WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-market benefits estimates

  1. Estimating the non-market costs and benefits of native woodland restoration using the contingent valuation method.

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Douglas C.; Duff, Elizabeth I.

    1998-01-01

    The restoration of native forests is an important priority for forestry and conservation organizations in the United Kingdom. The economic case for public sector support for native woodland restoration in the United Kingdom rests almost entirely on the provision of non-market benefits related to wildlife, landscape and recreational opportunities. This paper describes a discrete choice contingent valuation (CV) to estimate the value of the non-market benefits of restoring two native pinewood f...

  2. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  3. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada: A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Poder

    Full Text Available This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada. Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million, followed by education services ($10.7 million, recreational activities ($8.9 million, landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million, biodiversity ($1.2 million, and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million. Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  4. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  5. Estimating Non-Market Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, D.S.; Amelung, B.; Polome, P.

    2003-01-01

    single individual or group and their use by one person does not reduce their use by others. This makes their valuation even more problematic. Most studies agree that non-market impacts make up a significant, if not the dominant, share of the potential impacts of climate change. In the IPCC's Second Assessment Report it is noted that non-market costs accounted for between 30-80% of the total in existing estimates of the costs of climate change. In a review of more recent estimates, several of the same authors state that whereas market impacts may be lower than initially thought, non-market impacts may be more pronounced. Still, there remain a number of questions about how properly to account for nonmarket impacts. In this paper we will not reiterate or provide new estimates of the value of non-market impacts and the potential benefits from climate policies. Rather, we will focus on a number of issues that we see in the existing studies as presenting the potential for confusion in understanding these impacts and benefits. The need to account for non-market impacts is fundamental to a number of these concerns. The specific issues to be addressed are the context in which climate impacts and policy options have been considered, the definition and classification of impacts, the question of value paradigms, and the limitations of economic valuation techniques. The principle argument we wish to make is that we need to pose our research questions more carefully and be more clear and consistent in order for the results to be considered credible, transparent, and relevant for policy

  6. Estimates of the non-market value of sea turtles in Tobago using stated preference techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazabon-Mannette, Michelle; Schuhmann, Peter W; Hailey, Adrian; Horrocks, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Economic benefits are derived from sea turtle tourism all over the world. Sea turtles also add value to underwater recreation and convey non-use values. This study examines the non-market value of sea turtles in Tobago. We use a choice experiment to estimate the value of sea turtle encounters to recreational SCUBA divers and the contingent valuation method to estimate the value of sea turtles to international tourists. Results indicate that turtle encounters were the most important dive attribute among those examined. Divers are willing to pay over US$62 per two tank dive for the first turtle encounter. The mean WTP for turtle conservation among international visitors to Tobago was US$31.13 which reflects a significant non-use value associated with actions targeted at keeping sea turtles from going extinct. These results illustrate significant non-use and non-consumptive use value of sea turtles, and highlight the importance of sea turtle conservation efforts in Tobago and throughout the Caribbean region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Valuing Non-market Benefits of Rehabilitation of Hydrologic Cycle Improvements in the Anyangcheon Watershed: Using Mixed Logit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Kong, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research the findings from a discrete-choice experiment designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with the Anyangcheon watershed improvements in Rep. of Korea. The Anyangcheon watershed has suffered from streamflow depletion and poor stream quality, which often negatively affect instream and near-stream ecologic integrity, as well as water supply. Such distortions in the hydrologic cycle mainly result from rapid increase of impermeable area due to urbanization, decreases of baseflow runoff due to groundwater pumping, and reduced precipitation inputs driven by climate forcing. As well, combined sewer overflows and increase of non-point source pollution from urban regions decrease water quality. The appeal of choice experiments (CE) in economic analysis is that it is based on random utility theory (McFadden, 1974; Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985). In contrast to contingent valuation method (CVM), which asks people to choose between a base case and a specific alternative, CE asks people to choice between cases that are described by attributes. The attributes of this study were selected from hydrologic vulnerability components that represent flood damage possibility, instreamflow depletion, water quality deterioration, form of the watershed and tax. Their levels were divided into three grades include status quo. Two grades represented the ideal conditions. These scenarios were constructed from a 35 orthogonal main effect design. This design resulted in twenty-seven choice sets. The design had nine different choice scenarios presented to each respondent. The most popular choice models in use are the conditional logit (CNL). This model provides closed-form choice probability calculation. The shortcoming of CNL comes from irrelevant alternatives (IIA). In this paper, the mixed logit (ML) is applied to allow the coefficient’s variation for random taste heterogeneity in the population. The mixed logit model(with normal distributions for the attributes) fit the

  9. Informing climate policy given incommensurable benefits estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    incommensurability explored here. Finally, by maintaining the benefits focus of the OECD inquiry, proble ms of cost estimation are overlooked. Given this limited scope, it is worth mentioning that the estimation of costs, of both mitigation efforts and adaptation measures, raises many of the same problems discussed here. Simple aggregations of cost, based on market prices, are in fact commonly accepted. But they nonetheless can involve difficult issues of uncertainty, valuation of non-market effects, and aggregation, as discussed below in relation to benefits. The climate issue has its own peculiarities, and it is worth putting the benefits question into context. Thus, exploration of this complex topic begins with a quick survey of the role that benefits estimates play in long-term strategy development and in the formulation of near-term policy. Different issues arise depending on the task, whether it is to inform the setting of a current level of mitigation effort, to justify a long-term stabilization target, or to provide information about possible regional effects and guidance for adaptive measures. A summary will follow of limits to our ability to develop commonly accepted, comprehensive measures of climate benefits. Based on the view thus laid out, insights will be drawn about the possible development of a framework for summarizing and presenting benefits information, and the research needed to support it

  10. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  11. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  12. Making Benefit Transfers Work: Deriving and Testing Principles for Value Transfers for Similar and Dissimilar Sites Using a Case Study of the Non-Market Benefits of Water Quality Improvements Across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Ian; Brouwer, Roy; Ferreri, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We implement a controlled, multi-site experiment to develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function...... transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical approaches. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water...... quality improvements across five countries. While this provides an idealised tested, results support the above principles and suggest directions for future transfer studies....

  13. Non-market pricing for an improved solid waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-market pricing for an improved solid waste management system in Arba Minch ... in Arba Minch, a tourist hub and one of the rapidly growing towns in Ethiopia. ... The mean WTP estimated in this survey can serve as a guide for municipal ...

  14. Benefits estimation framework for automated vehicle operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Automated vehicles have the potential to bring about transformative safety, mobility, energy, and environmental benefits to the surface transportation : system. They are also being introduced into a complex transportation system, where second-order i...

  15. Benefits of dynamic mobility applications : preliminary estimates from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This white paper examines the available quantitative information on the potential mobility benefits of the connected vehicle Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA). This work will be refined as more and better estimates of benefits from mobility applica...

  16. Appendix C: Biomass Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  17. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  18. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  19. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  20. Guide on Economic Instruments & Non-market Valuation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Bartczak, Anna; Czajkowski, Mikołaj

    The aim of this guidance document is to provide forest practitioners, decision makers and forest owners insights into the various economic instruments available to enhance the non-market ecosystem provision of forests such as a high quality biodiversity; enhanced carbon sequestration; improved...... with ecosystem degradation and iii) by recognising the substantial economic and welfare benefits of better management of ecosystems in forests. Ecosystem services contribute to economic welfare in two ways: • by contributing to the generation of income and wellbeing; and • by preventing damages that inflict...... initiatives it is therefore essential to consider trade offs and synergies between the complex interplay between ecosystem goods and services within an ecosystem,...

  1. Benefits of EMU Participation : Estimates using the Synthetic Control Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; van Groezen, Bas; Meijdam, Lex

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates quantitatively the benefits from participation in the Economic and Monetary Union for individual Euro area countries. Using the synthetic control method, we estimate how real GDP per capita would have developed for the EMU member states, if those countries had not joined the

  2. Public Preferences for Endangered Species Recovery: An Examination of Geospatial Scale and Non-Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy eWallmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction – the area that includes all people who hold values – for a good or service. In this paper we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedded samples: households on the west coast of the US and households throughout the nation. We statistically compare species values between the two samples to help determine the extent of and variation in the economic jurisdiction for endangered species recovery. Our findings offer support to the tenet that the summation of non-market values across the country is appropriate when evaluating alternative policies for endangered species recovery.

  3. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  4. Analyzing paired diagnostic studies by estimating the expected benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

    2015-01-01

    is of an indirect nature as test results do influence downstream clinical decisions, but test performance (as characterized by sensitivity, specificity, and the predictive values of a procedure) is, at best, only a surrogate endpoint for patient outcome and does not necessarily translate into it. Not many...... randomized controlled trials have been conducted so far in diagnostic research, and, hence, we need alternative approaches to close the gap between test characteristics and patient outcomes. Several informal approaches have been suggested in order to close this gap, and decision modeling has been advocated...... as a means of obtaining formal approaches. Recently, the expected benefit has been proposed as a quantity that allows a simple formal approach, and we take up this suggestion in this paper. We regard the expected benefit as an estimation problem and consider two approaches to statistical inference. Moreover...

  5. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  6. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  7. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the present value of benefits in pay status, and y equals the present value of all vested benefits not... section have been met. Plan assets equal $2 million. The present value of all benefits in pay status is $1... present value of all vested benefits that are not in pay status is $0.75 million based on applicable PBGC...

  8. The Integration of Corporate Non-Market and Market Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Peihong; Li, Xin; Xie, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to systematically examine the key notion of integration of non-market and market strategies in the increasingly popular study of corporate non-market strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a brief literature review of the non-market strategy (NMS...... explore how to seamlessly coordinate non-market and market strategies in order to gain maximal synergies. Originality/value: This paper is the first to examine the key notion of integration in a systematic manner. It is the first to propose a three-question solution to systematic understanding......) research that shows the existing literature does not offer a clear and systematic account of the key notion of integration. It suggests any systematic account of integration should address at least three interrelated questions, i.e. why, what and how to integrate non-market and market strategies? Findings...

  9. Measuring Non-Market Values for Hydropower Production and Water Storage on the Colorado River: A White Paper Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Chermak, Janie M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Brookshire, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for capturing the spatial and temporal aspects of non-market dimensions of value (DOV) and how they vary as the result of policy changes for hydropower generation and developed water uses. The foundation of this project is a literature review that reveals that focused, sector specific valuations are no longer adequate if the goal is to provide decision makers with a complete understanding of their decisions. Rather, estimates of non-market values for informing decisions regarding dam operations and/or other water management alternatives must consider the entire spectrum of market and non-market values, and the tradeoffs (both positive and negative) between those values over time and space, while considering shifting preferences in an uncertain environment. This document describes the history and reasoning for these conclusions and presents a conceptual framework for understanding non-market values as a function of changes to hydropower operations and water resources management.

  10. Improved Methodology for Benefit Estimation of Preservation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    This research report presents an improved process for evaluating the benefits and economic tradeoffs associated with a variety of highway preservation projects. It includes a summary of results from a comprehensive phone survey concerning the use and...

  11. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  12. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Forward-Engaged Naval Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Looney, Robert E; Schrady, David A; Brown, Ronald L

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the 1997 quadrennial defense review, U.S. Navy leaders asked the Naval Postgraduate School to study the economic benefits of forward-engaged naval forces and communicate them to policy makers and the public...

  13. Appendix E: Wind Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  14. Appendix B: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  15. Appendix G: Building Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  16. Appendix J: Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  17. Appendix F: FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  18. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  19. Using Estimated On-Site Ambient Temperature Has Uncertain Benefit When Estimating Postmortem Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dourel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The forensic entomologist uses weather station data as part of the calculation when estimating the postmortem interval (PMI. To reduce the potential inaccuracies of this method caused by the distance between the crime scene and the meteorological station, temperature correlation data from the site of the corpse may be used. This experiment simulated the impact of retrospective weather data correction using linear regression between seven stations and sites in three climatic exposure groups during three different seasons as part of the accumulated degree days calculation for three necrophagous species (Diptera: Calliphoridae. No consistent benefit in the use of correlation or the original data from the meteorological stations was observed. In nine cases out of 12, the data from the weather station network limited the risk of a deviation from reality. The forensic entomologist should be cautious when using this correlation model.

  20. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure

    2008-01-01

    ... in life expectancy, and to assess methods for estimating the monetary value of the reduced risk of premature death and increased life expectancy in the context of health-benefits analysis. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution details the committee's findings and posits several recommendations to address these issues.

  1. Accommodating non-market values in evaluation of wildfire management in the United States: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2011-01-01

    Forests in the United States generate many non-market benefits for society that can be enhanced and diminished by wildfire and wildfire management. The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (1995, updated 2001), and subsequent Guidance to the Implementation of that policy provided in 2009, require fire management priorities be set on the basis of values to be...

  2. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swift, Gregory William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glover, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  3. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  4. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmirou-Navier Denis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA, aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures

  5. How to estimate the health benefits of additional research and changing clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claxton, Karl; Griffin, Susan; Koffijberg, Hendrik; McKenna, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A simple extension of standard meta-analysis can provide quantitative estimates of the potential health benefits of further research and of implementing the findings of existing research, which can help inform research prioritisation and efforts to change clinical practice

  6. How to estimate the health benefits of additional research and changing clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claxton, Karl; Griffin, Susan; Koffijberg, Hendrik; McKenna, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A simple extension of standard metaanalysis can provide quantitative estimates of the potential health benefits of further research and of implementing the findings of existing research, which can help inform research prioritisation and efforts to change clinical practice

  7. Methods for Estimating the Social Benefits of EPA Land Cleanup and Reuse Programs (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation’s National Center for Environmental Economics, and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response’s Land Revitalization Office convened a workshop on risk assessment and benefit estimation methods in 2006.

  8. Valuation of Non-Market Ecosystem Services of Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taye, Fitalew Agimass

    Forests provide a multitude of ecosystem services to society. However, not all such services are being reflected in market prices and that leads to underestimation of their economic values and suboptimal management schemes. Therefore, non-market valuation is required to provide complementary...... information for better forest management that underpins the concept of total economic values. In this thesis, the non-market ecosystem services of forests are evaluated with a focus on showing the impact of forest management. The thesis consists of four papers that address three main research questions: 1......) Which forest structural characteristics and features affect recreational preferences? 2) Does childhood forest experience determine forest visiting habit in adulthood? And 3) How does environmental attitude influence individuals’ willingness to pay for forest management initiatives designed to enhance...

  9. A non-stationary cost-benefit based bivariate extreme flood estimation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Junguo

    2018-02-01

    Cost-benefit analysis and flood frequency analysis have been integrated into a comprehensive framework to estimate cost effective design values. However, previous cost-benefit based extreme flood estimation is based on stationary assumptions and analyze dependent flood variables separately. A Non-Stationary Cost-Benefit based bivariate design flood estimation (NSCOBE) approach is developed in this study to investigate influence of non-stationarities in both the dependence of flood variables and the marginal distributions on extreme flood estimation. The dependence is modeled utilizing copula functions. Previous design flood selection criteria are not suitable for NSCOBE since they ignore time changing dependence of flood variables. Therefore, a risk calculation approach is proposed based on non-stationarities in both marginal probability distributions and copula functions. A case study with 54-year observed data is utilized to illustrate the application of NSCOBE. Results show NSCOBE can effectively integrate non-stationarities in both copula functions and marginal distributions into cost-benefit based design flood estimation. It is also found that there is a trade-off between maximum probability of exceedance calculated from copula functions and marginal distributions. This study for the first time provides a new approach towards a better understanding of influence of non-stationarities in both copula functions and marginal distributions on extreme flood estimation, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary bivariate design flood estimation across the world.

  10. Big Numbers about Small Children: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Addressing Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Puett, Chloe

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches have been used to estimate the economic benefits of reducing undernutrition and to estimate the costs of investing in such programs on a global scale. While many of these studies are ultimately based on evidence from well-designed efficacy trials, all require a number of assumptions to project the impact of such trials to larger populations and to translate the value of the expected improvement in nutritional status into economic terms. This paper provides a short critique of some approaches to estimating the benefits of investments in child nutrition and then presents an alternative set of estimates based on different core data. These new estimates reinforce the basic conclusions of the existing literature: the economic value from reducing undernutrition in undernourished populations is likely to be substantial.

  11. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  12. Counting the cost: estimating the economic benefit of pedophile treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M; Donato, R

    2001-04-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to identify the economic costs and benefits of pedophile treatment programs incorporating both the tangible and intangible cost of sexual abuse to victims. Cost estimates of cognitive behavioral therapy programs in Australian prisons are compared against the tangible and intangible costs to victims of being sexually abused. Estimates are prepared that take into account a number of problematic issues. These include the range of possible recidivism rates for treatment programs; the uncertainty surrounding the number of child sexual molestation offences committed by recidivists; and the methodological problems associated with estimating the intangible costs of sexual abuse on victims. Despite the variation in parameter estimates that impact on the cost-benefit analysis of pedophile treatment programs, it is found that potential range of economic costs from child sexual abuse are substantial and the economic benefits to be derived from appropriate and effective treatment programs are high. Based on a reasonable set of parameter estimates, in-prison, cognitive therapy treatment programs for pedophiles are likely to be of net benefit to society. Despite this, a critical area of future research must include further methodological developments in estimating the quantitative impact of child sexual abuse in the community.

  13. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  14. 76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping... refining its practice to instruct CBP to liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide... Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 34046 (June 10...

  15. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Verkade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS. These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty decreases the potential reduction of flood risk, but is seldom accounted for in estimates of the benefits of FFWRSs. In the present paper, a method to estimate the benefits of (imperfect FFWRSs in reducing flood risk is presented. The method is based on a hydro-economic model of expected annual damage (EAD due to flooding, combined with the concept of Relative Economic Value (REV. The estimated benefits include not only the reduction of flood losses due to a warning response, but also consider the costs of the warning response itself, as well as the costs associated with forecasting uncertainty. The method allows for estimation of the benefits of FFWRSs that use either deterministic or probabilistic forecasts. Through application to a case study, it is shown that FFWRSs using a probabilistic forecast have the potential to realise higher benefits at all lead-times. However, it is also shown that provision of warning at increasing lead-time does not necessarily lead to an increasing reduction of flood risk, but rather that an optimal lead-time at which warnings are provided can be established as a function of forecast uncertainty and the cost-loss ratio of the user receiving and responding to the warning.

  16. Worldwide Anti-Money Laundering: Regulation: Estimating the Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    D. Masciandaro; R. Barone

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a simple framework for estimating the benefits and costs of anti-ML regulation, based on a prudent estimation of the economic value of worldwide money laundering. Using the multiplier model of the relationship between criminal markets revenues and money laundering activities and data for 2004, the value of money laundering is equal to US$1.2 trillion (2.7% of the world GDP), while the maximum theoretical benefit in combating money laundering using financial...

  17. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta Analysis for Benefits Transfer – Toward Value Estimates for Some Outputs of Multifunctional Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Alan; Kidder, Ayuna; Chen, Ding-Rong

    2008-01-01

    As a contribution to valuing the outputs of multifunctional agriculture, we report three new meta analyses estimating value functions for agricultural conservation program impacts on water quality, wetlands, and upland habitat and open space. As is often the case in valuation, where methods have yet to be standardized, the data sets are relatively small and noisy. With a clear objective of benefits transfer, we seek robust parameter estimates for key RHS variables, even at the cost of some lo...

  19. On the economic benefit of utility based estimation of a volatility model

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Annastiina Silvennoinen

    2009-01-01

    Forecasts of asset return volatility are necessary for many financial applications, including portfolio allocation. Traditionally, the parameters of econometric models used to generate volatility forecasts are estimated in a statistical setting and subsequently used in an economic setting such as portfolio allocation. Differences in the criteria under which the model is estimated and applied may inhibit reduce the overall economic benefit of a model in the context of portfolio allocation. Thi...

  20. Estimating the benefits of public health policies that reduce harmful consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Elizabeth M; Nardinelli, Clark; Lavaty, Rosemarie A

    2015-05-01

    For products such as tobacco and junk food, where policy interventions are often designed to decrease consumption, affected consumers gain utility from improvements in lifetime health and longevity but also lose utility associated with the activity of consuming the product. In the case of anti-smoking policies, even though published estimates of gross health and longevity benefits are up to 900 times higher than the net consumer benefits suggested by a more direct willingness-to-pay estimation approach, there is little recognition in the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness literature that gross estimates will overstate intrapersonal welfare improvements when utility losses are not netted out. This paper presents a general framework for analyzing policies that are designed to reduce inefficiently high consumption and provides a rule of thumb for the relationship between net and gross consumer welfare effects: where there exists a plausible estimate of the tax that would allow consumers to fully internalize health costs, the ratio of the tax to the per-unit long-term cost can provide an upper bound on the ratio of net to gross benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  2. The Estimated Health and Economic Benefits of Three Decades of Polio Elimination Efforts in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Barter, Devra M; Prinja, Shankar; John, T Jacob

    2016-08-07

    In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program. We measure health benefits as averted polio incidence, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We consider two methods to measure economic benefits: the value of statistical life approach, and equating one DALY to the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. We estimate that the National Program against Polio averted 3.94 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.89-3.99 million) paralytic polio cases, 393,918 polio deaths (95% CI: 388,897- 398,939), and 1.48 billion DALYs (95% CI: 1.46-1.50 billion). We also estimate that the program contributed to a $1.71 trillion (INR 76.91 trillion) gain (95% CI: $1.69-$1.73 trillion [INR 75.93-77.89 trillion]) in economic productivity between 1982 and 2012 in our base case analysis. Using the GNI and DALY method, the economic gain from the program is estimated to be $1.11 trillion (INR 50.13 trillion) (95% CI: $1.10-$1.13 trillion [INR 49.50-50.76 trillion]) over the same period. India accrued large health and economic benefits from investing in polio elimination efforts. Other programs to control/eliminate more vaccine-preventable diseases are likely to contribute to large health and economic benefits in India.

  3. Estimating the effect of treatment rate changes when treatment benefits are heterogeneous: antibiotics and otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Ryong; Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Bergus, George

    2008-01-01

    Contrast methods to assess the health effects of a treatment rate change when treatment benefits are heterogeneous across patients. Antibiotic prescribing for children with otitis media (OM) in Iowa Medicaid is the empirical example. Instrumental variable (IV) and linear probability model (LPM) are used to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatments on cure probabilities for children with OM in Iowa Medicaid. Local area physician supply per capita is the instrument in the IV models. Estimates are contrasted in terms of their ability to make inferences for patients whose treatment choices may be affected by a change in population treatment rates. The instrument was positively related to the probability of being prescribed an antibiotic. LPM estimates showed a positive effect of antibiotics on OM patient cure probability while IV estimates showed no relationship between antibiotics and patient cure probability. Linear probability model estimation yields the average effects of the treatment on patients that were treated. IV estimation yields the average effects for patients whose treatment choices were affected by the instrument. As antibiotic treatment effects are heterogeneous across OM patients, our estimates from these approaches are aligned with clinical evidence and theory. The average estimate for treated patients (higher severity) from the LPM model is greater than estimates for patients whose treatment choices are affected by the instrument (lower severity) from the IV models. Based on our IV estimates it appears that lowering antibiotic use in OM patients in Iowa Medicaid did not result in lost cures.

  4. Economic rate of discount and estimating cost benefit of viral immunisation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R R

    1999-01-01

    Many individual and societal decisions over purchase (or investment) involve consideration of timing, in that either the price may be paid now and the benefit enjoyed some time in the future or the converse the benefit enjoyed now and the price paid later. Since most individuals generally prefer the present to the future, economic theory has conventionally discounted future costs or benefits to estimate 'net present values'. The rationale for this is principally based on future uncertainty. In recent years, economists have turned their attention to valuing health as an economic 'good'. Observations of individual behaviour would imply that individuals discount future health, as other potential benefits, mostly because there is some uncertainty about their futures. Although economic theory is strongly predicated on the 'sovereignty of the individual', it does not necessarily follow that society discounts the future as do individuals, since for society the future is not so uncertain. Society's endorsement of many public health and preventive medicine objectives, which seek health gains in the future (rather than the present), imply that society's rate of discount may be appreciably lower than that of individuals. In immunisation, arguably one of the most effective of preventive measures, there is the additional benefit to others attributable to herd immunity. This paper argues that the future health gains for society arising from immunisation should not be underestimated by application of inappropriate discounting.

  5. Cost and benefit estimates of partially-automated vehicle collision avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Corey D; Hendrickson, Chris T; Samaras, Constantine

    2016-10-01

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. Partially-automated crash avoidance features offer the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of vehicle crashes that occur due to distracted driving and/or human error by assisting in maintaining control of the vehicle or issuing alerts if a potentially dangerous situation is detected. This paper evaluates the benefits and costs of fleet-wide deployment of blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning crash avoidance systems within the US light-duty vehicle fleet. The three crash avoidance technologies could collectively prevent or reduce the severity of as many as 1.3 million U.S. crashes a year including 133,000 injury crashes and 10,100 fatal crashes. For this paper we made two estimates of potential benefits in the United States: (1) the upper bound fleet-wide technology diffusion benefits by assuming all relevant crashes are avoided and (2) the lower bound fleet-wide benefits of the three technologies based on observed insurance data. The latter represents a lower bound as technology is improved over time and cost reduced with scale economies and technology improvement. All three technologies could collectively provide a lower bound annual benefit of about $18 billion if equipped on all light-duty vehicles. With 2015 pricing of safety options, the total annual costs to equip all light-duty vehicles with the three technologies would be about $13 billion, resulting in an annual net benefit of about $4 billion or a $20 per vehicle net benefit. By assuming all relevant crashes are avoided, the total upper bound annual net benefit from all three technologies combined is about $202 billion or an $861 per vehicle net benefit, at current technology costs. The technologies we are exploring in this paper represent an early form of vehicle automation and a positive net benefit suggests the fleet-wide adoption of these technologies would be beneficial

  6. Estimated risks and benefits from introducing Marisa cornuarietis into the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridi, A A; Jobin, W R

    1985-04-01

    As it has been proposed that Marisa cornuarietis, the ampullarid snail from the tropical Americas be used in the Sudan as a biological control agent against schistosomiasis, an estimate was made of the potential ecological hazards which might result from its widespread distribution in the Nile River Valley, and also of the potential benefits. The only foreseeable hazard would result from colonization of rice fields by the ampullarid snail and subsequent crop damage. However calculations on population dynamics indicated that Marisa cornuarietis would not be able to establish significant populations in rice fields in the Nile Valley as the flooded periods are too short. Thus the expected benefits of schistosomiasis control far outweigh any expected risks, and the ampullarid should be used in expanded field trials in the Gezira Irrigated Area as a control method for schistosomiasis.

  7. Estimating the incremental net health benefit of requirements for cardiovascular risk evaluation for diabetes therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Anita J; Mytelka, Daniel S; McBride, Stephan D; Nellesen, Dave; Elkins, Benjamin R; Ball, Daniel E; Kalsekar, Anupama; Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of pre-approval requirements for safety data to detect cardiovascular (CV) risk contained in the December 2008 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for developing type 2 diabetes drugs compared with the February 2008 FDA draft guidance from the perspective of diabetes population health. We applied the incremental net health benefit (INHB) framework to quantify the benefits and risks of investigational diabetes drugs using a common survival metric (life-years [LYs]). We constructed a decision analytic model for clinical program development consistent with the requirements of each guidance and simulated diabetes drugs, some of which had elevated CV risk. Assuming constant research budgets, we estimate the impact of increased trial size on drugs investigated. We aggregate treatment benefit and CV risks for each approved drug over a 35-year horizon under each guidance. The quantitative analysis suggests that the December 2008 guidance adversely impacts diabetes population health. INHB was -1.80 million LYs, attributable to delayed access to diabetes therapies (-0 .18 million LYs) and fewer drugs (-1.64 million LYs), but partially offset by reduced CV risk exposure (0.02 million LYs). Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. The health outcomes impact of all potential benefits and risks should be evaluated in a common survival measure, including health gain from avoided adverse events, lost health benefits from delayed or for gone efficacious products, and impact of alternative policy approaches. Quantitative analysis of the December 2008 FDA guidance for diabetes therapies indicates that negative impact on patient health will result. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 76 FR 34046 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping...'') administrative reviews involving non-market economy countries (``NME''), the Department of Commerce (``the...-deposit rate for each company subject to the investigation or review. In market economy (``ME...

  9. Zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models: Estimating the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masaki; Nohara, Katsuhito

    2018-04-01

    This study proposes an estimation approach to panel count data, truncated at zero, in order to apply a contingent behavior travel cost method to revealed and stated preference data collected via a web-based survey. We develop zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models by focusing on respondents who visited a site. In addition, we introduce an inverse Gaussian distribution to unobserved individual heterogeneity as an alternative to a popular gamma distribution, making it possible to capture effectively the long tail typically observed in trip data. We apply the proposed method to estimate the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 accident. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Rémi; Roze, Stéphane; Bresse, Xavier; Largeron, Nathalie; Smith-Palmer, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are

  11. Differential Shift Estimation in the Absence of Coherence: Performance Analysis and Benefits of Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Michelangelo; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2011-03-01

    The estimation of the local differential shift between synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has proven to be an effective technique for monitoring glacier surface motion. As images acquired over glaciers by short wavelength SAR systems, such as TerraSAR-X, often suffer from a lack of coherence, image features have to be exploited for the shift estimation (feature-tracking).The present paper addresses feature-tracking with special attention to the feasibility requirements and the achievable accuracy of the shift estimation. In particular, the dependence of the performance on image characteristics, such as texture parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution, as well as on processing techniques (despeckling, normalised cross-correlation versus maximum likelihood estimation) is analysed by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. TerraSAR-X data acquired over the Helheim glacier, Greenland, and the Aletsch glacier, Switzerland, have been processed to validate the simulation results.Feature-tracking can benefit of the availability of fully-polarimetric data. As some image characteristics, in fact, are polarisation-dependent, the selection of an optimum polarisation leads to improved performance. Furthermore, fully-polarimetric SAR images can be despeckled without degrading the resolution, so that additional (smaller-scale) features can be exploited.

  12. Methodology to estimate the cost of the severe accidents risk / maximum benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Flores, R. M.; Vega, E.

    2016-09-01

    For programs and activities to manage aging effects, any changes to plant operations, inspections, maintenance activities, systems and administrative control procedures during the renewal period should be characterized, designed to manage the effects of aging as required by 10 Cfr Part 54 that could impact the environment. Environmental impacts significantly different from those described in the final environmental statement for the current operating license should be described in detail. When complying with the requirements of a license renewal application, the Severe Accident Mitigation Alternatives (SAMA) analysis is contained in a supplement to the environmental report of the plant that meets the requirements of 10 Cfr Part 51. In this paper, the methodology for estimating the cost of severe accidents risk is established and discussed, which is then used to identify and select the alternatives for severe accident mitigation, which are analyzed to estimate the maximum benefit that an alternative could achieve if this eliminate all risk. Using the regulatory analysis techniques of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) estimates the cost of severe accidents risk. The ultimate goal of implementing the methodology is to identify candidates for SAMA that have the potential to reduce the severe accidents risk and determine if the implementation of each candidate is cost-effective. (Author)

  13. ESTIMATING THE BENEFIT OF TRMM TROPICAL CYCLONE DATA IN SAVING LIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint NASA/JAXA research mission launched in late 1997 to improve our knowledge of tropical rainfall processes and climatology (Kummerow et ai., 2000; Adler et ai., 2003). In addition to being a highly successful research mission, its data are available in real time and operational weather agencies in the U.S. and internationally are using TRMM data and images to monitor and forecast hazardous weather (tropical cyclones, floods, etc.). For example, in 2004 TRMM data were used 669 times for determining tropical cyclone location fixes (National Research Council, 2004). TRMM flies at a relatively low altitude, 400 km, and requires orbit adjustment maneuvers to maintain altitude against the small drag of the atmosphere. There is enough fuel used for these maneuvers remaining on TRMM for the satellite to continue flying until 2011-12. However, most of the remaining fuel may be used to perform a controlled re-entry of the satellite into the Pacific Ocean. The fuel threshold for this operation will be reached in the summer of 2005, although the maneuver would actually occur in late 2006 or 2007. The full science mission would end in 2005 under the controlled re-entry option. This re-entry option is related to the estimated probability of injury (1/5,000) that might occur during an uncontrolled re-entry of the satellite. If the estimated probability of injury exceeds 1/10,000 a satellite is a candidate for a possible controlled re-entry. In the TRMM case the NASA Safety Office examined the related issues and concluded that, although TRMM exceeded the formal threshold, the use of TRMM data in the monitoring and forecasting of hazardous weather gave a public safety benefit that compensated for TRMM slightly exceeding the orbital debris threshold (Martin, 2002). This conclusion was based in part on results of an independent panel during a workshop on benefits of TRMM data in concluded that the benefit of TRMM data in saving

  14. Analysing the agricultural cost and non-market benefits of implementing the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Davies, H.; Day, B.H.; Deflandre, A.; Di Falco, S.; Georgiou, S.; Hadley, D.; Hutchins, M.; Jones, A.P.; Kay, D.; Leeks, G.; Lewis, M.; Lovett, A.A.; Neal, C.; Posen, P.; Rigby, D.; Turner, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) represents a fundamental change in the management of water in Europe with a requirement that member states ensure 'good ecological status' for all water bodies by 2015. Agriculture is expected to bear a major share of WFD implementation costs as

  15. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  16. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  17. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  18. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-01-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references

  19. A practical approach to risk-benefit estimation in pediatric drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in pediatric drug research is in exposing children to risk, often without a balanced chance of benefits. While the concept of risk is similar in adult research, the adult patient can decide for himself/herself on an acceptable level of risk, whereas children have to accept the decisions of their guardians. This paper attempts to put the complexities of estimating risk in pediatric drug research into their practical perspective, and to familiarize the reader with the way such processes are conducted in different parts of the world. Although there are regional differences, all authorities typically quantify risks of pediatric research in general, and drug research in particular, in three levels: those experienced in day-to-day life; risks slightly above this 'baseline' risk; and risks substantially above 'baseline risk'. Proportionally, the diligence of the ethics process depends on these levels, as well as on the potential benefits (or lack of) to the child involved in the research. Importantly, risk is context dependent, and a particular intervention may be effective or safe in one setting but not in another, based on local experience, staffing levels, and similar variabilities.

  20. The estimation of tax-benefit automatic stabilizers in Serbia: A combined micro-macro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large volatility of GDP due to the economic crisis, particularly in transition economies, has brought the issue of automatic stabilizers back into the focus of economic policy. The vast majority of empirical literature in this field relates to the estimation of the size of automatic stabilizers in developed countries, usually based on macroeconomic data. On the other hand empirical literature on this topic based on micro data, particularly for transition economies, is limited. This paper provides an evaluation of the size of automatic stabilizers in one transition economy (Serbia, by combining tax-benefit simulation modelling based on micro data and econometric methods based on macroeconomic data. The results show that, in the case of shock, around 17% of fall in market income would be absorbed by automatic stabilizers. Although the stabilizing effects of the tax-benefit system in Serbia are lower than in other European countries, the total size of automatic stabilizers is close to the average value in these countries, due to the higher elasticity of demand to income. The results also show that progressivity-enhancing income tax reform would only slightly increase automatic stabilizers, due to the large informal economy and the large share of agriculture in total households’ income.

  1. Estimating the health benefits of planned public transit investments in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-François; Eluru, Naveen; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Morency, Patrick; Plante, Celine; Morency, Catherine; Reynaud, Frederic; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Shamsunnahar, Yasmin; Faghih Imani, Ahmadreza; Drouin, Louis; Pelletier, Anne; Goudreau, Sophie; Tessier, Francois; Gauvin, Lise; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Since public transit infrastructure affects road traffic volumes and influences transportation mode choice, which in turn impacts health, it is important to estimate the alteration of the health burden linked with transit policies. We quantified the variation in health benefits and burden between a business as usual (BAU) and a public transit (PT) scenarios in 2031 (with 8 and 19 new subway and train stations) for the greater Montreal region. Using mode choice and traffic assignment models, we predicted the transportation mode choice and traffic assignment on the road network. Subsequently, we estimated the distance travelled in each municipality by mode, the minutes spent in active transportation, as well as traffic emissions. Thereafter we estimated the health burden attributed to air pollution and road traumas and the gains associated with active transportation for both the BAU and PT scenarios. We predicted a slight decrease of overall trips and kilometers travelled by car as well as an increase of active transportation for the PT in 2031 vs the BAU. Our analysis shows that new infrastructure will reduce the overall burden of transportation by 2.5 DALYs per 100,000 persons. This decrease is caused by the reduction of road traumas occurring in the inner suburbs and central Montreal region as well as gains in active transportation in the inner suburbs. Based on the results of our study, transportation planned public transit projects for Montreal are unlikely to reduce drastically the burden of disease attributable to road vehicles and infrastructures in the Montreal region. The impact of the planned transportation infrastructures seems to be very low and localized mainly in the areas where new public transit stations are planned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2......) to determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  3. Orange Juice Advertising by the Florida Department of Citrus: Estimates of 2006-07 Florida and Free-Rider Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of OJ advertising result from 1) increased gallon sales and 2) higher prices. Advertising was estimated to increase the delivered-in price by $.083 per single strength equivalent (SSE) gallon in 2006-07. The with-advertising and without-advertising delivered-in prices were estimated at $1.981 and $1.898 per SSE gallon, respectively. With FDOC advertising focusing on the U.S. market, benefits due to advertising were estimated for the U.S market only. However, it should be recogniz...

  4. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    the field surveys with experiments would also be advantageous as it is not always be possible to validate theories and models with actual earthquake data. In addition, colleagues in other disciplines will benefit from being introduced to the loss algorithms, methodologies and advances familiar to the engineering community, to help dissemination in earthquake mitigation and preparedness programs. It follows that new approaches to loss estimation must include a progressive assessment of what contributes to the final casualty value. In analyzing recent earthquakes, testing common hypotheses, talking to local and international researchers in the field, interviewing search and rescue and medical personnel, and comparing notes with colleagues who have visited other events, the author has developed a list of contributory factors to formulate fatality rates for use in earthquake loss estimation models. In this presentation, we will first look at the current state of data collection and assessment in casualty loss estimation. Then, the analyses of recent earthquake field data, which provide important insights to the contributory factors of fatalities in earthquakes, will be explored. The benefits of a multi-disciplinary approach in deriving fatality rates for masonry buildings will then be examined in detail.

  5. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-Dependent Risk Estimation and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Mitigation Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stiphout, T.; Wiemer, S.; Marzocchi, W.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquakes strongly cluster in space and time. Consequently, the most dangerous time is right after a moderate earthquake has happened, because their is a ‘high' (i.e., 2-5 percent) probability that this event will be followed by a subsequent aftershock which happens to be as large or larger than the initiating event. The seismic hazard during this time-period exceeds the background probability significantly and by several orders of magnitude. Scientists have developed increasingly accurate forecast models that model this time-dependent hazard, and such models are currently being validated in prospective testing. However, this probabilistic information in the hazard space is difficult to digest for decision makers, the media and general public. Here, we introduce a possible bridge between seismology and decision makers (authorities, civil defense) by proposing a more objective way to estimate time-dependent risk assessment. Short Term Earthquake Risk assessment (STEER) combines aftershock hazard and loss assessments. We use site-specific information on site effects and building class distribution and combine this with existing loss models to compute site specific time-dependent risk curves (probability of exceedance for fatalities, injuries, damages etc). We show the effect of uncertainties in the different components using Monte Carlo Simulations of the input parameters. This time-dependent risk curves can act as a decision support. We extend the STEER approach by introducing a Cost-Benefit approach for certain mitigation actions after a medium-sized earthquake. Such Cost-Benefit approaches have been recently developed for volcanic risk assessment to rationalize precautionary evacuations in densely inhabitated areas threatened by volcanoes. Here we extend the concept to time-dependent probabilistic seismic risk assessment. For the Cost-Benefit analysis of mitigation actions we calculate the ratio between the cost for the mitigation actions and the cost of the

  7. Inpatient Data Supporting the DOD Military Retirement Health Benefits Liability Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    .... Military retirement health benefits are post-retirement benefits that DoD provides to military retirees and other eligible beneficiaries through the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (Purchased Care...

  8. Methods for estimating and comparing VA outpatient drug benefits with the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Render, Marta L; Nowak, John; Hammond, Emmett K; Roselle, Gary

    2003-06-01

    To estimate and compare Veterans Health Administration (VA) expenditures for outpatient pharmaceuticals for veterans at six VA facilities with hypothetical private sector costs. Using the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Care Group (PBM) database, we extracted data for all dispensed outpatient prescriptions from the six study sites over federal fiscal year 1999. After extensive data validation, we converted prescriptions to the same units and merged relevant VA pricing information by National Drug Code to Redbook listed average wholesale price and the Medicaid maximal allowable charge, where available. We added total VA drug expenditures to personnel cost from the pharmacy portion of that medical center's cost distribution report. Hypothetical private sector payments were $200.8 million compared with an aggregate VA budget of $118.8 million. Using National Drug Code numbers, 97% of all items dispensed from the six facilities were matched to private sector price data. Nonmatched pharmaceuticals were largely generic over-the-counter pain relievers and commodities like alcohol swabs. The most commonly prescribed medications reflect the diseases and complaints of an older male population: pain, cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and depression or other psychiatric disorders. Use of the VA PBM database permits researchers to merge expenditure and prescription data to patient diagnoses and sentinel events. A critical element in its use is creating similar units among the systems. Such data sets permit a deeper view of the variability in drug expenditures, an important sector of health care whose inflation has been disproportionate to that of the economy and even health care.

  9. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D; Butz, Arlene M; Hackstadt, Amber J; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-02-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  10. Model developments for quantitative estimates of the benefits of the signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    A novel framework for quantitative estimates of the benefits of signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics has been developed in this work. The models developed in this work quantify how the perfect signals affect the human operator's success in restoring the power plant to the desired state when it enters undesirable transients. Also, the models quantify the economic benefits of these perfect signals. The models have been applied to the condensate feedwater system of the nuclear power plant for demonstration. (Author)

  11. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  12. Estimate of potential benefit for Europe of fitting Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems for pedestrian protection to passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Wisch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate the benefit for Europe of fitting precrash braking systems to cars that detect pedestrians and autonomously brake the car to prevent or lower the speed of the impact with the pedestrian. The analysis was divided into 2 main parts: (1) Develop and apply methodology to estimate benefit for Great Britain and Germany; (2) scale Great Britain and German results to give an indicative estimate for Europe (EU27). The calculation methodology developed to estimate the benefit was based on 2 main steps: 1. Calculate the change in the impact speed distribution curve for pedestrian casualties hit by the fronts of cars assuming pedestrian autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system fitment. 2. From this, calculate the change in the number of fatally, seriously, and slightly injured casualties by using the relationship between risk of injury and the casualty impact speed distribution to sum the resulting risks for each individual casualty. The methodology was applied to Great Britain and German data for 3 types of pedestrian AEB systems representative of (1) currently available systems; (2) future systems with improved performance, which are expected to be available in the next 2-3 years; and (3) reference limit system, which has the best performance currently thought to be technically feasible. Nominal benefits estimated for Great Britain ranged from £119 million to £385 million annually and for Germany from €63 million to €216 million annually depending on the type of AEB system assumed fitted. Sensitivity calculations showed that the benefit estimated could vary from about half to twice the nominal estimate, depending on factors such as whether or not the system would function at night and the road friction assumed. Based on scaling of estimates made for Great Britain and Germany, the nominal benefit of implementing pedestrian AEB systems on all cars in Europe was estimated to range from about €1 billion per year for

  13. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  14. An estimation method of the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project applicable to the changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengmei, L.; Guanghua, Q.; Zishen, C.

    2015-05-01

    The direct benefit of a waterlogging control project is reflected by the reduction or avoidance of waterlogging loss. Before and after the construction of a waterlogging control project, the disaster-inducing environment in the waterlogging-prone zone is generally different. In addition, the category, quantity and spatial distribution of the disaster-bearing bodies are also changed more or less. Therefore, under the changing environment, the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project should be the reduction of waterlogging losses compared to conditions with no control project. Moreover, the waterlogging losses with or without the project should be the mathematical expectations of the waterlogging losses when rainstorms of all frequencies meet various water levels in the drainage-accepting zone. So an estimation model of the direct benefit of waterlogging control is proposed. Firstly, on the basis of a Copula function, the joint distribution of the rainstorms and the water levels are established, so as to obtain their joint probability density function. Secondly, according to the two-dimensional joint probability density distribution, the dimensional domain of integration is determined, which is then divided into small domains so as to calculate the probability for each of the small domains and the difference between the average waterlogging loss with and without a waterlogging control project, called the regional benefit of waterlogging control project, under the condition that rainstorms in the waterlogging-prone zone meet the water level in the drainage-accepting zone. Finally, it calculates the weighted mean of the project benefit of all small domains, with probability as the weight, and gets the benefit of the waterlogging control project. Taking the estimation of benefit of a waterlogging control project in Yangshan County, Guangdong Province, as an example, the paper briefly explains the procedures in waterlogging control project benefit estimation. The

  15. Individualized cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice : Estimation of benefit and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, MC

    2017-01-01

    For treatment decisions in clinical practice, group-level treatment effects need to be translated into benefit for an individual patient. In both the primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention setting (Chapter 2), patients differ widely in the risk for cardiovascular events, and the benefit

  16. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, Megan S; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO 2 , the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or

  17. Benefits Estimation Model for Automated Vehicle Operations: Phase 2 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Automated vehicles have the potential to bring about transformative safety, mobility, energy, and environmental benefits to the surface transportation system. They are also being introduced into a complex transportation system, where second-order imp...

  18. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure

    2008-01-01

    ... to establish a committee of experts to evaluate independently the contributions of recent epidemiologic studies to understanding the size of the ozone-mortality effect in the context of benefit analysis...

  19. Longer combination vehicles : an estimation of their benefits and public perception of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVs) are able to carry more freight than conventional single trailer trucks. As a result, these trucks can increase : efficiencies and benefits for freight movements as less fuel and less labor is used per ton of cargo. ...

  20. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure, National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    In light of recent evidence on the relationship of ozone to mortality and questions about its implications for benefit analysis, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council...

  1. Estimating public benefits of implementing the proposed revisions to Regulation 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Blyth, P.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the review process for proposed revisions to its Regulation 308, the Ministry of Environment commissioned a study to identify the expected air quality, health and environmental benefits to the public from the implementation of the proposals. Where possible, the benefits are quantified and valued in economic terms. The study covered 96 contaminants emitted by over 3,500 establishments in 48 industries across Ontario. Emission sources, emissions by source, dispersion modelling, ambient concentrations, and exposure-response functions are discussed. Effects of the proposals on cancer mortality, non-cancer mortality, other health benefits, materials damage, visibility damage, odour, phytotoxicity and an aggregate economic valuation are presented. Aggregate economic benefits range from $1,532-$886 million 1986 $CAN for the most and least stringent cases, respectively

  2. New graphic AUC-based method to estimate overall survival benefit: pomalidomide reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenix-Caballero, S; Diaz-Navarro, J; Prieto-Callejero, B; Rios-Sanchez, E; Alegre-del Rey, E J; Borrero-Rubio, J M

    2016-02-01

    Difference in median survival is an erratic measure and sometimes does not provide a good assessment of survival benefit. The aim of this study was to reanalyse the overall survival benefit of pomalidomide from pivotal clinical trial using a new area under curve (AUC)-based method. In the pivotal trial, pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone showed a significant survival benefit over high-dose dexamethasone, with a difference between medians of 4.6 months. The new AUC method applied to the survival curves, obtained an overall survival benefit of 2.6 months for the pomalidomide treatment. This average difference in OS was calculated for the 61.5% of patients for whom the time to event is reliable enough. This 2-month differential would have major clinical and pharmacoeconomic implications, on both cost-effectiveness studies and on the willingness of the healthcare systems to pay for this treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Large-scale wind power integration and wholesale electricity trading benefits: Estimation via an ex post approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Hugo A.; Gomez-Quiles, Catalina; Riquelme, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power has brought about a series of challenges to the power industry, but at the same time a number of benefits are being realized. Among those, the ability of wind power to cause a decline in the electricity market prices has been recognized. In quantifying this effect, some models used in recent years are based on simulations of the market supply-side and the price clearing process. The accuracy of the estimates depend on the quality of the input data, the veracity of the adopted scenarios and the rigorousness of the solution technique. In this work, a series of econometric techniques based on actual ex post wind power and electricity price data are implemented for the estimation of the impact of region-wide wind power integration on the local electricity market clearing prices and the trading savings that stem from this effect. The model is applied to the case of Spain, where the estimated savings are compared against actual credit and bonus expenses to ratepayers. The implications and extent of these results for current and future renewable energy policy-making are discussed. - Highlights: ► Wholesale electricity market trading benefits by wind power are quantified. ► Actual wind power forecast-based bids and electricity price data from Spain are used. ► Different econometric tools are used and compared for improved estimation accuracy. ► Estimated benefits outweigh current credit overhead paid to wind farms in Spain. ► An economically efficient benefit surplus allocation framework is proposed.

  4. Antidumping, countervailing duties and non-market economy status of Vietnam in the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Dordi

    2008-01-01

    The non-market economy status has a negative influence on the international trade relations of Vietnam. The article analyses the legal consequences for Vietnam of the NME status and identify the roadmap to obtain the "market economy status" from other WTO members

  5. The mod industries? The industrial logic of non-market game production

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article seeks to make the relationship between non-market game developers (modders) and the game developer company explicit through game technology. It investigates a particular type of modding, i.e. total conversion mod teams, whose organization can be said to conform to the high-risk, technologically-advanced, capital-intensive, proprietary practice of the developer company. The notion ...

  6. The mod industries? The industrial logic of non-market game production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieborg, D.B.; van der Graaf, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to make the relationship between non-market game developers (modders) and the game developer company explicit through game technology. It investigates a particular type of modding, i.e. total conversion mod teams, whose organization can be said to conform to the high-risk,

  7. 76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Correction to Request for Comment...-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Request for Comment, 76 FR 9544 (February 18...

  8. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of EMU : The Impact of External Shocks on Labour Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belke, A.; Gros, D.

    1997-01-01

    Discussions of the economic costs and benefits of EMU usually take as their basis the optimum currency area (OCA) approach. This approach starts from the premise that when an external shock hits the economy, it is easier to adjust the exchange rate than domestic prices or wages. Most economists

  9. Estimation of nonmarket benefits of agricultural land retention in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; D.D. Didychuk

    1994-01-01

    We assess the nonmarket value for retention of farmland in the Moneton area of New Brunswick. We examine a number of factors explaining household external values for farmland preservation and expand on previous work by Beasley et al., Bergstrom et al., and Halstead. Our findings indicate that the marginal external benefit of preserving farmland in general in this...

  10. Estimation of potential benefits of the implementation of the fundamental review of the trading book and leverage ratio

    OpenAIRE

    ALESSI LUCIA; CANNAS GIUSEPPINA; DI GIROLAMO FRANCESCA; OSSOLA ELISA; PAPANAGIOTOU EVANGELIA; PETRACCO GIUDICI Marco; ROSSI EDUARDO

    2016-01-01

    The Fundamental Review of the Trading Book (FRTB) introduces changes in capital requirements as a consequence of changes in the calculation of risk weighted assets (RWAs), as agreed in the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. This report performs an ex-ante assessment of the benefits of this new legislative proposal and is included as an annex to the Impact Assessment of the Capital Requirement Regulation II (CRR II). The analysis is conducted by estimating the required variation in ban...

  11. Estimating the benefit of a second bone anchored hearing implant in unilaterally implanted users with a testband.

    OpenAIRE

    Kompis, Martin; Kurz, Anja; Flynn, Mark; Caversaccio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Using a second bone anchored hearing implant (BAHI) mounted on a testband in unilaterally implanted BAHI users to test its potential advantage pre-operatively under-estimates the advantage of two BAHIs placed on two implants. Objectives To investigate how well speech understanding with a second BAHI mounted on a testband approaches the benefit of bilaterally implanted BAHIs. Method Prospective study with 16 BAHI users. Eight were implanted unilaterally (group A) and eight were impl...

  12. Federal Regulations: Efforts to Estimate Total Costs and Benefits of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-07

    the Chamber of Commerce , academicians, the media, and others, and is sometimes cited with a high degree of certainty ." For example, some articles...House of Representatives, Feb . 25,2004; and testimony of William P . Kovacs, Vice President, U .S. Chamber of Commerce , before the Subcommittee on Energy...estimated the annual cost to employers of the Family and Medical Leave Act at $825 million, but that the Chamber of Commerce estimated the cost at between $3

  13. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  14. Rain Forest Tourism - Estimating the Benefits of Tourism Development in a New National Park in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; R. Kramer; N. Sharma

    1995-01-01

    Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to international nature tourists from a rain forest conservation project in Madagascar. Data are derived from surveys of nature tourists in Madagascar and international, nature tourism professionals in the U.S. and Europe. Typical trip travel...

  15. Estimating workers' marginal valuation of employer health benefits: would insured workers prefer more health insurance or higher wages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royalty, Anne Beeson

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the cost of health insurance has been increasing much faster than wages. In the face of these rising costs, many employers will have to make difficult decisions about whether to cut back health benefits or to compensate workers with lower wages or lower wage growth. In this paper, we ask the question, "Which do workers value more -- one additional dollar's worth of health benefits or one more dollar in their pockets?" Using a new approach to obtaining estimates of insured workers' marginal valuation of health benefits this paper estimates how much, on average, employees value the marginal dollar paid by employers for their workers' health insurance. We find that insured workers value the marginal health premium dollar at significantly less than the marginal wage dollar. However, workers value insurance generosity very highly. The marginal dollar spent on health insurance that adds an additional dollar's worth of observable dimensions of plan generosity, such as lower deductibles or coverage of additional services, is valued at significantly more than one dollar.

  16. A wedge-based approach to estimating health co-benefits of climate change mitigation activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbus, John M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chari, Ramya [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While it has been recognized that actions reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can have significant positive and negative impacts on human health through reductions in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, these impacts are rarely taken into account when analyzing specific policies. This study presents a new framework for estimating the change in health outcomes resulting from implementation of specific carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction activities, allowing comparison of different sectors and options for climate mitigation activities. Our estimates suggest that in the year 2020, the reductions in adverse health outcomes from lessened exposure to PM2.5 would yield economic benefits in the range of $6 to $14 billion (in 2008 USD), depending on the specific activity. This equates to between $40 and $93 per metric ton of CO2 in health benefits. Specific climate interventions will vary in the health co-benefits they provide as well as in potential harms that may result from their implementation. Rigorous assessment of these health impacts is essential for guiding policy decisions as efforts to reduce GHG emissions increase in scope and intensity.

  17. Estimated health benefits of exhaust free transport in the city of Malmö, Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Lisberg Jensen, Ebba; Westerberg, Karin; Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Gustafsson, Susanna; Spanne, Mårten; Nilsson, Henric; Oudin, Anna

    2018-05-25

    Air pollution is responsible for one in eight premature deaths worldwide, and thereby a major threat to human health. Health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution concentrations can be used as a mean of assessing the health impacts of policy, plans and projects, and support decision-makers in choices to prevent disease. The aim of this study was to estimate health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in air pollution concentrations in the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden corresponding to a policy on-road transportations without tail-pipe emissions in the municipality. We used air pollution data modelled for each of the 326,092 inhabitants in Malmö by a Gaussian dispersion model combined with an emission database with >40,000 sources. The dispersion model calculates Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) (later transformed into Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 )) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter pipe emissions. Even though the estimates are sensitive to the dose-response functions used and to exposure misclassification errors, even the most conservative estimate of the number of prevented deaths is 7 times larger than the annual traffic fatalities in Malmö, indicating a substantial possibility to reduce the health burden attributed to tail-pipe emissions in the study area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Female Schooling, Non-Market Productivity, and Labor Market Participation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aromolaran, Adebayo B.

    2004-01-01

    Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...

  19. Cost-benefit analysis involving addictive goods: contingent valuation to estimate willingness-to-pay for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, David L; Vining, Aidan R; Thomas, Randall K

    2009-02-01

    The valuation of changes in consumption of addictive goods resulting from policy interventions presents a challenge for cost-benefit analysts. Consumer surplus losses from reduced consumption of addictive goods that are measured relative to market demand schedules overestimate the social cost of cessation interventions. This article seeks to show that consumer surplus losses measured using a non-addicted demand schedule provide a better assessment of social cost. Specifically, (1) it develops an addiction model that permits an estimate of the smoker's compensating variation for the elimination of addiction; (2) it employs a contingent valuation survey of current smokers to estimate their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a treatment that would eliminate addiction; (3) it uses the estimate of WTP from the survey to calculate the fraction of consumer surplus that should be viewed as consumer value; and (4) it provides an estimate of this fraction. The exercise suggests that, as a tentative first and rough rule-of-thumb, only about 75% of the loss of the conventionally measured consumer surplus should be counted as social cost for policies that reduce the consumption of cigarettes. Additional research to estimate this important rule-of-thumb is desirable to address the various caveats relevant to this study. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Mersey Barrage - indirect benefits: the economic and regional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockle, P.J.; McCormack, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    A major cost-benefit exercise, a regional and an exchequer impact assessment were performed. The cost-benefit net present values (NPV) (1991 prices) of market and non-market streams revealed: capital and operating cost (-Pound 799 million), electricity output (Pound 310 million), CO 2 savings (Pound 627 million), security of energy supply (Pound 18 million), amenity benefit/blight (-Pound 1 million), tourism (Pound 5 million), leisure (Pound 7 million), waders and wildfowl impact (-Pound 8 million) and a road crossing (Pound 132 million). The total mid-range estimate of Pound 370 million confirms the barrage would increase Britain's welfare. During construction the barrage would support up to 2,100 Merseyside jobs and 600 in operation. The cumulative gains to the exchequer are Pound 300 million. (author)

  1. Estimating the fitness cost and benefit of cefixime resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to inform prescription policy: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith K Whittles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhoea is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in England. Over 41,000 cases were recorded in 2015, more than half of which occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM. As the bacterium has developed resistance to each first-line antibiotic in turn, we need an improved understanding of fitness benefits and costs of antibiotic resistance to inform control policy and planning. Cefixime was recommended as a single-dose treatment for gonorrhoea from 2005 to 2010, during which time resistance increased, and subsequently declined.We developed a stochastic compartmental model representing the natural history and transmission of cefixime-sensitive and cefixime-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in MSM in England, which was applied to data on diagnoses and prescriptions between 2008 and 2015. We estimated that asymptomatic carriers play a crucial role in overall transmission dynamics, with 37% (95% credible interval CrI 24%-52% of infections remaining asymptomatic and untreated, accounting for 89% (95% CrI 82%-93% of onward transmission. The fitness cost of cefixime resistance in the absence of cefixime usage was estimated to be such that the number of secondary infections caused by resistant strains is only about half as much as for the susceptible strains, which is insufficient to maintain persistence. However, we estimated that treatment of cefixime-resistant strains with cefixime was unsuccessful in 83% (95% CrI 53%-99% of cases, representing a fitness benefit of resistance. This benefit was large enough to counterbalance the fitness cost when 31% (95% CrI 26%-36% of cases were treated with cefixime, and when more than 55% (95% CrI 44%-66% of cases were treated with cefixime, the resistant strain had a net fitness advantage over the susceptible strain. Limitations include sparse data leading to large intervals on key model parameters and necessary assumptions in the modelling of a complex epidemiological process

  2. A Method for Estimating Costs and Benefits of Space Assembly and Servicing By Astronauts and Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.; Benfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One aspect of designing future space missions is to determine whether Space Assembly and Servicing (SAS) is useful and, if so, what combination of robots and astronauts provides the most effective means of accomplishing it. Certain aspects of these choices, such as the societal value of developing the means for humans to live in space, do not lend themselves to quantification. However, other SAS costs and benefits can be quantified in a manner that can help select the most cost-effective SAS approach. Any space facility, whether it is assembled and serviced or not, entails an eventual replacement cost due to wear and obsolescence. Servicing can reduce this cost by limiting replacement to only failed or obsolete components. However, servicing systems, such as space robots, have their own logistics cost, and astronauts can have even greater logistics requirements. On the other hand, humans can be more capable than robots at performing dexterous and unstructured tasks, which can reduce logistics costs by allowing a reduction in mass of replacement components. Overall, the cost-effectiveness of astronaut SAS depends on its efficiency; and, if astronauts have to be wholly justified by their servicing usefulness, then the serviced space facility has to be large enough to fully occupy them.

  3. R&D program benefits estimation: DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-04

    The overall mission of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance the security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. In support of this mission, OE conducts a portfolio of research and development (R&D) activities to advance technologies to enhance electric power delivery. Multiple benefits are anticipated to result from the deployment of these technologies, including higher quality and more reliable power, energy savings, and lower cost electricity. In addition, OE engages State and local government decision-makers and the private sector to address issues related to the reliability and security of the grid, including responding to national emergencies that affect energy delivery. The OE R&D activities are comprised of four R&D lines: High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), Visualization and Controls (V&C), Energy Storage and Power Electronics (ES&PE), and Distributed Systems Integration (DSI).

  4. Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adger, W.N.; Moran, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies

  5. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 - 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  6. Incorporating changes in albedo in estimating the climate mitigation benefits of land use change projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D. N.; Kunda, M.; Mayer, A.; Schlamadinger, B.; Canella, L.; Johnston, M.

    2008-04-01

    Some climate scientists are questioning whether the practice of converting of non-forest lands to forest land (afforestation or reforestation) is an effective climate change mitigation option. The discussion focuses particularly on areas where the new forest is primarily coniferous and there is significant amount of snow since the increased climate forcing due to the change in albedo may counteract the decreased climate forcing due to carbon dioxide removal. In this paper, we develop a stand-based model that combines changes in surface albedo, solar radiation, latitude, cloud cover and carbon sequestration. As well, we develop a procedure to convert carbon stock changes to equivalent climatic forcing or climatic forcing to equivalent carbon stock changes. Using the model, we investigate the sensitivity of combined affects of changes in surface albedo and carbon stock changes to model parameters. The model is sensitive to amount of cloud, atmospheric absorption, timing of canopy closure, carbon sequestration rate among other factors. The sensitivity of the model is investigated at one Canadian site, and then the model is tested at numerous sites across Canada. In general, we find that the change in albedo reduces the carbon sequestration benefits by approximately 30% over 100 years, but this is not drastic enough to suggest that one should not use afforestation or reforestation as a climate change mitigation option. This occurs because the forests grow in places where there is significant amount of cloud in winter. As well, variations in sequestration rate seem to be counterbalanced by the amount and timing of canopy closure. We close by speculating that the effects of albedo may also be significant in locations at lower latitudes, where there are less clouds, and where there are extended dry seasons. These conditions make grasses light coloured and when irrigated crops, dark forests or other vegetation such as biofuels replace the grasses, the change in carbon

  7. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  8. Benefits of rebuilding global marine fisheries outweigh costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Cheung, William; Dyck, Andrew; Gueye, Kamal; Huang, Ling; Lam, Vicky; Pauly, Daniel; Srinivasan, Thara; Swartz, Wilf; Watson, Reginald; Zeller, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value over fifty years after rebuilding. To realize this gain, governments need to implement a rebuilding program at a cost of about US$203 (US$130-US$292) billion in present value. We estimate that it would take just 12 years after rebuilding begins for the benefits to surpass the cost. Even without accounting for the potential boost to recreational fisheries, and ignoring ancillary and non-market values that would likely increase, the potential benefits of rebuilding global fisheries far outweigh the costs.

  9. Estimating the value of non-use benefits from small changes in the provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Macdonald, David W

    2010-12-01

    The unit of trade in ecosystem services is usually the use of a proportion of the parcels of land associated with a given service. Valuing small changes in the provision of an ecosystem service presents obstacles, particularly when the service provides non-use benefits, as is the case with conservation of most plants and animals. Quantifying non-use values requires stated-preference valuations. Stated-preference valuations can provide estimates of the public's willingness to pay for a broad conservation goal. Nevertheless, stated-preference valuations can be expensive and do not produce consistent measures for varying levels of provision of a service. Additionally, the unit of trade, land use, is not always linearly related to the level of ecosystem services the land might provide. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a method to estimate the value of a marginal change in the provision of a non-use ecosystem service--in this case conservation of plants or animals associated with a given land-cover type. Our method serves as a tool for calculating transferable valuations of small changes in the provision of ecosystem services relative to the existing provision. Valuation is achieved through stated-preference investigations, calculation of a unit value for a parcel of land, and the weighting of this parcel by its ability to provide the desired ecosystem service and its effect on the ability of the surrounding land parcels to provide the desired service. We used the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) as a case study to illustrate the method. The average present value of a meter of water vole habitat was estimated at UK £ 12, but the marginal value of a meter (based on our methods) could range between £ 0 and £ 40 or more. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Estimating the energy-saving benefit of reduced-flow and/or multi-speed commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.; Schmid, F.; Spata, A.J.

    1999-07-01

    Kitchen exhaust ventilation systems are recognized as a major energy user within commercial food service facilities and restaurants. Minimizing the design ventilation rate of an appliance/hood system by optimizing hood performance in the laboratory is a viable strategy for reducing the makeup air heating and cooling loads as well as the exhaust and supply fan energy. Cutting back the exhaust flow under conditions of noncooking (appliance idle) can further reduce the energy load associated with a kitchen ventilation system. An optimized, two-speed exhaust system was installed within the scope of an energy-efficient, quick service restaurant (QSR) design and demonstration project. This paper evaluates the energy benefit of this variable-flow strategy as well as the savings associated with reducing the design ventilation rate (compared to an off-the-shelf exhaust hood). The paper describes a new public-domain software tool for estimating heating and cooling loads associated with the makeup air requirements of commercial kitchens. This bin-based software provides ASHRAE engineers with an alternative to hand calculations or more sophisticated hour-by-hour simulation. The dramatic impact that both makeup air set point and geographic location have on the outdoor air load is illustrated. The paper concludes with an industry-wide projection of energy savings associated with optimizing the design and operation of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems.

  11. Estimating the clinical and economic benefit associated with incremental improvements in sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Phil; Ward, Thomas; Bennett, Hayley; Kalsekar, Anupama; Webster, Samantha; Brenner, Michael; Yuan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the principle causes of chronic liver disease. Successful treatment significantly decreases the risk of hepatic morbidity and mortality. Current standard of care achieves sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 40-80%; however, the HCV therapy landscape is rapidly evolving. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefit associated with increasing levels of SVR. A published Markov model (MONARCH) that simulates the natural history of hepatitis C over a lifetime horizon was used. Discounted and non-discounted life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and cost of complication management were estimated for various plausible SVR rates. To demonstrate the robustness of projections obtained, the model was validated to ten UK-specific HCV studies. QALY estimates ranged from 18.0 years for those treated successfully in fibrosis stage F0 to 7.5 years (discounted) for patients in fibrosis stage F4 who remain untreated. Predicted QALY gains per 10% improvement in SVR ranged from 0.23 (F0) to 0.64 (F4) and 0.58 (F0) to 1.35 (F4) in 40 year old patients (discounted and non-discounted results respectively). In those aged 40, projected discounted HCV-related costs are minimised with successful treatment in F0/F1 (at approximately £ 300), increasing to £ 49,300 in F4 patients who remain untreated. Validation of the model to published UK cost-effectiveness studies produce R2 goodness of fit statistics of 0.988, 0.978 and of 0.973 for total costs, QALYs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios, respectively. Projecting the long-term clinical and economic consequences associated with chronic hepatitis C is a necessary requirement for the evaluation of new treatments. The principle analysis demonstrates the significant impact on expected costs, LYs and QALYs associated with increasing SVR. A validation analysis demonstrated the robustness of the results reported.

  12. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  13. A non-stationary cost-benefit analysis approach for extreme flood estimation to explore the nexus of 'Risk, Cost and Non-stationarity'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly used for engineering planning and design problems in practice. However, previous cost-benefit based design flood estimation is based on stationary assumption. This study develops a non-stationary cost-benefit based design flood estimation approach. This approach integrates a non-stationary probability distribution function into cost-benefit analysis, and influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost (including flood damage and construction costs) and design flood estimation can be quantified. To facilitate design flood selections, a 'Risk-Cost' analysis approach is developed, which reveals the nexus of extreme flood risk, expected total cost and design life periods. Two basins, with 54-year and 104-year flood data respectively, are utilized to illustrate the application. It is found that the developed approach can effectively reveal changes of expected total cost and extreme floods in different design life periods. In addition, trade-offs are found between extreme flood risk and expected total cost, which reflect increases in cost to mitigate risk. Comparing with stationary approaches which generate only one expected total cost curve and therefore only one design flood estimation, the proposed new approach generate design flood estimation intervals and the 'Risk-Cost' approach selects a design flood value from the intervals based on the trade-offs between extreme flood risk and expected total cost. This study provides a new approach towards a better understanding of the influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost and design floods, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary design flood estimation across the world.

  14. Aquatic habitat measurement and valuation: imputing social benefits to instream flow levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow conflicts have been analysed from the perspectives offered by policy oriented applied (physical) science, theories of conflict resolution and negotiation strategy, and psychological analyses of the behavior patterns of the bargaining parties. Economics also offers some useful insights in analysing conflict resolution within the context of these water allocation problems. We attempt to analyse the economics of the bargaining process in conjunction with a discussion of the water allocation process. In particular, we examine in detail the relation between certain habitat estimation techniques, and the socially optimal allocation of non-market resources. The results developed here describe the welfare implications implicit in the contemporary general equilibrium analysis of a competitive market economy. We also review certain currently available techniques for assigning dollar values to the social benefits of instream flow. The limitations of non-market valuation techniques with respect to estimating the benefits provided by instream flows and the aquatic habitat contingent on these flows should not deter resource managers from using economic analysis as a basic tool for settling instream flow conflicts.

  15. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  16. Publication Bias Currently Makes an Accurate Estimate of the Benefits of Enrichment Programs Difficult: A Postmortem of Two Meta-Analyses Using Statistical Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Kim (2016) published a meta-analysis on the effects of enrichment programs for gifted students. She found that these programs produced substantial effects for academic achievement (g = 0.96) and socioemotional outcomes (g = 0.55). However, given current theory and empirical research these estimates of the benefits of enrichment programs…

  17. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  18. Exploratory Analysis of Marketing and Non-marketing E-cigarette Themes on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2016-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper, we report results of a project to identify current themes in e-cig tweets in terms of semantic interpretations of topics generated with topic modeling. Given marketing/advertising tweets constitute almost half of all e-cig tweets, we first build a classifier that identifies marketing and non-marketing tweets based on a hand-built dataset of 1000 tweets. After applying the classifier to a dataset of over a million tweets (collected during 4/2015 - 6/2016), we conduct a preliminary content analysis and run topic models on the two sets of tweets separately after identifying the appropriate numbers of topics using topic coherence. We interpret the results of the topic modeling process by relating topics generated to specific e-cig themes. We also report on themes identified from e-cig tweets generated at particular places (such as schools and churches) for geo-tagged tweets found in our dataset using the GeoNames API. To our knowledge, this is the first effort that employs topic modeling to identify e-cig themes in general and in the context of geo-tagged tweets tied to specific places of interest.

  19. Non-market values of algae beach-cast management - study site Trelleborg, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risén, Emma; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Malmström, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the most serious global threats to coastal areas. One effect of eutrophication is seasonal macroalgal blooms. As a consequence, large amounts of beach-cast algae are today reported from coastal areas worldwide. In this study, we analyze nonmarket benefits by capturing loc......-resident beach tourism amounts to potentially substantial welfare benefits from the environmental program. These benefits could encourage similar environmental programs in the future....

  20. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  1. Valuing ecosystem services using benefit transfer: separating credible and incredible approaches: chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John H.; Richardson, Leslie; Kroeger, Timm; Casey, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem goods and services are now widely recognized as the benefits that humans derive from the natural environment around them including abiotic (e.g. atmosphere) and biotic components. The work by Costanza et al. (1997) to value the world’s ecosystem services brought the concept of ecosystem service valuation to the attention of the world press and environmental economists working in the area of non-market valuation. The article’s US$33 trillion estimate of these services, despite world GDP being only US$18 trillion, was definitely headline grabbing. This ambitious effort was undertaken with reliance on transferring existing values per unit from other (often site specific) valuation studies. Benefit transfer (see Boyle and Bergstrom, 1992; Rosenberger and Loomis, 2000, 2001) involves transfers of values per unit from an area that has been valued using primary valuation methods such as contingent valuation, travel cost or hedonic property methods (Champ et al., 2003) to areas for which values are needed. Benefit transfer often provides a reasonable approximation of the benefit of unstudied ecosystem services based on transfer of benefits estimates per unit (per visitor day, per acre) from existing studies. An appropriate benefit transfer should be performed on the same spatial scale of analysis (e.g. reservoir to reservoir, city to city) as the original study. However, the reasonableness of benefit transfer may be strained when applying locally derived per acre values from studies of several thousand acres of a resource such as wetlands to hundreds of millions of acres of wetlands.

  2. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  3. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method :  An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for

  4. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method : An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  5. Scenario realism and welfare estimates in choice experiments - a non-market valuation study on the European water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kataria, Mitesh; Bateman, I.; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    of a water body. This information is provided prior to the valuation questions and the corresponding beliefs in the provided information are also elicited before valuation. The second type of information concerns the proposed improvements in the environmental status of the water body. We find that average...

  6. Math skills and market and non-market outcomes: Evidence from an Amazonian society of forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2013-12-01

    Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people's Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings.

  7. Reallocation of resources between generations and genders in the market and non-market economy. The case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this article the National Transfer Accounts (NTA) method is used to develop a comprehensive account of resource reallocations between population members in Italy, encompassing the age and the gender perspective, the public and the familial institutional sectors as well as the market and non-market dimensions of the economy. The inclusion of the non-market economy, referring to household and care time, allows for an insight into the gender division of labour and the strength of intergenerational obligations in the Italian familistic welfare regime. Results highlight the existence of large flows of resources within the family both between genders and toward young generations, with men and women giving rise to considerable monetary and time transfers, respectively. PMID:26110106

  8. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a post?hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, con...

  9. International trade in services: A scoping study of services trade and estimates of benefits from services trade liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ballingall, John; Stephenson, John

    2005-01-01

    This is a scoping study. It summarises the dynamics of services trade in the world economy and discusses some of the benefits of services trade liberalisation from a qualitative and quantitative view point. We place particular emphasis on the role and interests of developing and least developed countries in world services trade. The study also provides an overview of services trade in the New Zealand economy, and, in places, highlights aspects of services trade where New Zealand’s interests m...

  10. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-05-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.

  11. Estimating Benefits of Past, Current, and Future Reductions in Smoking Rates Using a Comprehensive Model With Competing Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite years of declining smoking prevalence, tobacco use is still the leading preventable contributor to illness and death in the United States, and the effect of past tobacco-use control efforts has not fully translated into improvements in health outcomes. The objective of this study was to use a life course model with multiple competing causes of death to elucidate the ongoing benefits of tobacco-use control efforts on US death rates. Methods We used a continuous-time life c...

  12. Benefits of dominance over additive models for the estimation of average effects in the presence of dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenk, Pascal; Calus, Mario P.L.; Wientjes, Yvonne C.J.; Bijma, Piter

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, the average effect at a single locus can be estimated by an additive (A) model, or an additive plus dominance (AD) model. In the presence of dominance, the AD-model is expected to be more accurate, because the A-model falsely assumes that residuals are independent and

  13. Benefits of Dominance over Additive Models for the Estimation of Average Effects in the Presence of Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Duenk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In quantitative genetics, the average effect at a single locus can be estimated by an additive (A model, or an additive plus dominance (AD model. In the presence of dominance, the AD-model is expected to be more accurate, because the A-model falsely assumes that residuals are independent and identically distributed. Our objective was to investigate the accuracy of an estimated average effect (α^ in the presence of dominance, using either a single locus A-model or AD-model. Estimation was based on a finite sample from a large population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, and the root mean squared error of α^ was calculated for several broad-sense heritabilities, sample sizes, and sizes of the dominance effect. Results show that with the A-model, both sampling deviations of genotype frequencies from HWE frequencies and sampling deviations of allele frequencies contributed to the error. With the AD-model, only sampling deviations of allele frequencies contributed to the error, provided that all three genotype classes were sampled. In the presence of dominance, the root mean squared error of α^ with the AD-model was always smaller than with the A-model, even when the heritability was less than one. Remarkably, in the absence of dominance, there was no disadvantage of fitting dominance. In conclusion, the AD-model yields more accurate estimates of average effects from a finite sample, because it is more robust against sampling deviations from HWE frequencies than the A-model. Genetic models that include dominance, therefore, yield higher accuracies of estimated average effects than purely additive models when dominance is present.

  14. Valuing geospatial information: Using the contingent valuation method to estimate the economic benefits of Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Koontz, Steve; Miller, Holly M.; Richardson, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    While the U.S. government does not charge for downloading Landsat images, the images have value to users. This paper demonstrates a method that can value Landsat and other imagery to users. A survey of downloaders of Landsat images found: (a) established US users have a mean value of $912 USD per scene; (b) new US users and users returning when imagery became free have a mean value of $367 USD per scene. Total US user benefits for the 2.38 million scenes downloaded is $1.8 billion USD. While these benefits indicate a high willingness-to-pay among many Landsat downloaders, it would be economically inefficient for the US government to charge for Landsat imagery. Charging a price of $100 USD a scene would result in an efficiency loss of $37.5 million a year. This economic information should be useful to policy-makers who must decide about the future of this and similar remote sensing programs.

  15. Summary of the evidence of breast cancer service screening outcomes in Europe and first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women. From the studies reviewed, the primary benefit of screening, breast cancer mortality reduction, was compared with the main harms, over-diagnosis and false-positive screening results (FPRs). Pooled estimates of breast cancer mortality reduction among invited women were 25% in incidence-based mortality studies and 31% in case-control studies (38% and 48% among women actually screened). Estimates of over-diagnosis ranged from 1% to 10% of the expected incidence in the absence of screening. The combined estimate of over-diagnosis for screened women, from European studies correctly adjusted for lead time and underlying trend, was 6.5%. For women undergoing 10 biennial screening tests, the estimated cumulative risk of a FPR followed by non-invasive assessment was 17%, and 3% having an invasive assessment. For every 1000 women screened biennially from age 50-51 until age 68-69 and followed up to age 79, an estimated seven to nine lives are saved, four cases are over-diagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by non-invasive assessment with a negative result and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of saving a woman's life by population-based mammographic screening of appropriate quality is greater than that of over-diagnosis. Service screening in Europe achieves a mortality benefit at least as great as the randomized controlled trials. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe.

  16. 76 FR 9544 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to...' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits... 6A: Labor Cost in Manufacturing'' from the ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics. The ILO defines Chapter...

  17. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  18. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  19. About the use of the CATHARE code for best estimate Large Break LOCA calculations: benefits for Safety and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacher, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1979, EDF has participated to the development of CATHARE, a best estimate accidental thermalhydraulic code, in collaboration with CEA and FRAMATOME. EDF is now investigating the use of this code for licensing studies and particularly for Large Break LOCA calculations. Until now, the work done at EDF, in relation with FRAMATOME and CEA, has mainly focused on the physical analysis of the transient and on the identification of the key phenomena. This task is a necessary step before uncertainty evaluation. To illustrate this point of view, a peculiar example of calculated Large Break transients for a 900 MW three loop plant is presented. In one of these calculations, a high value of Peak Cladding Temperature was obtained. This peculiar scenario was initiated by a large entrainment of water to the steam generators at the very beginning of the reflooding stage, followed by a strong pressurization which led to a lasting draining of the reactor vessel. The physical phenomena which determine the existence and amplitude of this scenario were identified and their influence was explained: condensation at the accumulator injection, heat exchange in the core, entrainment process to the steam generators. It appeared obvious that the large observed uncertainty was associated to only a few parameters. Although this peculiar system behaviour was obtained for only a particular combination of parameters and a narrow range of thermalhydraulic conditions, the capability of the code to simulate these phenomena was investigated in regard to experimental data. It was concluded that this scenario was definitely unrealistic on a reactor. Nevertheless, this peculiar example tends to demonstrate, firstly, that the use of a best-estimate code improves Safety as it makes possible to point out physical phenomena that could not be considered when using non mechanistic codes, secondly, that the uncertainty evaluation must be guided by a pertinent physical analysis of the transient, focusing

  20. Expert opinion versus actual transaction evidence in the valuation of non-market amenities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Actual property values are overwhelmingly employed as a dependent variable in hedonic pricing models. Yet, assessed property values are generally more readily available than actual sales values and have, in some studies, been used in lieu of market prices. In this study, we compare estimates of

  1. Estimating Costs and Benefits Associated with Evidence-Based Violence Prevention: Four Case Studies Based on the Fourth R Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire V. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen violence in dating and peer relationships has huge costs to society in numerous areas including health care, social services, the workforce and the justice system. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse have long-lasting ramifications for the perpetrators as well as the victims, and for the families involved on both sides of that equation. An effective violence prevention program that is part of a school’s curriculum is beneficial not only for teaching teenagers what is appropriate behaviour in a relationship, but also for helping them break the cycle of violence which may have begun at home with their own maltreatment as children. The Fourth R program is an efficacious violence prevention program that was developed in Ontario and has been implemented in schools throughout Canada and the U.S. Covering relationship dynamics common to dating violence as well as substance abuse, peer violence and unsafe sex, the program can be adapted to different cultures and to same-sex relationships. The program, which gets its name from the traditional 3Rs — reading, ’riting and ’rithmetic — offers schools the opportunity to provide effective programming for teens to reduce the likelihood of them using relationship for violence as they move into adulthood. The federal government has estimated that the societal costs of relationship violence amount to more than $7 billion. These costs can continue to be incurred through the legal and health-care systems as the ripple effects of violence play out over the years, even after a relationship has ended. Other types of violence are also costly to society and not just in terms of dollars, but in young lives diverted into criminal activity. Up to 15 per cent of youth who become involved with the justice system grow into serious adult offenders who develop lengthy criminal careers. Yet, research shows that if prevention programs such as the Fourth R can deter just one 14-year-old high-risk juvenile from

  2. Methodology to estimate the cost of the severe accidents risk / maximum benefit; Metodologia para estimar el costo del riesgo de accidentes severos / beneficio maximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Flores, R. M.; Vega, E., E-mail: gozalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    For programs and activities to manage aging effects, any changes to plant operations, inspections, maintenance activities, systems and administrative control procedures during the renewal period should be characterized, designed to manage the effects of aging as required by 10 Cfr Part 54 that could impact the environment. Environmental impacts significantly different from those described in the final environmental statement for the current operating license should be described in detail. When complying with the requirements of a license renewal application, the Severe Accident Mitigation Alternatives (SAMA) analysis is contained in a supplement to the environmental report of the plant that meets the requirements of 10 Cfr Part 51. In this paper, the methodology for estimating the cost of severe accidents risk is established and discussed, which is then used to identify and select the alternatives for severe accident mitigation, which are analyzed to estimate the maximum benefit that an alternative could achieve if this eliminate all risk. Using the regulatory analysis techniques of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) estimates the cost of severe accidents risk. The ultimate goal of implementing the methodology is to identify candidates for SAMA that have the potential to reduce the severe accidents risk and determine if the implementation of each candidate is cost-effective. (Author)

  3. Correcting for non-response bias in contingent valuation surveys concerning environmental non-market goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2016-01-01

    Data collection for economic valuation by using Internet surveys and pre-recruited Internet panels can be associated with severe disadvantages. Problems concerning sample coverage and sample representativeness can be expected. Representation errors may occur since people can choose whether....... This paper analyses a sample used for an Internet contingent valuation method survey eliciting preferences for improvements in water quality of a river. We find that some variables that affect the survey participation decision also affect willingness-to-pay, consequently biasing our welfare estimates. We...... show how adjusting willingness-to-pay for this bias can be accomplished by using a grouped data model incorporating a correlation parameter to account for selection....

  4. Local non-market quality of life dynamics in new wind farms communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits from generating electricity using renewable power are well known. Both wind farms and large scale solar installations require significant amounts of land to generate such power. Private land holders gain from leasing and selling land to renewable power generators but how are nearby neighbors and county residents affected? This study uses data from West Texas and documents that wind farm county's residents have gained from recent place based investments in wind farms. County property tax rates have fallen and public school quality has improved in those counties where wind farms have been built. Based on the local fiscal data, local school quality data and local ambient air pollution data, renewable power is a “better neighbor” than conventional fossil fuel fired power plants. - Highlights: • Rural counties with wind farms have lower property tax rates than neighbor counties. • Wind farm counties have lower student–teacher ratios. • Ambient air pollution levels are higher near fossil fuel fired power plants

  5. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-05-01

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Rabl, Ari; de Kok, Theo M

    2010-10-06

    Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3) for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our results highlight the need for improved epidemiological studies.

  7. Policy incentives for switchgrass production using valuation of non-market ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Jim F.; Miller, Shelie A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a linear profit model with combined economic and environmental factors for a switchgrass-for-biofuels agricultural system in the southeastern U.S. The objectives are to establish conversion-to-switchgrass thresholds for various market prices and identify policy incentives that would ensure economic profit while also maximizing environmental benefits (carbon sequestration, displacement of fossil fuels) and minimizing negative impacts (global warming potential, nitrate loss). Weighting factors are chosen to represent incentives and penalties by assigning value to the impacts. With no other incentives, switchgrass market prices of at least $51 and $58/dton would be needed in order to make a profitable switch from corn/Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands and cotton, respectively. At a mid-range offering of $50/dton, feasible carbon credit prices of $3/ $8/ $23 per metric tonne CO 2 e would incentivize conversion from corn, CRP, or cotton, respectively. Similarly, a water quality penalty of $0.20/ $3/ $2 per kilogram NO 3 –N leached would incentivize the same conversions with resultant watershed improvement. At a lower price of $30/dton switchgrass, incentives based on valuation of ecosystem services begin to exceed feasible ranges of these valuations. - Highlights: ► A linear effective profit model predicts conversion thresholds to switchgrass. ► Carbon and nitrogen fluxes can be valued and incorporated into producer choices. ► Farmgate prices alone of $51 and $58/dton switchgrass will entice conversion. ► Reasonable ecosystem service valuations will encourage adoption of switchgrass.

  8. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  9. An analysis on social cost benefit of city gas safety supervision system - concentrated on estimating the intended amount paid about gas safety of households using city gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Sung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    With the increase of convenient and clean gas fuel consumption, the danger of gas safety accident is also increasing. Therefore, now is the time for requiring many thoughtful concerns and cares for the prevention of gas accident. In this study, the perception of city gas end users on use of city gas was studied and the economic value of improving gas safety was estimated by examining the intended amount paid for improving safety of city gas use. Although most of city gas end-users perceive that gas use is generally safe, they are concerned about a possibility of dander of accidents happened without any notice. On the other hand, about 97% of households using city gas know checking gas safety at a minimum, but only 60% among them are implementing self-checkup. The economic benefit of improving gas safety of city gas end-users in Korea is estimated from the lowest of 121.47 billion to the highest of 317.97 billion annually. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. An external peer review of the U.S. Department of Energy's assessment of ''damages and benefits of the fuel cycles: Estimation methods, impacts, and values''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The need for better assessments of the ''external'' benefits and costs of environmental effects of various fuel cycles was identified during the development of the National Energy Strategy. The growing importance of this issue was emphasized by US Department of Energy (DOE) management because over half of the states were already pursuing some form of social costing in electricity regulation and a well-established technical basis for such decisions was lacking. This issue was identified as a major area of controversy--both scientifically and politically--in developing energy policies at the state and national level. In 1989, the DOE's Office of Domestic and International Energy Policy commissioned a study of the external environmental damages and benefits of the major fuel cycles involved in electric power generation. Over the next 3-year period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future conducted the study and produced a series of documents (fuel cycle documents) evaluating the costs of environmental damages of the coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, hydroelectric, and nuclear fuel cycles, as well as the Background Document on methodological issues. These documents described work that took almost 3 years and $2.5 million to complete and whose implications could be far reaching. In 1992, the Secretary of Energy sought advice on the overall concepts underlying the studies and the means employed to estimate environmental externalities. He asked the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board to undertake a peer review of the fuel cycle studies and encouraged the Board to turn to outside expertise, as needed

  11. Estimating premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 exposure and benefit of air pollution control policies in China for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Arora, Mohit; Deshpande, Ashok

    2018-01-15

    In past decade of rapid industrial development and urbanization, China has witnessed increasingly persistent severe haze and smog episodes, posing serious health hazards to the Chinese population, especially in densely populated cities. Quantification of health impacts attributable to PM 2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm) has important policy implications to tackle air pollution. The Chinese national monitoring network has recently included direct measurements of ground level PM 2.5 , providing a potentially more reliable source for exposure assessment. This study reports PM 2.5 -related long-term mortality of year 2015 in 161 cities of nine regions across China using integrated exposure risk (IER) model for PM 2.5 exposure-response functions (ERF). It further provides an estimate of the potential health benefits by year 2020 with a realization of the goals of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) and the three interim targets (ITs) and Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) for PM 2.5 by the World Health Organization (WHO). PM 2.5 -related premature mortality in 161 cities was 652 thousand, about 6.92% of total deaths in China during year 2015. Among all premature deaths, contributions of cerebrovascular disease (stroke), ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (LC) and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) were 51.70, 26.26, 11.77, 9.45 and 0.82%, respectively. The premature mortality in densely populated cities is very high, such as Tianjin (12,533/year), Beijing (18,817/year), Baoding (10,932/year), Shanghai (18,679/year), Chongqing (23,561/year), Chengdu (11,809/year), Harbin (9037/year) and Linyi (9141/year). The potential health benefits will be 4.4, 16.2, 34.5, 63.6 and 81.5% of the total present premature mortality when PM 2.5 concentrations in China meet the APPCAP, WHO IT-1, IT-2, IT-3 and AQG respectively, by the year 2020. In the current situation, by the end of year 2030

  12. Why invest in a national public health program for stroke? An example using Australian data to estimate the potential benefits and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Carter, Robert C; Thrift, Amanda G; Dewey, Helen M

    2007-10-01

    Stroke is the world's second leading cause of death in people aged over 60 years. Approximately 50,000 strokes occur annually in Australia with numbers predicted to increase by about one third over 10-years. Our objectives were to assess the economic implications of a public health program for stroke by: (1) predicting what potential health-gains and cost-offsets could be achieved; and (2) determining the net level of annual investment that would offer value-for-money. Lifetime costs and outcomes were calculated for additional cases that would benefit if 'current practice' was feasibly improved, estimated for one indicative year using: (i) local epidemiological data, coverage rates and costs; and (ii) pooled effect sizes from systematic reviews. blood pressure lowering; warfarin for atrial fibrillation; increased access to stroke units; intravenous thrombolysis and aspirin for ischemic events; and carotid endarterectomy. Value-for-money threshold: AUD$30,000/DALY recovered. Improved, prevention and management could prevent about 27,000 (38%) strokes in 2015. In present terms (2004), about 85,000 DALYs and AUD$1.06 billion in lifetime cost-offsets could be recovered. The net level of annual warranted investment was AUD$3.63 billion. Primary prevention, in particular blood pressure lowering, was most effective. A public health program for stroke is warranted.

  13. The EU anti-dumping policy against non-market economies - The choice of an analogue country and the quality of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to evaluate if the EU, since 1992, in its anti-dumping policy against the two non-market economies, Russia and China, has calculated higher dumping margins, when the level of economic development and ...

  14. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, O Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-12-01

    While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the field of environmental valuation, they remain controversial because of their hypothetical nature and the contested reliability and validity of their results. We systematically reviewed evidence on the validity and reliability of environmental DCEs from the past thirteen years (Jan 2003-February 2016). 107 articles met our inclusion criteria. These studies provide limited and mixed evidence of the reliability and validity of DCE. Valuation results were susceptible to small changes in survey design in 45% of outcomes reporting reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2-90% of respondents protested against a feature of the survey, and a considerable proportion found DCEs to be incomprehensible or inconsequential (17-40% and 10-62% respectively). DCE remains useful for non-market valuation, but its results should be used with caution. Given the sparse and inconclusive evidence base, we recommend that tests of reliability and validity are more routinely integrated into DCE studies and suggest how this might be achieved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Authority Residential Mortgage Credit: A Source of Non-Market Sub-Prime Homeloans for Low-Income households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the volume of mortgage credit has risen in tandem with house price inflation, the sub-prime homeloan sector of this market has begun to expand in order to meet demand from those not serviced by the mainstream financial service providers. This article examines the role of local authorities in providing residential mortgages and assesses whether those who have traditionally borrowed from non-market (or public sector lenders would be considered to be sub-prime borrowers by the private sector. It concludes that, in view of the relatively low average incomes of this cohort of borrowers, they represent a higher probability of homeloan default and as a consequence, would be subject to a higher cost of credit in the private sector. However, this paper highlights the favourable terms offered by local authorities and argues that their failure to price according to the risk profile of borrowers exposes the Exchequer to higher – and often unquantified – costs in pursuit of promoting home-ownership.

  16. Estimating the net benefit of a specialized return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder: an example exploring investment in collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    This article estimates the net benefit for a company incorporating a collaborative care model into its return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. Employing a simple decision model, the net benefit and uncertainty were explored. The breakeven point occurs when the average short-term disability episode is reduced by at least 7 days. In addition, 85% of the time, benefits could outweigh costs. Model results and sensitivity analyses indicate that organizational benefits can be greater than the costs of incorporating a collaborative care model into a return-to-work program for workers on short-term disability related to a mental disorder. The results also demonstrate how the probability of a program's effectiveness and the magnitude of its effectiveness are key factors that determine whether the benefits of a program outweigh its costs.

  17. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  18. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  19. Estimating externalities of coal fuel cycles. Report No. 3 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: a study by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The report, one of a series of eight reports, is primarily about a methodology for estimating coal fuel cycle externalities. The study considered the stages of a typical coal fuel cycle and identified the more important ones: coal mining coal transportation, and electric power generation. Chapter headings are: introduction; alternative contexts for the study; prior studies of damages and benefits; methods development; organization, interpretation and use of results; reference technology and sites; priority impact-pathways for the coal fuel cycle; estimating the externalities of coal mining; estimating coal transportation externalities; estimating-the externalities of electric power generation; tabulation of numerical results; and fundings, conclusions, and recommendations. The study demonstrated the application of the damage function approach to estimating the externalities of coal fuel cycles. A number of analytical methods were applied within that framework to several impact-pathways. 580 refs., 40 figs., 130 tabs., 3 apps

  20. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  1. Estimation of the exposure and a risk-benefit analysis for a CT system designed for a lung cancer mass screening unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakashita, K.; Tateno, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Iwai, K.; Shimura, A.; Takagi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Organ or tissue doses from examination by a computed tomography system called LSCT were determined by in-phantom measurement. LSCT has been developed for lung cancer screening, with spiral scanning capability. Dose measurements were performed under the actual screening conditions of the chest CT examination. The effective dose recommended by ICRP 60 was evaluated using the organ or tissue doses. Risk-benefit analysis in the LSCT screening was also performed. The resultant effective dose per LSCT examination was 3.6 mSv and surface dose was 7.6 mGy. It was half to a third lower than the doses by traditional CT systems. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT showed that the benefit will exceed the risk for Japanese over forty years for men and over forty-five for women. (Author)

  2. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carlsson (Sigrid); T.M. de Carvalho Delgado Marques (Tiago); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); J. Hugosson (Jonas); A. Auvinen (Anssi); M. Kwiatkowski (Maciej); A. Villers (Arnoud); M. Zappa (Marco); V. Nelen (Vera); A. Páez (Alvaro); J.A. Eastham (James); H. Lilja (Hans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus “good practice.”. METHODS: Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN)

  3. Soil organic carbon stocks under native vegetation - revised estimates for use with the simple assessment option of the Carbon Benefits Project system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) is developing a standardized system for sustainable land management projects to measure, model and report changes in carbon stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for use at varying scales. A global framework of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under native

  4. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  5. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm R C; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.

  6. The system-wide impacts of the external benefits to higher education on the Scottish economy: An exploratory “micro-to-macro" approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinn Hermannsson; Katerina Lisenkova; Patrizio Lecca; Peter McGregor; Kim Swales

    2012-01-01

    The private market benefits of education, i.e. the wage premia of graduates, are widely studied at the micro level, although the magnitude of their macroeconomic impact is disputed. However, there are additional benefits of education, which are less well understood but could potentially drive significant macroeconomic impacts. Following the taxonomy of McMahon (2009) we identify four different types of benefits of education. These are: private market benefits (wage premia); private non market...

  7. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J.; Ledna, Catherine M.; West, J. Jason; Nolte, Christopher G.; Loughlin, Daniel H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the U.S. energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (NUC/CCS), while another set emphasizes renewable energy (RE). These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% CO2 reduction targets in the U.S. in 2050. The RE low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the NUC/CCS pathways because of the large cooling demands of nuclear power and CCS. However, the NUC/CCS low-carbon pathways produce greater health benefits, mainly because the NUC/CCS assumptions result in less primary PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies. An important finding is that biomass in the building sector can offset some of the health co-benefits of the low-carbon pathways even though it plays only a minor role in reducing CO2 emissions.

  8. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Roobol, Monique J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Villers, Arnauld; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Páez, Alvaro; Eastham, James A; Lilja, Hans; de Koning, Harry J; Vickers, Andrew J; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M

    2016-11-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus "good practice." Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386-3393. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc eating in a shorebird I : Foraging and processing costs estimated by the doubly labelled water method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; van Gils, JA; Achterkamp, B; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    Although the energy costs of foraging and food processing in vertebrates may be considerable, they have rarely been quantified separately. Here we present estimates for both cost factors based on a series of trials with a shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, fed natural and artificial prey

  10. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  11. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign....... Altogether 874 children were randomly selected and included in the study. Sugar-free meals and drinks were provided in all primary schools throughout the campaign week. Dental officers held 30-minute information sessions with each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities. Dental...... knowledge and behaviour were evaluated by interviews immediately before and after the campaign. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about diet and dental health and a significantly higher proportion of children claimed to choose non-cariogenic foods and drinks as a result of the campaign...

  12. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  13. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J; Ledna, Catherine M; West, J Jason; Nolte, Christopher G; Loughlin, Daniel H

    2018-04-15

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways for the United States. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage, while another set emphasizes renewable energy, including wind, solar, geothermal power, and bioenergy. These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter, and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% carbon dioxide reduction targets in 2050. The renewable low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the nuclear and carbon capture pathways. However, the renewable low-carbon pathways modeled in this study produce higher particulate matter-related mortality costs due to greater use of biomass in residential heating. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies.

  14. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  15. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-05-01

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C

    2017-03-28

    The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model. Copyright © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc., and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bayesian benefits with JASP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the Bayesian approach to data analysis using the newly developed statistical software program JASP. With JASP, researchers are able to take advantage of the benefits that the Bayesian framework has to offer in terms of parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. The Bayesian

  18. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  19. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  20. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  1. Economic Benefits, Conservation and Wildlife Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Different economic methods are being used to estimate the economic benefits generated by nature (wildlife) tourism. The most prominent of these are economic valuation analysis and economic impact analysis. These methods often provide divergent and conflicting estimates of the economic benefits obtained from wildlife tourism, as is demonstrated in this article by the use of a microeconomic model. Tourism Research Australia has estimated the economic benefits to Australia of nature tourism base...

  2. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  3. Benefit Transfer Studies: Myths, Pragmatism, and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kevin J.; Bergstrom, John C.

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer has been an ongoing, practical analysis for years in legal proceedings and government policy analyses where timely benefit estimates are critically dependent on the use of existing data. Most benefit transfer studies to date have been conducted behind closed doors and have not been open to scholarly review, and no systematic research agenda has been established to determine whether benefit transfer estimates are valid for public policy analyses. In this paper we propose a systematic, conceptual foundation for conducting benefit transfer studies, and suggest a research agenda to identify conditions under which valid benefit transfer estimates can be derived. We conclude, however, that this research agenda must be accompanied by improved conduct and reporting of original valuation studies before benefit transfer can become a widely used tool in public policy analyses.

  4. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; Hood, C; Harrison, K

    1994-07-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment.

  5. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; Hood, C.; Harrison, K.

    1994-01-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  6. How will transitioning from cytology to HPV testing change the balance between the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening? Estimates of the impact on cervical cancer, treatment rates and adverse obstetric outcomes in Australia, a high vaccination coverage country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Caruana, Michael; Simms, Kate T; Lew, Jie-Bin; Shi, Ju-Fang; Saville, Marion; Smith, Megan A; Lord, Sarah J; Tan, Jeffrey; Bateson, Deborah; Quinn, Michael; Canfell, Karen

    2017-12-15

    Primary HPV screening enables earlier diagnosis of cervical lesions compared to cytology, however, its effect on the risk of treatment and adverse obstetric outcomes has not been extensively investigated. We estimated the cumulative lifetime risk (CLR) of cervical cancer and excisional treatment, and change in adverse obstetric outcomes in HPV unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination (>70% coverage in 12-13 years) for the Australian cervical screening program. Two-yearly cytology screening (ages 18-69 years) was compared to 5-yearly primary HPV screening with partial genotyping for HPV16/18 (ages 25-74 years). A dynamic model of HPV transmission, vaccination, cervical screening and treatment for precancerous lesions was coupled with an individual-based simulation of obstetric complications. For cytology screening, the CLR of cervical cancer diagnosis, death and treatment was estimated to be 0.649%, 0.198% and 13.4% without vaccination and 0.182%, 0.056% and 6.8%, in vaccinated women, respectively. For HPV screening, relative reductions of 33% and 22% in cancer risk for unvaccinated and vaccinated women are predicted, respectively, compared to cytology. Without the implementation of vaccination, a 4% increase in treatment risk for HPV versus cytology screening would have been expected, implying a possible increase in pre-term delivery (PTD) and low birth weight (LBW) events of 19 to 35 and 14 to 37, respectively, per 100,000 unvaccinated women. However, in vaccinated women, treatment risk will decrease by 13%, potentially leading to 4 to 41 fewer PTD events and from 2 more to 52 fewer LBW events per 100,000 vaccinated women. In unvaccinated women in cohorts offered vaccination as 12-13 year olds, no change to lifetime treatment risk is expected with HPV screening. In unvaccinated women in cohorts offered vaccination as 12-13 year olds, no change to lifetime treatment risk is expected with HPV screening. HPV screening starting at age 25 in populations with

  7. Estimating the Economic Impact of Adding Panobinostat to a U.S. Formulary for Relapsed and/or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: A Budget Impact and Cost-Benefit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloudek, Lisa; Roy, Anuja; Kish, Jonathan K; Siegel, David S; Jagannath, Sundar; Globe, Denise; Orloski, Laurie; Kuriakose, Emil T

    2016-08-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable B-cell malignancy with a natural history that involves alternating periods of remission and subsequent relapse. For relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), the typical patient currently receives more lines of therapy than has been feasible in the past, translating into longer progression-free survival (PFS). Consequently, cost issues have become more prominent because patients may be offered newer and more expensive therapies during a more prolonged overall treatment course. To estimate the economic impact of adding panobinostat to a U.S. health plan formulary as a treatment option with bortezomib and dexamethasone for patients with RRMM previously treated with a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and immunomodulatory drug (IMiD), using a budget impact and cost-benefit model. Total costs of commonly used salvage therapy regimens were combined with market share data and population prevalence estimates of RRMM to yield the total cost of treatment, from the perspective of a U.S. third-party payer (commercial or Medicare) with a time horizon of 1 year. Comparator treatment regimens included bortezomib-dexamethasone, lenalidomide-dexamethasone, lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone, carfilzomib monotherapy, carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone, and pomalidomide-dexamethasone. Costs (2015 U.S. dollars) included drug costs for oral oncology agents, medical and administration costs for injectable oncology agents, costs of adverse event (AE) prophylaxis and monitoring, and costs of grade 3/4 AEs. In a hypothetical health plan with 1 million members, the annual number of RRMM patients with previous PI and IMiD treatments was estimated at 16 and 118 for a commercial and Medicare plan, respectively. Introduction of panobinostat as part of the panobinostat-bortezomib-dexamethasone regimen was not expected to result in a substantial budget impact to either commercial or Medicare plans, with an incremental cost money. Funding for this study

  8. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  9. Benefit transfers and valuation of environmental improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Growing demand for analyses of the benefits of environmental improvements (or the costs of environmental damages) has increased interest in using estimates of such benefits in one setting to calculate benefits in another setting. At present, some types of these benefits (or costs) - which can be categorized as effects on health, output, economics assets, and environmental assets - are more amenable to such benefit transfers than others. Original studies that value health effects, for example, do not always lend themselves to benefit transfers. Most of the studies that value mortality risk address the risk of accidental death, which is an inappropriate context for valuing deaths from environmental causes. One way to make benefit transfers more feasible and reliable is to design original research with the purpose of obtaining results to be used in benefit transfers. As an example, one of the most successful benefit-transfer exercises to date involves the US Environmental Protection Agency's cost-benefit analysis of regulations for phasing down the lead content of gasoline. In this analysis, the agency used existing benefit studies to estimate the values of reducing premature deaths an of avoiding acute health effects by decreasing individuals exposure to lead in gasoline. On the basis of these and other estimates, EPA argued that the phasedown made economic sense

  10. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  11. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  12. Radiation: cost or benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, D.

    1988-01-01

    In a previous issue of SCRAM it was argued that the apparent increased incidence of child leukaemia around nuclear power stations could have been caused by radioactive discharges into the environment. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) claim that the known levels of contamination could not be responsible for the observed cancer rates. NRPB estimates of radiation risk are, however, considered to be underestimates. The NRPB is criticised for its study of the Sellafield workforce which excluded ex-employees and which revealed, when a statistical mistake was put right, a significant excess of myeloma amongst the Windscale workforce. The radiation protection philosophy of the NRPB is based on a cost benefit analysis which balances the cost of protection against the benefits of power generation. Criticism is made of NRPB, not only for ignoring long-term risks and costs but also for suggesting that some levels of radiation exposure are acceptable. The Board is also accused of not being independent of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  13. The external benefits of higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; Lecca, Patrizio; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2017-01-01

    The private market benefits of education are widely studied at the micro level, although the magnitude of their macroeconomic impact is disputed. However, there are additional benefits of education, which are less well understood. In this paper the macroeconomic effects of external benefits of higher education are estimated using the “micro-to-macro” simulation approach. Two types of externalities are explored: technology spillovers and productivity spillovers in the labour market. These link...

  14. Benefits realisation in maternity information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, H J; Gunn-Russell, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the compilation of a monograph on benefits realisation of maternity information systems from maternity services around England and Wales. It was compiled to compliment a monograph produced in June 1995 on Nursing Information Systems. The paper summarises the structure of the monograph and outlines the concept of benefits realisation. The examples featured in the monograph are not "true" benefits realisation studies and many of the accounts are anecdotal in nature. However, the paper suggests that midwives do benefit from using a maternity information system particularly in the areas of auditing practice, effortless retrieval of statistics, less duplication of data entry, summaries of care and research purposes. Managers also benefit from some of these functions and those relating to estimating workload and allocation of resources. It is suggested that any benefits for staff and management should also benefit clients and improve the provision of the maternity services.

  15. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well.

  16. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well

  17. Benefit/risk comparisons in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Benefit and risks in radiodiagnostic examination, either with X-rays or with radioactive isotopes, can be expressed in restored health and health impaired by radiation or: lives saved and estimated lives lost as a result of genetic or somatic radiation damage. Published data on benefit-risk comparisons for mass stomach and chest surveys show a considerable benefit surplus. It is demonstrated that this is also true in the case of clinical examinations of the sick. Efforts should be concentrated on better ways and means to reduce the number of diagnostic errors. Risk estimates should be made as realistic as possible

  18. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  19. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  20. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  1. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  2. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K.; Abram, P.; Braen, C.; Givens, S.; Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Fish, R.; Clyne, F.; Sand, F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are present for a study of the economic benefits attributed to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation. Part 1 gives a general description of the ag-air industry and discusses the information used in the data base to estimate the potential benefits from technological improvements. Part 2 presents the benefit estimates and provides a quantitative basis for the estimates in each area study. Part 3 is a bibliography of references relating to this study.

  3. Cost benefit ratio of industrial tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    Simple relations are given, which could help to estimate the expected annual savings resulting from the application of radioisotope methods for the mixing time, segregation effect or residence time distribution determination. Criteria for estimation of benefit at optimum transition of the continuous production from one quality to another, criteria for estimate the benefits on basis of known holdup and for estimate of benefits resulting from knowledge of the distribution function of residence time and of the kinetics of chemical reaction are presented. Further are demonstrated two examples of evaluation of the economic effect of the results of a system analysis in chemical industry where beside the measurements of residence time distribution by help of radiotracers are used also results of other experimental methods and that practically without increasing production cost. (orig.) [de

  4. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of HPV-related anogenital cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts in women and men in Europe: Potential additional benefit of a nine-valent second generation HPV vaccine compared to first generation HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A second generation HPV vaccine has been developed for the prevention of anogenital cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and of genital warts due to nine HPV types.We estimated the annual burden of these diseases attributable to the nine HPV types compared to HPV types from first generation vaccines in women and men in Europe. Material and methods: Incidence rates from the IARC database, cancer registries, the literature and Eurostat population data were used.The burden attributable to the HPV types targeted by both vaccines was estimated by applying the relative contribution of the respective HPV types from epidemiological studies. Results: In 2013, the number of new anogenital HPV-attributable cancers was 44,480 with 39,494 of these cases related to second vs. 33,285 to first generation vaccine types.Among the 284,373 to 541,621 new HPV-attributable anogenital precancerous lesions 235,364–448,423 and 135,025–256,830 were estimated to be related to second and first generation vaccine types, respectively.The annual number of new genital warts was 753,608–935,318, with 90% related to HPV6/11. Conclusions: These data demonstrate how the large public health impact that was achieved by the first generation HPV vaccines could be further increased by second generation vaccines. Keywords: HPV, Burden of disease, Cancer, Precancerous lesions, Genital warts, HPV vaccine

  5. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  6. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  7. Inferring Saving in Training Time From Effect Size Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burright, Burke

    2000-01-01

    .... Students' time saving represents a major potential benefit of using them. This paper fills a methodology gap in estimating the students' timesaving benefit of asynchronous training technologies...

  8. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  9. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  10. Putting Paid to Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; J.M. Wildeboer Schut

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De uitkering van de baan. A good deal of time, money and effort is invested in the reintegration of benefit claimants. What is the result? How many recipients of disability, unemployment or social assistance benefit are in principle capable of working but are currently not

  11. Nanocosmetics: benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Various nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the development of cosmetic products - a field so-called nanocosmetic formulations. These advanced materials offer some benefits, while their utilization in the cosmetic formulations may be associated with some risks. The main aim of this editorial is to highlight the benefits and risks of the nanomaterials used in the cosmetic products.

  12. Who Benefits from Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochon, Daniel; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have documented the benefits of religious involvement. Indeed, highly religious people tend to be healthier, live longer, and have higher levels of subjective well-being. While religious involvement offers clear benefits to many, in this paper we explore whether it may also be detrimental to some. Specifically, we examine in detail…

  13. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  14. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes. More Information: Fact Sheet Image of a report cover | Presentation Image of a report cover for A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits State policymakers, public utilities commissions, and

  15. Estimativa do benefício econômico potencial de dois levantamentos de solos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Estimate of the potential economic benefit of two soil surveys in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Giasson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aplica técnicas de análise de decisão para a quantificação do valor econômico do Levantamento de Reconhecimento de Alta Intensidade dos Solos do Município de Sentinela do Sul, RS (escala 1:50.000, e do Levantamento de Solos da Bacia Carbonífera do Baixo Jacuí, RS (escala 1:100.000 através de informações econômicas sobre as culturas regionais e avaliação da qualidade do levantamento de solos. A estimativa do valor econômico é feita pela quantificação do aumento do rendimento econômico quando o planejamento de uso das terras considera as informações contidas no levantamento de solos. Os resultados desta avaliação evidenciam que os benefícios econômicos gerados pelo uso de informações constantes em levantamentos de solos (R$153,15 ha-1 e R$70,15 ha-1, em escala 1:50.000 e 1:100.000, respectivamente são maiores que os custos associados à execução de levantamentos de solos (R$1,03 ha-1 para um mapa na escala 1:50.000 e R$ 0,38 ha-1 para um mapa na escala 1:100.000.This study applies decision analysis techniques for the qualification of economic value of the a high intensity Soil Survey of Sentinela do Sul County, RS, Brazil (scale 1:50,000 and a soil survey of the Charcoal Basin of the Jacuí River, RS, Brazil (Scale 1:100,000, using economic information related to the major regional crops and soil survey quality. The determination of the economic value is made by quantifying the increase in economic return when land use planning uses soil survey information. Results of this evaluation highlight the economic benefits generated by the use of soil survey information (R$153,15 ha-1 e R$70.15 ha-1, respectivelly for a 1:50,000 map and for a 1:100,000 map are larger that soil survey costs (R$1.03 ha-1 for a 1:50,000 map and R$0.38 ha-1 for a 1:100,000 map.

  16. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  18. The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Loomis, John; Kroeger, Timm; Casey, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The demand for timely monetary estimates of the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem goods and services has steadily increased over the last few decades. This article describes the use of benefit transfer to generate monetary value estimates of ecosystem services specifically. The article provides guidance for conducting such benefit transfers and summarizes advancements in benefit transfer methods, databases and analysis tools designed to facilitate its application.

  19. Contraceptives with novel benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) agonists (progestins) and antagonists are developed for female contraceptives. However, non-contraceptive applications of newer progestins and PR modulators are being given more attention. The newer PR agonists including drospirenone, nomegestrol, trimegestone, dienogest and nestorone are being evaluated as contraceptives with health benefits because of their unique pharmacological properties. The selective PR modulators (SPRM; PR antagonists with PR agonistic properties) are under development not only for emergency contraception but also for other health benefits such as the treatment of endometritis and leiomyoma. After searching the literature from PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and patent database, this review focuses on the effects and mechanisms of these progestins, and SPRMs as contraceptives with other health benefits. PR agonists and antagonists that have novel properties may generate better contraceptive effects with other health benefits.

  20. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  1. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  2. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  3. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered ...... spraying plans. In this paper, we will argue that factors driving the spraying practices of Danish farmers may hamper efforts to secure the environmental benefits of the new crops....

  4. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  5. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  6. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  7. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Active Travel Intervention with Health and Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Mark; Witten, Karen; Woodward, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities. The Programme funded investment in cycle paths, other walking and cycling facilities, cycle parking, ‘shared spaces’, media campaigns and events, such as ‘Share the Road’, and cycle-skills training. Using the modified Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model, the Programme’s net economic benefits were estimated from the changes in use of active travel modes. Annual benefits for health in the intervention cities were estimated at 34.4 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and two lives saved due to reductions in cardiac disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. Reductions in transport-related carbon emissions were also estimated and valued. Using a discount rate of 3.5%, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 11:1 and was robust to sensitivity testing. It is concluded that when concerted investment is made in active travel in a city, there is likely to be a measurable, positive return on investment. PMID:29751618

  8. Economic benefits of the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The historical and projected benefits of nuclear power are estimated as the cost differential between nuclear power and an alternative baseload generating source times the quantity of electricity generated. From 1976 through 1981 coal and nuclear power were close competitors in most regions, with nuclear power holding a small cost advantage overall in 1976 and 1977 that subsequently eroded. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to coal power costs, national benefits from nuclear power are estimated to be $336 million from 1976 to 1981, with an additional $1.8 billion for the present value of existing plants. Fuel oil has been the dominant source of baseload generation in California, Florida, and New England. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to those of fuel oil, the benefits of nuclear power in these three regions are estimated to be $8.3 billion and $28.1 billion in terms of present value. The present value of benefits of future nuclear plants is estimated to be $8.2 billion under a midcase scenario and $43 billion under an optimistic scenario. 18 references, 10 tables

  9. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  10. Deserving social benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmark, Anders; Richardt Schoop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    welfare reforms involving reductions of social benefits in Denmark in 2005 and 2013, the article analyses the frames used by politicians supporting and opposing reform, as well as the frames used by the media. The article shows, first, that political reforms reducing social benefits are followed...... by increased framing of recipients as undeserving. The article finds a strong correlation between the political objective of reducing benefits and the reliance on frames that position recipients as undeserving. Second, the article shows that media framing remains significantly different from political framing......The article contributes to the growing literature on framing of deservingness as an alternative to ‘blame avoidance’ strategies in the politics of welfare retrenchment. In particular, the article focuses on the interplay between political framing and media framing. Based on an analysis of two major...

  11. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  12. BenefitClaimWebServiceBean/BenefitClaimWebService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — A formal or informal request for a type of monetary or non-monetary benefit. This service provides benefit claims and benefit claim special issues data, allows the...

  13. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  14. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  15. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices (5-1-030) will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service (tel. 79194 / 72738)

  16. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service 5-1-030 tel. 79194 / 72738

  17. Studies Highlight Biodiesel's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Colo., July 6, 1998 — Two new studies highlight the benefits of biodiesel in reducing overall air Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted both studies: An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles and Biodiesel Research Progress, 1992-1997. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel

  18. Your Medicare Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schedule a lung cancer screening counseling and shared decision making visit with your doctor to discuss the benefits ... when they’re available in your MyMedicare.gov account. 58 Section 3: For more information Visit Medicare. gov for general information about Medicare ...

  19. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  20. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2 Centre for Transportation Systems, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, INDIA ... parking lots that only allow cars, not trucks). ..... drainage section) and 2015 & 2019 (for poor drainage section) after the construction of an overlay, it was ...

  1. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Vehicle operating costs were computed based on the maintenance strategy for good and ..... not available the prediction models developed by Reddy 1996, for National ..... Revaluation of Highway Project, Journal of the India Roads Congress, ...

  2. Estimating the costs and benefits of soil conservation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2010-01-01

    Economics is about problems of choice. In erosion control, both public authorities and private land users are faced with such problems. What is the impact of erosion, both on-site and off-site, and to what extent can this impact be quantified? If we conceptualize this impact in terms of

  3. Estimate benefits of crowdsourced data from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) acquire, process, and integrate data in a variety of ways to support real-time operations. : Crowdsourcing has been identified as one of the top trends and technologies that traffic management agencies can adapt and ...

  4. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... range of industrial and recreational activities including recreational fishing and boating, beach recreation, maritime transportation, search and rescue operations, spill response, marine hazards...

  5. Projected benefits of actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Goldstein, M.

    1976-05-01

    Possible benefits that could accrue from actinide separation and transmutations are presented. The time frame for implementing these processes is discussed and the expected benefits are qualitatively described. These benefits are provisionally quantified in a sample computation

  6. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  7. Nuclear energy: benefits versus risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Of the benefits of nuclear power three are described briefly. 1. It offers virtually an inexhaustible supply of cheap electricity, so the real reason for its installation in the U.S. (80 nuclear power plants on order and 15 in operation) is to save money. (2) Nuclear power would offer a chance to clean up the atmosphere; it has been observed that the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is increasing at about 2 percent per decade, a change that may have implications for long-term effects on climate. (3) Power reactors will undoubtedly be the major producers of radioisotopes in the future; estimates of the benefits of these isotopes are of the order of $1000 million a year from such applications as fluid flow measurements, thickness gages, leak detection, well logging, deformation determinations, agricultural application, biological applications, and in medicine. Risks of operating nuclear power plants can be classified as: thermal pollution of the rivers and lakes; low level release of radioactivity into the air and ground waters caused by the normal operation of nuclear power and reprocessing plants; and the accidental release of large amounts of radioactivity. These risks are put in perspective by comparing them with common risks that man accepts daily--transportation, cigarette smoking, mountain climbing, etc.-- after which nuclear power seems not so risky after all

  8. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  9. Monetising the provision of informal long-term care by elderly people: estimates for European out-of-home caregivers based on the well-being valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ulrike; Kleindienst, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Providing informal care can be both a burden and a source of satisfaction. To understand the welfare effect on caregivers, we need an estimate of the 'shadow value' of informal care, an imputed value for the non-market activity. We use data from the 2006-2007 Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe which offers the needed details on 29,471 individuals in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Of these, 9768 are unpaid non-co-resident caregivers. To estimate net costs, we follow the subjective well-being valuation method, modelling respondents' life satisfaction as a product of informal care provision, income and personal characteristics, then expressing the relation between satisfaction and care as a monetary amount. We estimate a positive net effect of providing mode rate amounts of informal care, equivalent to €93 for an hour of care/week provided by a caregiver at the median income. The net effect appears to turn negative for greater high care burdens (over 30 hours/week). Interestingly, the effects of differences in care situation are at least an order of magnitude larger. We find that carers providing personal care are significantly more satisfied than those primarily giving help with housework, a difference equivalent to €811 a year at the median income. The article makes two unique contributions to knowledge. The first is its quantifying a net benefit to moderately time-intensive out-of-home caregivers. The second is its clear demonstration of the importance of heterogeneity of care burden on different subgroups. Care-giving context and specific activities matter greatly, pointing to the need for further work on targeting interventions at those caregivers most in need of them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and not the least construction and maintenance costs. The MCA is made use of to assess noise, land use planning, business potential and tourism impacts for the three alternatives. More technically the software system offers a set of different features to undertake the MCA. Thus the users have two different methods...... for society is ranked uppermost. To compare the different impacts, it is necessary to have a common monetary unit. Theoretically, all benefits and all costs should be accounted for in socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. However, this is far from in practical the general case due to difficulties...... in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking...

  11. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  12. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a

  13. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers.

  14. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  15. Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos; Stephen P. Zeldes

    2009-01-01

    One measure of the health of the Social Security system is the difference between the market value of the trust fund and the present value of benefits accrued to date. How should present values be computed for this calculation in light of future uncertainties? We think it is important to use market value. Since claims on accrued benefits are not currently traded in financial markets, we cannot directly observe a market value. In this paper, we use a model to estimate what the market price for...

  16. Conventional myelography - evaluation of risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.

    1989-01-01

    While the benefit and methodic risk of conventional myelography (KMG) are known, a radiation risk of 0.04 to 0.9 annual radiation-induced cancers can be estimated for all inhabitants of the GDR, dependent on the investigated region and the technique used. An optimized technique can reduce the radiation burden to 50 or 25%. With comparable values of benefit and radiation risk spinal CT and KMG are not contradictory but complementary investigations. Alternative methods (MRT, US) must not be discussed from the standpoint of radiation burden, but according to their availability and their methodic limitations. (author)

  17. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  18. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David / E.; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the U.S., we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization ...

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE – BETWEEN COSTS AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN VALENTINA RĂDULESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change – between costs and benefits. At global and regional levels the effects of climate change start to show up. While some of the countries make efforts to alleviate these effects and to find solutions, others are facing economic or political restrains that prevent them in applying the principle of common responsibility. The complex social, economic, and environmental implications of climate change’s effects focused a growing part of research on the analysis of costs and benefits. Although controversial, one of the methods used – the cost-benefit analysis – revealed that in most of the cases the prevention costs are lower than the costs of inaction. Prevention measures bring benefits by anticipating the impact and minimizing the risks for ecosystems and economy. The paper presents in its first part the controversies regarding the cost-benefit analysis, and continues, in the second part, with estimations on costs and benefits of certain policy instruments that target emission reduction.

  20. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  1. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  2. Cost effectiveness and benefits of photovoltaics in the Gambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Able-Thomas, U.; Hill, R.; O' Keefe, P.; Pearsall, N.M. (Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    This paper discusses the socio-economic benefits that the Gambia has derived from photovoltaics (PV) and its future potential. Technical performance, reliability and cost estimates are assessed for some PV applications. (Author)

  3. Lifetime income inequality with taxation and public benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how taxation, unemployment insurance, welfare, disability benefits and public pensions affect the inequality of lifetime income. Using results from a dynamic life-cycle model estimated using German panel data, we show that taxation and public benefits combined reduce the inequality of lifetime income, measured by the Gini coefficient, by 22\\%. Pensions only slightly reduce inequality in lifetime income. Welfare benefits, meanwhile, make persistent transfers to individua...

  4. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  5. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  6. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  7. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  8. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  9. Snuff in Colombia: costs and what benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Smith Araque Solano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This document analyzes the cost on the health system snuff consumption and compared these with the benefits obtained as employment and tax revenues in the period 1973-2008, this analysis is done from the estimation of quantitative by simple regression models and simultaneous equations model. Estimates of the conditional demand factors indicate that the tobacco industry has its own inertial dynamics, suggesting employability ynamics derived from industrial organization. Additionally, revenue generated by industrial and agricultural jobs in the tobacco industry can be funded with a fraction of the resources spent on health care consumers snuff.

  10. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 16-261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…

  11. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  12. Solving for Efficiency or Decision Criteria: When the Non-unique Nature of Solutions Becomes a Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Ciarleglio, M.; Dulay, M.; Lowry, T. S.; Sharp, J. M.; Barnes, J. W.; Eaton, D. J.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    Work in the literature for groundwater allocation emphasizes finding a truly optimal solution, often with the drawback of limiting the reported results to either maximizing net benefit in regional scale models or minimizing pumping costs for localized cases. From a policy perspective, limited insight can be gained from these studies because the results are restricted to a single, efficient solution and they neglect non-market values that may influence a management decision. Conversely, economically derived objective functions tend to exhibit a plateau upon nearing the optimal value. This plateau effect, or non-uniqueness, is actually a positive feature in the behavior of groundwater systems because it demonstrates that multiple management strategies, serving numerous community preferences, may be considered while still achieving similar quantitative results. An optimization problem takes the same set of initial conditions and looks for the most efficient solution while a decision problem looks at a situation and asks for a solution that meets certain user-defined criteria. In other words, the election of an alternative course of action using a decision support system will not always result in selection of the most `optimized' alternative. To broaden the analytical toolset available for science and policy interaction, we have developed a groundwater decision support system (GWDSS) that generates a suite of management alternatives by pairing a combinatorial search algorithm with a numerical groundwater model for consideration by decision makers and stakeholders. Subject to constraints as defined by community concerns, the tabu optimization engine systematically creates hypothetical management scenarios running hundreds, and even thousands, of simulations, and then saving the best performing realizations. Results of the search are then evaluated against stakeholder preference sets using ranking methods to aid in identifying a subset of alternatives for final

  13. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  14. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  15. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  17. The employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  18. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  19. Corporate benefits of CSR activities

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Żychlewicz

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the benefits that a company may derive from socially responsible activities. The paper lists various definitions of CSR that indicate the expected benefits stemming from its use. Both in theory and in practice, there is observed the need for strategic connection between the CSR concept and its real-life benefits.

  20. Corporate benefits of CSR activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Żychlewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the benefits that a company may derive from socially responsible activities. The paper lists various definitions of CSR that indicate the expected benefits stemming from its use. Both in theory and in practice, there is observed the need for strategic connection between the CSR concept and its real-life benefits.

  1. Cost benefit analysis vs. referenda

    OpenAIRE

    Martin J. Osborne; Matthew A. Turner

    2007-01-01

    We consider a planner who chooses between two possible public policies and ask whether a referendum or a cost benefit analysis leads to higher welfare. We find that a referendum leads to higher welfare than a cost benefit analyses in "common value" environments. Cost benefit analysis is better in "private value" environments.

  2. How isotopes benefit industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  3. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  4. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  5. Emissions - problems and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.; Hurd, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution due to emissions arising from the use of biomass in electricity generation is discussed. One of the most attractive aspects of the use of biomass is that there is no net increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. During growth biomass absorbs CO 2 ; during combustion, either directly or as biomass derived fuels, it releases CO 2 , making a closed cycle. Another benefit from the use of biomass is its typically very low sulphur content and the consequent low sulphur oxide emissions from biomass-fired generation plants. Biomass is, however, less satisfactory in relation to nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Control of the nitrogen content of the biomass feedstock, advanced high technology combustion techniques and some post-engine treatment may all be necessary to comply with the legal limits for NO x emissions. The low ash content of biomass, particularly biomass derived oils, makes it possible to limit particulate emission to very low levels. It will be important, though, to bear in mind the need to limit the sodium and potassium content to below 1 ppm by mass in bio-oil to be used in a high temperature gas turbine. Levels of micropollutants will be low if the chlorine content of biomass feedstock is low. However, residence times at peak temperature in typical gas turbines combustors are too short to destroy some micropollutants. (UK)

  6. How isotopes benefit industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-02-15

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  7. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  8. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  9. Assessing the carbon benefit of saltmarsh restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David; Hanley, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of carbon sequestration rates in coastal ecosystems is required to better realise their potential role in climate change mitigation. Through accurate valuation this service can be fully appreciated and perhaps help facilitate efforts to restore vulnerable ecosystems such as saltmarshes. Vegetated coastal ecosystems are suggested to account for approximately 50% of oceanic sedimentary carbon despite their 2% areal extent. Saltmarshes, conservatively estimated to store 430 ± 30 Tg C in surface sediment deposits, have experienced extensive decline in the recent past; through processes such as land use change and coastal squeeze. Saltmarsh habitats offer a range of services that benefit society and the natural world, making their conservation meaningful and beneficial. The associated costs of restoration projects could, in part, be subsidised through payment for ecosystem services, specifically Blue carbon. Additional storage is generated through the (re)vegetation of mudflat areas leading to an altered ecosystem state and function; providing similar benefits to natural saltmarsh areas. The Eden Estuary, Fife, Scotland has been a site of saltmarsh restoration since 2000; providing a temporal and spatial scale to evaluate these additional benefits. The study is being conducted to quantify the carbon benefit of restoration efforts and provide an insight into the evolution of this benefit through sites of different ages. Seasonal sediment deposition and settlement rates are measured across the estuary in: mudflat, young planted saltmarsh, old planted saltmarsh and extant high marsh areas. Carbon values being derived from loss on ignition organic content values. Samples are taken across a tidal cycle on a seasonal basis; providing data on tidal influence, vegetation condition effects and climatic factors on sedimentation and carbon sequestration rates. These data will inform on the annual characteristics of sedimentary processes in the estuary and be

  10. Risk estimation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, R A.D.

    1982-10-01

    Risk assessment involves subjectivity, which makes objective decision making difficult in the nuclear power debate. The author reviews the process and uncertainties of estimating risks as well as the potential for misinterpretation and misuse. Risk data from a variety of aspects cannot be summed because the significance of different risks is not comparable. A method for including political, social, moral, psychological, and economic factors, environmental impacts, catastrophes, and benefits in the evaluation process could involve a broad base of lay and technical consultants, who would explain and argue their evaluation positions. 15 references. (DCK)

  11. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Integrated Paratransit Systems : Volume 6. Technical Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    This last volume, includes five technical appendices which document the methodologies used in the benefit-cost analysis. They are the following: Scenario analysis methodology; Impact estimation; Example of impact estimation; Sensitivity analysis; Agg...

  12. Benefit-cost analysis of OHER research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesse, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for OHER. Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, included research conducted in another office in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the OHER project that developed high-purity germanium used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appeared to show benefits in excess of costs. They examined in detail one of the marine research program's accomplishments, the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model showed that, environmentally, marine research supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. Finally, the germanium case study indicated that benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant

  13. The benefits of integrating European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David; Strbac, Goran; Viehoff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission's Target Electricity Model (TEM) aims to integrate EU electricity markets. This paper estimates the potential benefit of coupling interconnectors to increase the efficiency of trading day-ahead, intra-day and balancing services across borders. Further gains are possible by eliminating unscheduled flows and avoiding the curtailment of renewables with better market design. In the short run the gains could be as high as €3.9 billion/yr, more than 100% of the current gains from trade. About one-quarter of this total comes from day-ahead coupling and another third from shared balancing. If shared balancing is so valuable, completing the TEM becomes more urgent, and regulators should ensure these gains are paid to interconnectors to make the needed investment in the cross-border links more commercially profitable. - Highlights: •The benefits from day-ahead market coupling are €1 bn/yr. •Intra-day and balancing benefits add a further €1.3 bn/yr. •Total benefits including removing unscheduled flows could be €3.4 bn/yr. •Sharing balancing and reserves is high priority. •Rewarding interconnectors for all services reduces barriers to expansion.

  14. Conjoint analysis: a pragmatic approach for the accounting of multiple benefits in southern forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Christian Zinkhan; Thomas P. Holmes; D. Evan Mercer

    1994-01-01

    With conjoint analysis as its foundation, a practical approach for measuring the utility and dollar value of non-market outputs from southern forests is described and analyzed. The approach can be used in the process of evaluating alternative silvicultural and broader natural resource management plans when non-market as well as market outputs are recognized. When...

  15. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Catterall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.

  16. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  17. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors

  18. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  19. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  20. Navigating benefit transfer for salmon improvements in the Western US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew August Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem in environmental resource management is targeting an efficient level of resource provision that maximizes societal well-being. Such management requires knowledge of both costs and benefits associated with varying management options. This paper illustrates the challenge of estimating the benefits of an improvement in a marine resource when secondary data must be used, and when total economic benefits include non-use values. An example of non-use values is existence value, which is not contingent on resource extraction nor recreational activities. State of the art techniques for adapting secondary data, or benefit transfer, are reviewed in the context of increasing anadromous salmon for an example Western US policy scenario. An extensive summary of applicable primary studies is provided, compiling observations from several studies surveying several thousand Western US households. The studies consistently indicate a high willingness to pay for increased salmon abundance. Analytical techniques for transferring data are described, with calculation examples using published tools, focusing on meta-regression and structural benefit transfer. While these advanced benefit transfer tools offer perspective on benefits beyond what can be learned by relying on a single study, they also represent a variety of challenges limiting their usefulness. While transparently navigating these issues, a monetized estimate of increased salmon for the policy case is provided, along with discussion on interpreting benefit transfer techniques and their results more generally. From this synthesis, several suggestions are also made for future primary salmon valuation studies.

  1. Guide to calculating transportation demand management benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    1997-02-14

    The full benefits of transportation demand management (TDM) programs were discussed. TDM includes several policies, programs and measures designed to change travel patterns. TDM programs include commute trip reductions, pricing policies, land use management strategies, and programs to support alternative modes of transportation such as public transit, carpooling, bicycling, walking and telecommuting. In addition to reduction in traffic congestion and reduction in air pollution, other impacts of TDM programs were also evaluated. The value of these impacts based on external cost savings was estimated. A list of documents, software and organizations which could be helpful for TDM planning and evaluation was provided. 34 refs., 14 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Childcare Programs Benefit Employers, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald J.; Massengill, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    The person selecting a childcare program should consider how various plans would benefit employers as well as employees. The needs of the employees and the company must be considered and the options, benefits, and drawbacks of programs must be studied. (JOW)

  3. Retrieval Practice Benefits Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglington, Luke G.; Kang, Sean H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to benefit learning. However, the benefit has sometimes been attenuated with more complex materials that require integrating multiple units of information. Critically, Tran et al. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22," 135-140 (2015) found that retrieval practice improves sentence memory but not the…

  4. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  5. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  6. Study on increasing commercial benefits of 60Co irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuizi; Qi Huanjiang; Xei Tong

    2004-01-01

    Estimating commercial benefits of irradiation facilities adopts commercial benefits coefficient. The effect factors are the utilization rate of irradiation energy (E), the consistency of irradiation facilities (Ci), the utilization rate of time (T), the utilization rate of space, the minimum efficient adsorption dose (Dmin), the irradiation adsorption dose uriformity (U), the sale (S), the running cost (C) et. al, and E, Ci, S, C are main in all factors. (authors)

  7. 77 FR 60745 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Benefits for Certain Children With Disabilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... laws, benefits will be paid under 38 U.S.C. 1815. Affected Public: Individuals or households. Estimated... (Application for Benefits for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans...

  8. Stated Preference Survey Estimating the Willingness to Pay ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national stated preference survey designed to elicit household willingness to pay for reductions in impinged and entrained fish at cooling water intake structures. To improve estimation of environmental benefits estimation

  9. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative......We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...

  10. Estimating the Economic Value of Environmental Amenities of Isfahan Sofeh Highland Park (The Individual Revealed and Expressed Travel Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amirnejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural resources and the environment, such as mountains are considered public goods. The main features of these public goods are lack of market and price for exchange. This issue leads to a worthless impression about these goods, lack of effort for their conservation and preventing resource degradation. One of the major benefits of environmental resources, such as mountains, is their function as environmental amenities (for leisure and recreation. The estimation of their recreational worth is important as a part of the total value of such resources. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic value of environmental amenities of Sofeh Highland Park in Isfahan by individual travel cost method. Materials and Methods: Travel cost method is used for the evaluation of public goods or environmental non-market commodities. It is applied to a wide range of areas, including tourism values of lakes and wetlands, coral reefs, biodiversity and national parks, recreational fishing and mountaineering. The travel cost approach does not ask willingness to pay directly, but imputes it from the observed behavior of other visitors through an estimated demand function, which relates the number of observed trips to the incurred travel cost. Underpinning the travel cost method is for the estimation of the recreational demand function, from which consumer surplus estimates can be derived. Consumer surplus -the measure of non-market benefits to the visitors- is the difference between what the visitor would be (theoretically willing to pay to go the intended recreational location, and what they are actually required to pay. In this research, the individual travel cost method was used. For this purpose, a 290 item questionnaire with simple random sampling was filled by travelers in the area in 2013. Then the demand function of environmental amenities (tourism demand was estimated in two scenarios by using negative binomial regression

  11. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-02

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits.

  12. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  13. Benefit-analysis of accomplishments from the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, A.M.; Weinblatt, H.; Hamilton, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Program Analysis to examine benefits from selected accomplishments of DOE's Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Research Program. The study objectives are presented. The MFE-induced innovation and accomplishments which were studied are listed. Finally, the benefit estimation methodology used is described in detail. The next seven chapters document the results of benefit estimation for the MFE accomplishments studied

  14. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  15. Annualized TASAR Benefits for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  16. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  17. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  18. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i.e., through existing VA...'' means any action taken to honor the memory of a deceased individual. 38 CFR 38.600. 3.1701 Deceased...

  19. Broadening Your Employee Benefit Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, Nancy J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Cost increases and realization of the diverse needs of employees have prompted organizations to review the cost and value of employee benefits. Examines alternatives including "cafeteria plans," managed care programs, and disability income plans. (MLF)

  20. Employee Benefit Reporting After ERISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Wesley W.

    1976-01-01

    The statutory reporting requirements of ERISA and some of the regulations recently promulgated are discussed. All type of employee benefit plans are covered. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  1. Benefits of using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Elda Vilaca

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present, especially for high school students, the benefits of the use of nuclear energy, promoting a deeper knowledge of this technology, encouraging critical thinking of students and society around them

  2. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  3. RFID Benefits; Looking Beyond ROI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilford, Shane; Kutis, Mark C

    2005-01-01

    ...) into the logistics process that are not captured by traditional Return on Investment (ROI) analysis. The authors seek to identify some of these benefits to determine their overall contribution to the value of new technology implementation...

  4. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [4] Those who contribute to scientific research ought to share in its benefits. .... women to form new relationships, social networks and develop a sense of ... or discoveries about the indigenous biological resources before.

  5. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...

  6. The benefits of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the benefits of nuclear power. Nuclear electricity generation is compared with fossil-fuel generated electricity in terms of environmental pollution and accidents and disease hazards

  7. Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kelsey; Akwataghibe, Ngozi; Fakunle, Babatunde; Wolmarans, Liezel

    2016-11-01

    A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services. We multiplied the two to produce a total cost per patient, then deducted annual out-of-pocket expenditures to estimate the total community-based health insurance scheme benefit per person. Benefits were multiplied by the total number of persons in each socioeconomic group to aggregate benefits. We used concentration curves and dominance tests to determine statistical significance at 5% and 10% levels of significance. Collectively, the poorest 20% of the population received 12% of benefits while the richest quintile received the largest share (23%). Inpatient and outpatient benefits are weakly regressive (pro-rich), statistically significant at a 10% level of significance. Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  9. The measurement of employment benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, D

    1994-07-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  10. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  11. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and as...

  12. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  13. The contingent behavior of charter fishing participants on the Chesapeake Bay: Welfare estimates associated with water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, P.J.; Breece, M.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in the Chesapeake Bay has deteriorated over recent years. Historically, fishing has contributed to the region's local economy in terms of commercial and recreational harvests. A contingent behavior model is used to estimate welfare measures for charter fishing participants with regard to a hypothetical improvement in water quality. Using a truncated Poisson count model corrected for endogenous stratification, it was found that charter fishers not only contribute to the local market economy, but they also place positive non-market value on preserving the Bay's water quality. Using two estimates for travels costs it is estimated that the individual consumer surplus is $200 and $117 per trip, and the average individual consumer surplus values for an improvement in water quality is $75 and $44 for two models estimated. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  14. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  15. A benefit-cost methodology for developing environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiter, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using benefit-cost analysis in developing generally applicable environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal. Several disposal alternatives were selected which consist of different combinations of control measures. The resulting cost and benefit estimations allow the calculation of the incremental cost of obtaining incremental benefits of radiation protection. The overall benefit of a disposal alternative is expressed in terms of an index which is based on weighting factors assigned to individual benefits. The results show that some disposal alternatives have higher costs while providing no additional benefit than other alternatives. These alternatives should be eliminated from consideration in developing standards

  16. Nurse manager succession planning: A cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tracy; Evans, Jennifer L; Tooley, Stephanie; Shirey, Maria R

    2018-03-01

    This commentary presents a cost-benefit analysis to advocate for the use of succession planning to mitigate the problems ensuing from nurse manager turnover. An estimated 75% of nurse managers will leave the workforce by 2020. Many benefits are associated with proactively identifying and developing internal candidates. Fewer than 7% of health care organisations have implemented formal leadership succession planning programmes. A cost-benefit analysis of a formal succession-planning programme from one hospital illustrates the benefits of the programme in their organisation and can be replicated easily. Assumptions of nursing manager succession planning cost-benefit analysis are identified and discussed. The succession planning exemplar demonstrates the integration of cost-benefit analysis principles. Comparing the costs of a formal nurse manager succession planning strategy with the status quo results in a positive cost-benefit ratio. The implementation of a formal nurse manager succession planning programme effectively reduces replacement costs and time to transition into the new role. This programme provides an internal pipeline of future leaders who will be more successful than external candidates. Using an actual cost-benefit analysis equips nurse managers with valuable evidence depicting succession planning as a viable business strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Parameter Estimation in Continuous Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M. ATANASIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will aim to presents the applications of a continuous-time parameter estimation method for estimating structural parameters of a real bridge structure. For the purpose of illustrating this method two case studies of a bridge pile located in a highly seismic risk area are considered, for which the structural parameters for the mass, damping and stiffness are estimated. The estimation process is followed by the validation of the analytical results and comparison with them to the measurement data. Further benefits and applications for the continuous-time parameter estimation method in civil engineering are presented in the final part of this paper.

  18. Benefit/cost comparisons for utility SMES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Steese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight cases studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES application in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios that those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in may utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems

  19. Benefit/cost comparison for utility SMES applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desteese, J. G.; Dagle, J. E.

    1991-08-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES applications in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios than those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in many utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems.

  20. Business Process Modeling: Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulska, Marta; Green, Peter; Recker, Jan; Rosemann, Michael

    The process-centered design of organizations and information systems is globally seen as an appropriate response to the increased economic pressure on organizations. At the methodological core of process-centered management is process modeling. However, business process modeling in large initiatives can be a time-consuming and costly exercise, making it potentially difficult to convince executive management of its benefits. To date, and despite substantial interest and research in the area of process modeling, the understanding of the actual benefits of process modeling in academia and practice is limited. To address this gap, this paper explores the perception of benefits derived from process modeling initiatives, as reported through a global Delphi study. The study incorporates the views of three groups of stakeholders - academics, practitioners and vendors. Our findings lead to the first identification and ranking of 19 unique benefits associated with process modeling. The study in particular found that process modeling benefits vary significantly between practitioners and academics. We argue that the variations may point to a disconnect between research projects and practical demands.

  1. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to inform the policy debate by highlighting both the potential economic benefits and environmental costs. To date, the Econometrix report (published in 2012) provides the only estimate of the economic impacts that may emanate from developing the Karoo's shale gas. The report uses a Keynesian ...

  2. The costs and benefits of a vaccination programme for Haemophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs were calculated by summing the estimated direct medical care costs together with the indirect costs of Hib disease. The latter were calculated by valuing human life using alternative, and conservative human capital and willingness-to-pay measures. The difference between Hib disease costs (Le. the benefits which ...

  3. Learners, parents and educators' perceptions of the benefits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the estimated 500 million people with disabilities around the world, 120-150 million are children. Limited research exists on learners', parents' and teachers' perceptions of the benefits and barriers associated with participation in sport for children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate what learners ...

  4. Costs and benefits of sulphur oxide control: a methodological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to present for the first time a methodology for estimating the costs and benefits of SO/sub x/ control strategies as an aid o policy formulation which could create the basis for further action in member countries. To illustrate the methodology, different control scenarios for Western Europe are developed and analyzed using the cost-benefit approach, and some preliminary conclusions are drawn. The next step assesses the impact of the emissions on ambient air quality, calculated with the aid of long-range and urban air quality models. Finally, the impact of the calculated concentrations of SO/sub x/ in the different scenarios on a number of environmental and human assets - materials, agricultural crops, health, and aquatic ecosystems - are estimated in order to have a measure of the benefits of control.

  5. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  6. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  7. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  9. Dynamic capabilities and network benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Svare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of publicly funded initiatives to establish or strengthen networks and clusters, in order to enhance innovation, has been increasing. Returns on such investments vary, and the aim of this study is to explore to what extent the variation in benefits for firms participating in networks or clusters can be explained by their dynamic capabilities (DC. Based on survey data from five Norwegian networks, the results suggest that firms with higher DC are more successful in harvesting the potential benefits of being member of a network.

  10. 42 CFR 411.204 - Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. 411... benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. (a) Medicare benefits are secondary to benefits payable by an LGHP for services furnished during any month in which the individual— (1) Is entitled to Medicare Part A benefits...

  11. 42 CFR 409.60 - Benefit periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefit periods. 409.60 Section 409.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.60 Benefit periods. (a) When benefit...

  12. 29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3 Guaranteed...

  13. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or...

  14. Risk-benefit analysis of 18FDG PET cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, Takeshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Terauchi, Takashi; Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kato, Kazuaki; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening are expected to include a large population of examinees and are intended for a healthy group. Therefore, we attempted to determine the benefit/risk ratio, estimated risk of radiation exposure, and benefit of cancer detection. We used software that embodied the method of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to calculate the average duration of life of radiation exposure. We calculated the lifesaving person years of benefit to be obtained by 18 FDG PET cancer screening detection. We also calculated the benefit/risk ratio using life-shortening and lifesaving person years. According to age, the benefit/risk ratio was more than 1 at 35-39 years old for males and 30-34 years old for females. 18 FDG PET cancer screening also is effective for examinees older than this. A risk-benefit analysis of 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) cancer screening will be necessary in the future. (author)

  15. Wind power planning: assessing long-term costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In the following paper, a new and straightforward technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic load duration curves to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. The model is applied to potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO 2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on CO 2 charges, and capital costs for wind turbines and IGCC plant is also discussed. The methodology is intended for use by energy planners in assessing the social benefit of future investments in wind power

  16. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  17. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  18. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  19. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  20. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  1. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological

  2. Business benefits protocol: March 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This document sets out guidelines in relation to promoting the business benefits of the Games. In particular it provides guidance in relation to statements, announcements and other comments made publicly about suppliers, contractors or agents etc which are undertaking work in relation to London 2012.

  3. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  4. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    accidents, including basic steps in conducting cost- benefit analyses. 15 Ill. ASSUMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS This section is used to define the scope...Analysis. Alexandria: Department of Defense, 1978. Devanney, J. W., et al. "Conference Ratemaking and the West Coast of South America," Journal of Transport

  5. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result...

  6. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis

    2018-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  7. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  8. Benefits from reducing risk of death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A

    1994-07-01

    Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States.

  9. Benefits from reducing risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.

    1994-01-01

    Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States

  10. 76 FR 2142 - Employee Benefits Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Hearing on Definition of ``Fiduciary'' AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of hearing and extension of comment period. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Employee Benefits Security Administration will...

  11. 29 CFR 1604.9 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., accident, life insurance and retirement benefits; profit-sharing and bonus plans; leave; and other terms... maternity benefits while female employees receive no such benefits. (e) It shall not be a defense under...

  12. Analysis of CDM projects’ potential benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Affonso dos Reis Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The main goal of this study is to identify and assess, within sustainability reports, information concerning potential carbon credits obtained through projects carried out under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM assumptions, as well as to assess CDM project experts’ perceptions of obstacles to entering carbon credit markets. Design/methodology/approach – exploratory, descriptive, bibliographical and documental research, and interviews. Theoretical basis - Research was based on the concepts of sustainability, especially as to environmental responsibility (CSR; cost-benefit analysis was also considered, since selling carbon credits can be a way of mitigating the trade off between immediate shareholder satisfaction and investment in CSR. Findings – The perceptions of representatives from carbon credit projects’ certifying companies was examined by means of a series of interviews – concluding that savings in costs, business marketing and certifications are even greater motivators than carbon credits themselves. We estimated that, through energy efficiency, the projects discussed in 2011 sustainability reports would be capable of saving approximately 538 million reais in costs. In addition, 40 million reais, considering the rate of the euro and of securities on December 31, 2014, would be gained through the sale of carbon credits. Practical implications – Thus, this research helps to demonstrate the significant potential for further financial gains that companies may obtain through energy efficiency and habitat restructuring, whether by taking advantage of CO2 reduction brought about by such projects, or by developing new projects that continue to benefit economy, society and the environment.

  13. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  14. School food cost-benefits: England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) associated with improvements to school food and the potential economic and health gains that may result. Calculation of costs per relevant unit (pupils and meals) based on (i) Department for Education expenditure to support improvements in school food, 2005–2011 and (ii) measures of the changes in the number of pupils taking school lunch and the number of meals served over the same time period; plus examples of the use of linked data to predict longer-term economic and health outcomes of healthier eating at school. England. Local authorities, government departments and non-departmental public bodies. Analysis of investment over a 6-year period indicates that costs of setting up and maintaining a change organization such as the School Food Trust were low in relation to short-term benefits in nutrition and behaviour. Models that predict long-terms gains to the exchequer and to quality-adjusted life years need further elaboration. Modest levels of government investment in the delivery and promotion of healthier school food is likely to yield both short-term and long-term benefits in relation to nutrition, learning, economics and health.

  15. Analysis of employee satisfaction with benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Málková, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of providing employee benefits. The first part describes the benefits from a theoretical point of view, here is also mentioned a research about the benefits and an impact of the economic crisis on providing the benefits. The second part is focused on describing the benefits of a particular company, KOMIX Inc., an analysis of an employee satisfaction with the benefits with using a questionnaire survey and suggestion of ways to improve the current sys...

  16. Variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ziegel; Eva B. Vedel Jensen; Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen

    2011-01-01

    The precision of stereological estimators based on systematic sampling is of great practical importance. This paper presents methods of data-based variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators where errors in sampling positions may occur. Variance estimators are derived under perturbed systematic sampling, systematic sampling with cumulative errors and systematic sampling with random dropouts. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.

  17. Wider benefits of adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuller, Tom; Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of the social outcomes of learning. It extends the discussion beyond employment and labor market outcomes to consider the impact of adult learning on social domains, with particular focus on health and civic engagement. It emphasizes the distinction between ...... public and private, and monetary and nonmonetary benefits. It reviews methodological issues on measuring outcomes, and identifies a number of channels through which adult learning has its effects....

  18. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. (Author)

  19. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  20. Risk versus benefit in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radiology may be grouped into a) those inherent in the use of ionizing radiation which today are well known and b) those associated with the use of any scientific method in medicine. Inherent risks of scientific methods like inadequate examination and the interpretation of results are discussed. Radiology brought major benefits in medical care and some of the newer methods are considered

  1. Methodology of cost benefit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report addresses financial aspects of proposed investments and other steps which are intended to contribute to nuclear safety. The aim is to provide introductory insight into the procedures and potential of cost-benefit analyses as a routine guide when making decisions on costly provisions as one of the tools to assess whether a particular provision is reasonable. The topic is applied to the nuclear power sector. (P.A.)

  2. The failure of community benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John D

    2005-01-01

    Though proponents of tax exemption for health care providers continue to extol the virtues of the community-benefit test, Part II of this article illustrates that the train pretty much has already left the station on this front. Both the federal government and the states increasingly look to uncompensated care as the touchstone of exemption for health care providers. To a great extent, this transition back to a "relief of the poor" standard for exemption is the result of the inherent lack of precision in community benefit standards, along with the general trend of empirical evidence that nonprofit health care providers behave similarly to their for-profit counterparts. Faced with this situation, federal and state policymakers naturally have focused on charity care as the one quantifiable behavioral difference to justify exemption. Nevertheless, some empirical evidence suggests that nonprofits may engage in socially desirable behavior other than simply free care for the poor, and the arguments that a mixed ownership system provides the best overall health care model cannot be dismissed out of hand. Thus, despite my past criticisms of the community benefit formulation, I have come to the view that we should seriously consider the options available beyond complete repeal of the community benefit test or a return to a strict charity-care exemption standard. I continue to believe that we should demand a fairly high level of "accountability" from exemption, however, and that exemption should have some direct causal connection to whatever socially-desirable behavior we are seeking. While one option along these lines is to adopt Nina Crimm's approach of rewarding specific behaviors through a deduction or credit system, using "enhancing access" as a test of exemption may provide the best combination of flexibility and verifiable behavioral differences to support continued exemption for health care providers.

  3. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W. (Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  4. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  5. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  7. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  8. Ionization radiations - basis, risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to discuss the use of ionizing radiations in an impartial way. Ionizing radiation is potentially harmfull; excessive doses have a devastating effect on living cells. However, there is no direct, conclusive evidence of human disability, either in the form of cancer or genetic anomalies, arising as a consequence of low-level doses of x- or gamma-rays of about 0.01 Gray (1 rad) the entire dose range involved in medical radiography or in nuclear industry. Statements appearing in the press that a certain number of excess cancers will be produced are estimates, based maybe on plausible assumptions, but estimates nevertheless; they are not measured quantities or established facts. A balanced view of radiation must include appreciation of the substantial benefits which result from their use in both medicine and industry. The risks are small and hard to demonstrate, and it is instructive to make a comparison with the other hazards occuring continually in an industrialized society, such as driving a motorcar or smoking cigarettes. (Author)

  9. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    . Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...

  10. 20 CFR 416.421 - Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits. 416.421 Section 416.421 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.421 Determination of benefits...

  11. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  12. Pricing Externalities to Balance Public Risks and Benefits of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sebastian; Cotton-Barratt, Owen; Snyder-Beattie, Andrew

    How should scientific funders evaluate research with public health risks? Some risky work is valuable, but accepting too much risk may be ethically neglectful. Recent controversy over H5N1 influenza experiments has highlighted the difficulty of this problem. Advocates of the research claim the work is needed to understand pandemics, while opponents claim that accidents or misuse could release the very pandemic the work is meant to prevent. In an attempt to resolve the debate, the US government sponsored an independent evaluation that successfully produced a quantitative estimate of the risks involved, but only a qualitative estimate of the benefits. Given the difficulties of this "apples-to-oranges" risk-benefit analysis, what is the best way forward? Here we outline a general approach for balancing risks and benefits of research with public risks. Instead of directly comparing risks and benefits, our approach requires only an estimate of risk, which is then translated into a financial price. This estimate can be obtained either through a centrally commissioned risk assessment or by mandating liability insurance, which allows private markets to estimate the financial burden of risky research. The resulting price can then be included in the cost of the research, enabling funders to evaluate grants as usual-comparing the scientific merits of a project against its full cost to society. This approach has the advantage of aligning incentives by assigning costs to those responsible for risks. It also keeps scientific funding decisions in the hands of scientists, while involving the public on questions of values and risk experts on risk evaluation.

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Theissen, Kevin; Bernknopf, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Geography Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted this cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of The National Map. This analysis is an evaluation of the proposed Geography Discipline initiative to provide the Nation with a mechanism to access current and consistent digital geospatial data. This CBA is a supporting document to accompany the Exhibit 300 Capital Asset Plan and Business Case of The National Map Reengineering Program. The framework for estimating the benefits is based on expected improvements in processing information to perform any of the possible applications of spatial data. This analysis does not attempt to determine the benefits and costs of performing geospatial-data applications. Rather, it estimates the change in the differences between those benefits and costs with The National Map and the current situation without it. The estimates of total costs and benefits of The National Map were based on the projected implementation time, development and maintenance costs, rates of data inclusion and integration, expected usage levels over time, and a benefits estimation model. The National Map provides data that are current, integrated, consistent, complete, and more accessible in order to decrease the cost of implementing spatial-data applications and (or) improve the outcome of those applications. The efficiency gains in per-application improvements are greater than the cost to develop and maintain The National Map, meaning that the program would bring a positive net benefit to the Nation. The average improvement in the net benefit of performing a spatial data application was multiplied by a simulated number of application implementations across the country. The numbers of users, existing applications, and rates of application implementation increase over time as The National Map is developed and accessed by spatial data users around the country. Results from the 'most likely' estimates of model parameters and data inputs indicate that

  14. 20 CFR 229.45 - Employee benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee benefit. 229.45 Section 229.45 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.45 Employee benefit. The original...

  15. Improving Employee Benefits: Doing the Right Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Joe

    1990-01-01

    With some exceptions, child care workers receive fewer employee benefits than workers in other occupations. The employer's and the employee's point of view on employee benefits are discussed. Also considers availability of benefits in child care and the obstacles to improved benefits for workers. (DG)

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  17. Employment effects of the Danish rehabilitation benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Palle B; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Social benefits aim to bring marginalised citizens back into the labour force. As benefits constitute a burden for tax payers, attention has been given to measure the effect. We used register data to assess the employment effect of rehabilitation benefit; the most liberal social benefit in Denmark....

  18. 22 CFR 191.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.21 Section 191.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE Medical Benefits § 191.21 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1211.525... Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  20. 22 CFR 192.31 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.31 Section 192.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.31 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part...

  1. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 1317... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  2. 38 CFR 9.14 - Accelerated Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accelerated Benefits. 9...' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.14 Accelerated Benefits. (a) What is an Accelerated Benefit? An Accelerated Benefit is a payment of a portion of your Servicemembers' Group Life...

  3. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted benefits. 148.220 Section 148.220 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption; Excepted Benefits § 148.220 Excepted benefits... provision of the benefits described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (or any combination of the...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health benefits plan under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (established under chapter 89 of title 5...

  5. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  6. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000 for...

  7. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 113.525 Section... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  8. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may...

  9. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 196.525 Section 196.525... Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  10. 38 CFR 23.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 23.525... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  11. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  12. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  13. 7 CFR 1430.204 - Requesting benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting benefits. 1430.204 Section 1430.204... Program § 1430.204 Requesting benefits. (a) A request for benefits or contract application, under this... MILC benefits must certify the accuracy and truthfulness of the information in their contract...

  14. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 2555.525 Section 2555.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  15. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a) Type of benefits. A former spouse who meets the eligibility requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  16. 29 CFR 36.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 36.525 Section 36.525 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  17. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1805 - Paying benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits. 404.1805 Section 404.1805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payment Procedures § 404.1805 Paying benefits. (a) As soon as possible after we have made a determination...

  19. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 618.525 Section 618.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  1. 24 CFR 3.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 3.525 Section 3... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  2. Research Update. The Benefits of Leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of scientific knowledge and research regarding the benefits of leisure. The review focuses on physiological, psychophysiological, economic, environmental, psychological, and sociocultural benefits. It discusses the need for documentation on the magnitude of benefits leisure provides as well as lists of benefits to compete for…

  3. The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From a Spanish Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huizen, Thomas; Dumhs, Lisa; Plantenga, Janneke

    2017-11-20

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit-cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost-benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role. Overall, the cost-benefit analysis provides support for investing in high-quality preschool education. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... models to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits and risks of influenza vaccination. The public...] Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A... Influenza Disease Models to Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A Technical Workshop...

  5. Cost-benefit study of school nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Vernon-Smiley, Mary; Gapinski, Mary Ann; Desisto, Marie; Maughan, Erin; Sheetz, Anne

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, across the United States, many school districts have cut on-site delivery of health services by eliminating or reducing services provided by qualified school nurses. Providing cost-benefit information will help policy makers and decision makers better understand the value of school nursing services. To conduct a case study of the Massachusetts Essential School Health Services (ESHS) program to demonstrate the cost-benefit of school health services delivered by full-time registered nurses. Standard cost-benefit analysis methods were used to estimate the costs and benefits of the ESHS program compared with a scenario involving no school nursing service. Data from the ESHS program report and other published studies were used. A total of 477 163 students in 933 Massachusetts ESHS schools in 78 school districts received school health services during the 2009-2010 school year. School health services provided by full-time registered nurses. Costs of nurse staffing and medical supplies incurred by 78 ESHS districts during the 2009-2010 school year were measured as program costs. Program benefits were measured as savings in medical procedure costs, teachers' productivity loss costs associated with addressing student health issues, and parents' productivity loss costs associated with student early dismissal and medication administration. Net benefits and benefit-cost ratio were calculated. All costs and benefits were in 2009 US dollars. During the 2009-2010 school year, at a cost of $79.0 million, the ESHS program prevented an estimated $20.0 million in medical care costs, $28.1 million in parents' productivity loss, and $129.1 million in teachers' productivity loss. As a result, the program generated a net benefit of $98.2 million to society. For every dollar invested in the program, society would gain $2.20. Eighty-nine percent of simulation trials resulted in a net benefit. The results of this study demonstrated that school nursing services provided in

  6. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  7. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  8. Long-term benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Sørensen, J; Søgaard, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years.......The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years....

  9. Motivation of employees and employee benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Haninger, David

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis examines the subject of employee motivation and employee benefits. The basic terms and theories needed to comprehend the subject are explained in the theoretical part of the work. The theoretical part of the work also focuses on employee benefits, mainly the goal of employee benefits and listing of currently available employee benefits. In the practical part of the work is an analysis and comparison of employee benefits used in two companies that are representing privat...

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Isaza, Carlos Adrian; Vasquez Sanchez, Edison; Chavarria Munera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  11. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college. PMID:26709315

  12. The Generalized Roy Model and the Cost-Benefit Analysis of Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Philipp; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The literature on treatment effects focuses on gross benefits from program participation. We extend this literature by developing conditions under which it is possible to identify parameters measuring the cost and net surplus from program participation. Using the generalized Roy model, we nonparametrically identify the cost, benefit, and net surplus of selection into treatment without requiring the analyst to have direct information on the cost. We apply our methodology to estimate the gross benefit and net surplus of attending college.

  13. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs. FY 2005 - FY 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report describes a benefits analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2005 budget request will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable. It summarizes the results of the analysis, which focused on economic, environmental, and security benefits related to energy. The report identifies specific measures or indicators of estimated benefits for FY 2005.

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  15. Estimating Discount Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Booth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Discount rates are essential to applied finance, especially in setting prices for regulated utilities and valuing the liabilities of insurance companies and defined benefit pension plans. This paper reviews the basic building blocks for estimating discount rates. It also examines market risk premiums, as well as what constitutes a benchmark fair or required rate of return, in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the U.S. Federal Reserve’s bond-buying program. Some of the results are disconcerting. In Canada, utilities and pension regulators responded to the crash in different ways. Utilities regulators haven’t passed on the full impact of low interest rates, so that consumers face higher prices than they should whereas pension regulators have done the opposite, and forced some contributors to pay more. In both cases this is opposite to the desired effect of monetary policy which is to stimulate aggregate demand. A comprehensive survey of global finance professionals carried out last year provides some clues as to where adjustments are needed. In the U.S., the average equity market required return was estimated at 8.0 per cent; Canada’s is 7.40 per cent, due to the lower market risk premium and the lower risk-free rate. This paper adds a wealth of historic and survey data to conclude that the ideal base long-term interest rate used in risk premium models should be 4.0 per cent, producing an overall expected market return of 9-10.0 per cent. The same data indicate that allowed returns to utilities are currently too high, while the use of current bond yields in solvency valuations of pension plans and life insurers is unhelpful unless there is a realistic expectation that the plans will soon be terminated.

  16. Cost and Benefit of Control Strategies - Estimation of Benefit functions, enforcement-probability function and enforcement-cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

    of undersized lobsters and illegal bycactch of cod. The enforcement to avoid the illegal activities consists of physical control, such as dock side inspections and boarding, and administrative control with integration of different databases. This paper presents the first steps in the application of the theory...

  17. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  18. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stanley

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality.

  19. Potential benefits from the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussing the potential benefits from the CTBT monitoring in Africa, analysis and data communication systems it was concluded that although yet undeveloped, the possibilities arising from participation in CTBT regime are being identified. The integrated data obtained from the verification technologies of the CTBT should open further horizons for civil society. The main topics of interest are: treaty related science and technology developments, monitoring techniques, ideas and initiatives for expanding existing activities and developing cooperation, including the issues of regional centres and centres of excellence

  20. Radiographic screening of edentulous patients: sense or nonsense? A risk-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keur, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The benefits of radiographic examination of symptomless edentulous patients are presented. Based on data from the literature, an estimate of the risk of fatal malignancy from such a procedure is provided. Because the benefits are considerable and the risks low, a recommendation for selective screening of edentulous patients is made

  1. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  2. The Attainability of University Degrees and Their Labour Market Benefits for Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…

  3. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  4. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  5. A Comprehensive View On Benefits From Product Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    In many cases the phenomenon of product modularization is presented in an inherently positive way. Based on the frequency of these positive cases it might be expected that product modularization is a universal cure for any competitive weaknesses experienced by manufacturing or service companies....... Definitely, the many various aspects of product modularization have demonstrated substantial potentials regarding improved and enhanced competitiveness, but our empirical studies illustrate that the efforts in regards to realizing specific product modularization benefits need to be managed carefully. Our...... studies illustrates that the expected and the realized benefits from a product modularization effort rarely match. In most cases the companies have only weak estimations about both the type and the magnitude of the potential benefits when planning the modularization project. This indicates a serious need...

  6. Firms' innovation benefiting from networking and institutional support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    2016-01-01

    Firms' networking for innovation is embedded in institutions of society, where national policies are increasingly designed to provide institutional support for firms' networking and thereby benefit innovation. But, globally, what are the quantitative and qualitative effects of institutional support...... for networking and, in turn, for innovation? 68 countries with 18,880 firms were surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, enabling generalization to the firms in the countries around the world. Two-level modeling shows that firms' networking benefits both process and product innovation. Institutional...... support does not significantly affect quantity of networking, but greatly enhances quality of networking in the sense that support for networking in a country enhances the benefits of networking for both process and product innovation. Contrasting low and high support for networking leads to estimating...

  7. Ionizing radiation: benefits vs. risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    No one has been identifiably injured by radiation within the levels set by the NCRP and ICRP in 1934. This fact and the level of natural radiation (average dose 102 millirems/year) help provide standards against which the authors can view the relative increases in exposure from manmade sources of radiation. Because one person in five in the US will die of cancer from all causes, it is impossible to detect small increases in some types of cancer from radiation. A valid assumption is that any exposure to radiation carries some possibility of harm and should be kept below the level of the expected benefits. More is known about radiation toxicity than about any other potentially toxic substances. An obstacle to progress in the use of radioactive materials in biology and medicine is an exaggerated impression by the public of the risk of radiation. Several studies indicate that the public perceives the risk of radiation to be the greatest of all societal risks and at times does not distinguish peaceful from military uses of radiation. It behooves scientists and physicians to inform the public about the benefits as well as the risks of procedures involving radiation

  8. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  9. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  10. The benefits of management training

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    After six years an unusual management course remains very popular. Participants in the most recent session of 3CM course, with the external course leader Ton Bastiaans (left back), Lyn Evans, LHC project leader (3rd from the right) and Sudeshna Datta Cockerill (far right) who organises the management and communication courses. In 1996 a sceptical Lyn Evans agreed to act as the 'sponsor' from CERN's senior management for a new course on 'Introduction to management', aimed at young professionals at CERN who may in the near future have supervisory roles. CERN's LHC Project Leader quickly discovered that it is a 'remarkable course' and six years later he remains enthusiastic about its value. His role is to attend at the end of the last day and to listen to the reactions of the participants - how they have benefited and how they see the benefits to CERN. The session also gives the participants the opportunity to discuss with one of the Directorate their views on problems at CERN. Code-named 3CM, and run by an ex...

  11. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  12. The benefits of improving recreation quality and quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; Holmes, R

    1994-07-01

    Of all valuation areas in environmental economics, studies addressing the nonmarketed services of recreation (mostly fishing and mostly salt water-based) are by far the most prevalent, owing to the early insight on valuation methods offered by the Clawson travel cost model; the theoretical complexities, and thus the academic attractiveness of estimating benefits in this area; many government funders; and widely available data. To give some idea of the magnitude of work in this area, Smith and Kaoru (1990) performed a meta-analysis on 77 studies of recreation demand, and Walsh, Johnson, and McKean 1988) reviewed 120 studies of the value of various types of recreation-activity days. Most of these studies pertain to individual sites or clusters of sites in a region. Some seek estimates of national recreation benefits.

  13. The benefits of improving recreation quality and quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; Holmes, R.

    1994-01-01

    Of all valuation areas in environmental economics, studies addressing the nonmarketed services of recreation (mostly fishing and mostly salt water-based) are by far the most prevalent, owing to the early insight on valuation methods offered by the Clawson travel cost model; the theoretical complexities, and thus the academic attractiveness of estimating benefits in this area; many government funders; and widely available data. To give some idea of the magnitude of work in this area, Smith and Kaoru (1990) performed a meta-analysis on 77 studies of recreation demand, and Walsh, Johnson, and McKean 1988) reviewed 120 studies of the value of various types of recreation-activity days. Most of these studies pertain to individual sites or clusters of sites in a region. Some seek estimates of national recreation benefits

  14. Million trees Los Angeles canopy cover and benefit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; Q. Xiao; C. Wu

    2011-01-01

    The Million Trees LA initiative intends to improve Los Angeles’s environment through planting and stewardship of 1 million trees. The purpose of this study was to measure Los Angeles’s existing tree canopy cover (TCC), determine if space exists for 1 million additional trees, and estimate future benefits from the planting. High-resolution QuickBird remote sensing data...

  15. BENEFITS OF WILDERNESS EXPANSION WITH EXCESS DEMAND FOR INDIAN PEAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Richard G.; Gilliam, Lynde O.

    1982-01-01

    The contingent valuation approach was applied to the problem of estimating the recreation benefits from alleviating congestion at Indian Peaks wilderness area, Colorado. A random sample of 126 individuals were interviewed while hiking and backpacking at the study site in 1979. The results provide an empirical test and confirmation of the Cesario and Freeman proposals that under conditions of excess recreational demand for existing sites, enhanced opportunities to substitute newly designated s...

  16. Medical Tourism: A Cost or Benefit to the NHS?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Horsfall, Daniel; Lunt, Neil; Smith, Richard

    2013-01-01

    'Medical Tourism' - the phenomenon of people travelling abroad to access medical treatment - has received increasing attention in academic and popular media. This paper reports findings from a study examining effect of inbound and outbound medical tourism on the UK NHS, by estimating volume of medical tourism and associated costs and benefits. A mixed methods study it includes analysis of the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS); interviews with 77 returning UK medical tourists, 63 policym...

  17. Do recommender systems benefit users? a modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-04-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide purchase choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products remains less explored. While in many cases the recommended products are relevant to users, in other cases customers may be tempted to purchase the products only because they are recommended. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and find that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one always follows the recommendations and seldom purchases according to his or her own preference. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some of the studied algorithms. On the other hand, we find that high estimated accuracy indicated by common accuracy metrics is not necessarily equivalent to high real accuracy in matching users with products. This disagreement between estimated and real accuracy serves as an alarm for operators and researchers who evaluate recommender systems merely with accuracy metrics. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems can benefit users, but the more frequently a user purchases the recommended products, the less relevant the recommended products are in matching user taste.

  18. Evaluating the benefits of commercial building energy codes and improving federal incentives for code adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2014-12-16

    The federal government has the goal of decreasing commercial building energy consumption and pollutant emissions by incentivizing the adoption of commercial building energy codes. Quantitative estimates of code benefits at the state level that can inform the size and allocation of these incentives are not available. We estimate the state-level climate, environmental, and health benefits (i.e., social benefits) and reductions in energy bills (private benefits) of a more stringent code (ASHRAE 90.1-2010) relative to a baseline code (ASHRAE 90.1-2007). We find that reductions in site energy use intensity range from 93 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (California) to 270 MJ/m(2) of new construction per year (North Dakota). Total annual benefits from more stringent codes total $506 million for all states, where $372 million are from reductions in energy bills, and $134 million are from social benefits. These total benefits range from $0.6 million in Wyoming to $49 million in Texas. Private benefits range from $0.38 per square meter in Washington State to $1.06 per square meter in New Hampshire. Social benefits range from $0.2 per square meter annually in California to $2.5 per square meter in Ohio. Reductions in human/environmental damages and future climate damages account for nearly equal shares of social benefits.

  19. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England

  20. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1990-91: Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The report details, in tabular form, non-pension benefits offered by each of 17 Ontario universities. These include: supplementary health insurance; long term disability; sick leave entitlement; sick leave-benefits continuance; long term disability-benefits continuance; life insurance; survivor benefit; dental plan; post-retirement benefits;…

  1. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... regulation will be 0.75 percent for the period during which a benefit is in pay status and 4.00 percent... PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation...

  2. Online benefits solutions--a new trend in managing employee benefits programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Mohammad; Brunaczki, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the array of online benefits solutions offered by technology companies and reports the benefits to both employers and employees. Some of the benefits include reduced paperwork, reduced errors, and reduced administration costs. Companies that can deliver these benefits will be in great demand to help manage benefits programs and streamline the administrative processes.

  3. 20 CFR 404.467 - Nonpayment of benefits; individual entitled to disability insurance benefits or childhood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... type of substantial gainful activity. (b) Childhood disability benefits. An individual who has attained... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.467 Nonpayment of benefits; individual entitled to disability insurance benefits... definition of disability for disability insurance benefits purposes based on statutory blindness, as defined...

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of sustainable energy development using life-cycle co-benefits assessment and the system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy policy was assessed using the system dynamics approach. • A life table approach was presented to estimate averted loss of life expectancy. • The mortality benefits estimated by VSL and VSLY are found to be similar. • Economic feasibility of the energy policy for climate change mitigation was presented. - Abstract: A novel Air Resource Co-benefits model was developed to estimate the social benefits of a Sustainable Energy Policy, involving both renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency improvements (EEI). The costs and benefits of the policy during 2010–2030 were quantified. A system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the amount of energy saving under the scenario of promoting both RE and EEI. The life-cycle co-reductions of five criteria pollutants (PM 10 , SO 2 , NOx, CO, and ozone) and greenhouse gas are estimated by assuming coal fired as marginal electricity suppliers. Moreover, a concise life table approach was developed to estimate averted years of life lost (YOLL). The results showed that YOLL totaling 0.11–0.21 years (41–78 days) per capita, or premature deaths totaling 126,507–251,169, is expected to be averted during 2010–2030 under the RE plus EEI scenario. Specifically, because of the higher investment cost, the benefit-cost ratio of 1.9–2.1 under the EEI scenario is lower than the 7.2–7.9 under the RE scenario. This difference reveals that RE is more socially beneficial than EEI. The net benefit of the RE and EEI scenarios during 2010–2030 totaled approximately US$ 5,972–6,893 per person or US$ 170–190 per MW h. To summarize, this study presents a new approach to estimate averted YOLL, and finds that the health benefits can justify the compliance costs associated with the Sustainable Energy Policy

  5. Disentangling the benefits of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction remains one of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of theoretical work has defined the conditions under which sex can be favoured through this effect. Over the last decade, experimental evolution in model organisms has provided evidence that sex indeed allows faster rates of adaptation. A new study on facultatively sexual rotifers shows that increased rates of sex can be favoured during adaptation to new environmental conditions and explores the cause of this effect. The results provide support for the idea that the benefits of increasing genetic variation may compensate for the short-term costs of sexual reproduction.

  6. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  7. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mazumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds.

  8. Exercise Benefits Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ai, Dongmei; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a group of diseases that include: no symptoms, angina, myocardial infarction, ischemia cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death. And it results from multiple risks factors consisting of invariable factors (e.g. age, gender, etc.) and variable factors (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, etc.). Meanwhile, CHD could cause impact not only localized in the heart, but also on pulmonary function, whole-body skeletal muscle function, activity ability, psychological status, etc. Nowadays, CHD has been the leading cause of death in the world. However, many clinical researches showed that exercise training plays an important role in cardiac rehabilitation and can bring a lot of benefits for CHD patients.

  9. Estimating Equilibrium Effects of Job Search Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Muller, Paul; van der Klaauw, Bas

    that the nonparticipants in the experiment regions find jobs slower after the introduction of the activation program (relative to workers in other regions). We then estimate an equilibrium search model. This model shows that a large scale role out of the activation program decreases welfare, while a standard partial...... microeconometric cost-benefit analysis would conclude the opposite....

  10. Benefits and challenges of localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Martin

    2009-01-01

    One of the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor's principal design features is its simple modular construction. This feature is suited particularly well for localization and offers a good opportunity to further develop an existing national nuclear industry or as in the case of Romania, establish new nuclear enterprises. When the first commercial 540 MW multi-unit CANDU reactors entered service in 1971, Canada's population of less than 24 million supported only a 'medium' level of industrial development and therefore lacked the heavy industrial capabilities of larger countries and regions such as the USA, Japan and Europe. A key motivation for the government of Canada in developing the CANDU design was to ensure that it would have the autonomous capacity to build and operate nuclear power reactors without depending on foreign sources for key components and supply of enriched uranium. Further examples of successful CANDU technology localization include India, which achieved almost complete localization of the 220 MW CANDU Prototype design in the early 1970s as well as Korea where AECL transferred the CANDU 6 700 MWe reactor design and manufacturing technology enabling the Koreans to supply over 75% of equipment for the fourth unit. In China on the Qinshan Phase 3 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant, Chinese contractors performed most of the construction and AECL has arranged for the transfer of full CANDU fuel processing and fabrication technology. As indicated one of the primary benefits realized from localization has been the creation of a nuclear power program that enables a recipient country in the pursuit of an independent national energy strategy. While a secondary benefit is the generation of wealth and economic activity in countries with strong indigenous nuclear equipment manufacturing capability. (author)

  11. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  12. Profitable marketing: marketing for non marketing managers. Ceuta Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was conducted with 20 Managers from Ceuta Healthcare to raise their awareness of the power of marketing and give them a set of marketing tools to improve the success rate of their business development activities

  13. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  14. Costs and benefits of bicycling investments in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Promoting bicycling has great potential to increase overall physical activity; however, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the amount and effectiveness of investment needed for infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess how costs of Portland's past and planned investments in bicycling relate to health and other benefits. Costs of investment plans are compared with 2 types of monetized health benefits, health care cost savings and value of statistical life savings. Levels of bicycling are estimated using past trends, future mode share goals, and a traffic demand model. By 2040, investments in the range of $138 to $605 million will result in health care cost savings of $388 to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 to $218 million, and savings in value of statistical lives of $7 to $12 billion. The benefit-cost ratios for health care and fuel savings are between 3.8 and 1.2 to 1, and an order of magnitude larger when value of statistical lives is used. This first of its kind cost-benefit analysis of investments in bicycling in a US city shows that such efforts are cost-effective, even when only a limited selection of benefits is considered.

  15. Risks, benefits, health and the food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines consumer attitudes and purchase behaviour towards risks and benefits of food products. Experimental approaches are used to analyse determinants of consumer risk and benefit perceptions regarding food products. The results suggest that perceptions and behaviour of consumers

  16. Predicting Employer's Benefits from Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.; Page, Norman R.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to predict employer benefits resulting from their involvement in cooperative education programs. Benefits include a good source of quality employees, increased worker motivation, and increased respect between students and employers. (JOW)

  17. AWARENESS OF THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    The aim of this study therefore was to determine awareness of breastfeeding benefits ... benefits of breastfeeding are important factors for breastfeeding practices. Awareness .... practicing Exclusive Breastfeeding in the first six months of ...

  18. Olive Oil: What Are the Health Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs), you may gain certain health benefits. MUFA s and PUFA s may help lower your risk ... In addition, some research shows that MUFA s may benefit insulin levels and blood sugar control, which can ...

  19. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin ... the Use of Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ...

  20. Family planning costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.