los modelos de regresión de la dismorfia muscular fueron empleadas las técnicas estadísticas de árboles de decisión (R = 0.78 y R2 = 0.62). Los resultados indican que casi un 50% de participantes, afectados por este trastorno, hacen uso de estas drogas. Due to a distortion in the body image, the people who suffer from muscle dysmorphia have the self-perception of being less muscular than they currently are. With the aim of increasing their muscular development, they resort to the use of AAS. The purpose of the present study is to know the prevalence of the use of AAS in a Spanish sample affected by muscle dysmorphia. 562 male and 172 female bodybuilders and weightlifters were provided with different questionnaires in order to know, firstly, if they suffered from this disorder and, secondly, the percentage of the participants affected who use these substances. Decision trees and regression was applied to create explanatory models for muscle dysmorphia (R = 0.78 and R2 = 0.62). The results show that almost 50% of the participants, male and female, affected by this disorder use this kind of drugs.

  13. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10, 20 mg /kg of body weight in aperiods 15, 30 and 60 have ability to induce hepatotoxic effect on liver of male rat and these effects irreversible and progressive for 30 days after stopping the drug administration.

  14. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research.

  15. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  16. [Delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. Options and limits from a legal viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2009-11-01

    Increasing specialization and growing mechanization in medicine have strongly supported the transfer of originally medical responsibilities to non-medical personnel. The enormous pressure of costs as a result of limited financial resources in the health system make the delegation of previously medical functions to cheaper non-medical ancillary staff expedient and the sometimes obvious lack of physicians also gains importance by the delegation of many activities away from medical staff. In the German health system there is no legal norm which clearly and definitively describes the field of activity of a medical doctor. Fundamental for a reform of the areas of responsibility between physicians and non-medical personnel is a terminological differentiation between instruction-dependent, subordinate, non-independent assistance and the delegation of medical responsibilities which are transferred to non-medical personnel for independent and self-determined completion under the supervision and control of a physician. The inclination towards risk of medical activities, the need of protection of the patient and the intellectual prerequisites required for carrying out the necessary measures define the limitations for the delegation of medical responsibilities to non-medical ancillary staff. These criteria demarcate by expert assessment the exclusively medical field of activity in a sufficiently exact and convincing manner.

  17. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  18. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  19. Usage of emergency contraception between medical related and non-medical related students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, A K

    2009-04-01

    Teenagers and young adultshave the most risk of unplanned pregnancy, due to lack of awareness to see a family planning provider after unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, nearly one in five physicians is reluctant to provide information regarding Emergency Contraception (EC) to women and this may contribute to their lack of awareness. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the use of EC between medical related students compared to non-medical related students. Data collection was done using questionnaires distributed among students in University College Cork (UCC). 93% of medically related students were aware of EC compared to only 73.5% of non-medically related students. Medical related students also were more aware about the mechanism of action and detailed knowledge of EC compared to the non-medical students. This study has proven that medically related students have more detailed knowledge regarding EC compared to non-medical related students. However, there was no significant difference noted regarding the attitude and practice between the two groups.

  20. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  1. Assessment and care for non-medical risk factors in current antenatal health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); Leeman, A. (Annemiek); W. Waelput (Wim); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: this study aims to identify current practice in risk assessment, current antenatal policy and referral possibilities for non-medical risk factors (lifestyle and social risk factors), and to explore the satisfaction among obstetric caregivers in their collaboration with

  2. Relação entre a administração de esteróide anabólico androgênico, treinamento físico aeróbio e supercompensação do glicogênio Relación entre la administración de un esteroide anabólico androgénico, el tratamiento físico aeróbico y la supercompensación del glucógeno Relation between anabolic androgenic steroid administration, aerobic physical training and glycogen supercompensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S Cunha

    2005-06-01

    : 0,21 ± 0,02mg/100mg]. La glucemia y las reservas de glucógeno del sóleo permanecieron inalteradas. El uso de dosis superfisiológicas de nandrona no potencializaron ninguno de los efectos obtenidos en respuesta al entrenamiento aeróbico.Glycogen supercompensation is one of the adaptations induced by physical training. To potentiate this phenomenon, many athletes use supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nandrolone and aerobic physical exercise in rats, on body weight, plasmatic triglycerides levels, blood glucose and glycogen content. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sedentary + vehicle (SV, Trained + vehicle (TV, Sedentary + AAS (SAAS and Trained + AAS (TAAS (n = 7-14/group. They received i.m. injections of nandrolone or vehicle for 9 weeks, and during the same period trained rats were submitted to aerobic exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p (SV: 0,2 ± 0,02 = SAAS: 0,21 ± 0,02 mg/100 mg]. Blood glucose and soleus glycogen reserves remained unaltered. The use of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone did not potentiate any of the effects obtained in response to aerobic physical training.

  3. On the Free Energy That Drove Primordial Anabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaufmann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A key problem in understanding the origin of life is to explain the mechanism(s that led to the spontaneous assembly of molecular building blocks that ultimately resulted in the appearance of macromolecular structures as they are known in modern biochemistry today. An indispensable thermodynamic prerequisite for such a primordial anabolism is the mechanistic coupling to processes that supplied the free energy required. Here I review different sources of free energy and discuss the potential of each form having been involved in the very first anabolic reactions that were fundamental to increase molecular complexity and thus were essential for life.

  4. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  5. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  6. An overiew of non medical prescribing across one strategic health authority: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Molly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 50,000 non-medical healthcare professionals across the United Kingdom now have prescribing capabilities. However, there is no evidence available with regards to the extent to which non-medical prescribing (NMP has been implemented within organisations across a strategic health authority (SHA. The aim of the study was to provide an overview of NMP across one SHA. Methods NMP leads across one SHA were asked to supply the email addresses of NMPs within their organisation. One thousand five hundred and eighty five NMPs were contacted and invited to complete an on-line descriptive questionnaire survey, 883 (55.7% participants responded. Data was collected between November 2010 and February 2011. Results The majority of NMPs were based in primary care and worked in a team of 2 or more. Nurse independent supplementary prescribers were the largest group (590 or 68.6% compared to community practitioner prescribers (198 or 22.4%, pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers (35 or 4%, and allied health professionals and optometrist independent and/or supplementary prescribers (8 or 0.9%. Nearly all (over 90% of nurse independent supplementary prescribers prescribed medicines. Approximately a third of pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers, allied health professionals, and community practitioner prescribers did not prescribe. Clinical governance procedures were largely in place, although fewer procedures were reported by community practitioner prescribers. General practice nurses prescribed the most items. Factors affecting prescribing practice were: employer, the level of experience prior to becoming a non-medical prescriber, existence of governance procedures and support for the prescribing role (p  Conclusion NMP in this strategic health authority reflects national development of this relatively new role in that the majority of non-medical prescribers were nurses based in primary care, with fewer pharmacist and

  7. Anabolic Action Of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone In Male Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anabolic Action Of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone In Male Rats. ... bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) and to throw more lights on the mechanisms of these ... DNA, RNA and activities of some lipogenic enzymes such as ATP-citrate lyase, malic ...

  8. Unfocused extracorporeal shock waves induce anabolic effects in osteoporotic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Olav P.; Waarsing, Jan H.; Kops, Nicole; Schaden, Wolfgang; Jahr, Holger; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-01-01

    Unfocused extracorporeal shock waves (UESW) have been shown to have an anabolic effect on bone mass. Therefore we investigated the effects of UESW on bone in osteoporotic rats with and without anti-resorptive treatment. Twenty-week-old rats were ovariectomized (n=27). One group was treated with sali

  9. The Berlin Brain–Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Fazli, Siamac; Sannelli, Claudia; Haufe, Stefan; Maeder, Cecilia; Ramsey, Lenny; Sturm, Irene; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a steadily growing area of research. While initially BCI research was focused on applications for paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications in healthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular, monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states have seen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples of such novel applications which provide evidence for the promising potential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, we discuss distinct methodological improvements required to bring non-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of layperson target groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability, short control latencies. PMID:21165175

  10. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Divin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.

  11. Role of Religiosity in Psychological Well-Being Among Medical and Non-medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen

    2016-12-27

    Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.

  12. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Amanda Vos; Mieke J van Veen; Erwin Birnie; Semiha Denktas; Eric AP Steegers; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenata...

  13. Non-medical aspects of civilian-military collaboration in management of major incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram-Manesh, A; Lönroth, H; Rotter, P; Wilhelmsson, M; Aremyr, J; Berner, A; Andersson, A Nero; Carlström, E

    2017-03-02

    Disasters and major incidents demand a multidisciplinary management. Recent experiences from terrorist attacks worldwide have resulted in a search for better assessment of the needs, resources, and knowledge in the medical and non-medical management of these incidents and also actualized the need for collaboration between civilian and military healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the civilian-military collaboration in a Swedish context with the main focus on its non-medical management. An exercise, simulating a foreign military attack centrally on Swedish soil, was designed, initiated, and conducted by a team consisting of civilian and military staff. Data were collected prospectively and evaluated by an expert team. Specific practical and technical issues were presented in collaboration between civilian and military staffs. In addition, shortcomings in decision-making, follow-up, communication, and collaboration due to prominent lack of training and exercising the tasks and positions in all managerial levels of the hospital were identified. Current social and political unrests and terror attacks worldwide necessitate civilian-military collaboration. Such collaboration, however, needs to be synchronized and adjusted to avoid preventable medical and non-medical consequences. Simulation exercises might be one important source to improve such collaboration.

  14. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hamilton; Wallach, Jason

    2014-01-01

    PCP or phencyclidine was discovered in 1956 and soon became a popular street drug. Dissociatives including PCP, ketamine, and dextromethorphan have been used non-medically for their mind-altering effects for over 60 years. Many of these compounds have also been used clinically and in legitimate research. At least 14 derivatives of PCP were sold for non-medical and illict use from the late 1960s until the 1990s. With the advent of the Internet, the drug market underwent a dramatic evolution. While initially gray-market chemical vendors offering dextromethorphan and ketamine thrived, most recently the market has shifted to legal high and online-based research chemical vendors. Starting with the first dissociative research chemical, 4-MeO-PCP in 2008, the dissociative research chemical market has rapidly evolved and currently comprises at least 12 dissociatives, almost half of which were unknown in the scientific literature prior to their introduction. Several of these, including methoxetamine, have reached widespread use internationally. A historical account of non-medical use of over 30 dissociative compounds was compiled from a diverse collection of sources. The first complete portrait of this underground market is presented along with the relevant legal, technological, and scientific developments which have driven its evolution. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Reproduction opportunists in the new global sex trade: PGD and non-medical sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory differences between countries are an important driver of the cross-border trade in assisted reproduction as people move to seek services unavailable in their home countries. The development of a lucrative global trade in non-medical sex selection needs to be considered in ethical debates over its availability. I suggest that depictions of non-medical sex selection as a means of 'family balancing' or supportive of reproductive autonomy serve to distance the technologies rhetorically from the gender stereotyping inherent in their use and the commodification upon which they depend. They construct new social categories such as the 'unbalanced' family, the pathologization of 'gender disappointment' and a limited and highly individualized definition of reproductive freedom that permits medical interventions on healthy bodies. Orientalism pervades ethical debate depicting non-medical sex selection in the West as more acceptable to practices in 'Asia'. A case study of the interconnections between Australia and Thailand highlights the global economy sustaining the practice. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Steroid Use in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined as “systemic signs and symptoms of infection in the presence of infection”. Nearly one fourth of sepsis cases eventually die. Therefore, rapid and correct management of sepsis is important. There is no reliable test to evaluate adrenal insufficiency in sepsis due to the changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and intracellular effects of cortisol during the critical illness. Clinical studies reported conflicting results regarding the effects of steroid therapy on mortality and morbidity in sepsis. Contemporary sepsis management guidelines - although not based on strong evidence - suggest consideration of steroid use in septic patients who do not respond to intravenous fluids and vasopressors. Stronger evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials is needed for this suggestion to be certain. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 121-4

  17. Non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic purposes among college students: a test of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Ong, Julianne

    2014-11-01

    The current research examines whether measures associated with Akers' social learning theory are related to non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons among college students. We examine data from a sample of 549 undergraduate students at one public university in the Southeastern United States. We estimate several logistic regression models to test our hypotheses. The findings indicated that roughly 17% of students reported non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons during the past year. In separate models, all four of the social learning measures were significantly correlated to non-medical use. In the complete model, the risk of non-medical prescription stimulant use for academic reasons was increased for respondents who reported more of their friends used and also for respondents who believed that prescription stimulants were an effective study aid. The current research fills an important gap in the literature regarding theoretical explanations for non-medical prescription stimulant use. Given the high prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use and the known risks associated with non-medical use this research can help inform intervention strategies for college populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Steroid analysis and doping control 1960-1980: scientific developments and personal anecdotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Cedric

    2009-03-01

    Definitive proof of anabolic steroid abuse in sports was not possible prior to the introduction of combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).This is a report of the early history (1960-1980) of GC/MS and radioimmunoassay, and how these techniques were utilized in the first years of steroid doping control in athletics. There were several key individuals and research groups involved in the early technical developments, and their essential contributions have been acknowledged. Our laboratory was the first IAAF (International Association of Athletic Federations) sanctioned site to do steroid GC/MS steroid analysis resulting in athletes being disqualified from competition. We had notable successes, including the only East German female competitor ever suspended during the tenure of the DDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik). This paper not only covers scientific advances and milestones in the incorporation of steroid testing into international athletics, but also includes personal anecdotes of these early years before doping control became justifiably regimented. By the early 1980s, in anticipation of the Los Angeles Olympic games, dedicated year-round sports testing facilities had been established and part-time amateurs could step aside.

  19. "Will steroids kill me if I use them once?" A qualitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Danish strategy for fighting the use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness centres is likely the most comprehensive of its sort in the world. It is instituted in the national anti doping organisation, Anti Doping Denmark (ADD), and consists of doping controls, educational campaigns, and anonymous counselling through a web-based email service. Aim and method: Inquiries that were submitted to ADD's web-based counselling service over an 18 month period were explored with the...

  20. KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR OF NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaqeem, Marium; Sadullah, Samiyah; Farooq, Muhammad Zain; Waqar, Wajiha; Fraz, Tayyab Raza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death worldwide, yet very little data is available assessing the awareness of the younger population of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and the preventive measures taken to avoid the health issues related to cardiovascular diseases. It was a community based cross sectional descriptive study to assess the awareness and behavior in young non medical students. A questionnaire was developed and survey was conducted on 300 non medical students enrolled in different universities of Pakistan. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16. The sample consisted of 300 students aged between 16 and 32 years. 6.7% of the participants had history of blood pressure, 0.7% had diabetes, and 68.3% had a family history of cardiovascular diseases. 17.4% students were smokers. In the knowledge section, only 22% respondent scored above 20 out of 28 showing lack of knowledge. 42.7% participants were concerned about developing coronary artery diseases. 43.3% and 6.7% knew their blood pressure and cholesterol level respectively.33.3% and 41.7% regulate their dietary fat and salt intake respectively. Our study elucidates that cardiovascular diseases are not perceived as major risk by Non Medical Students. Lack of knowledge, physical inactivity, and high positive family history render the target population prone to cardiovascular diseases. The findings of study indicates the need for heart disease awareness campaigns for young population, to escalate the preventive actions and adoption of healthy lifestyles so as to lower the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Pakistan.

  1. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  2. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  3. NON-MEDICAL DRUG USE AMONG INTERNS AND HOUSE-OFFICERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Singh, Rajpal; Avasthi, Ajit; Gupta, Rajeev

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Self-administered questionnaire was given to a sample of 105 interns and house officers working in Govt. Medical College, Jammu. Questionnaire was designed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of non-medical drug use during the last one year and to enquire about “reasons” for drug intake. It was found that drugs commonly used were alcohol, tobacco, tranquillizers, amphetamines, cannabis. Most of the subjects used the same for ‘company’, festivity or curiosity. PMID:22058486

  4. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Non-Medical Uses of BCI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blankertz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI is a steadily growing area ofresearch. While initially BCI research was focused on applicationsfor paralyzed patients, increasingly more alternative applications inhealthy human subjects are proposed and investigated. In particular,monitoring of mental states and decoding of covert user states haveseen a strong rise of interest. Here, we present some examples ofsuch novel applications which provide evidence for the promisingpotential of BCI technology for non-medical uses. Furthermore, wediscuss distinct methodological improvements required to bringnon-medical applications of BCI technology to a diversity of laypersontarget groups, e.g., ease of use, minimal training, general usability,short control latencies.

  5. [Recognition of flavor in non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei

    2010-02-01

    By systemically sorting of non-medical literatures of pre-Qin dynasty such as the Thirteen Confucian Classics, etc, this article made an analysis on the meaning and content of flavor in that period with the Genesis and Epistemology, and pointed out that there were two meanings of the flavor: the first is the flavor or taste obtained by tasting, and the other is the five-elements flavor, a abstract flavor. The former flavor should be originated early than the later one. Besides, the article made a brief view on the functions of flavors in the health keeping and medicine.

  6. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Chericci [UNESP; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo [UNESP; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes,João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n = 16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5 mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5 mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (...

  7. Pharmacology podcasts: a qualitative study of non-medical prescribing students' use, perceptions and impact on learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meade, Oonagh; Bowskill, Dianne; Lymn, Joanne S

    2011-01-01

    ... of the usefulness of podcasts as learning tools. This study aimed to explore the experiences of non-medical prescribing students who had access to podcasts of key pharmacology lectures as supplementary learning tools to their existing course materials...

  8. The non-medical workforce and its role in surgical training: Consensus recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, Vimal J; Peckham-Cooper, Adam; Bunting, David; Beamish, Andrew J; Williams, Adam; Harries, Rhiannon L

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the delivery of the healthcare structure have led to the expansion of the non-medical workforce (NMW). The non-medical practitioner in surgery (a healthcare professional without a medical degree who undertakes specialist training) is a valuable addition to a surgical firm. However, there are a number of challenges regarding the successful widespread implementation of this role. This paper outlines a number of these concerns, and makes recommendations to aid the realisation of the non-medical practitioner as a normal part of the surgical team. In summary, the Association of Surgeons in Training welcomes the development of the non-medical workforce as part of the surgical team in order to promote enhanced patient care and improved surgical training opportunities. However, establishing a workforce of independent/semi-independent practitioners who compete for the same training opportunities as surgeons in training may threaten the UK surgical training system, and therefore the care of our future patients.

  9. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racine Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin, is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  10. [Quality analysis by external users of the non-medical health transport unit of Alicante].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Clemor, C; Cano, F Soriano; Gimeno, F Morant

    2011-01-01

    Non-medical health transport has great health, media and social repercussions and requires a very considerable amount of human and economic resources. To describe the quality, evaluated by external users of our Health Department, in order to know what are the most important elements for external users. Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Population to study: patients with a social security health card who come to the Hospital of Alicante and are non-medical health transport unit users. Waiting time to be delivered to hospital in 92.7% of the cases was less than an hour, and was between one and two hours for 7.2%. The most frequent destinations were rehabilitation service and outpatient clinics. When users were asked if the would recommend this service, 60.9% said "for sure" and 39.1% said "probably yes". This study allows us to know patient needs and expectations, as well as the factors they value the most and which of our work areas to improve. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications About Steroids About Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  13. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  14. Myosin heavy chain expression pattern as a marker for anabolic potency: desoxymethyltestosterone (madol), norandrostenedione and testosterone repress MHC-IIb expression and stimulate MHC-IId/x expression in orchiectomized rat gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, S; Velders, M; Schleipen, B; Schänzer, W; Bloch, W; Diel, P

    2011-06-01

    Both 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, NOR) and desoxymethyltestosterone (17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol, DMT or "madol") are 'designer steroids' misused for doping purposes in the bodybuilding scene. We have previously characterized the pharmacological profile of madol and identified potential adverse side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anabolic potency of NOR, madol and the reference substance testosterone propionate (TP). Besides wet weight of the M.levator ani (LA), we examined the effects on muscle fiber type composition and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in the M.gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle as additional markers for anabolic potency. A Hershberger assay was performed, where orchiectomized (orchi) male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with NOR, madol, TP or vehicle control (all 1 mg/kg BW/day) for 12 days. Wet weights of the Gas, LA, prostate and seminal vesicle were examined to determine anabolic and androgenic effects. Fiber type composition of the Gas muscle was analyzed using ATPase staining, and MHC protein profiles were determined by silver stain and Western blot analysis. NOR and madol exhibited strong anabolic and weak androgenic potency by stimulating growth of the LA but not the prostate and seminal vesicle. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition characterized by ATPase staining was not significantly altered between the treatment groups, although there was a tendency toward lower levels of type IIB and increased type IIA fibers in all treatment groups relative to orchi. MHC protein expression determined by Western blot and silver stain analysis revealed that MHC IId/x was significantly up-regulated, while MHC IIb was significantly down-regulated in NOR, madol and TP groups relative to orchi. There were no significant differences for MHC IIa and MHC I expression between groups. Results suggest that the observed MHC expression shift could serve as a molecular marker to determine anabolic

  15. Evaluation of Steroid Therapy for Vestibular Neuronitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Sekitani, Toru; Okami, Kenji; Endo, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of steroid therapy for vestibular neuronitis was evaluated comparing with that of non-steroid therapy. Twelve cases were treated with steroid therapy and fourteen cases ware treated with non-steroid therapy. All cases had no response of caloric test at the onset and underwent therapy within one month since onset. The results ware as follows : Dizziness was significantly reduced by steroid therapy compared with non-steroid therapy. However, there was no difference of subsiding perio...

  16. Identification of an anabolic selective androgen receptor modulator that actively induces death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Meissner, Robert S; Gentile, Michael A; Chisamore, Michael J; Opas, Evan E; Scafonas, Angela; Cusick, Tara E; Gambone, Carlo; Pennypacker, Brenda; Hodor, Paul; Perkins, James J; Bai, Chang; Ferraro, Damien; Bettoun, David J; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Alves, Stephen E; Flores, Osvaldo; Ray, William J

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) initially responds to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but inevitably progresses to hormone ablation-resistant disease. Much effort is focused on optimizing this androgen deprivation strategy by improving hormone depletion and AR antagonism. However we found that bicalutamide, a clinically used antiandrogen, actually resembles a selective AR modulator (SARM), as it partially regulates 24% of endogenously 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-responsive genes in AR(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. These data suggested that passive blocking of all AR functions is not required for PCa therapy. Hence, we adopted an active strategy that calls for the development of novel SARMs, which induce a unique gene expression profile that is intolerable to PCa cells. Therefore, we screened 3000 SARMs for the ability to arrest the androgen-independent growth of AR(+) 22Rv1 and LNCaP PCa cells but not AR(-) PC3 or DU145 cells. We identified only one such compound; the 4-aza-steroid, MK-4541, a potent and selective SARM. MK-4541 induces caspase-3 activity and cell death in both androgen-independent, AR(+) PCa cell lines but spares AR(-) cells or AR(+) non-PCa cells. This activity correlates with its promoter context- and cell-type dependent transcriptional effects. In rats, MK-4541 inhibits the trophic effects of DHT on the prostate, but not the levator ani muscle, and triggers an anabolic response in the periosteal compartment of bone. Therefore, MK-4541 has the potential to effectively manage prostatic hypertrophic diseases owing to its antitumor SARM-like mechanism, while simultaneously maintaining the anabolic benefits of natural androgens.

  17. Non medical prescribing leads views on their role and the implementation of non medical prescribing from a multi-organisational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Nicola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, non-medical prescribing (NMP has been identified as one way to improve healthcare quality and efficiency. Healthcare organisations are charged with overseeing the clinical governance of NMP and guidance recommends the identification of a lead director to be responsible for its implementation. While over twelve million items are prescribed each year by the 50,000 qualified NMPs its uptake is inconsistent. Several studies have explored the barriers to NMP at a practice level, however little is known about the role the NMP lead and the implementation of NMP from an organisational perspective. The aim of this research was to explore the role of the organisational NMP lead across a range of practice settings within one Strategic Health Authority (SHA and consider the development of NMP from a multi-organisational perspective. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 28 NMP leads across one SHA were undertaken by a trained qualitative researcher. Interviews addressed the purpose of the role and difficulties encountered; audiotapes were transcribed, coded and themes were identified. Results The NMP lead role comprised of four main functions; communication, coordinating, clinical governance and support. Factors hampering progress in overseeing the safe development of NMP included lack of clarity about the NMP lead role and responsibilities, strategic support and a lack of protected time. The extent to which clinical governance systems were in place across organisations was inconsistent. Where a strategic approach to its development was adopted, fewer barriers were encountered and NMP was more likely to become embedded within organisations. Conclusions The significant contribution that NMP leads play in embedding NMP within organisations should be acknowledged by clearer national guidance for this role and its responsibilities. Greater standardisation and consistency is required of clinical governance

  18. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:27448327

  19. Reference ranges for the urinary steroid profile in a Latin-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Brito, D; Correa Vidal, M T; de la Torre, X; García-Mir, V; Ledea Lozano, O; Granda Fraga, M

    2013-08-01

    The urinary steroid profile has been used in clinical endocrinology for the early detection of enzyme deficiencies. In the field of doping, its evaluation in urine samples is used to diagnose the abuse of substances prohibited in sport. This profile is influenced by sex, age, exercise, diet, and ethnicity, among others; laboratories own reference ranges might compensate for ethnic differences among population and inter-laboratory biases. This paper shows the reference ranges obtained in the Antidoping Laboratory of Havana for the following steroid profile parameters: ten androgens (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, epiandrosterone, 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone), three estrogens (estradiol, estriol and estrone), two pregnanes (pregnanediol and pregnanetriol) and two corticosteroids (cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol). The urine samples (male: n = 2454 and female: n = 1181) and data obtained are representative of population from Latin-American countries like Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Chile. Urine samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction with an organic solvent in basic conditions. Trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reference ranges were established for each sex, allowing the determination of abnormal profiles as a first diagnostic tool for the detection of the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids. The comparison with the Caucasian population confirms that the urinary steroid profile is influenced by ethnicity.

  20. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  1. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satwant; Baynes, Alice; Lockyer, Anne E; Routledge, Edwin J; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  2. Medical and non-medical complications among children and adolescents with excessive body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Martin, Xavier E; Saunders Gasser, Catherine; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Chamay-Weber, Catherine

    2014-09-14

    The burden of disease from childhood obesity is considerable worldwide, as it is associated with several co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), orthopedic and psychosocial problems. We aimed at determining the prevalence of these complications in a population of children and adolescents with body weight excess. This is a cohort study including 774 new patients (1.7 - 17.9 yrs, mean 11.1 ± 3.0) attending a pediatric obesity care center. We assessed personal and family medical histories, physical examination, systemic blood pressure, biochemical screening tests. We found that the great majority of the children suffered from at least one medical complication. Orthopedic pathologies were the most frequent (54%), followed by metabolic (42%) and cardiovascular disturbances (31%). However, non-medical conditions related to well-being, such as bullying, psychological complaints, shortness of breath or abnormal sleeping patterns, were present in the vast majority of the children (79.4%). Family history of dyslipidemia tends to correlate with the child's lipids disturbance (p = .053), and ischemic events or T2DM were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors present in the child (p = .046; p = .038, respectively). The vast majority of obese children suffer from medical and non-medical co-morbidities which must be actively screened. A positive family history for cardiovascular diseases or T2DM should be warning signs to perform further complementary tests. Furthermore, well-being related-complaints should not be underestimated as they were extremely frequent.

  3. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (p<0.0001). Logistic regression revealed that among males (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers were 4.4 times more likely to report opioid NMU than non-smokers (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7). Among females (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers and alcohol users were more likely to report opioid NMU than those who had never smoked or used alcohol (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 7.0 and OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.4, respectively). These results suggest that further research on gender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  5. Identification of Anabolic Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators with Reduced Activities in Reproductive Tissues and Sebaceous Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Harada, Shun-Ichi; Kimmel, Donald B.; Bai, Chang; Chen, Fang; Rutledge, Su Jane; Vogel, Robert L.; Scafonas, Angela; Gentile, Michael A.; Nantermet, Pascale V.; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Sahoo, Soumya P.; Kim, Yuntae; Meissner, Robert S.; Hartman, George D.; Duggan, Mark E.; Rodan, Gideon A.; Towler, Dwight A.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of frailty; however, androgens pose risks for unwanted effects including virilization and hypertrophy of reproductive organs. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) retain the anabolic properties of androgens in bone and muscle while having reduced effects in other tissues. We describe two structurally similar 4-aza-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands, Cl-4AS-1, a full agonist, and TFM-4AS-1, which is a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 is a potent AR ligand (IC50, 38 nm) that partially activates an AR-dependent MMTV promoter (55% of maximal response) while antagonizing the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction within AR that is required for full receptor activation. Microarray analyses of MDA-MB-453 cells show that whereas Cl-4AS-1 behaves like 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), TFM-4AS-1 acts as a gene-selective agonist, inducing some genes as effectively as DHT and others to a lesser extent or not at all. This gene-selective agonism manifests as tissue-selectivity: in ovariectomized rats, Cl-4AS-1 mimics DHT while TFM-4AS-1 promotes the accrual of bone and muscle mass while having reduced effects on reproductive organs and sebaceous glands. Moreover, TFM-4AS-1 does not promote prostate growth and antagonizes DHT in seminal vesicles. To confirm that the biochemical properties of TFM-4AS-1 confer tissue selectivity, we identified a structurally unrelated compound, FTBU-1, with partial agonist activity coupled with antagonism of the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction and found that it also behaves as a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 and FTBU-1 represent two new classes of SARMs and will allow for comparative studies aimed at understanding the biophysical and physiological basis of tissue-selective effects of nuclear receptor ligands. PMID:19846549

  6. Identification of anabolic selective androgen receptor modulators with reduced activities in reproductive tissues and sebaceous glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Harada, Shun-Ichi; Kimmel, Donald B; Bai, Chang; Chen, Fang; Rutledge, Su Jane; Vogel, Robert L; Scafonas, Angela; Gentile, Michael A; Nantermet, Pascale V; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Sahoo, Soumya P; Kim, Yuntae; Meissner, Robert S; Hartman, George D; Duggan, Mark E; Rodan, Gideon A; Towler, Dwight A; Ray, William J

    2009-12-25

    Androgen replacement therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of frailty; however, androgens pose risks for unwanted effects including virilization and hypertrophy of reproductive organs. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) retain the anabolic properties of androgens in bone and muscle while having reduced effects in other tissues. We describe two structurally similar 4-aza-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands, Cl-4AS-1, a full agonist, and TFM-4AS-1, which is a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 is a potent AR ligand (IC(50), 38 nm) that partially activates an AR-dependent MMTV promoter (55% of maximal response) while antagonizing the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction within AR that is required for full receptor activation. Microarray analyses of MDA-MB-453 cells show that whereas Cl-4AS-1 behaves like 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), TFM-4AS-1 acts as a gene-selective agonist, inducing some genes as effectively as DHT and others to a lesser extent or not at all. This gene-selective agonism manifests as tissue-selectivity: in ovariectomized rats, Cl-4AS-1 mimics DHT while TFM-4AS-1 promotes the accrual of bone and muscle mass while having reduced effects on reproductive organs and sebaceous glands. Moreover, TFM-4AS-1 does not promote prostate growth and antagonizes DHT in seminal vesicles. To confirm that the biochemical properties of TFM-4AS-1 confer tissue selectivity, we identified a structurally unrelated compound, FTBU-1, with partial agonist activity coupled with antagonism of the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction and found that it also behaves as a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 and FTBU-1 represent two new classes of SARMs and will allow for comparative studies aimed at understanding the biophysical and physiological basis of tissue-selective effects of nuclear receptor ligands.

  7. Non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing for acute and chronic disease management in primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Greg; George, Johnson; Maclure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-22

    A range of health workforce strategies are needed to address health service demands in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Non-medical prescribing involves nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals, and physician assistants substituting for doctors in a prescribing role, and this is one approach to improve access to medicines. To assess clinical, patient-reported, and resource use outcomes of non-medical prescribing for managing acute and chronic health conditions in primary and secondary care settings compared with medical prescribing (usual care). We searched databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and five other databases on 19 July 2016. We also searched the grey literature and handsearched bibliographies of relevant papers and publications. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies (with at least two intervention and two control sites) and interrupted time series analysis (with at least three observations before and after the intervention) comparing: 1. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in acute care; 2. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in chronic care; 3. non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in secondary care; 4 non-medical prescribing versus medical prescribing in primary care; 5. comparisons between different non-medical prescriber groups; and 6. non-medical healthcare providers with formal prescribing training versus those without formal prescribing training. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed study quality with discrepancies resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies according to EPOC criteria. We undertook meta-analyses using the fixed-effect model where studies were examining the same treatment effect and to account for small sample sizes. We compared

  8. Critical Role of Activating Transcription Factor 4 in the Anabolic Actions of Parathyroid Hormone in Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Shibing; Franceschi, Renny T.; Luo, Min; Fan, Jie; Jiang, Di; Cao, Huiling; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Lai, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Patrene, Kenneth; Hankenson, Kurt; Roodman, G. David; Xiao, Guozhi

    2009-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, its mechanism of action in osteoblast and bone is not well understood. In this study, we show that the anabolic actions of PTH in bone are severely impaired in both growing and adult ovariectomized mice

  9. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J.; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; Norren, van Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied

  10. The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Hallberg, Mathias

    2013-12-11

    Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0I U/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. control, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.

  11. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  12. A Review of Maximizing Muscle Building Capabilities with Anabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Agbons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building muscle at a rate faster than the human body would under normal circumstances is of great importance in skills and activities that require intense muscular effort. Although physical training stands as the backbone of muscle building, physiological variations make it an unfair yardstick in measuring individual efforts. Other methods of muscle building such as specialised nutrition and the use of digestive enzymes in breaking down proteins for quick absorption are also commonly used together with physical training. The use of anabolic substances, however, has proved more successful than any of the aforementioned methods. Nevertheless, with it comes ethical, legal, and clinical issues especially in sports. In spite of this, athletes still find ways of circumventing test protocols which have been a major issue for the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, advancements in science have opened the doorway for anabolic enzymes which are the ultimate muscle growers to be more or less, directly manipulated. One method is gene doping which involves altering gene expressions. The future of muscle building lies in man’s ability to decisively alter the functioning of these enzymes directly.

  13. Hormone Treatment and Muscle Anabolism during Aging: Androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, E. Lichar; Durham, William J.; Urban, Randall J.; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in circulating testosterone concentrations and decreased musculature in men. While testosterone administration is often considered when symptoms of hypogonadism are presented, the long-term effects of androgen use on muscle physiology are not yet fully understood. The definition of hypogonadism in men remains obscure but is generally indicated by total testosterone concentrations less than a threshold value of 300-500 ng/dL. Androgen replacement therapy is generally safe in men and women with low endogenous testosterone concentrations. The development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide additional options in treatment of hypogonadism while lowering the potential of side effects often associated with long-term androgen use. Androgen administration, either alone or in combination with other treatments, can be successful in improving muscle mass by increasing protein anabolism and reducing protein catabolism in men and women. Further research is necessary to optimize the anabolic and anticatabolic properties of androgens for treatment and prevention of muscle loss in men and women. PMID:20452103

  14. Steroid ulcers:Any news?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Guslandi

    2013-01-01

    Steroid ulcers,although a common feature in experimental studies,seldom develop in clinical practice,as observed by the meta-analyses carried out in the 90s.Corticosteroids alone become ulcerogenic only if treatment lasts longer than one month and the total administered dose exceeds 1000 mg.On the other hand concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in a synergistic,highly damaging effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa.Thus,despite the survival of the steroid ulcer myth in the medical culture,pharmacological protection against steroid-induced peptic ulcers is a rare necessity while the best prophylactic strategy still remains to be determined.

  15. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  16. Steroid assays in paediatric endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honour, John W

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation.

  17. Steroidal contraceptive vaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2003-06-01

    The development of steroid-releasing vaginal rings over the past three decades is reviewed to illustrate the role of this device as an effective hormonal contraceptive for women. Vaginal rings are made of polysiloxane rubber or ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer with an outer diameter of 54-60 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4-9.5 mm and contain progestogen only or a combination of progestogen and oestrogen. The soft flexible combined ring is inserted in the vagina for three weeks and removed for seven days to allow withdrawal bleeding. Progesterone/progestogen-only rings are kept in for varying periods and replaced without a ring-free period. Rings are in various stages of research and development but a few, such as NuvaRing, have reached the market in some countries. Women find this method easy to use, effective, well tolerated and acceptable with no serious side-effects. Though the contraceptive efficacy of these vaginal rings is high, acceptability is yet to be established.

  18. Discovery of the selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 using a rational development strategy based on differential transcriptional requirements for androgenic anabolism versus reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Kimmel, Donald B; Bai, Chang; Scafonas, Angela; Rutledge, Sujane; Vogel, Robert L; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Chen, Fang; Nantermet, Pascale V; Kasparcova, Viera; Leu, Chih-Tai; Zhang, Hai-Zhuan; Duggan, Mark E; Gentile, Michael A; Hodor, Paul; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Opas, Evan E; Adamski, Sharon A; Cusick, Tara E; Wang, Jiabing; Mitchell, Helen J; Kim, Yuntae; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Perkins, James J; Meissner, Robert S; Hartman, George D; Freedman, Leonard P; Harada, Shun-ichi; Ray, William J

    2010-05-28

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are androgen receptor (AR) ligands that induce anabolism while having reduced effects in reproductive tissues. In various experimental contexts SARMs fully activate, partially activate, or even antagonize the AR, but how these complex activities translate into tissue selectivity is not known. Here, we probed receptor function using >1000 synthetic AR ligands. These compounds produced a spectrum of activities in each assay ranging from 0 to 100% of maximal response. By testing different classes of compounds in ovariectomized rats, we established that ligands that transactivated a model promoter 40-80% of an agonist, recruited the coactivator GRIP-1 <15%, and stabilized the N-/C-terminal interdomain interaction <7% induced bone formation with reduced effects in the uterus and in sebaceous glands. Using these criteria, multiple SARMs were synthesized including MK-0773, a 4-aza-steroid that exhibited tissue selectivity in humans. Thus, AR activated to moderate levels due to reduced cofactor recruitment, and N-/C-terminal interactions produce a fully anabolic response, whereas more complete receptor activation is required for reproductive effects. This bimodal activation provides a molecular basis for the development of SARMs.

  19. Discovery of the Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator MK-0773 Using a Rational Development Strategy Based on Differential Transcriptional Requirements for Androgenic Anabolism Versus Reproductive Physiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Kimmel, Donald B.; Bai, Chang; Scafonas, Angela; Rutledge, SuJane; Vogel, Robert L.; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Chen, Fang; Nantermet, Pascale V.; Kasparcova, Viera; Leu, Chih-tai; Zhang, Hai-Zhuan; Duggan, Mark E.; Gentile, Michael A.; Hodor, Paul; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Opas, Evan E.; Adamski, Sharon A.; Cusick, Tara E.; Wang, Jiabing; Mitchell, Helen J.; Kim, Yuntae; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Perkins, James J.; Meissner, Robert S.; Hartman, George D.; Freedman, Leonard P.; Harada, Shun-ichi; Ray, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are androgen receptor (AR) ligands that induce anabolism while having reduced effects in reproductive tissues. In various experimental contexts SARMs fully activate, partially activate, or even antagonize the AR, but how these complex activities translate into tissue selectivity is not known. Here, we probed receptor function using >1000 synthetic AR ligands. These compounds produced a spectrum of activities in each assay ranging from 0 to 100% of maximal response. By testing different classes of compounds in ovariectomized rats, we established that ligands that transactivated a model promoter 40–80% of an agonist, recruited the coactivator GRIP-1 <15%, and stabilized the N-/C-terminal interdomain interaction <7% induced bone formation with reduced effects in the uterus and in sebaceous glands. Using these criteria, multiple SARMs were synthesized including MK-0773, a 4-aza-steroid that exhibited tissue selectivity in humans. Thus, AR activated to moderate levels due to reduced cofactor recruitment, and N-/C-terminal interactions produce a fully anabolic response, whereas more complete receptor activation is required for reproductive effects. This bimodal activation provides a molecular basis for the development of SARMs. PMID:20356837

  20. Determination of the concentrations of the steroids estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in bovine sera: comparison of commercial dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay kits with conventional radio and enzyme immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C T; Francis, K S; Shortt, H D; McCaughey, W J

    1995-06-01

    The performance of three conventional enzyme and radioimmunoassays routinely used to detect residues of anabolic steroids in cattle sera were compared with dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) kits designed for the hospital market. Slight modifications to the kit reagents were required for the analysis of bovine sera. Owing to the large sample volumes used in conventional assays, detection limits were generally better than those obtained with DELFIA kits, however, assay reproducibility was enhanced using the DELFIA technology. Comparison of sera obtained from cattle implanted with anabolic steroids revealed a good correlation between alternate methods (r2 from 0.91 to 0.97). The DELFIA kits offer a faster method for measuring estradiol, progesterone and testosterone with adequate sensitivity and in a safer environment than that encountered using radioimmunoassays.

  1. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers’ scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. Methods: This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Results: Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran’s scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. Conclusion: The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research. PMID:28077903

  2. Religiosity in the non-medical use of prescription medication in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Benotsch, Eric G; McCauley, Jessica; Bannerman, Dana; Granger, Catherine; Martin, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is a hazardous health behavior popular among young adults and college students. Past research has documented prevalence rates and risk factors associated with NMUPD, while little research has addressed protective factors. The present study examined the associations of religiosity and NMUPD in a sample of college students. Young adult (ages 18-25) college students (n = 767) completed an anonymous online survey assessing demographic variables, NMUPD, personality factors, perceptions of risk, mental health, and religiosity. Results showed that greater religiosity scores were consistently associated with lower odds of engaging in NMUPD in the past 3 months. These associations were partially mediated by the personality characteristics of conscientiousness and openness to experience as well as perceived risk of NMUPD. The effect of religiosity on NMUPD was moderated by Greek (i.e., fraternity or sorority) membership, such that those in a Greek organization showed no relation between religiosity and NMUPD, while religiosity served as a protective factor for NMUPD among those who did not have Greek membership. These results extend past research demonstrating that religiosity is protective against substance abuse/misuse. Greek status appears to negate the protective influence of religiosity on NMUPD.

  3. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  4. Determinants of non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Charles; Ridde, Valéry; Kouanda, Seni; Agier, Isabelle; Queuille, Ludovic; Dumont, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    To identify the factors associated with non-medically indicated cesarean deliveries (NMIC) in Burkina Faso in centers where user fees for cesarean delivery were partially removed. We carried out a criteria-based audit in 22 referral hospitals, using data from a 6-month prospective observational study, to assess the proportion of NMIC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with NMIC. The decision of cesarean delivery was not medically indicated in 24% of cases. The factors independently associated with NMIC were urban residence (adjusted OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.12; P=0.006), spouse's occupation other than breeder or farmer (aOR varying from 1.77 [95% CI, 1.19-2.62] to 2.15 [95% CI, 1.38-3.32] according to the profession), and cesarean decided by a general practitioner (aOR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.13-2.30; P=0.009). The high percentage of unnecessary cesarean deliveries is in contrast to the unmet needs of women who still deliver outside health facilities. NMIC is associated with both socioeconomic determinants and medical factors. Hence, interventions are needed to improve the skills of healthcare professionals and awareness of women concerning the risks associated with unnecessary cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meta-analysis of non-medical treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M D; Strube, M J; Scogin, F R

    1988-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on 109 published studies which assessed the outcome of various non-medical treatments for chronic pain. Of these studies, 48 provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes. The remainder were examined according to proportion of patients rated as improved. Studies were compared as a function of type of treatment, type of pain, and type of outcome variable. In general, effect sizes were positive and of modest magnitude indicating the short-term efficacy of most treatments for most types of pain. This finding suggests that the effectiveness of treatments may be attributable not to the differences between treatments, but to the features they have in common. Mood and number of subjective symptoms consistently showed greater responses to treatment than did pain intensity, pain duration, or frequency of pain, indicating the importance of using a multidimensional framework for pain assessment. This finding also suggests that the benefit of psychological approaches to pain management may lie in reducing the fear and depression associated with pain, rather than relieving the pain itself. The present study also highlights the advantages of meta-analytic reviews.

  6. Identification of selected in vitro generated phase-I metabolites of the steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Research into developing anabolic agents for various therapeutic purposes has been pursued for decades. As the clinical utility of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been found to be limited because of their lack of tissue selectivity and associated off-target effects, alternative drug entities have been designed and are commonly referred to as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). While most of these SARMs are of nonsteroidal structure, the drug candidate MK-0773 comprises a 4-aza-steroidal nucleus. Besides the intended therapeutic use, SARMs have been found to be illicitly distributed and misused as doping agents in sport, necessitating frequently updated doping control analytical assays. As steroidal compounds reportedly undergo considerable metabolic transformations, the phase-I metabolism of MK-0773 was simulated using human liver microsomal (HLM) preparations and electrochemical conversion. Subsequently, major metabolic products were identified and characterized employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution/high- accuracy tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. MK-0773 produced numerous phase-I metabolites under the chosen in vitro incubation reactions, mostly resulting from mono- and bisoxygenation of the steroid. HLM yielded at least 10 monooxygenated species, while electrochemistry-based experiments resulted predominantly in three monohydroxylated metabolites. Elemental composition data and product ion mass spectra were generated for these analytes, ESI/APCI measurements corroborated the formation of at least two N-oxygenated metabolites, and NMR data obtained from electrochemistry-derived products supported structures suggested for three monohydroxylated compounds. Hereby, the hydroxylation of the A-ring located N- bound methyl group was found to be of particular intensity. In the absence of controlled elimination studies, the

  7. The use of non-medical/alternative treatment in multiple sclerosis. A 5 year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone;

    1995-01-01

    Forty-nine patients (22 males, 27 females) were examined and interviewed with 5 years interval in order to determine the extent of the use of non-medical (alternative) treatment and whether the use influenced the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Using clinical course, Kurtzke Disability...

  8. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  9. Perceptions of personal health risks by medical and non-medical workers in a university medical center : a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Nap, Raoul E.; Johnson, Addie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are faced with many work-related choices which may depend on how they perceive risk, such as whether or not to comply with safety regulations. Little research has investigated risk perception in medical workers in comparison with non-medical workers and the ext

  10. Medical and non-medical expenditure for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xian-Zhen; Shi, Ju-Fang; Liu, Jing-Shi; Huang, Hui-Yao; Guo, Lan-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Xiao, Hai-Fan; Wang, Le; Bai, Ya-Na; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Mai, Ling; Liu, Yu-Qin; Song, Bing-Bing; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Du, Ling-Bing; Zhou, Qi; Cao, Rong; Zhu, Lin; Ren, Ying; Lou, Pei-An; Lan, Li; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wang, Yuan-Zheng; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2017-07-03

    We aimed to assess economic burden of breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment in China through a multicenter cross-sectional study, and to obtain theoretical evidence for policy-making. This survey was conducted in 37 hospital centers across 13 provinces in China from September 2012 to December 2014. We collected information on the subject characteristics. We then assessed the medical and non-medical expenditure for BC diagnosis and treatment, factors influencing the average case expense, variations between medical and non-medical expenditure at different clinical stages, economic impact of overall expenditure in newly diagnosed course after reimbursement to the patient's family, composition of non-medical expenditure and time loss for the patient and family. Among 2746 women with BC (72.6% were admitted to specialized hospitals), the overall average expenditure was US $8450 (medical expenditure: $7527; non-medical expenditure: $922). Significant differences were found among the overall expenditure in the four clinical stages (P < 0.0001); the expenditure was higher in stages III and IV than that in stages I and II, whereas the stage IV was the highest (P < 0.0001). Moreover, a higher self-reported predicted reimbursement ratio was associated with a less economic impact on the patient's family, and the average time lost was estimated as $1529. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer might be effective for decreasing the economic burden, because costs escalate as the degree of malignancy increases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria;

    2012-01-01

    RNA levels of COL1A1, COL3A1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, IGF-IEa, GAPDH, CTGF and TGF-ß-1 were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Our main results indicated that mRNA levels alter in different regions in each tendon of sedentary animals. The training did not alter the expression of COL1A1, COL3A, IGF-IEa and MMP-2...

  12. The cost of seeking an edge: Recurrent renal infarction in setting of recreational use of anabolic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Colburn

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Further understanding and recommendations of appropriate anticoagulant should be further elucidated to appropriately medically manage patients from this confounding social and medical history.

  13. Identification of anabolic steroids and derivatives using bioassay-guided fractionation,UHPLC/TOFMS analysis and accurate mass database searching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Rijk, J.C.W.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Nijrolder, A.W.J.M.; Lommen, A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Biological tests can be used to screen samples for large groups of compounds having a particular effect, but it is often difficult to identify a specific compound when a positive effect is observed. The identification of an unknown compound is a challenge for analytical chemistry in environmental an

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Chondrocyte Catabolism and Anabolism in Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonkyeong; Kang, Donghyun; Cho, Yongsik; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent forms of joint disorder, associated with a tremendous socioeconomic burden worldwide. Various non-genetic and lifestyle-related factors such as aging and obesity have been recognized as major risk factors for OA, underscoring the potential role for epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis of the disease. OA-associated epigenetic aberrations have been noted at the level of DNA methylation and histone modification in chondrocytes. These epigenetic regulations are implicated in driving an imbalance between the expression of catabolic and anabolic factors, leading eventually to osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. Cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities driven by OA-associated risk factors appear to accompany epigenetic drifts in chondrocytes. Notably, molecular events associated with metabolic disorders influence epigenetic regulation in chondrocytes, supporting the notion that OA is a metabolic disease. Here, we review accumulating evidence supporting a role for epigenetics in the regulation of cartilage homeostasis and OA pathogenesis.

  15. Chinical Analysis of Steroid Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingxunKong; ChengZhang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:The authors accumulated 15cases(26eyes)of steroid glaucoma due to topical administration of dexamethasone or prednisolone.Methods:From1970to 1990,26eyesin 15cases were observed(Bilateral11cas-es,unilateral4cases)including 12right eyes and 14left eyes.10cases were male and 5cases female with age ranging from14to52years averaging 28years.25eyes had the manifestation of chronic open angle glaucoma in the clinical coures,and 1eye simulated an acute glaucoma attack.Results:All patents had taken antiglaucoma medication before coming to our ohs-pital,but theIOPwas over6.7kPa in9eyes.TheC/Dration was equal to or over0.6in 9cases(16eyes).and the values were inconsistent between both eyes in 55%of the patients.Treatment for glaucoma was immediate discontinuation of the steroids with antiglaucoma medication if necessary.Three eyes received filter-ing operations and 2eyes had the removal of subconjunctival residual steroid.Normal IOPwas restored in monyths up to a year.Conclusion:Dexamethasone of prednisolone were the easiest to induce steroid glaucoma when the patients had long0term use of steroid eyedrops.

  16. Local delivery of a selective androgen receptor modulator failed as an anabolic agent in a rat bone marrow ablation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Hannu T; Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Kähkönen, Esa; Mattila, Riina H

    2015-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been developed to have systemic anabolic effects on bones and muscles without the adverse effects of steroidal androgens. One unexplored therapeutic option is the targeted application of SARMs for the enhancement of local new bone formation. We evaluated the osteogenic efficacy of a locally released SARM (ORM-11984). ORM-11984 was mixed with a copolymer of L-lactide and ɛ-caprolactone (PLCL). An in vitro dissolution test confirmed the sustainable release of ORM-11984 from the matrix. A bone marrow ablation model was used in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Implants containing 10%, 30%, or 50% ORM-11984 by weight or pure PLCL were inserted into the medullary canal of the ablated tibia. At 6 and 12 weeks, the volume of intramedullary new bone and the perimeter of bone-implant contact were measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a negative correlation between the amount of new bone around the implant and the dose of ORM-11984. There was only a mild (and not statistically significant) enhancement of bone formation in ablated bones subjected to the lowest dose of the SARM (10%). This study suggests that intramedullary/endosteal osteogenesis had a negative, dose-dependent response to locally released SARM. This result highlights the complexity of androgenic effects on bones and also suggests that there are biological limits to the targeted local application of SARMs.

  17. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  18. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Turnover of Non-medical Staff in Outpatient Oncology Practices: Is Building Social Capital a Solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, T D; Ernstmann, N; Baumann, W; Groß, S E; Ansmann, L; Nitzsche, A; Neumann, M; Wirtz, M; Schmitz, S; Schulz-Nieswandt, F; Pfaff, H

    2015-11-01

    While a lot is known about potential and actual turnover of non-medical hospital staff, only few data exist for the outpatient setting. In addition, little is known about actual instruments which leaders can use to influence staff turnover in physician practices. In the literature, the social capital of an organisation, which means the amount of trust, common values and reciprocal behaviour in the organisation, has been discussed as a possible field of action. In the present study, staff turnover as perceived by outpatient haematologists and oncologists is presented and analysed as to whether social capital is associated with that staff turnover. In conclusion, measures to increase the social capital of a practice are presented. The present study is based on data gathered in a questionnaire-based survey with members of the Professional Organisation of -Office-Based Haematologists and Oncologists (N=551). The social capital of the practice was captured from the haematologists and oncologists using an existing and validated scale. To analyse the impact of the practice's social capital on staff turnover, as perceived by the physicians, bivariate correlations and linear regression analyses were calculated. In total, 152 haematologists and oncologists participated in the study which represents a response rate of 28%. In the regression analyses, social capital appears as a significant and strong predictor of staff turnover (beta=-0.34; pstaff turnover although the underlying study design does not allow for drawing causal conclusions regarding this relationship. To create social capital in their practice, outpatient physicians may apply measures that facilitate social interaction among staff, foster trust and facilitate cooperation. Such measures may already be applied when hiring and training new staff, but also continuously when leading employees and when organising work tasks, e.g., by establishing regular team meetings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Prevalence and Perceptions Toward Anabolicandrogenic Steroid Use Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargarfard M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activities, AASs use, prevalence, knowledge among users, attitudes, as well as intent to continue using AASs in the future. 8% of respondents had used AASs and 6% currently use AASs. 71% of users believed using only a small amount of AASs or using AASs with anti-toxic drugs would not result in any harm, 10% indicated that AASs were harmless and 19% admitted to taking AASs despite knowing the adverse effects. 33% of respondents believed that they needed to use AASs to ensure athletic success and 26% believed that athletes should be allowed to use AASs without consequence. The prevalent use of AASs is a public health concern which implies that educational programmes at university level are needed to educate students about the adverse effects of AASs use

  1. Study of Osteoarthritis Treatment with Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor and Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsik Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with osteoarthritis (OA, a condition characterized by cartilage degradation, are often treated with steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Due to their inhibition of the inflammatory cascade, the drugs affect the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in preservation of extracellular matrix (ECM. To compare the effects of these treatments on chondrocyte metabolism, TNF-α was incubated with cultured chondrocytes to mimic a proinflammatory environment with increasing production of MMP-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The chondrocytes were then treated with either a steroid (prednisone, a nonspecific COX inhibitor NSAID (piroxicam, or a COX-2 selective NSAID (celecoxib. Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased MMP-1 and PGE-2 production while the nonspecific piroxicam decreased only the latter. Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased gene expression of MMP-1 and increased expression of aggrecan. Increased gene expression of type II collagen was also noted with celecoxib. The nonspecific piroxicam did not show these effects. The efficacy of celecoxib in vivo was investigated using a posttraumatic OA (PTOA mouse model. In vivo, celecoxib increases aggrecan synthesis and suppresses MMP-1. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that celecoxib and steroids exert similar effects on MMP-1 and PGE2 production in vitro and that celecoxib may demonstrate beneficial effects on anabolic metabolism in vivo.

  2. Disse fire typer bruger steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden.......Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden....

  3. Separation and purification of several anabolics present in bovine urine by isocratic high performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; Both-Miedema R; van Blitterswijk H; Stephany RW

    1984-01-01

    Een eenvoudig isocratisch hoge druk vloeistofchromatografisch systeem wordt beschreven voor de scheiding en zuivering van verschillende typen laag moleculaire anabole verbindingen en enige van hun metabolieten. Voor dit doel worden de verbindingen gechromatografeerd over een "reversed phase" C18 ko

  4. Doping-control analysis of the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride: determination of its influence on urinary steroid profiles and detection of its major urinary metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Flenker, Ulrich; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-04-01

    5alpha-Reductase inhibitors such as finasteride are prohibited in sports according to the World Anti-Doping Agency. This class of drugs is used therapeutically to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as male baldness, by decreasing 5alpha-reductase activity. Accordingly, metabolic pathways of endogenous as well as synthetic steroids are influenced, which complicates the evaluation of steroid profiles in sports drug testing. The possibility of manipulating steroid excretion profiles and, presumably, to mask steroid abuse was investigated in 5 administration studies with use of finasteride at different doses, with and without coadministration of 19-norandrostenedione. The evaluation of urinary steroid profiles demonstrated the intense effect of finasteride on numerous crucial analytical parameters, in particular the production of 5alpha-steroids such as androsterone and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, which was significantly reduced. In addition, the excretion of the main metabolite of norandrostenedione, norandrosterone, was significantly suppressed, by up to 84%, in elimination studies. For doping-control analysis the use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors causes considerable problems because steroid profile parameters, which are commonly considered stable, are highly affected and complicate the detection of steroid abuse. In addition, the suppression of production and renal excretion of 5alpha-steroids such as 19-norandrosterone generated from anabolic agents such as 19-norandrostenedione may lead to false-negative doping-control results, because urine specimens are reported positive only when a threshold level of 2 ng/mL is exceeded. Finally, a method for the determination of the major urinary metabolite of finasteride (carboxy-finasteride) in routine doping-control screening with use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described, allowing the detection of carboxy-finasteride for up to 94 hours in urine specimens collected after an oral

  5. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  6. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  7. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroidal supplements, which used to be found at health food stores or gyms, are now illegal and require a prescription. DHEA ... career can be destroyed. And there are serious health consequences. When ... to try to improve your athletic performance. Being a star athlete means ...

  8. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2002-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was p

  9. Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Rozman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24 the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols.

  10. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was p

  11. Sex steroids and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers Leuven, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is involved in atherogenesis. Female sex-hormones have substantial effects on both lipoprotein metabolism and the vessel wall. Cholesterol, one of the major lipids in lipoproteins, is both the substrate for, and the target of, the steroidal sex hormones.

  12. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  13. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Fumiko; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, Kanako

    2007-03-22

    We developed a reproducible, simple, and small-scale method for determining the re-uptake and release of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine) using rat brain synaptosomes. These assays were then applied to study the effects of different kinds of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine re-uptake and release. The phenethylamine derivatives, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 2-methylamino-3,4-methylene-dioxy-propiophenone (methylone), 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (BDB), and N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), had strong inhibitory effects on the re-uptake of dopamine, 5-HT and norepinephrine. 4-Fluoroamphetamine, methylone and BDB also strongly increased the release of the three monoamines, but MBDB increased 5-HT and norepinephrine release, but had little effect on dopamine release. However, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C), 2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-2) and 2,4,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-6), which are methoxylated phenethylamine derivatives, slightly influenced the re-uptake and release of monoamines. Alpha-metyltryptamine (AMT), a tryptamine derivative, was one of the strongest re-uptake inhibitors and releasers of the three monoamines. The tryptamine derivative, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), also strongly inhibited re-uptake and increased the release of the three monoamines. N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MIPT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) inhibited monoamine re-uptake, but had a few effects on monoamine release. 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP) and 1-(methoxyphenyl)piperazine (4MPP), which are piperazine derivatives, inhibited monoamine re-uptake and accelerated their release. The results suggest that some designer drugs strongly act on the central nerve system to the same

  14. Quantitative assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Helene; Zeiter, Stephan; Andersen, Ole K; Wieling, Ronald; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-04-22

    This study aimed to characterize the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and to define the nociceptive threshold in 25 healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep in standing posture. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral digital nerves of the right thoracic and the pelvic limb was performed and surface-electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid (all animals) and the femoral biceps (18 animals) or the peroneus tertius muscles (7 animals) was recorded. The behavioural reaction following each stimulation was scored on a scale from 0 (no reaction) to 5 (strong whole body reaction). A train-of-five 1ms constant-current pulse was used and current intensity was stepwise increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The NWR threshold intensity (It) was defined as the minimal stimulus intensity able to evoke a reflex with a minimal Root-Mean-Square amplitude (RMSA) of 20μV, a minimal duration of 10ms and a minimal reaction score of 1 (slight muscle contraction of the stimulated limb) within the time window of 20 to 130ms post-stimulation. Based on this value, further stimulations were performed below (0.9It) and above threshold (1.5It and 2It). The stimulus-response curve was described. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. At the deltoid muscle It was 4.4mA (2.9-5.7) with an RMSA of 62μV (30-102). At the biceps femoris muscle It was 7.0mA (4.0-10.0) with an RMSA of 43μV (34-50) and at the peroneus tertius muscle It was 3.4mA (3.1-4.4) with an RMSA of 38μV (32-46). Above threshold, RMSA was significantly increased at all muscles. Below threshold, RMSA was only significantly smaller than at It for the peroneus tertius muscle but not for the other muscles. Data achieved in this study serve as reference for experimental or clinical applications of the conscious sheep model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non- medical prescribing in Australasia and the UK: the case of podiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last decade has witnessed a rapid transformation in the role boundaries of the allied health professions, enabled through the creation of new roles and the expansion of existing, traditional roles. A strategy of health care 'modernisation' has encompassed calls for the redrawing of professional boundaries and identities, linked with demands for greater workforce flexibility. Several tasks and roles previously within the exclusive domain of medicine have been delegated to, or assumed by, allied health professionals, as the workforce is reshaped to meet the challenges posed by changing demographic, social and political contexts. The prescribing of medicines by non-medically qualified healthcare professionals, and in particular the podiatry profession, reflects these changes. Methods Using a range of key primary documentary sources derived from published material in the public domain and unpublished material in private possession, this paper traces the development of contemporary UK and Australasian podiatric prescribing, access, supply and administration of medicines. Documentary sources include material from legislative, health policy, regulatory and professional bodies (including both State and Federal sources in Australia. Results Tracing a chronological, comparative, socio-historical account of the emergence and development of 'prescribing' in podiatry in both Australasia and the UK enables an analysis of the impact of health policy reforms on the use of, and access to, medicines by podiatrists. The advent of neo-liberal healthcare policies, coupled with demands for workforce flexibility and role transfer within a climate of demographic, economic and social change has enabled allied health professionals to undertake an expanding number of tasks involving the sale, supply, administration and prescription of medicines. Conclusion As a challenge to medical dominance, these changes, although driven by wider healthcare

  16. Sinus node dysfunction in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. А.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinus node dysfunction or sick sinus syndrome (SSS includes clinical conditions such as symptomatic sinus bradycardia, sinus pauses or arrest, sinus node exit block, atrial tachycardias and chronotropic incompetence. Even though SSS incidence increases in an exponential-like manner with age, it can occur at all ages, including in the newborn. The mean age of patients with the syndrome is 68 years, with both genders being affected in approximately equal proportion. This condition occurs in 1 of every 600 cardiac patients over 65. Degenerative fibrosis of the tissues of the node has been suggested to be a common cause of SSS. Although it is still disputed. SSS is frequently associated with atrial fibrillation and flutter, tachy-bradycardia syndrome. Tachy-bradycardia syndrome is defined as sinus bradycardia coupled with atrial flutter/fibrillation or reciprocal atrial tachycardia. This syndrome is common in young patients following a surgical treatment of a congenital heart disease. Patients with chronic or persistent atrial flutter/fibrillation show high rates of cardiovascular disorders and mortality while sinus bradycardia is thought as an independent risk factor of atrial flutter/fibrillation. There are certain restrictions to medical treatment: long-term administration of the same medication (sotalol, amiodarone for atrial flutter/fibrillation can cause symptomatic bradycardia while administration of other medication (a class 1 drug increases the likelihood of ventricular arrythmias or evident bradycardia that enhances the risk of sudden cardiac death. Following atrial fibrillation ablation patients saw a significant improvement in the sinus node function, or saw a better sinus node function disrupted due to remodelling that takes place during atrial fibrillation. The surgical methods applications proved most efficient in non-medicational treatment of atrial fibrillation. In the late 1980s American surgeon J. L. Cox developed a so-called Maze

  17. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    Muscle cell culture (L/sub 6/) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 ..mu..M compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using (/sup 3/H) leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 ..mu..M level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle.

  18. Efeitos do esteróide anabólico nandrolona sobre o músculo sóleo de ratos submetidos a treinamento físico através de natação: estudo histológico, histoquímico e morfométrico Efectos del esteróide anabólico nandrolona sobre el músculo soleo de ratones sometidos a entrenamiento físico a través de natación: estudio histológico, histoquímico y morfométrico Effects of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the soleum muscle of rats submitted to physical training through swimming: histological, histochemical and morphometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho

    2006-10-01

    cuales recibieron inyección intramuscular del esteróide (5 mg/kg y 10 recibieron aceite mineral (5 mg/kg, dos veces por semana. Los animales fueron sometidos a 42 sesiones de natación durante nueve semanas (de lunes a viernes, con aumento progresivo de carga mediante el tiempo de natación. Después del sacrificio, el músculo soleo izquierdo fue retirado, colocado en n-hexana y acondicionado en nitrógeno líquido. Se hicieron cortes del tercio medio de ese músculo en micrótomo criostato (-20ºC y pigmentados por la técnica HE y por el método histoquímico NADH-TR. Los animales sometidos a entrenamiento físico y al esteróide (TA o aceite mineral (TO presentaron fibras musculares con mayor diámetro, cuando comparados con los animales control (NTA y NTO. No hubo diferencia significativa entre las medidas de los promedios de los diámetros de las fibras de los grupos NTA y NTO y entre TA y TO. En los Grupos TA y NTA se notó acentuado proceso de fagocitosis, redondeo y hialinización de las fibras musculares. Sin embargo, en los grupos TA, TO y NTA se observó pérdida de la actividad enzimática de oxidación. Los resultados sugieren que la natación produce hipertrofia muscular de forma semejante, tanto en el grupo que recibió esteróide como en el que recibió aceite mineral. A pesar de eso, el grupo que recibió esteróide presentó claras señales de mayor degeneración muscular.The objective of this study was to analyze the histological, histochemical and morphometrical alterations of the fibers from the soleum muscle of rats submitted to a swimming program, associated or not to the administration of the anabolic steroid decanoate of nandrolone. 22 male Wistar rats were used, 12 of which received a muscle injection of steroid (5 mg/kg and 10 received mineral oil (5 mg/kg, twice a week. The animals were submitted to 42 sessions of swimming during nine weeks (from Monday to Friday, with gradual load increase through the swimming time. After sacrifice, the

  19. [Specific toxicological considerations on anabolic agents; transmitted toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, R; Truhaut, R

    1976-01-01

    The growth of populations and the spread of urbanization, resulting in new agricultural structures, have entailed a concentration of livestock production and recourse to new techniques. Of some importance among these techniques is the enteric or parenteral administration of substances in very low doses. These substances include anabolic agents, some of which, like many natural feeds, exhibit hormonal activity. They may be divided into two classes: --those of the DES type, synthetic compounds non-existent in the natural state, --natural agents, which are normally distributed throughout the animal and human organism, and hence in food of animal origin---milk, meat, eggs. The compounds belonging to the second class may also be synthesized and the main toxicological consideration is that they then have to meet clear-cut standards of identity and purity. A compound belonging to the first class, diethylstilbestrol (DES), administered to rats in doses as small as 60 mug/kg of feed or even smaller, causes in general lower growth rates as well as alterations in the genital system and reproductive functions. In long-term experiments (12 months) using rats and mice and applying so-called toxicity "de relais" tests, developed and described by the authors, it also appeared that meat from calves in which DES pellets were implanted under normal rearing conditions, inhibits growth and reproduction in mice and rats fed a diet containing 20% of this meat. Studies in which the livers from treated calves constituted 6% of the diet of these two rodent species also led to the conclusion that fertility was impaired in the second reproduction test. The authors also recall cases of vaginal cancer observed in young girls whose mothers had been treated with DES during pregnancy. Compounds belonging to the second class (estradiol-progesterone and estradiol-testosterone) gave no evidence of harmful effects upon rats when mixed with their rations during short and medium-term trials. Similar

  20. Speeding up the screening of steroids in urine: development of a user-friendly library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesio, M; López-Fdez, H; Reboiro-Jato, M; Gómez-Meire, Silvana; Glez-Peña, D; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, M E; Capelo, J L

    2013-12-11

    This work presents a novel database search engine - MLibrary - designed to assist the user in the detection and identification of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) and its metabolites by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and mass spectrometry-based strategies. The detection of the AAS in the samples was accomplished by searching (i) the mass spectrometric (MS) spectra against the library developed to identify possible positives and (ii) by comparison of the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) spectra produced after fragmentation of the possible positives with a complete set of spectra that have previously been assigned to the software. The urinary screening for anabolic agents plays a major role in anti-doping laboratories as they represent the most abused drug class in sports. With the help of the MLibrary software application, the use of MALDI techniques for doping control is simplified and the time for evaluation and interpretation of the results is reduced. To do so, the search engine takes as input several MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS spectra. It aids the researcher in an automatic mode by identifying possible positives in a single MS analysis and then confirming their presence in tandem MS analysis by comparing the experimental tandem mass spectrometric data with the database. Furthermore, the search engine can, potentially, be further expanded to other compounds in addition to AASs. The applicability of the MLibrary tool is shown through the analysis of spiked urine samples.

  1. Other-regarding behavior and motivation in health care provision: an experiment with medical and non-medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Wiesen, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Other-regarding motivation is a fundamental determinant of public service provision. In health care, one example is physicians who act benevolently towards their patients when providing medical services. Such patient-regarding motivation seems closely associated with a personal sacrifice that health service providers are willing to make. Surprisingly, evidence on physicians' motivation is rare. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating prospective physicians', in particular, medical students', motivations and behavior. We measure the willingness to sacrifice own profit in order to increase the patients' health benefit. We conduct the same analysis for non-medical students. In a controlled incentivized laboratory experiment, participants decide, in the role of physicians, on the provision of medical services under fee-for-service or capitation schemes. Overall, 42 medical students and 44 non-medical students participated in five experimental sessions conducted between 2006 and 2008. We find substantial differences under both payment systems: compared to medical students, students of non-medical majors are less patient-regarding, less willing to sacrifice their own profit, and they state less motivation to improve patients' health. This results in significantly lower patient health benefits. Some implications for health care policies in light of physician shortage and for physician payment systems are discussed.

  2. Steroids, steroid precursors, and neuroactive steroids in critically ill equine neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembek, K A; Timko, K J; Johnson, L M; Hart, K A; Barr, B S; David, B; Burns, T A; Toribio, R E

    2017-07-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) dysfunction has been associated with sepsis and mortality in foals. Most studies have focused on cortisol, while other steroids have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterise the adrenal steroid and steroid precursor response to disease and to determine their association with the HPAA response to illness, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals. All foals (n=326) were classified by two scoring systems into three categories: based on the sepsis score (septic, sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy) and the foal survival score (Group 1: 3-18%; Group 2: 38-62%; Group 3: 82-97% likelihood of survival). Blood concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and steroids were determined by immunoassays. ACTH-cortisol imbalance (ACI) was defined as a high ACTH/cortisol ratio. Septic foals had higher ACTH, cortisol, progesterone, 17α-OH-progesterone, pregnenolone, and androstenedione concentrations as well as higher ACTH/cortisol, ACTH/progesterone, ACTH/aldosterone, and ACTH/DHEAS ratios than SNS and healthy foals (PHPAA dysfunction and outcome in hospitalised foals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemical Energy for Catabolism and Anabolism in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; McCollom, T. M.; Bach, W.

    2008-12-01

    Chemically reduced deep-sea vent fluids mixed with oxidized seawater can generate redox disequilibria that serve as energy sources for chemolithoautotrophic (catabolism) and biomass synthesis (anabolism) reactions. Numerical models can be used to evaluate Gibbs energies of such processes on the early Earth and in present-day systems. Here, geochemical data from compositionally diverse vent fluids (Lost City, Rainbow, Logatchev, TAG, 21 °N EPR) are combined with several seawater chemistries to yield a wide range of mixed hydrothermal solutions; this is the starting point for our thermodynamic calculations. In ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, such as Rainbow or Lost City, aerobic chemolithotrophic catabolisms (oxidation of H2, FeII, CH4) are the most energy-yielding at low temperatures (catabolic reaction energetics can then be used to put constraints on the amount of primary biomass production. Under putative early Earth conditions, for example, the net chemoautotrophic synthesis of cellular building blocks is thermodynamically most favorable at moderate temperatures (~50°C), where the energy contributions from HCO3- and H+ in cool seawater coupled to the reducing power in hot vent fluid are optimized. At these conditions, and counter to conventional wisdom, the synthesis of amino acids may even yield small amounts of energy.

  4. Aspects of the steroid response in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresnar, Bronislava; Zakelj-Mavric, Marija

    2009-03-16

    The number of fungal infections is increasing due to higher numbers of immunocompromised patients. Unfortunately, drug resistance represents a major additional problem in clinical praxis. Therefore factors contributing to infection by opportunistic pathogens, and to their growth and drug resistance are of major importance. It has been known for some time that mammalian steroid hormones are toxic to fungi. In this paper the response of fungi to the presence of steroid hormones will be discussed at different levels. First, the effect of steroid hormones on fungal growth, morphology and virulence will be considered. Processes affecting steroid intracellular concentration will be discussed; steroid uptake and, even more, steroid extrusion are currently of special interest. The role of biotransformation in the detoxification of active steroids will be taken into consideration and phases of steroid metabolism in fungal cells will be compared to phases of classical xenobiotic metabolism. Steroid signaling in fungi is presently not yet clear. It results in a global response of fungi to steroid hormones. Some of the genes differentially expressed in fungi as the result of exposure to steroid hormones may contribute to fungal drug resistance.

  5. Physical activity students of the medical and non-medical degree courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Sochocka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of the multiple positive effects of the physical activity confirms its influence on human’s health. Undertaking of the health oriented conducts plays an important role in the promotion of the health and in the creating of the healthier future. Academic youth should be aware of the influence of certain activities on health. The aim of the research was to analyse the physical activity performed by the full-time students of the medical and nonmedical degree courses. Material and methods: The research was conducted at the turn of 2012 and 2013. The research group, containing 553 person (n4553, consisted of the students from six Polish, both medical and non-medical, university colleges. The research utilizes the method of the diagnostic survey. Technique of the research based on the poll whose questionnaire had been created by the authors for the purpose of the research. Accuracy of the research tool was established within the method of objective judges, splithalf method was used to determine reliability (according to Spearman-Brown result 0.86. In order to define the existence of the differences or correlations between analysed immeasurable parameters chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used. Results: The substantial majority of the respondents – 79,5% (n4439 described themselves as physically active. The forms of activity that are performed most often among the students are: cycling – 40,5% (n4220, team sport – 27,1% (n4147, dog walking – 27,1% (n4147, group activities (aerobics, zumba, salsa – 21,2% (n4115 and swimming – 20,8% (n4113. The sex and the faculty of the studies are both important variables that have got statistically significant impact on the choice of the form of activity. Majority of the respondents – 78,3% (n4432 chooses the type of the physical activity basing on their likings and the amount of the spare time – 42,9% (n4237. Exercising of the physical activity is regarded as a

  6. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug......-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS......, survival without transplant). In all, 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61...

  7. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...

  8. Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Randall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. Methods We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years and younger men (ages 18 to 35, as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above in our banked specimens. Results We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78, interleukin 7 (IL-7, p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β, platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10. We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon

  9. Aging related ER stress is not responsible for anabolic resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalil, Sreeda; Pierre, Nicolas; Bakker, Astrid D; Manders, Ralph J; Pletsers, Annelies; Francaux, Marc; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-12-25

    Anabolic resistance reflects the inability of skeletal muscle to maintain protein mass by appropriate stimulation of protein synthesis. We hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging. Muscles were isolated from adult (8 mo) and old (26 mo) mice and weighed. ER stress markers in each muscle were quantified, and the anabolic response to leucine was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation state of S6K1 in soleus and EDL using an ex vivo muscle model. Aging reduced the muscle-to-body weight ratio in soleus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris, but not in EDL and tibialis anterior. Compared to adult mice, the expression of ER stress markers BiP and IRE1α was higher in EDL, and phospho-eIF2α was higher in soleus and EDL of old mice. S6K1 response to leucine was impaired in soleus, but not in EDL, suggesting that anabolic resistance contributes to soleus weight loss in old mice. Pre-incubation with ER stress inducer tunicamycin before leucine stimulation increased S6K1 phosphorylation beyond the level reached by leucine alone. Since tunicamycin did not impair leucine-induced S6K1 response, and based on the different ER stress marker regulation patterns, ER stress is probably not involved in anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging.

  10. Chronic Drought Decreases Anabolic and Catabolic BVOC Emissions of Quercus pubescens in a Mediterranean Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Amélie; Ormeño, Elena; Wortham, Henri; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Lecareux, Caroline; Boissard, Christophe; Fernandez, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by plants can originate from both anabolism (metabolite production through anabolic processes) and catabolism (metabolite degradation by oxidative reactions). Drought can favor leaf oxidation by increasing the oxidative pressure in plant cells. Thus, under the precipitation decline predicted for the Mediterranean region, it can be expected both strong oxidation of anabolic BVOC within leaves and, as a result, enhanced catabolic BVOC emissions. Using an experimental rain exclusion device in a natural forest, we compared the seasonal course of the emissions of the main anabolic BVOC released by Q. pubescens (isoprene and methanol) and their catabolic products (MACR+MVK+ISOPOOH and formaldehyde, respectively) after 3 years of precipitation restriction (−30% of rain). Thus, we assume that this repetitive amplified drought promoted a chronic drought. BVOC emissions were monitored, on-line, with a PTR-ToF-MS. Amplified drought decreased all BVOC emissions rates in spring and summer by around 40–50 %, especially through stomatal closure, with no effect in autumn. Moreover, ratios between catabolic and anabolic BVOC remained unchanged with amplified drought, suggesting a relative stable oxidative pressure in Q. pubescens under the water stress applied. Moreover, these results suggest a quite good resilience of this species under the most severe climate change scenario in the Mediterranean region. PMID:28228762

  11. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents.

  12. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. Participants We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. Methods We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants’ demographic factors, living situations and working environments. Results We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees’ intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Conclusions Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. PMID:27436669

  13. Non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users: A case study on an online drug forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkä, Sanna; Katainen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum. Using actor network theory (ANT), we analysed translations that mediate the online user community's relationship with pharmaceutical drugs. Differences in experienced drug effects are explained both as a process of 'learning' and as differences in brain chemistry at the receptor level. Both science- and experience-based information are shared on best practices to optimise use, avoid adverse health effects and maximise the experience of intoxication. The expanded context of doctors' practices places stress on the medical framework for drug use. Our analysis shows how the non-medical use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals relates to joint, medicalised ideas of bodies as sites of medical experimentation, as well as to the collective process of constructing 'pharmaceutical competences' in user networks. Understandings of intoxication have increasingly been permeated with the pharmacological and scientific logic of knowledge. The forum works as a platform for harm reduction inspired exchange of knowledge. However, the user community's knowledge sharing practices can generate a shared perception of a sufficient or even superior drug use experience and knowledge. This may lead to overdoses and other risky behaviour, and thereby contribute to increased harms related to non-medical use of prescription drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamsuzzaman; Mohd Gulfam Aalam; Tabassum Siddiqui

    2011-07-01

    Some new dimeric steroids namely cholest-5-en-3-spiro-[6',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-3'-one (2), cholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-5'-cholest-7'-one (4a) and 3-substitutedcholest-5-en-7-spiro-[4',5'-oxa]-3'-substituted-5'-cholestan-7'-ones (4b, c) are synthesized starting from cholest-5-en-3-one (1), cholest-5-en-7-one (3a) and 3-substituted-cholest-5-en-7-ones (3b, c) respectively by using DMAP and xylene. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral and elemental analysis.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  16. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  17. Disparities in HIV knowledge and attitudes toward biomedical interventions among the non-medical HIV workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Raniyah M; Wilson, Phill; Betancourt, Gabriela; Garcia, David; Penner, Murray; Abravanel, Rebecca; Wong, Eric Y; Parisi, Lori D

    2017-04-27

    Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes. A 62-question, web-based survey was completed in English or Spanish between 2012 and 2014 by 3663 US-based employees, contractors, and volunteers working in AIDS service organizations, state/local health departments, and other community-based organizations in a non-medical capacity. Survey items captured the following: respondent demographics, HIV science and treatment knowledge, and familiarity with and attitudes toward biomedical interventions. An average of 61% of HIV knowledge questions were answered correctly. Higher knowledge scores were associated with higher education levels, work at organizations that serve people living with HIV/AIDS or who are at a high risk of acquiring HIV, and longer tenure in the field. Lower knowledge scores were associated with non-Hispanic Black or Black race/ethnicity and taking the survey in Spanish. Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that respondents who were non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white), as well as those located in the South (versus other regions) scored significantly lower. These subpopulations were also less familiar with and had less positive attitudes toward newer biomedical prevention interventions. Respondents who took the survey in Spanish (versus English) had lower knowledge scores and higher familiarity with, but generally less positive attitudes toward, biomedical interventions

  18. Dose-sensitive steroid-induced hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Craig; Dando, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    Steroids cause significant but under-appreciated and poorly managed glucose intolerance. In this case we describe a patient with steroid-induced hyperglycaemia who obtained a large positive impact on glycaemic control from a small reduction in her steroid dose, sufficient to alleviate the need for insulin. Developments in the treatment of steroid-induced hyperglycaemia may mean that a more active approach needs to be considered when treating steroid-related diabetes in patients whose management is palliative. We advise checking for steroid-induced hyperglycaemia by testing capillary blood glucose values 2 hours after the lunchtime meal and recommend a single morning dose of long-acting insulin to treat the condition.

  19. Bone anabolic effects of S-40503, a novel nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), in rat models of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Keigo; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Ichikawa, Kiyonoshin; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Sumita, Yuji; Oguro, Nao

    2003-11-01

    A novel nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) binder, S-40503, was successfully generated in order to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). We evaluated the binding specificity for nuclear receptors (NRs) and osteoanabolic activities of S-40503 in comparison with a natural nonaromatizable steroid, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The compound preferentially bound to AR with nanomolar affinity among NRs. When S-40503 was administrated into orchiectomized (ORX) rats for 4 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and muscle weight of levator ani were increased as markedly as DHT, but prostate weight was not elevated over the normal at any doses tested. In contrast, DHT administration caused about 1.5-fold increase in prostate weight. The reduced virilizing activity was clearly evident from the result that 4-week treatment of normal rats with S-40503 showed no enlargement of prostate. To confirm the bone anabolic effect, S-40503 was given to ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 2 months. The compound significantly increased the BMD and biomechanical strength of femoral cortical bone, whereas estrogen, anti-bone resorptive hormone, did not. The increase in periosteal mineral apposition rate (MAR) of the femur revealed direct bone formation activity of S-40503. It was unlikely that the osteoanabolic effect of the compound was attribute to the enhancement of muscle mass, because immobilized ORX rats treated with S-40503 showed a marked increase in BMD of tibial cortical bone without any actions on the surrounding muscle tissue. Collectively, our novel compound served as a prototype for SARMs, which had unique tissue selectivity with high potency for bone formation and lower impact upon sex accessory tissues.

  20. Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaud, Lauriane [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Monteau, Fabrice [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Deceuninck, Yoann [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Bichon, Emmanuelle [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Andre, Francois [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Le Bizec, Bruno [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: lebizec@vet-nantes.fr

    2007-03-14

    The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 deg. C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CC{alpha}) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} range.