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Sample records for non-maltreated comparison children

  1. The Effects of Secret Instructions and Yes/no Questions on Maltreated and Non-maltreated Children's Reports of a Minor Transgression.

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    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; McWilliams, Kelly; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations. Yes/no questions specifically asking about the transgression elicited disclosures from almost half of the children who had not previously disclosed, and false alarms were rare. DYR questions led to ambiguous responding among a substantial percentage of children, particularly younger children. The findings highlight the difficulties of eliciting transgression disclosures without direct questions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The cortisol awakening response and anterior cingulate cortex function in maltreated depressed versus non-maltreated depressed youth.

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    Quevedo, Karina; Doty, Jennifer; Roos, Leslie; Anker, Justin J

    2017-09-05

    Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and dACC activity during a self-appraisal task were assessed in maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth. Hierarchical linear models were employed to model the CAR. Maltreatment group, dACC activity during positive and negative self-appraisals as well as other key predictors, were included in the models. Post hoc analyses explored explanations for significant differences. Results indicated that maltreated depressed youth exhibited a higher CAR compared to non-maltreated youth. At low levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth's CAR did not differ. However, at elevated levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated depressed youth exhibited significantly higher CAR compared to non-maltreated depressed youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children

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    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Muris, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggest

  4. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

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    Benenson, Joyce F; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  5. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

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    Joyce F Benenson

    Full Text Available Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  6. Reactive aggression among maltreated children: the contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation.

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    Shields, A; Cicchetti, D

    1998-12-01

    Examined the complex interplay among emotion, attention, and aggression in a sample of 141 maltreated and 87 non-maltreated impoverished, inner-city children. Data were collected during a summer day camp, which provided an ecologically valid setting for studying children's behavior in social contexts. Maltreated children were more likely than non-maltreated children to be aggressive, with findings suggesting that physically abused children were at heightened risk for reactive aggression. Maltreated children also evidenced attention deficits, and subclinical or nonpathological dissociation was more likely among children who had experienced physical or sexual abuse. A history of abuse also predicted emotion dysregulation, affective lability/negativity, and socially inappropriate emotion expressions. This emotion dysregulation, fostered by poor attention modulation, was a mechanism of the effects of maltreatment on reactive aggression.

  7. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  8. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

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    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  9. Comparison of intonation production in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children

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    Mandana Nourbakhsh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to defects of auditory feedback, children with hearing loss have inappropriate speech intonation. Consistently, results of previous studies have shown that cochlear-implanted children have some difficulties in their intonation. Intonation shows the type of the sentence which can be statement or question sentences. The purpose of this study was comparison of speech intonation in cochlear-implanted children and normal hearing children.Methods: The present study was performed on 25 cochlear-implanted children and 50 normal hearing children. Different pictures were shown to the subjects and they said statement and question sentences. All sentences were heard by eight speech therapists and perceptually judged. Using praat software mean base frequency and pitch alterations were measured.Results: In cochlear-implanted group, mean speech base frequency was higher and mean pitch alteration was lower than the control group. Mean experts' scores in cochlear-implanted group were lower than the control group. Differences in all three variables were statistically significant (p<0.05. There was a significant direct correlation between duration of time that the children had cochlear implant and perceptual judgment scores (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results, cochlear implant prosthesis has limited efficacy in improving speech intonation; although their ability to produce speech intonation improves by increasing duration of the time that children have cochlear implant. Thus speech therapists should consider intervening on speech intonation in treatment program of cochlear-implanted children.

  10. Comparison of morning and afternoon exercise training for asthmatic children

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    C.S. Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitness improvement was used to compare morning with afternoon exercise periods for asthmatic children. Children with persistent moderate asthma (according to GINA criteria, 8 to 11 years old, were divided into 3 groups: morning training group (N = 23, afternoon training group (N = 23, and non-training group (N = 23. The program was based on twice a week 90-min sessions for 4 months. We measured the 9-min running distance, resting heart rate and abdominal muscle strength (sit-up number before and after the training. All children took budesonide, 400 µg/day, and an on demand inhaled ß-agonist. The distance covered in 9 min increased (mean ± SEM from 1344 ± 30 m by 248 ± 30 m for the morning group, from 1327 ± 30 m by 162 ± 20 m for the afternoon group, and from 1310 ± 20 m by 2 ± 20 m for the control group (P 0.05 for morning with afternoon comparison. The reduction of resting heart rate from 83 ± 1, 85 ± 2 and 86 ± 1 bpm was 5.1 ± 0.8 bpm in the morning group, 4.4 ± 0.8 bpm in the afternoon group, and -0.2 ± 0.7 bpm in the control group (P > 0.05 for morning with afternoon comparison and P 0.05 for morning with afternoon comparison and P < 0.05 versus control. No statistically significant differences were detected between the morning and afternoon groups in terms of physical training of asthmatic children.

  11. Comparison of reading skills between children with cochlear implants and children with typical hearing in Iran.

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    Weisi, Farzad; Rezaei, Mohammad; Rashedi, Vahid; Heidari, Atta; Valadbeigi, Ayoub; Ebrahimi-Pour, Mona

    2013-08-01

    Cochlear implantation has significant effects on language abilities and reading skills. The current study compared the reading performance of children with cochlear implants with that of typically developing children in second and third grades. This descriptive-analytic study was performed including 24 children with cochlear implants and 24 typically developing peers. The grade range of the participants was second and third grades. All of students were selected from Tehran city elementary schools. The reading performance of children was assessed by the "Nama" reading test. The results showed that the means of reading scores of typically developed children were significantly greater than the children with cochlear implants (P reading skills and age of surgery (P reading skills and the period of cochlear implantation (P reading skills in comparison to typically developing children due to lower accessibility to phonological information. However, this limitation can be compensated for partly by early surgery. Parents should refer their deaf children for cochlear implantation before the age of language learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Children's body image and social comparisons with peers and the media.

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    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2015-11-25

    Social comparisons are related to the development of body dissatisfaction among adolescents and adults, yet this relationship remains relatively unexamined among children. This study examines children's peer and media-related social comparisons, and how this impacts on their body image. Children aged 8-10 years completed interviews (17 girls and 19 boys in individual interviews, and 16 girls and 16 boys in focus groups). Analyses revealed that appearance-related comparisons were more common among girls, whereas sports/ability-related comparisons were more common for boys. In addition, boys viewed media comparisons as inspiring, whereas girls reported negative emotions. Implications for future research and prevention programmes are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs.

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    Lopata, Christopher; Smith, Rachael A; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Lee, Gloria K; McDonald, Christin A

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures.

  14. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

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    Christopher Lopata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs, yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses; (b examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children’s average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures.

  15. Effects of social comparison on aggression and regression in groups of young children.

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    Santrock, J W; Smith, P C; Bourbeau, P E

    1976-09-01

    The influence of negative, equal, and positive social comparison and of nonsocial comparison upon 4- and 5-year-old black children's subsequent aggressive and regressive behavior in 3-member groups was investigated. The group behavior of boys included more physical agression following negative social comparison than the other treatments, and their group behavior also consisted of more nonverbal teasing behavior following the negative comparison treatment than that of the equal and nonsocial comparison groups. When the behavior of the nontarget partners was controlled, children initiated more physical aggression, nonverbal teasing, and regression after experiencing negative social comparison with the partners than after following the other treatments. There was some evidence to support the reciprocal influence of children's aggressive behavior on each other, particularly for boys following imbalanced social comparison treatments.

  16. Gender comparisons in children with ASD entering early intervention.

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    Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David

    2017-09-01

    Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of serum aminotranferases in overweight and obese children

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    Ayu Shintia Shanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity has become a global issue. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a metabolic complication of obesity, and indicated by elevated serum aminotransferases. Objective To compare serum aminotransferase levels in overweight and obese children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015. A total of 82 subjects aged 6-10 years met the study criteria. Blood specimens and data concerning lifestyle and family history using questionnaires were collected. Subjects were divided into three groups based on BMI: overweight, obese, and severely obese. Comparisons of serum aminotransferase levels were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests, with P values < 0.05. Results The median serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels in overweight, obese, and severely obese subjects were 14 (IQR 6-42 U/L, 15 (IQR 11-44 U/L, and 23 (IQR 9-59 U/L, respectively (P=0.031. The median serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in overweight, obese, and severely obese subjects were 22 (IQR 17-36 U/L, 22 (IQR 16-32 U/L, and 24 (IQR 15-41 U/L, respectively (P=0.049. Post hoc analysis revealed that median serum ALT levels were significantly higher in the severely obese group than in the overweight group [-8.982 (95% CI -14.77 to -3.20; P=0.003], as well as in the obese group [-5.297 (95% CI -10.58 to -0.02; P=0.049]. In addition, the median serum AST level was significantly higher in the severely obese group than in the obese group [-2.667(95% CI -5.27 to -0.07; P= 0.044]. Conclusion Median serum ALT and AST levels are significantly higher in severely obese children than in obese and overweight children.

  18. Do children participate in the activities they prefer? A comparison of children and youth with and without physical disabilities

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    Bult, M. K.; Verschuren, O.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.; Ketelaar, M.

    Objective: To assess the discrepancy between the leisure activities children prefer and the leisure activities they actually participate in, for children with and without a physical disability, and to explore how in both groups this is related to age and gender. Design: Cross-sectional comparison.

  19. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

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    Javad GHAFFARI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghaffari J, Abbaskhanian A, Jalili M, Yazdani Charati Y. IQ Score of Children With Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: Comparison with Healthy Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3: 44-48. AbstractObjectivePrevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children.Intelligence quotient (IQ is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children.Material & MethodsThis was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for hildren was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively.Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50% in the case group and 90 children (50%, the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57% were male and 80 (43% were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females.ConclusionAlthough allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.  ReferencesGhaffari J, Mohammadzadeh I, Khaliian A, Rafatpanah H, Mohammadjafari H, Davoudi A. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in elementary schools in Sari(Iran. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine

  20. A Comparison Study of Psychiatric and Behavior Disorders and Cognitive Ability Among Homeless and Housed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; North, Carol S.; LaVesser, Patricia D.; Osborne, Victoria A.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association of homelessness and related factors with child psychiatric and behavior disorders (diagnosed with structured diagnostic interviews) and child cognitive ability (on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) in a randomly selected sample of 157 homeless children and their mothers and a comparison of 61 housed children and their mothers. Homeless children had more disruptive behavior disorders and lower cognitive scores than housed children. In multivariate analyse...

  1. Detection of fever in children emergency care: comparisons of tactile and rectal temperatures in Nigerian children

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    Okafor Olubukola O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical thermometry is the objective method for temperature measurements but tactile assessment of fever at home is usually the basis for seeking medical attention especially where the cost and level of literacy preclude the use of thermometers. This study was carried out to determine the reliability of tactile perception of fever by caregivers, nurses and house physicians in comparison to rectal thermometry and also the use of commonly practiced surface of the hand in the care of ill children. All caregivers of children aged 6 to 59 months who presented to the emergency department were approached consecutively at the triage stage but 182 children participated. Each child had tactile assessment of fever using palmar and dorsal surfaces of the hand by the caregivers, House Physicians and Nursing Officers. Rectal temperature was also measured and read independently by nurses and house physicians. Comparisons were made between tactile assessments and thermometer readings using a cut-off for fever, 38.0°C and above. Findings The caregivers' perception of fever had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of 95%, 23%, 66% and 73%, respectively compared with 93%, 26%, 67% and 69%, respectively for nursing officers. Irrespective of the groups studied, 77.1% of 336 assessors opined that the dorsal surface of the hand was more sensitive in tactile assessment of temperature and the frequently used site for assessment of fever were the head (35.6% and neck (33.3%. Tactile assessment of temperature over-detected fever in ≥ 24% of cases among the three groups of assessors. Conclusions The present study suggests that tactile assessment of temperature may over estimate the prevalence of fever, it does not detect some cases and the need for objective measurement of temperature is emphasised in paediatric emergency care.

  2. Cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian children: comparison with UK Indian and white European children.

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    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available UK Indian adults have higher risks of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes than Indian and UK European adults. With growing evidence that these diseases originate in early life, we compared cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian, UK Indian and white European children.Comparisons were based on the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort Study (MPBCS, India and the Child Heart Health Study in England (CHASE, which studied 9-10 year-old children (538 Indian, 483 UK Indian, 1375 white European using similar methods. Analyses adjusted for study differences in age and sex.Compared with Mysore Indians, UK Indians had markedly higher BMI (% difference 21%, 95%CI 18 to 24%, skinfold thickness (% difference 34%, 95%CI 26 to 42%, LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.48, 95%CI 0.38 to 0.57 mmol/L, systolic BP (mean difference 10.3, 95% CI 8.9 to 11.8 mmHg and fasting insulin (% difference 145%, 95%CI 124 to 168%. These differences (similar in both sexes and little affected by adiposity adjustment were larger than those between UK Indians and white Europeans. Compared with white Europeans, UK Indians had higher skinfold thickness (% difference 6.0%, 95%CI 1.5 to 10.7%, fasting insulin (% difference 31%, 95%CI 22 to 40%, triglyceride (% difference 13%, 95%CI 8 to 18% and LDL-cholesterol (mean difference 0.12 mmol/L, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.19 mmol/L.UK Indian children have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile, especially compared to Indian children. These differences, not simply reflecting greater adiposity, emphasize the need for prevention strategies starting in childhood or earlier.

  3. Threat-based cognitive biases in anxious children: comparison with non-anxious children before and after cognitive behavioural treatment.

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    Waters, Allison M; Wharton, Trisha A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Craske, Michelle G

    2008-03-01

    Attention and interpretation biases for threat stimuli were assessed in 19 anxious (ANX) children before and after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and compared with responses from 19 non-anxious (NA) control children collected over the same period. Attentional bias was assessed using a picture version of the visual probe task with threat, neutral and pleasant pictures. Threat interpretation bias was assessed using both a homographs task in which children used homograph words in a sentence and their neutral or threatening meaning was assessed, and a stories task in which children rated their negative emotion, danger judgments, and influencing ability in ambiguous situations. ANX children showed attention biases towards threat on the visual probe task and threat interpretation biases on the stories task but not the homographs task at pre-treatment in comparison with NA children. Following treatment, ANX children's threat interpretation biases as assessed on the stories task reduced significantly to within levels comparable to NA children. However, ANX children continued to show larger attentional biases towards threat than pleasant pictures on the visual probe task at post-treatment, whereas NA children did not show attentional biases. Moreover, a residual threat interpretation style on the stories task at post-treatment was associated with higher anxiety symptoms in both ANX and NA children.

  4. Comparison of sudden deafness in adults and children.

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    Na, Se Young; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have assessed sudden deafness in adults, sudden deafness has not been evaluated in children. We therefore evaluated the differences in sudden deafness between children and adults. We compared clinical manifestations, including gender, audiogram pattern of initial hearing loss, and recovery rate after treatment in 87 children and 707 adults diagnosed with sudden deafness from September 2003 and August 2012. There were no differences in sex, side, or audiogram between children and adults (P>0.05 each). Hearing recovery rates in children and adults were 72.4% and 70.6%, respectively (P>0.05). Both children and adults with mild hearing loss showed significantly greater hearing recovery rates than individuals with profound hearing loss (P<0.05 each). The percentage with initially mild and moderate hearing loss was higher in children than in adults, as were the recovery rates of children compared to adults with initially mild, moderate-severe, and profound hearing loss (P<0.05 each). In regard to final hearing outcome after treatment, a low percentage of children showed no improvement whereas a high percentage showed complete recovery; a higher percentage of children than of adults showed complete recovery (P<0.05). Recovery rate from profound hearing loss was significantly higher in children than in adults (60.0% vs. 45.4%, P<0.05). Degree of hearing loss, gender, side, and recovery rate were similar in children and adults, but the rate of complete recovery was higher in children.

  5. The Effect of "Origami" Practice on Size Comparison Strategy among Young Japanese and American Children.

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    Yuzawa, Masamichi; Bart, William M.; Kinne, Lenore J.; Sukemune, Seisoh; Kataoka, Minako

    1999-01-01

    Explored the effect of folding traditional origami forms on size comparison strategies among 4- to 6-year-old Japanese and American children. Found that girls in particular improved superimposition skills through practice, and children's use of superimposition strategies rather than less effective strategies also increased. (JPB)

  6. Intellectual Estimates of Hearing-Impaired Children: A Comparison of Three Measures

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    Ritter, David R.

    1976-01-01

    The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)

  7. A Comparison of Intensive Behavior Analytic and Eclectic Treatments for Young Children with Autism

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    Howard, Jane S.; Sparkman, Coleen R.; Cohen, Howard G.; Green, Gina; Stanislaw, Harold

    2005-01-01

    We compared the effects of three treatment approaches on preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorders. Twenty-nine children received intensive behavior analytic intervention (IBT; 1:1 adult:child ratio, 25-40 h per week). A comparison group (n=16) received intensive ''eclectic'' intervention (a combination of methods, 1:1 or 1:2 ratio, 30…

  8. Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum via Analogical Comparison

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    Gentner, Dedre; Levine, Susan C.; Ping, Raedy; Isaia, Ashley; Dhillon, Sonica; Bradley, Claire; Honke, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering--namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results…

  9. A Comparison of Parenting Dimensions Between Deaf and Hearing Children.

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    Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda

    2016-06-01

    Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents.

  10. The comparison of intelligence levels of children born to kidney or liver transplant women with children of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Mazanowska, Natalia; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Pietrzak, Bronislawa

    2017-08-16

    Pregnancy after transplantation is associated with high risk of complications and prenatal exposure to immunosuppressants. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the intellectual development of children born to women after organ transplantation. A comparison of intelligence levels in 78 children of kidney or liver transplant women of 78 children born to healthy mothers. The assessment of intellectual level in children was conducted by psychologists and evaluated using age-adjusted intelligence tests (Psyche Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, Terman-Merril Intelligence Scale or the Scales of Raven's Progressive Matrices). No significant differences in the distribution of the quotient of intelligence between children born to kidney and liver transplant women were noted (Chi(2) = 5.037; p = .284). Also no differences in the distribution of intelligence levels were noted between the children of transplanted and healthy mothers in infants and toddlers (Chi(2) = 3.125; p = .537); preschool (Chi(2) = 1.440; p = .692), and school age children (Chi(2) = 4.079; p = .395). The intellectual development of children of post-transplant women is similar to the general population. These results provide information on the low risk of intellectual disability in children of transplanted mothers and may improve counseling on the planning of pregnancy in this group of women.

  11. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  12. Physical comparison between Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In growth studies, somatotyping allows one to characterize changes in physique during growth in order to monitor growth patterns and to better understand variations in adult physique. Information on the physique of children with short stature is limited In Indonesia the study of somatotype for Pygmy children had never been done. The aims of this study were to compare the physiques of Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children and to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in physiques. The sample consisted of 61 Rampasasa Pygmy (32 boys and 29 girls and 319 Javanese children in Yogyakarta (173 boys and 146 girls aged 8–13 years. Height, weight, biepicondylar breadths of the humerus and femur, calf and upper arm circumferences, and skinfolds (at triceps, subscapula, calf, and supraspine were measured on each subject. We used somatotyped by the Heath-Carter method. The results showed that the Pygmy children were shorter, lighter, and less endomorphic than the Yogyakarta children. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children could be related mainly to environment background in the two areas.

  13. Comparison of psychopathology in the mothers of autistic and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Sunay; Diler, Rasim Somer; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and general psychological symptoms in the mothers of autistic children in comparison with those in the mothers of mentally retarded children. Forty mothers of autistic children and 38 mothers of mentally retarded children were included in the study. After a clinical interview, psychometric tests were performed for depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and Symptom Distress Check List (SCL-90) for general psychological symptoms. Non-depression rates was 27.5% in the mothers of autistic children whereas the rate was 55.3% in the mothers of mentally retarded children. There was no difference regarding anxiety and alexithymia between the two groups. The psychopathology in the mothers of autistic children was more frequent than in those of mentally retarded children in all sub-scales of SCL-90 (somatization obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thought, psychotism, and extra scale). The mothers of autistic children experienced more psychological distress than those of mentally retarded children. Our findings indicates that the assessment of autistic and mentally retarded children should include psychological assessment of their mothers.

  14. Longitudinal Comparison of Early Speech and Language Milestones in Children with Cleft Palate: A Comparison of US and Slovak Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children…

  15. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  16. Comparison of temperaments of children with and without baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, F; Wilson, S; Coury, D L; Preisch, J W

    1998-01-01

    Several demographic studies have been done to identify children at risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD). Discussions have described these children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay as strong tempered, cranky, restless, and fussy. The parents of these children have acknowledged these behaviors. To determine whether there were differences in temperament, children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay were compared with children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay by assessing the nine temperament components described by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) questionnaire. Parents completed the temperament questionnaire and ninety-two children between twelve and thirty-six months old were studied. Scores for the nine temperament components were tabulated and temperament difficulty was determined as defined by the authors of the toddler Temperament Scale. At-test comparison between the two groups revealed no significant difference for the nine temperament components. There was also no difference when comparing clusters of the nine components. The conclusion is that there is no difference in the temperaments between the group of children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and the comparison group of children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay.

  17. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  18. Multifractal comparison of the painting techniques of adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Taylor, R. P.

    2010-02-01

    Statistical analysis of art, particularly of the abstract genre, is becoming an increasingly important tool for understanding the image creation process. We present a multifractal clustering analysis of non-representational images painted by adults and children using a 'pouring' technique. The effective dimensions (D0) are measured for each, as is the associated multifractal depth ▵D = D0 - DOO. It is shown that children create paintings whose dimensions D0 are less than those created by adults. The effective dimensions for adult painters tend to cluster around 1.8, while those for children assume typical values of 1.6. In a similar fashion, the multifractal depths for images painted by adults and children show statistically-significant differences in their values. Adult paintings show a relatively shallow depth (▵D ~ 0.02), while children's paintings show a much greater depth (▵D ~ 0.1). Given that the 'pouring' technique reflects the body motions of the artist, the results suggest that the differences in the paintings' fractal characteristics are potential indicators of artist physiology.

  19. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  20. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Their Parents: A Comparison of Children From Married and Divorced Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Young children's perceptions of their parents have been shown to affect responses to parents, and to be relevant in personality development and self-esteem. Typically, research examining children's perceptions of their parents focused on children from intact families. Yet, with the frequent occurrence of divorce in our society, and the trauma and lifestyle changes often associated with marital dissolution, it is possible that children's perceptions of their parents may also change. This ...

  1. Tense and Temporality: A Comparison between Children Learning a Second Language and Children with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Crago, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This study compared the morphosyntax of French speaking children with specific language impairment to the morphosyntax of English speaking children acquiring a second language (French). Findings indicated that use of morphosyntax by both groups has significant similarities and children in both groups demonstrated optional infinitive effects in…

  2. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  3. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  4. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  5. Comparison of different methods of temperature measurement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecessary investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006. In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body temperature was obtained from 4 measurement sites: tactile assessment, forehead and ear by electronic thermometer, rectal temperature in small children (up to 2 years of age or axillar temperature in older children by mercury thermometer. Tympanic thermometry was considered as a standard for fever detection. Results The sensitivity of rectal temperature to detect fever is 46.67%, while specificity is 92.19%. The sensitivity of fever detection by electronic thermometry on the forehead is lower according to rectal thermometry - 36.08%, while specificity is 95.18%. The lowest values of sensitivity are recorded in axillar thermometry (35.82%, specificity is 90.20%. The correlation coefficient is higher between tympanic and rectal temperature measurement (r=0.5076, p<0.0005, than between tympanic and forehead measurements (r=0.5076, p<0,0005, while the lowest was between tympanic and axillar measurement sites (r=0.4933, p<0.0005. Conclusions The results of our study and literature data show that the most accurate methods of thermometry are rectal measurement of body temperature in small children and tympanic thermometry in children over 2 years of age.

  6. Young Children's Competency to Take the Oath: Effects of Task, Maltreatment, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-04-01

    This study examined maltreated and non-maltreated children's (N = 183) emerging understanding of "truth" and "lie," terms about which they are quizzed to qualify as competent to testify. Four- to six-year-old children were asked to accept or reject true and false (T/F) statements, label T/F statements as the "truth" or "a lie," label T/F statements as "good" or "bad," and label "truth" and "lie" as "good" or "bad." The youngest children were at ceiling in accepting/rejecting T/F statements. The labeling tasks revealed improvement with age and children performed similarly across the tasks. Most children were better able to evaluate "truth" than "lie." Maltreated children exhibited somewhat different response patterns, suggesting greater sensitivity to the immorality of lying.

  7. A comparison of differential reinforcement procedures with children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Brittany A; Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M; Argott, Paul J; Kisamore, April N

    2015-12-01

    The current evaluation compared the effects of 2 differential reinforcement arrangements and a nondifferential reinforcement arrangement on the acquisition of tacts for 3 children with autism. Participants learned in all reinforcement-based conditions, and we discuss areas for future research in light of these findings and potential limitations.

  8. Semantic categorization: A comparison between deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In

  9. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  10. Semantic categorization: A comparison between deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In

  11. Exploring tool innovation: a comparison of Western and Bushman children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Tomaselli, Keyan; Mushin, Ilana; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    A capacity for constructing new tools, or using old tools in new ways, to solve novel problems is a core feature of what it means to be human. Yet current evidence suggests that young children are surprisingly poor at innovating tools. However, all studies of tool innovation to date have been conducted with children from comparatively privileged Western backgrounds. This raises questions as to whether or not previously documented tool innovation failure is culturally and economically specific. In the current study, thus, we explored the innovation capacities of children from Westernized urban backgrounds and from remote communities of South African Bushmen. Consistent with past research, we found tool innovation to occur at extremely low rates and that cultural background had no bearing on this. The current study is the first to empirically test tool innovation in children from non-Western backgrounds, with our data being consistent with the view that despite its key role in human evolution, a capacity for innovation in tool making remains remarkably undeveloped during early childhood.

  12. A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…

  13. Reading, Writing, and Math Self-Concept in Elementary School Children: Influence of Dimensional Comparison Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Lindberg, Sven; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model (Marsh, "Am Educ Res J" 23:129-149, 1986) conceptualizes students' self-concepts as being formed by dimensional as well as social comparison processes. In the present study, the I/E model was tested and extended in a sample of elementary school children. Core academic skills of…

  14. A Cross-National Comparison of Art Curricula for Kindergarten-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejin; Kim, Hajin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to make a cross-national comparison of art curricula for kindergarten-aged children across five countries--Korea, Norway, New Zealand, Slovakia and Singapore. A document analysis was conducted on the five curricula using a constant comparative approach for selected qualitative statements to analyse two major constructs:…

  15. A Comparison of Neuropsychological Test Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Pesonen, Aino-Elina

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of eight-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=21), learning disorder (LD) (n=12), or both (n=27) on neuropsychological measures found that ADHD children were impaired in control and inhibition of impulses; children with LD in phonological awareness, verbal memory span, storytelling, and verbal IQ;…

  16. Age- and sex-related emotional and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: comparison with control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Uno, Hiroyuki; Kawabe, Kentaro; Okada, Fumi; Saito, Isao; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2014-07-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often present with emotional and behavioral problems, which could change the clinical course, especially during childhood, and affect future quality of life. The aim of this study was to clarify the age- and sex-related differences of these problems in ASD. The study subjects were 173 patients with ASD (age: 4-16 years) and 173 age- and sex-matched community children (control group). The parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used for comparison of the emotional and behavioral problems between the two groups. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were significantly higher in children with ASD than controls at all ages. The score of total difficulties was significantly higher in girls with ASD than in boys, while the score in male controls was significantly higher than in female controls. Age-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems were observed both in children with ASD and controls, but the characteristics were different: in children with ASD, emotional symptoms and peer problems in both sexes and conduct problems in girls increased significantly with age, while none of the problems in the controls changed with age except for a decrease in the score of hyperactivity/inattention developmentally in both sexes. Prosocial behaviors of children with ASD and controls showed small changes with age. Emotional and behavioral problems are common in children with ASD and showed age- and sex-related differences. Our study emphasizes the importance of recognizing those differences among children with ASD for early intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Comparison of Recruitment Strategy Outcomes in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Christina H; Winglee, Marianne; Kwan, Jennifer; Andrews, Linda; Hudak, Mark L

    2017-07-19

    In 2000, the US Congress authorized the National Institutes of Health to conduct a prospective national longitudinal study of environmental influences on children's health and development from birth through 21 years. Several recruitment methodologies were piloted to determine the optimal strategy for a main National Children's Study. After an initial pilot recruitment that used a household enumeration strategy performed poorly, the National Children's Study Vanguard Study developed and evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of 4 alternate strategies to recruit a large prospective national probability sample of pregnant women and their newborn children. We compare household-based recruitment, provider-based recruitment, direct outreach, and provider-based sampling (PBS) strategies with respect to overall recruitment success, efficiency, cost, and fulfillment of scientific requirements. Although all 5 strategies achieved similar enrollment rates (63%-81%) among eligible women, PBS achieved the highest recruitment success as measured by the ratio of observed-to-expected newborn enrollees per year of 0.99, exceeding those of the other strategies (range: 0.35-0.48). Because PBS could reach the enrollment target through sampling of high volume obstetric provider offices and birth hospitals, it achieved the lowest ratio of women screened to women enrolled and was also the least costly strategy. With the exception of direct outreach, all strategies enrolled a cohort of women whose demographics were similar to county natality data. PBS demonstrated the optimal combination of recruitment success, efficiency, cost, and population representativeness and serves as a model for the assembly of future prospective probability-based birth cohorts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Lopata; Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Gloria K. Lee; McDonald, Christin A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measu...

  19. Comparison of BMI and physical activity between old order Amish children and non-Amish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Kristen G; Ducharme, Julie L; Treuth, Margarita S; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Jastreboff, Ania M; Ryan, Kathy A; Shi, Xiaolian; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Snitker, Soren

    2013-04-01

    The Old Order Amish (OOA) is a conservative Christian sect of European origin living in Pennsylvania. Diabetes is rare in adult OOA despite a mean BMI rivaling that in the general U.S. non-Hispanic white population. The current study examines childhood factors that may contribute to the low prevalence of diabetes in the OOA by comparing OOA children aged 8-19 years with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data and children from Maryland's Eastern Shore (ES), a nearby, non-Amish, rural community. We hypothesized that pediatric overweight is less common in OOA children, that physical activity (PA) and BMI are inversely correlated, and that OOA children are more physically active than ES children. We obtained anthropometric data in 270 OOA children and 229 ES children (166 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, 3 Hispanic). PA was measured by hip-worn accelerometers in all ES children and in 198 OOA children. Instrumentation in 43 OOA children was identical to ES children. OOA children were approximately 3.3 times less likely than non-Hispanic white ES children and NHANES estimates to be overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Time spent in moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA) was inversely correlated to BMI z-score (r = -0.24, P = 0.0006). PA levels did not differ by ethnicity within the ES group, but OOA children spent an additional 34 min/day in light activity (442 ± 56 vs. 408 ± 75, P = 0.005) and, impressively, an additional 53 min/day in MVPA (106 ± 54 vs. 53 ± 32, P children. In both groups, boys were more active than girls but OOA girls were easily more active than ES boys. We confirmed all three hypotheses. Together with our previous data, the study implies that the OOA tend to gain their excess weight relatively late in life and that OOA children are very physically active, both of which may provide some long-term protection against diabetes.

  20. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention.

  1. Timing Abilities among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) in Comparison to Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Regev, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Timing ability is essential for common everyday performance. The aim of the study was to compare timing abilities and temporal aspects of handwriting performance and relationships between these two components among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) and a control group. Forty two children, 21 diagnosed as DCD and 21 with…

  2. Comparison of snakebite cases in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, R; Sula, B; Cakır, G; Aktar, F; Deveci, Ö; Yolbas, I; Çelen, M K; Bekcibasi, M; Palancı, Y; Dogan, E

    2015-01-01

    There are very few studies that compare the snakebite cases in children and adults. The present study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and developed complications in pediatric and adult patients due to snakebites. This study included the patients admitted to the hospital and monitored due to snakebite between July 1999 and December 2012. The condition of each patient who had been bitten was admitted to the hospital was monitored from the time of admission to the end of their hospital stay. The fact that a snakebite occurred was recorded if the subjects saw the snake or if the appearance of the puncture sites was convincingly a snakebite. The present work included 290 patients, of whom 123 were children and 167 were adults. The most common location of the bites was the lower extremity with 78.9% (n=97) and 63.5% (n=106) in pediatric and adult patients, respectively. All of the pediatric patients received prophylactic treatment with antibiotics, whereas 62 (37.1%) adult patients received antimicrobial treatments due to the soft tissue infection. The most common complication developed was pulmonary edema in children at a rate of 33.3% (n=41) and compartment syndrome in adult patients at a rate of 3% (n=5). Patients admitted to the hospital due to snakebite should be monitored for at least 12 hours, even if there is no sign of clinical envenomation. Antivenom treatment should be administered to the patients requiring clinical staging. Patients should be kept under close monitoring to prevent the development of serious complications such as cellulitis, pulmonary edema, compartment syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  3. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  4. A comparison of clinical and nonclinical groups of children on the bender - gestalt and draw a person tests

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared a clinical and a control sample of Turkish children on the Bender Gestalt and Draw A Person tests. 44 of the children from a clinic sample were compared to 44 children from a matched nonclinical school sample The tests were scored according to the Koppitz criteria. ANOVA comparisons showed differences on the Bender Gestalt test, and the HFD. The two groups did not differ on the number of Emotional Indicators. Correct classification of the children in the clinical gr...

  5. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  6. Perceived social competency in children with brain tumors: comparison between children on and off therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Watral, Melody Ann; Bonner, Melanie J

    2010-01-01

    Children with brain tumors are at risk for a number of cognitive, academic, and social difficulties as a consequence of their illness and its treatment. Of these, the least is known about social functioning, particularly over the course of the illness. Thirty children with brain tumors were evaluated using neurocognitive and psychological measures, including a measure of perceived competency. Results indicated that off-therapy brain tumor patients reported more concerns about their social competence than both a normative sample and children on treatment. Findings highlight the need for more research aimed at helping survivors cope with long-term stressors associated with their illness.

  7. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  8. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  9. The Comparison of Malocclusion Prevalence Between Children with Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.

  10. VEP characteristics in children with achiasmia, in comparison to albino and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecelj, Jelka; Sustar, Maja; Pečarič-Meglič, Nuška; Skrbec, Miha; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

    2012-04-01

    Achiasmia is a rare disorder of visual pathway maldevelopment that can show diverse clinical and magnetic resonance imaging spectra. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that differentiate abnormal optic-nerve-fibre decussation in children with achiasmia versus children with albinism and healthy children. In four children with achiasmia, the following VEP characteristics were studied and compared to children with ocular albinism and with healthy control children: (a) flash and pattern onset VEP interhemispheric asymmetry; (b) flash N2, P2 and onset C1 amplitudes and latencies; (c) interocular polarity differences in interhemisphere potentials; and (d) chiasm coefficients (CCs). In the children with achiasmia, VEPs were related to an absence of or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: ipsilateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the ipsilateral hemisphere (p VEP features (uncrossed asymmetry and positive CC) were also seen if additional visual pathway maldevelopment (such as severe optic nerve hypoplasia and/or absence of the optic tractus on one side) were associated with achiasmia. In the children with albinism, the VEPs were related to excess optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: contralateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the contralateral hemisphere (p VEPs to flash stimulation were more robust and more clearly distinguished between the conditions compared with the VEPs to pattern onset stimulation. VEPs in achiasmia are associated with absent or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation, where ipsilateral interhemispheric asymmetry is associated with interocular inverse polarity and a negative CC.

  11. Sleep problems in primary school children: comparison between mainstream and special school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, L

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports on a study of the prevalence and social correlates of dyssomnias, features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, and parasomnias in primary school children aged 4-12. Head teachers of schools selected randomly from lists of local primary and special schools were contacted by telephone and asked to distribute a questionnaire package to the parents of all pupils aged 4-12 years. In all, 890 parents of children from mainstream schools and 300 from special schools were approached. The response rates were 64.7% and 60%, respectively. The results showed that significantly higher proportions of children in special schools than in mainstream schools presented four of the five dyssomnias investigated and all of the features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. In contrast, only two of the seven parasomnias were presented by higher proportions of the children in special schools. Age and gender differences for the two groups of children are presented. Finally, multiple correlations were computed between a range of child, family, and environmental characteristics and the three problems most frequently reported: frequency of settling problems; sleeping in the parents' bed; and night waking. The findings are discussed with reference to other studies of children's sleep problems, and the implications for treatment are considered.

  12. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  13. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  14. Young children's difficulty with indirect speech acts: implications for questioning child witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lee, Kang; Lyon, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infelicitous choice of questions can significantly underestimate children's actual abilities, independently of suggestiveness. One possibly difficult question type is indirect speech acts such as "Do you know..." questions (DYK, e.g., "Do you know where it happened?"). These questions directly ask if respondents know, while indirectly asking what respondents know. If respondents answer "yes," but fail to elaborate, they are either ignoring or failing to recognize the indirect question (known as pragmatic failure). Two studies examined the effect of indirect speech acts on maltreated and non-maltreated 2- to 7-year-olds' post-event interview responses. Children were read a story and later interviewed using DYK and Wh- questions. Additionally, children completed a series of executive functioning tasks. Both studies revealed that using DYK questions increased the chances of pragmatic failure, particularly for younger children and those with lower inhibitory control skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZi, Afshin; Salari, Elham; Ali KHAJEH; GAJARPOUR, Abdi

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4):33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical...

  16. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H

    1996-08-01

    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group.

  17. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolathu Parambil Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M and triclofos sodium group (Group T of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Results: Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002. Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population.

  18. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-06-01

    The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population.

  19. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L

    1986-04-01

    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  20. The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.

  1. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of resource restricted (P<0.05.The prevalence of overweight concerns in urban and rural areas. These results highlight the relation between socio-economic status and prevalence of obesity among children.

  2. Comparison of indicators of iron deficiency in Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frederick K E; Martorell, Reynaldo; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Cole, Conrad R; Ruth, Laird J; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2012-05-01

    In the absence of a feasible, noninvasive gold standard, iron deficiency (ID) is best measured by the use of multiple indicators. However, the choice of an appropriate single iron biomarker to replace the multiple-criteria model for screening for ID at the population level continues to be debated. We compared ID defined as ≥ 2 of 3 abnormal ferritin ( 8.3 mg/L), or zinc protoporphyrin (ZP; > 80 μmol/mol) concentrations (ie, multiple-criteria model) with ID defined by abnormal concentrations of any of the independent candidate iron biomarkers (ferritin alone, TfR alone, or ZP alone) and TfR/ferritin index (ID, > 500). Values either were adjusted for inflammation [as measured by C-reactive protein (> 5 mg/L) and α(1)-acid glycoprotein (> 1 g/L) before applying cutoffs for ID] or were unadjusted. In this community-based cluster survey, capillary blood was obtained from 680 children (aged 6-35 mo) for measurement of iron status by using ferritin, TfR, and ZP. On the basis of the multiple-criteria model, the mean (±SE) prevalence of ID was 61.9 ± 2.2%, whereas the prevalences based on abnormal ferritin, TfR, or ZP concentrations or an abnormal TfR/ferritin index were 26.9 ± 1.7%, 60.9 ± 2.2%, 82.8 ± 1.6%, and 43.1 ± 2.3%, respectively, for unadjusted values. The prevalences of ID were higher for adjusted values only for low ferritin and an elevated TfR/ferritin index compared with the unadjusted values. The κ statistics for agreement between the multiple-criteria model and the other iron indicators ranged from 0.35 to 0.88; TfR had the best agreement (κ = 0.88) with the multiple-criteria model. Positive predictive values of ID based on the other iron indicators in predicting ID based on the multiple-criteria model were highest for ferritin and TfR. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that TfR (AUC = 0.94) was superior to the other indicators in diagnosing ID based on the multiple-criteria model (P < 0.001). The inflammation effect did

  3. Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: a comparison with children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group. To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups. Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI. For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for. The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  4. A comparison of urinary mercury between children with autism spectrum disorders and control children.

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    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. METHODS: Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD compared to their siblings (n = 42 and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121 and special schools (n = 34. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. CONCLUSIONS: This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors.

  5. Collaborative Learning: Comparison of Outcomes for Typically Developing Children and Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, J. G.; Willis, D. S.; Cebula, K. R.; Pitcairn, T. K.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative learning is widely used in mainstream education but rarely utilized with children who have intellectual disabilities, possibly on the assumption that the metacognitive skills on which it capitalizes are less likely to be available. Effects of collaborative learning experience on a core cognitive skill, sorting by category, were…

  6. Comparison of Pausing Behavior in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Have Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Jessica Monique; Viera, Renata Alves Torello; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Arcuri, Claudia Fassin; Osborn, Ellen; Perissinoto, Jacy; Schiefer, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research was to compare the number and types of grammatical and non-grammatical silent pauses presented by stutterers and subjects with Asperger syndrome in their narratives. Method: Ten children who stutter and four participants with Asperger syndrome (mean ages of both groups 10 years) were assessed at the Speech…

  7. Social comparison processes and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn

    2006-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between social comparison processes and depressive symptoms in 36 participants (34 males and two females) aged 10 to 16 years with Asperger syndrome. Participants completed the Social Comparison Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the SCS (r = 0.52, p = 0.001), specifically perceived group membership (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). A regression analysis revealed that perceived group membership significantly and independently predicted depression scores (beta= 0.56, p = 0.002). It is suggested social comparison is a salient factor related to depressive symptoms in this group, and interventions involving adolescents with AS should therefore address this factor.

  8. Comparison of McCarthy and Goodenough-Harris Scoring Systems for Kindergarten Children's Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersel, Wayne C.; Santos, Lande

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of the Goodenough-Harris and McCarthy scoring procedures for 60 kindergarten children's drawings yielded substantial agreement between the two scoring systems. The streamlined McCarthy scoring system should be utilized when large numbers of children are being evaluated with short periods of time. (Author)

  9. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  10. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Lívia Barboza de; Silva, Diogo A R G; Salgado, Taíza L B; Figueroa, José N; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Britto, Murilo C A

    2014-01-01

    to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables. this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL) questionnaire (PAQLQ) and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%. 40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3±2.1 years, mean height was 1.5±0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8±12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9%±19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r=0.373, p=0.018) and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r=-0.518, p<0.001). Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r=-0.311, p=0.051). asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  12. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  13. A 35-year comparison of children labelled as gifted, unlabelled as gifted and average-ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Freeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X14273Why are some children seen as gifted while others of identical ability are not?  To find out why and what the consequences might be, in 1974 I began in England with 70 children labelled as gifted.  Each one was matched for age, sex and socio-economic level with two comparison children in the same school class. The first comparison child had an identical gift, and the second taken at random.  Investigation was by a battery of tests and deep questioning of pupils, teachers and parents in their schools and homes which went on for 35 years. A major significant difference was that those labelled gifted had significantly more emotional problems than either the unlabelled but identically gifted or the random controls.  The vital aspects of success for the entire sample, whether gifted or not, have been hard work, emotional support and a positive personal outlook.  But in general, the higher the individual’s intelligence the better their chances in life. 

  14. Comparisons of the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Anxious Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glod, Magdalena; Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Jamieson, Ruth; McConachie, Helen; Don South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-04-09

    The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) is often used to assess anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, little is known about the validity of the tool in this population. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SCAS-P has the same factorial validity in a sample of young people with ASD (n = 285), compared to a sample of typically developing young people with anxiety disorders (n = 224). Poor model fit with all of the six hypothesised models precluded invariance testing. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that different anxiety phenomenology characterises the two samples. The findings suggest that cross-group comparisons between ASD and anxious samples based on the SCAS-P scores may not always be appropriate.

  15. Comparison of pausing behavior in children who stutter and children who have Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Jessica Monique; Viera, Renata Alves Torello; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Arcuri, Cláudia Fassin; Osborn, Ellen; Perissinoto, Jacy; Schiefer, Ana Maria

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the number and types of grammatical and non-grammatical silent pauses presented by stutterers and subjects with Asperger syndrome in their narratives. Ten children who stutter and four participants with Asperger syndrome (mean ages of both groups 10 years) were assessed at the Speech and Language Disorders Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Brasil. They narrated a story based on a pre-selected sequence of pictures. They were filmed and their productions were analyzed using version 5.0.47 of Praat (http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/download_win.html). Silent intervals in the speech that ranged from 0.25 to 4s were considered pauses. The pauses were classified as grammatical and non-grammatical, depending on the words that preceded and followed them. Both groups presented grammatical and non-grammatical pauses and the former predominated. The children with Asperger syndrome produced a greater number of pauses than the stutterers. The reader will be able to: (1) characterize the use of pauses in the oral narrative; (2) distinguish a grammatical pause from a non-grammatical pause regarding the use and function; (3) recognize the pattern of pause found in the two populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Caring for Children and Older People - A Comparison of European Policies and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Fridberg, Torben

    ? With increasing demand for services, most countries search for new ways of meeting need. Overall, trends point towards more pluralism in the welfare systems, where to a greater extent than before the state, voluntary organisations, for-profit organisations, employers and the family function as intrinsic parts......Current debate is focused on the way we organise, finance and provide care for children and older people. Should day care for children be contracted out? Is a local approach the most beneficial for the organisation of social care? Should home help for older people be financed through an insurance...... of the institutionalisation of the welfare systems. The welfare mix of each individual country does, however, depend on historical, cultural and political influences. Comparison of welfare systems therefore gives us an invaluable means to assess the welfare system of our own country. This book presents the social care...

  17. A cross-cultural comparison of mothers' beliefs about their parenting very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development.

  18. Comparison of motor praxis and performance in children with varying levels of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2016-08-01

    The praxis test is a less well-documented method to determine functional manifestations of childhood dyspraxia. For this study, children aged 6-8years were recruited as follows: 17 children with DCD, 18 at risk of DCD and 35 without obvious problems in motor coordination. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used to measure motor performance and identify the motor incoordination. This study developed a battery of tests to assess limb praxis using a praxis imagery questionnaire, gesture representation, and questions about knowledge of object use. In the comparison of subtests within the praxis test, significant differences were observed across groups on the praxis imagery questionnaire and gesture representation tests but not on knowledge of object use. Similar results were observed in the correlation analyses, in which a weak relationship between MABC-2 and praxis tests was observed. The DCD group had lower scores on the praxis imagery questionnaire, whereas the group at risk of DCD had lower scores on most gesture production tests. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of the childhood dyspraxia and sheds light on its effect on motor coordination to identify praxis tests with specific clinical meanings in children with movement disorders.

  19. The comparison of laterality pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome and typical children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جهانگیری / روحی جهانگیری / روحی

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is the comparison of the pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome (DS children and typical children. To achieve the objective, nine subjects with DS (whose mental ages were 72-78 months and were drawn from five center of special education in the city of Mashhad and five typical children with the same mental ages were selected through random sampling; and after the controlling of the associated variables. In this study after the selecting right-handed children by using the Annet Handedness Questionnaire, Electroencephalogram (EEG technique was employed for investigating the laterality pattern of language perception through recording of the voltage of brain waves in brain cortex (temporal regions in two states: resting and listening to a story. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that the mean voltage of brain waves in cerebral hemispheres is different between two groups in each of the two states. Keywords: Laterality, speech auditory perception, Down Syndrome, Electroencephalogram.

  20. Craniofacial Morphology and Growth Comparisons in Children With Robin Sequence, Isolated Cleft Palate, and Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of early craniofacial morphology and growth in children with nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS), isolated cleft palate (ICP), and unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP). Subjects: One hundred eight children with cleft: 7 with RS, 53 with ICP, and 48 with UCCLP were...... included in the study. The children were drawn from the group of all Danish children with cleft born 1976 through 1981. Method: Three-projection infant cephalometry. Results: The craniofacial morphology in the RS, ICP, and UCCLP groups had some common characteristics: a wide maxilla with decreased length...

  1. The effect of cochlear implantation in development of intelligence quotient of 6-9 deaf children in comparison with normal hearing children (Iran, 2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Monshizadeh, Leila

    2012-06-01

    Before the introduction of cochlear implant (CI) in 1980, hearing aids were the only means by which profoundly deaf children had access to auditory stimuli. Nowadays, CI is firmly established as effective option in speech and language rehabilitation of deaf children, but much of the literature regarding outcomes for children after CI are focused on development of speech and less is known about language acquisition. So, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) of cochlear implanted children in comparison with normal children. 30 cochlear implanted and 30 normal hearing children with similar socio-economic level at the same age were compared by a revised version (in Persian) of WISC test (Wechsler, 1991). Then the data were analyzed through SPSS software 16. In spite of the fact that cochlear implanted children did well in different parameters of WISC test, the average scores of this group was less than normal hearing children. But in similarities (one of the parameters of WISC test) 2 group's performance was approximately the same. CI plays an important role in development of verbal IQ and language acquisition of deaf children. Different researches indicate that most of the cochlear implanted children show less language delay during the time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of mantoux and tine tuberculin skin tests in BCG-vaccinated children investigated for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenli; Matizirofa, Lyness; Workman, Lesley; Hawkridge, Tony; Hanekom, Willem; Mahomed, Hassan; Hussey, Gregory; Hatherill, Mark

    2009-11-30

    Tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) are long-established screening methods for tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to compare agreement between the intradermal Mantoux and multipuncture percutaneous Tine methods and to quantify risk factors for a positive test result. 1512 South African children younger than 5 years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis (TB) during a Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) trial were included in this analysis. Children underwent both Mantoux and Tine tests. A positive test was defined as Mantoux >or=15 mm or Tine >or= Grade 3 for the binary comparison. Agreement was evaluated using kappa (binary) and weighted kappa (hierarchical). Multivariate regression models identified independent risk factors for TST positivity. The Mantoux test was positive in 430 children (28.4%) and the Tine test in 496 children (32.8%, ptuberculosis, Mantoux was positive in 49.1% and Tine in 54.9%, p<0.0001 (kappa 0.70). Evidence of digit preference was noted for Mantoux readings at 5 mm threshold intervals. After adjustment for confounders, a positive culture, suggestive chest radiograph, and proximity of TB contact were risk factors for a positive test using both TST methods. There were no independent associations between ethnicity, gender, age, or over-crowding, and TST result. The Tine test demonstrated a higher positive test rate than the Mantoux, with substantial agreement between TST methods among young BCG-vaccinated children. TB disease and exposure factors, but not demographic variables, were independent risk factors for a positive result using either test method. These findings suggest that the Tine might be a useful screening tool for childhood TB in resource-limited countries.

  3. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  4. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: AshrafiMR, Azizi Malamiri R, Zamani GR, Mohammadi M, Hosseini F. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1:15-19.ObjectiveElectroencephalography (EEG recording is a long duration procedure that needs patient’s cooperation for device setup and performing the procedure. Many children lose their cooperation during this procedure. Therefore, sedation and sleep are frequently induced using a few agents as pre procedure medication in children before EEG recording. We aimed to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate before the procedure along with their impacts on EEG recording in children.Materials & MethodsA randomized trial was carried out to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate and their impacts on EEG recording in children. A total of 198 children (100 in the midazolam group and 98 in the chloral hydrate group were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either oral moidazolam or chloral hydrate.ResultsOral midazolam had superiority neither in sleep onset latency nor in sleep duration when compared to chloral hydrate. Moreover, the yield of epileptiform discharges in the chloral hydrate group was more than the midazolam group.ConclusionThe results of this study showed that both chloral hydrate 5% (one ml/kg and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg could be administered as a pre medication agent for EEG recording in children. However, oral midazolam at this dose had no advantage compared with chloral hydrate.ReferencesAshrafi MR, Mohammadi M, Tafarroji J, Shabanian R, Salamati P, Zamani GR. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2010;14(3:235-8.Slifer KJ, Avis KT, Frutchey RA. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities. Epilepsy

  5. A Comparison of Coping Strategies Used by Parents of Children with Disabilities and Parents of Children without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…

  6. How do children with autism spectrum disorders express pain? A comparison with developmentally delayed and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattaz, Cécile; Dubois, Amandine; Michelon, Cécile; Viellard, Marine; Poinso, François; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about pain reactions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who have often been considered as insensitive to pain. The objective of this study was to describe the facial, behavioral and physiological reactions of children with ASD during venipuncture and to compare them to the reactions of children with an intellectual disability and nonimpaired control children. We also examined the relation between developmental age and pain reactions. The sample included 35 children with ASD, 32 children with an intellectual disability, and 36 nonimpaired children. The children were videotaped during venipuncture and their heart rate was recorded. Facial reactions were assessed using the Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) and behavioral reactions were scored using the Noncommunicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC). A linear mixed-effects model showed that children's reactions increased between baseline and venipuncture and decreased between the end of venipuncture and the recovery period. There was no significant difference between groups regarding the amount of facial, behavioral and physiological reactions. However, behavioral reactions seemed to remain high in children with ASD after the end of the venipuncture, in contrast with children in the 2 other groups. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in pain expression with age in nonimpaired children, but no such effect was found regarding children with ASD. The data reveal that children with ASD displayed a significant pain reaction in this situation and tend to recover more slowly after the painful experience. Improvement in pain assessment and management in this population is necessary.

  7. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...... Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0-198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes ...

  8. Comparison of Bilingual Children on the WISC-R and the Escala De Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplesch, Marie; Genshaft, Judy

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of bilingual Puerto Rican students' scores showed no significant differences between the Full Scale and the Verbal Scale scores on both tests, but significant differences between the Verbal and Performance Scale scores on both tests. Caution in testing bilingual children before determination of bilinguality is recommended. (Author)

  9. Comparison of Bilingual Children on the WISC-R and the Escala De Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplesch, Marie; Genshaft, Judy

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of bilingual Puerto Rican students' scores showed no significant differences between the Full Scale and the Verbal Scale scores on both tests, but significant differences between the Verbal and Performance Scale scores on both tests. Caution in testing bilingual children before determination of bilinguality is recommended. (Author)

  10. A COMPARISON OF A BODYWEIGHT DOSE VERSUS A FIXED-DOSE OF NEBULIZED SALBUTAMOL IN ACUTE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBERKLAID, F; MELLIS, CM; LESOUEF, PN; GEELHOED, GC; MACCARRONE, AL

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol as a fixed dose Ventolin Nebule (2.5 mg) and as variable dose respirator solution (0.1 mg/kg bodyweight). Design: Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group comparison. Setting: The Emergency Departments of the Royal Children's Hospital, Me

  11. 150 bicycle injuries in children: a comparison with accidents due to other causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C M; Noble, D; Bell, D; Kemn, I; Roche, C; Pascoe, J

    1981-07-01

    One hundred and fifty bicycle accidents seen at the Children's Hospital Sheffield over a 6-month period from mid-August 1979 were analysed and 9.3 per cent of the cases were admitted. Twenty-two per cent had fractures, 20 per cent had soft tissue injuries of face or scalp, 8 children having damaged their teeth. Of the accidents 17.3 per cent were due to hitting an obstruction, 30.7 per cent were due to loss of control on a hill or corner and 8 per cent were of mechanical origin. Eighty-eight per cent had cycling experience of a year or more, and 32.7 per cent had had previous cycling accidents. Comparison with other types of accidents previously studied at the hospital, involving skateboards, playground equipment or road traffic accidents affecting child pedestrians, showed that by far the most serious were those involving child pedestrians. The injuries from bicycle accidents were similar in severity to those involving skateboards.

  12. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Hatice Hilal; Kırkgöz, Tarık; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48 ± 0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics. PMID:27648079

  13. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Hilal Doğan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48±0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics.

  14. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  15. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists’ viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? METHODS To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. RESULTS Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child’s language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child’s language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with “associated” pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. CONCLUSION It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program. PMID:27872829

  16. Comparison of antibiotic resistance of bacterial agents associated in septicaemia in children and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Septicaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of infant’s and childerens espicially in first week of their life, both in developed and underdeveloped countries.The aim of this research was to study of bacterial agents causing septicaemia and to determine their antibiotic suseptibility patternes. Materials and Methods : This was a descriptive study, it was performed during eight months from October 2011 till May 2011.In total 216 blood culture samples of children suspected of septicaemia in children health centre hospital were send to the laboratory for investigation. The bacterial identification was carried out by culturing and conventional biomedical tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by disk diffusion method. These data are analyzed by SPSS and the results Expressed as relative frequencies. Results: Out of 216 tested samples 55(25.6% were positive and 161 (74.54% negative. The dominated bacteria was Escherichia coli (31.42%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22.86 %, Klebsiella pneumonia (20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, Streptococcus pneumonia (2.86%, Salmonella typhi (2.86%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.86% and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2.86%. In general gram-negative bacteria were isolated more than gram-positive. Staphylococcus bacteria were more resistant to antibiotics than other isolated bacteria, and were 100% resistant to penicillin. The enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to norfloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, and they were 100% resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed that gram-negative bacteria are more responsible in septicaemia in children ward, and norfloxacin is the more effective antibiotic in comparison with others.

  17. Private speech and strategy-use patterns: bidirectional comparisons of children with and without mathematical difficulties in a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad, Snorre A; Sorensen, Peer M

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines private speech and strategy-use patterns for solving simple number fact problems in addition. The progressive differentiation by grade between children's levels of private speech internalization--including silence--was investigated and related to children's developmental patterns for subcategories of strategy-use internalization. Comparisons were made between 67 children with math difficulties (MD) and 67 children without MD from Grade 2 to Grade 7 in primary schools. Two separate laboratory investigations were performed for each child to examine private speech and strategy-use internalization. Analysis was based on private speech category differences, strategy-use differences, and differences in the occurrence of private speech-strategy-use combinations. Children without MD showed a grade-determined shift from less to more internalized private speech and from the use of backup strategies to retrieval strategies. In contrast, the private speech and the strategy-use internalization of children with MD, reflected in inaudible private speech and backup strategy use, seemed to converge at earlier developmental levels. The development of children with MD seemed almost to stop at the inaudible private speech-backup strategy combination level. The silence-retrieval strategy combination level was the primary alternative for typical math achievers. In all, the characteristics of the development curves of the children with MD were consistent with a developmental difference and not with a developmental delay model. Implications for intervention and future research methodology are discussed.

  18. Comparison of Nutritional Status between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children in the Mediterranean Region (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales Suárez-Varela, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This case-control study investigated nutrient intake, healthy eating index with 10 items on foods and nutrients, on 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements in 105 children with autism spectrum disorder and 495 typically developing children (6-9 years) in Valencia (Spain). Children with autism spectrum disorder were at a higher risk for…

  19. Civic competence of children in female same-sex parent families: A comparison with children of opposite-sex parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Gartrell, N.; Roeleveld, J.; Ledoux, G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples

  20. A comparison of the function, activity and participation and quality of life between down syndrome children and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Kyoung; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] To compare function, activity, participation, and quality of life of Down syndrome children and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 Down syndrome children and 20 children with typical development were included as subjects for this study. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Child and Youth version (CY) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a questionnaire were used to measure children's functioning, activity, and participation. To measure quality of life, KIDSCREEN 52-HRQOL questionnaire was used in this study. [Results] ICF-CY function, activity, participation, and quality of life showed statistically significant differences between Down syndrome children and typically developing children. Down syndrome children with higher functions showed higher activities and participation. Higher function, activity and participation features were correlated with better quality of life. Higher function resulted in better quality of life. [Conclusion] Function, activity, participation, quality of life, and several common factors of Down syndrome children depend on the ability of children. Function of Down syndrome children affects their activity, participation, and quality of life. Activities and participations also affect quality of life. Therefore, children's functional aspect is the foundation for quality of life.

  1. Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children's knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less…

  2. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  3. The comparison of balance performance among children with cochlear implantation, post-aural aid and normal children

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    Arezoo Ahmad pour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study was carried out to compare balance performance between children with cochlear implants and post-aural aid and normal children. Methods: The present study was done on 67 severe to profound hearing impaired children. Of these, 21 children with an average age of 7 years and 4 months (±1.7 wore cochlear implant, 46 children with an average age of 7 years and 7 months (±1.7 wore post-aural aid and 60 children with an average 8 years and one month (±11 months were considered as a control group. All of the children were tested with the 9-stage balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency2 (BOT2. Results: The mean total BOT2 score of hearing impaired children was significantly lower than the normal group (P≤0.001. The mean total BOT2 score among children with cochlear implant, post-aural aids and normal group showed that cochlear implant group significantly performed weaker than the other two groups (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Hearing impaired children particularly children with cochlear implant are exposed to the risk of balance deficit. Hearing impaired children specially those who wear cochlear implants must be screened for vestibular hypofunction.

  4. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  5. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

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    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF, and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI.ResultsThirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications.The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/ stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype.ConclusionAlthough buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone.ReferencesSmith I, Nowles JK. Behaviour in early treated phenylketonuria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159:89-93.Targum SD

  6. Autistic children's use of semantic common sense and theory of mind: a comparison with typical and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-10-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with typical development when comprehending sentences, although impaired in belief understanding as compared with mentally retarded children and typically developing 5-year-olds. Children's sentence comprehension had no association with belief understanding. Results suggest that autistic children with certain verbal intelligence can utilize semantic common sense to comprehend sentences as can typically developing children and that the ability to comprehend sentences is relatively independent of theory of mind.

  7. A comparison of the balance and gait function between children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Kyoung; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the balance and gait functions of children with Down syndrome and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 children with Down syndrome and 20 children with typical development. The one leg standing test, Romberg's test (open eyes/closed eyes), sharpened Romberg's (open eyes/closed eyes), functional reaching test and GAITRite were used for this study in order to measure the children's balance and gait function. [Results] The results of this study showed that static-dynamic balance ability, spatio-temporal gait parameters and quality of life were statistically and significantly different in Down syndrome children compared to typically developing children. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the balance and gait ability of typically developing children improves during growth, whereas those of children with Down syndrome remain low despite independent gait. Therefore, constant therapeutic intervention for balance and gait function is necessary after independent gait development in Down syndrome children.

  8. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankita; Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-06-01

    Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2-12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy.

  9. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  10. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment.

  11. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Ra...

  12. A comparison of the balance and gait function between children with Down syndrome and typically developing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Kyoung; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the balance and gait functions of children with Down syndrome and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 children with Down syndrome and 20 children with typical development. The one leg standing test, Romberg’s test (open eyes/closed eyes), sharpened Romberg’s (open eyes/closed eyes), functional reaching test and GAITRite were used for this study in order to measure the children’s balance and gait function. [Results] The results of this study showed that static-dynamic balance ability, spatio-temporal gait parameters and quality of life were statistically and significantly different in Down syndrome children compared to typically developing children. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the balance and gait ability of typically developing children improves during growth, whereas those of children with Down syndrome remain low despite independent gait. Therefore, constant therapeutic intervention for balance and gait function is necessary after independent gait development in Down syndrome children. PMID:28210057

  13. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and

  14. A Comparison between Homeschooled and Formally Schooled Kindergartners: Children's Early Literacy, Mothers' Beliefs, and Writing Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Meidan, Inbal Cohen; Deitcher, Deborah Bergman

    2016-01-01

    The study characterized children's literacy, mothers' beliefs, and writing mediation of homeschooled compared to formally schooled kindergartners. Participants were 60 children (ages 4-6) and their mothers (30 in homeschooling). At the children's home, we assessed children's literacy, maternal beliefs, and video-recorded mother-child joint writing…

  15. Comparison of Serum Zinc and Copper levels in Children and adolescents with Intractable and Controlled Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab KHERADMAND

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Kheradmand Z, Yarali B, Zare A, Pourpak Z, Shams S, Ashrafi MR. Comparison of Serum Zinc and Copper levels in Children and adolescents with Intractable and Controlled Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014; 8(3:49-54. AbstractObjectiveTrace elements such as zinc and copper have physiological effects on neuronal excitability that may play a role in the etiology of intractable epilepsy. This topic has been rarely discussed in Iranian epileptic patients.This study with the analysis of serum zinc and copper levels of children and adolescents with intractable and controlled epilepsy may identifies the potential role of these two trace elements in the development of epilepsy and intractabilityto antiepileptic drug treatment. Materials & MethodsSeventy patients between the ages of 6 months to 15 years that referred to Children’s Medical Center with the diagnosis of epilepsy, either controlled or intractable to treatment enrolled in the study. After informed parental consent the levels of serum zinc and copper were measured with atomic absorptionspectrophotometer and analyzed with SPSS version 11.Results35 patients were enrolled in each group of intractable (IE and controlled epilepsy (CE. 71.45% of the IE and 25.72% of the CE group had zinc deficiency that was statistically significant. 48.58% of the IE and 45.72 of the CE group were copper deficient, which was not statistically significant.ConclusionOur findings showed significant low serum zinc levels of patients with intractable epilepsy in comparison with controlled epilepsy group. We recommend that serum zinc level may play a role in the etiology of epilepsy and intractable epilepsy therefore its measurement and prescription may be regarded in the treatment of intractable epilepsy.ReferencesMikati MA. Seizures in childhood. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, Geme JWS, Behrman R (eds. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Elsevier:Saunders; 2011. Pp

  16. Sleep patterns in children with and without autism spectrum disorders: developmental comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Carollo, Tanner M; Lewin, Michael; Hoffman, Charles D; Sweeney, Dwight P

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined age-related changes in the sleep of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to age-related changes in the sleep of typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 108 mothers of children with ASD and 108 mothers of TD children. Participants completed a questionnaire on children's overall sleep quality that also tapped specific sleep-domains (i.e., bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias, disordered breathing, daytime sleepiness). Results confirm significantly poorer sleep quantity and quality in children with ASD, particularly children age 6-9 years. Unlike TD children, the sleep problems of children with ASD were unlikely to diminish with age. Our findings suggest that it is important to exam specific domains of sleep as well as overall sleep patterns. Finding of significant age-related interactions suggests that the practice of combining children from wide age-ranges into a single category obfuscates potentially important developmental differences.

  17. The comparison of behavioral and emotional problems in children with a bipolar parent and children with healthy parents in Zahedan, Iran, 2011

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    Mahboubeh Firoozkouhi Moghaddan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Mental illness in parents can cause behavioral problems in children because of genetic contribution and their narrowed parenting capabilities. Organic and psychotic disease in mother and father can affect their role in family and rising up children with genetic tendency to bipolar disorder in family which have impaired competence to bringing up the children increases the risk of mental damages. Subject or material and methods. In this descriptive-cross sectional study 65 children of bipolar parents (case group and 65 with healthy parents (control where chosen with convenience sampling and compared with child behavior check list (CBCL.comparison of mean scores on CBCL scales between the two groups was performed by using statistical T test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. Findings showed that the mean scores of CBCL were higher in case group than in control group and boys had higher scores than girls in case group. Significant relation between birth order and mean CBCL scores in anxiety, somatic complain, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder subscales was found (p<0.05 and CBCL mean scores in anxiety subscale had significant relation with duration of disorders in parents.(p<0.05. Discussion. The higher CBCL mean scores in bipolar parents’ children than control group may suggest there is higher emotional and behavioral problems and increase in risk of bipolar disorder. Conclusions. Higher degree of emotional and behavioral problems in off springs of BMD patients may predict mood disorders in future.

  18. A Dewey-Eyed Look at Children's Book Classification: A Comparison of Four Classification Schemes Used in Children's Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polan, Ruth

    Four classification schemes for subject access to children's books are compared. Two of these are general schemes (the "Dewey Decimal Classification" and the abridged "Dewey Decimal Classification"), and two others were devised specifically for children's books (the Toronto Public Library's "Boys and Girls Book Classification" and the Inglewood…

  19. [Suppurative mediastinitis after open heart surgery: in comparison between infants-children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, M; Orita, H; Inui, K; Hirooka, S; Iijima, Y; Washio, M

    1993-02-01

    Among 361 consecutive patients who underwent open surgery from Jan. 1987 to Sept. 1991, risk factors and clinical courses were analyzed retrospectively in comparison between infants-children and adults. Seven mediastinitis (4.0%) occurred in 173 adult patients (20 to 75 y/o, mean: 54.4 y/o) and were not associated with age, sex, type of disease, and duration of operation or cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative mediastinitis significantly increased in the patients with low output syndrome (LOS) determined as use of IABP and/or assistant circulations (p MRSA in 10 and Staphylococcus epidermidis in one. In the seven of adult patients, two developed sepsis and four died with other organic failures or mediastinal bleeding. All five of infants healed after postoperative 33 to 145 days. The immature state of immune response might associate with postoperative mediastinitis in infants, whether LOS may be important in the immune suppression by surgical stress in adults, and the prognosis of mediastinitis might be effected by prolonged depression of postoperative cardiac function in adult patients.

  20. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  1. Comparison of chemomechanical caries removal using Papacárie versus conventional method in children

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    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal (Papacárie, compared with the conventional method. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 primary molars selected from 25 healthy children (mean age 7.6 ± 1.1. Each patient had at least two primary molars with approximately equal-size caries lesions. Both treatments were carried out in the same session. Before and after treatment, fluorescence values were obtained using DIAGNOdent Pen and time needed for caries removal was recorded. Each patient was asked whether he/she felt any pain, requested for local anesthesia, which treatment he/she preferred, and behavior of the patient during caries removal was assessed. Data were analyzed using McNemar, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The clinical evaluation revealed that all the cavities were caries free after both techniques. Comparison of the difference in fluorescence values showed that readings were lower after conventional method (P 0.05. Conclusion: Chemomechanical caries removal and conventional method exhibited similar efficacy in caries removal.

  2. Verbs and syntactic frames in children's elicited actions: a comparison of Tamil- and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B

    2011-08-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children's knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less likely to perform an action when the core meaning of a verb was in conflict with the frame in which it was presented; (2) Children enacted the core meaning of the verb with considerable accuracy in all conditions; and (3) Children altered their actions to include or not include explicit objects appropriately to the frame. The results suggest that 3-year-olds learning languages that present them with very different structural cues still show similar knowledge about and sensitivity to the core meanings of transitive and intransitive verbs as well as the implications of the frames in which they appear.

  3. Sleep-patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Gupta; Sunil Dutt Kandpal; Deepak Goel; Nidhi Mittal; Mohan Dhyani; Manish Mittal

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessment of sleep schedule, pre-sleep behavior, co-sleeping and parent’s perception of sleep of school going children. Method: Four schools each, from urban and rural area were included. Sleep patterns were assessed using the validated Hindi version of Childhood-Sleep-Habit-Questionnaire. Comparison was made between urban and rural group and between boys and girls. Interaction of gender, domicile and school-type was examined on the sleep patterns. Results: This...

  4. Comparison of Patterns of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Between Children With Cerebral Palsy and Children With Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Forde, Cuisle; Hussey, Juliette M; Gormley, John

    2015-12-01

    Reduced participation in physical activity and increased time spent in sedentary behavior are associated with overweight, chronic disease, and disability. In order to optimize recommendations and interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in children with cerebral palsy (CP), knowledge of their physical activity and sedentary behavior is needed. The aim of this study was to describe light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior in preadolescent children with and without CP and compare physical activity and sedentary behavior between the 2 groups. This was a cross-sectional study of 33 children, aged 6 to 10 years, with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-III) and 33 age- and sex-matched children with typical development. Physical activity was measured using the RT3 accelerometer over 7 days. Children with CP spent more time in sedentary behavior and accumulated less total activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and sustained bouts of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA). They also accumulated a fewer number of bouts of MVPA and vigorous activity, despite spending a similar amount of time in each bout. The small number of children in GMFCS levels II and III did not allow for adjustment for GMFCS level when comparing physical activity between children with and without CP. Preadolescent children with CP spent less time in moderate and vigorous activity and more time in sedentary behavior than children with typical development. Children with CP also accumulated less continuous MVPA and vigorous activity as a result of achieving fewer sustained bouts of MVPA and vigorous activity throughout the day. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Taur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.

  6. A Comparison of Persian Vowel Production in Hearing-Impaired Children Using a Cochlear Implant and Normal-Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narges; Drinnan, Michael; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Yadegari, Fariba; Nourbakhsh, Mandana; Torabinezhad, Farhad

    2016-05-01

    Normal-hearing (NH) acuity and auditory feedback control are crucial for human voice production and articulation. The lack of auditory feedback in individuals with profound hearing impairment changes their vowel production. The purpose of this study was to compare Persian vowel production in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and that in NH children. The participants were 20 children (12 girls and 8 boys) with age range of 5 years; 1 month to 9 years. All patients had congenital hearing loss and received a multichannel CI at an average age of 3 years. They had at least 6 months experience of their current device (CI). The control group consisted of 20 NH children (12 girls and 8 boys) with age range of 5 to 9 years old. The two groups were matched by age. Participants were native Persian speakers who were asked to produce the vowels /i/, /e/, /ӕ/, /u/, /o/, and /a/. The averages for first formant frequency (F1) and second formant frequency (F2) of six vowels were measured using Praat software (Version 5.1.44, Boersma & Weenink, 2012). The independent samples t test was conducted to assess the differences in F1 and F2 values and the area of the vowel space between the two groups. Mean values of F1 were increased in CI children; the mean values of F1 for vowel /i/ and /a/, F2 for vowel /a/ and /o/ were significantly different (P vowel space for CI children. F1 is increased in CI children, probably because CI children tend to overarticulate. We hypothesis this is due to a lack of auditory feedback; there is an attempt by hearing-impaired children to compensate via proprioceptive feedback during articulatory process. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD.

  8. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  9. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% femal...

  10. Comparison of ketamine and ketofol for deep sedation and analgesia in children undergoing laser procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevic, Marija; Ristic, Nina; Budic, Ivana; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Trifunovic, Branislav; Rakic, Ivan; Majstorovic, Marko; Burazor, Ivana; Simic, Dusica

    2017-07-12

    The aim of our study was to research and evaluate cardiovascular and respiratory stability, clinical efficacy, and safety of two different anesthetic agents in pediatric patients who underwent Pulse dye (wavelength 595 nm, pulse duration 0-40 ms, power 0-40 J) and CO2 (wavelength 10,600 nm, intensity-fraxel mod with SX index 4 to 8, power 0-30 W) laser procedure. This prospective non-blinded study included 203 pediatric patients ASA I-II, aged between 1 month and 12 years who underwent short-term procedural sedation and analgesia for the laser procedure. After oral premedication with midazolam, 103 children were analgo-sedated with ketamine and fentanyl (K group) and 100 with ketofol and fentanyl (KT group). Vital signs, applied drug doses, pulse oximetry, and parental satisfaction questionnaire were used to compare these two groups. Statistical differences were tested using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the cut-off value of the duration of anesthesia predicting apnea. Tachycardia was recorded in a significantly higher number of patients who received ketamine as the anesthetic agent (35.9 vs. 3% respectively). Hypertension was also significantly more frequent in patients who received ketamine in comparison with patients who received ketofol (25.2 vs. 3%). Laryngospasm was not observed in both examined groups. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in satisfaction of parents and doctors. Apnea and respiratory depression occurred significantly more frequent in ketofol than in ketamine group (12 vs. 0.97% and 13 vs. 0%). Based on ROC analysis for apnea, we found a significantly higher number of patients with apnea in the ketofol group when duration of anesthesia was longer than 17 min. Our study has shown that ketofol is more comfortable than ketamine in short-term laser procedures in children, causing less

  11. COMPETENCE AND BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS IN 6-YEAR-OLD TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM) AND HOLLAND - A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HELLINCKX, W; GRIETENS, H; VERHULST, F

    1994-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991) was used to obtain data on 1,120 Flemish and 1,122 Dutch children, ages 6 to 12 years. These data were analyzed in a cross-national comparison. Several small differences between nationalities were found for competence: Dutch children scored significantl

  12. COMPETENCE AND BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS IN 6-YEAR-OLD TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM) AND HOLLAND - A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HELLINCKX, W; GRIETENS, H; VERHULST, F

    The Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991) was used to obtain data on 1,120 Flemish and 1,122 Dutch children, ages 6 to 12 years. These data were analyzed in a cross-national comparison. Several small differences between nationalities were found for competence: Dutch children scored

  13. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)

  14. Comparison of nutritional status between children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children in the Mediterranean Region (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales Suárez-Varela, Maria

    2017-04-01

    This case-control study investigated nutrient intake, healthy eating index with 10 items on foods and nutrients, on 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements in 105 children with autism spectrum disorder and 495 typically developing children (6-9 years) in Valencia (Spain). Children with autism spectrum disorder were at a higher risk for underweight, eating more legumes, vegetables, fiber, and some micronutrients (traditional Mediterranean diet) but fewer dairy and cereal products, and less iodine, sodium, and calcium than their typically developing peers. Differences existed in total energy intake but healthy eating index and food variety score differences were not significant. Autism spectrum disorder group failed to meet dietary recommendations for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, or calcium. Risk of inadequate intake of fiber, vitamin E, and sodium was lower in children with autism spectrum disorder than typically developing children. Results suggest that (1) risk of inadequate intake of some micronutrients in children with autism spectrum disorder and (2) cultural patterns and environment may influence food intake and anthropometric characteristics in autism spectrum disorder. Primary care should include anthropometric and nutritional surveillance in this population to identify intervention on a case-by-case basis. Future research should explore dietary patterns and anthropometric characteristics in different autism spectrum disorder populations in other countries, enhancing our understanding of the disorder's impact.

  15. Developmental Outcomes of Foster Children: A Meta-Analytic Comparison With Children From the General Population and Children at Risk Who Remained at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; van Beem, Merel; Vedder, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Foster care is often preferred to other placement options for children in the child welfare system. However, it is not clear how the developmental outcomes of foster children relate to children in other living arrangements. In this study, a series of meta-analyses are performed to compare the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of children placed in foster care (n = 2,305) with children at risk who remained with their biological parents (n = 4,335) and children from the general population (n = 4,971). A systematic literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, ERIC, and ProQuest identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion (N = 11,611). Results showed that foster children had generally lower levels of functioning than children from the general population. No clear differences were found between foster children and children at risk who remained at home, but both groups experienced developmental problems. Improving the quality of foster care and future research to identify which children are best served by either foster care or in-home services are recommended. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A comparison of vowel productions in prelingually deaf children using cochlear implants, severe hearing-impaired children using conventional hearing aids and normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudonck, Nele; Van Lierde, K; Dhooge, I; Corthals, P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare vowel productions by deaf cochlear implant (CI) children, hearing-impaired hearing aid (HA) children and normal-hearing (NH) children. 73 children [mean age: 9;14 years (years;months)] participated: 40 deaf CI children, 34 moderately to profoundly hearing-impaired HA children and 42 NH children. For the 3 corner vowels [a], [i] and [u], F(1), F(2) and the intrasubject SD were measured using the Praat software. Spectral separation between these vowel formants and vowel space were calculated. The significant effects in the CI group all pertain to a higher intrasubject variability in formant values, whereas the significant effects in the HA group all pertain to lower formant values. Both hearing-impaired subgroups showed a tendency toward greater intervowel distances and vowel space. Several subtle deviations in the vowel production of deaf CI children and hearing-impaired HA children could be established, using a well-defined acoustic analysis. CI children as well as HA children in this study tended to overarticulate, which hypothetically can be explained by a lack of auditory feedback and an attempt to compensate it by proprioceptive feedback during articulatory maneuvers. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Productive Vocabulary among Three Groups of Bilingual American Children: Comparison and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of input factors for bilingual children's vocabulary development was investigated. Forty-seven Argentine, 42 South Korean, 51 European American, 29 Latino immigrant, 26 Japanese immigrant, and 35 Korean immigrant mothers completed checklists of their 20-month-old children's productive vocabularies. Bilingual children's vocabulary…

  18. A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Beliefs about Having Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kenrick S.

    1980-01-01

    Compared beliefs, perceptions, and decisions of Black and White adolescents on having children. Both Black males and females expressed stronger beliefs than White respondents that having children promotes greater marital success, personal security, and approval. Blacks expressed stronger beliefs that couples should have as many children as they…

  19. Productive Vocabulary among Three Groups of Bilingual American Children: Comparison and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of input factors for bilingual children's vocabulary development was investigated. Forty-seven Argentine, 42 South Korean, 51 European American, 29 Latino immigrant, 26 Japanese immigrant, and 35 Korean immigrant mothers completed checklists of their 20-month-old children's productive vocabularies. Bilingual children's vocabulary…

  20. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  1. Maternal Functional Speech to Children: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Zaninelli, M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities benefit from their language environment as much as, or even more than, typically developing (TD) children, but maternal language directed to developmentally delayed children is an underinvestigated topic. The purposes of the present study were to compare maternal functional language directed to children…

  2. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  3. Screening, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in obese children: an international policy comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Wirix; J. Verheul (Jelle); J. Groothoff (Jaap); J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.J.M. Chinapaw (Mai); J.E. Kist-Van Holthe (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHypertension in obese children may require a different diagnostic and treatment approach from that for children with secondary hypertension, yet there is neither consensus nor a clear guideline. The aim of this study was to assess how obese children with hypertension are currently

  4. Screening, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in obese children: an international policy comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Wirix; J. Verheul (Jelle); J. Groothoff (Jaap); J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.J.M. Chinapaw (Mai); J.E. Kist-Van Holthe (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHypertension in obese children may require a different diagnostic and treatment approach from that for children with secondary hypertension, yet there is neither consensus nor a clear guideline. The aim of this study was to assess how obese children with hypertension are currently diagno

  5. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  6. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  7. Psychological and Neurobehavioral Comparisons of Children with Asperger's Disorder versus High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thede, Linda L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated personality and neurobehavioral differences between 16 children with Asperger's Disorder, 15 children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA), and 31 controls, all ranging in age from 5-17 years, M age = 10.7 years, SD = 3.0. Parents rated their children's behaviors on a 44-item autistic symptoms survey and on the 200-item…

  8. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  9. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  10. What children think about their rights and their well-being: A cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being. This unique survey explores children's own perspectives on their well-being (subjective well-being), their perceptions and knowledge of their rights, and their reports on their right to participation. It includes data from more than 54,000 children aged 8-12 from 16 countries around the world. Our results showed clear cross-national differences between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights and their reports on participation. Also, children's participation in different contexts in their lives showed an association with their subjective well-being; a weaker association was found between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights. These results indicate that children's right to participation and, to some degree, their knowledge and thinking about their rights is an indicator of their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  12. Learning Rule-Described and Non-Rule-Described Categories: A Comparison of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minda, John Paul; Desroches, Amy S.; Church, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-old children as well as adults to learn sets of perceptual categories. Adults and children performed comparably on categories that could be learned by either a single-dimensional rule or by associative learning mechanisms. However, children showed poorer performance relative to…

  13. "Comparison of Parenting Related Stress and Depression Symptoms in Mothers of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds: When a child has a developmental disability, the parenthood stress can be onerous. Research on the parenting stress has addressed the parenting stress differences between children families with and without disabilities. The purpose of the current research was to examine the comparison of parenting related stress and depression symptoms in mothers of children recently diagnosed with and without autism spectrum disorders.Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study that was performed using both experiment and control groups, 15 mothers of children was recruited (biological mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders aged 6 years who’s diagnosed were made less than 5 months prior to study and was compared with 15 mothers of children without autism spectrum disorders were selected with using of available sampling method and randomly were replaced into two experimental and control groups. Parents completed a packet of questionnaire measuring demographics, parenting stress and depression. Data were analyzed using of descriptive statistics, t-test method. Results: Results of t tests showed significant differences between the two groups for two variables (p

  14. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

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    Hossein Afshar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL and mesiodistal (MD dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars. MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand. Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0 and BL (P = 0.0 dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  15. Pilot comparison of three cardiopulmonary resuscitation medication dosing strategies in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Lyndsy E; Pesaturo, Kimberly A; Smith, Brian S; Hartman, Christian A

    2010-10-01

    Dose calculations using three variations of patient weight estimates (actual body weight [ABW], ideal body weight [IBW], and the Broselow Pediatric Emergency Tape [BPET, a length-based weight estimation tool]) were compared to administered doses of cardiopulmonary resuscitation medications in overweight and obese children to assess for differences in dose. This retrospective cohort analysis included 54 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent emergency resuscitation at UMass Memorial Medical Center between January 2000 and October 2008. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients were included if they were overweight or obese, less than 12 years of age, less than 146 centimeters in length, and received emergency resuscitation medication(s). Doses of administered medications were recorded and compared to potential doses calculated based on ABW, IBW and the dose recommended by the BPET. Dose differences greater than 10% were considered clinically significant and dose differences greater than 20% were considered to be potential medication errors. Out of 54 possible patients, four overweight patients were included; none were obese. Ten total medication doses were assessed (minimum two per patient). In all patients, at least one comparator dose varied by greater than 20% from the administered dose. Four out of 10 doses calculated according to ABW, eight out of 10 doses calculated with IBW, and eight out of 10 doses recommended by the BPET all differed by greater than 20% from the administered dose. Dosing variations were observed when the dose received was compared to dosing using three variants of patient weight estimates. The largest dosing differences were observed upon comparison of the administered dose versus the dose recommended by the BPET.

  16. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm(2) up to 2880 cm(2); but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm(2); ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  17. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism -- comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Linda D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with autism have often been reported to have gastrointestinal problems that are more frequent and more severe than in children from the general population. Methods Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status were assessed from stool samples of 58 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and 39 healthy typical children of similar ages. Stool testing included bacterial and yeast culture tests, lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, elastase, digestion markers, short chain fatty acids (SCFA's, pH, and blood presence. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with a modified six-item GI Severity Index (6-GSI questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC. Results Gastrointestinal symptoms (assessed by the 6-GSI were strongly correlated with the severity of autism (assessed by the ATEC, (r = 0.59, p Children with autism had much lower levels of total short chain fatty acids (-27%, p = 0.00002, including lower levels of acetate, proprionate, and valerate; this difference was greater in the children with autism taking probiotics, but also significant in those not taking probiotics. Children with autism had lower levels of species of Bifidobacter (-43%, p = 0.002 and higher levels of species of Lactobacillus (+100%, p = 0.00002, but similar levels of other bacteria and yeast using standard culture growth-based techniques. Lysozyme was somewhat lower in children with autism (-27%, p = 0.04, possibly associated with probiotic usage. Other markers of digestive function were similar in both groups. Conclusions The strong correlation of gastrointestinal symptoms with autism severity indicates that children with more severe autism are likely to have more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and vice versa. It is possible that autism symptoms are exacerbated or even partially due to the underlying gastrointestinal problems. The low level of SCFA's was partly associated

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Naturalistic Themes in Iranian and Britain Modern Children's Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Ebrahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, children's literature given the concept of childhood, has gained a special status in the studies of humanities. Children's poetry is one of the branches of this type of literature. Naturalistic themes have the highest frequency among the themes of children poems in two countries. The population of this research consists of collections that have been published from 1921 to 2011. Children's literature was born in England in the eighteenth century and before that the first didactic books for children had come into existence in England. In addition, due to industrial growth, the emergence of the new middle class and expansion of formal education the UK was pioneering among Europe and the world countries. Therefore, to find the roots of the formation of children's literature should be referred to the UK. Therefore, in this paper Britain children’s poem has been selected to be compared with Iranian children’s poem so that by revealing the similarities and differences one can deal with the pathology of poems for children in Iran and to detect shortcomings and strengths and present some guidelines that be helpful for children and young poets as well as critics and researchers in this field. Keywords: Naturalistic themes, children literature, Iranian children's poems, Britain children's poems, comparative literature

  19. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  20. Health-related quality of life among Swedish children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: parent-child discrepancies, gender differences and comparison with a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Veronica; Eriksson, Catharina

    2017-04-12

    This study investigates gender differences in self-reports and between parent and child reports in Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL), measured with disease-specific and generic instruments for chronic disease. Comparison of HRQOL results in this Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) sample to a European cohort of children with JIA and one of children with other health conditions are also made. Fifty-three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), aged 8-18 years, and their parents completed the condition-specific DISABKIDS for JIA, and the DISABKIDS generic instrument for chronic conditions (DCGM-37) in a cross-sectional study. European reference data were used for comparison of child and parental reports. Child self-reports in DCGM-37 and DISABKIDS for JIA showed no gender differences. Parental and child reports of the child's HRQOL differed only in DCGM-37; this was among girls who scored their independence (p = 0.03), physical limitation (p = 0.01), social exclusion (p = 0.03), emotions (p children with JIA reported more physical limitation compared to samples of European children with JIA (p = 0.01), European children with chronic conditions (p children reported more problem with understanding compared to the European JIA sample (p = 0.03). Swedish parents perceived their children's independence significantly lower than did the European parents of JIA children (p children with chronic conditions (p = 0.03). The Swedish parents also perceived their children to have significantly lower social inclusion (p children with chronic conditions. Parent-child differences in assessment of quality of life depend on the HRQOL instrument used, especially among girls. In comparison to European cohorts, our sample of children with JIA experienced more physical limitations and less understanding.

  1. Algorithm for establishing the indication for knee arthroscopy in children: a comparison of adolescent and preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, E; Vrdoljak, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select children with pathological lesions of the intra-articular structures from children with identical complaints but with no pathological intra-articular changes. The younger the child, the more difficult it is to make the diagnosis, and the expected distribution of pathology changes increasingly. This is particularly stressed in children aged younger than 13 years. Synovial inflammatory alterations are more frequent, and osteochondral and chondral fractures appear to be more problematic than meniscal and cruciate ligament lesions. Before establishing the indication for knee arthroscopy it is mandatory to implement the algorithm of diagnostic and conservative therapeutic procedures. The indication for knee arthroscopy is considered in cases when complaints persist after conservative treatment, a lesion of intra-articular segments is suspected, and the pathological condition is deemed arthroscopically treatable. Arthroscopy before conservative treatment is justified only in acute cases.

  2. Sixty-twelve = Seventy-two? A cross-linguistic comparison of children's number transcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We compared French- and English-speaking fifth-grade (10-year-old) children's performance in number transcoding. Whereas English two-digit number names follow the decimal structure (base 10), the structure of French two-digit number words over 60 follow a vigesimal structure (base 20). Children undertook two number transcoding tasks. While children were generally successful at the tasks, English-speaking children significantly outperformed French-speaking children for numbers following a vigesimal structure in French compared to a decimal structure in English (i.e., numbers >60). Our findings show that verbal number name structures influence children's performance in numerical tasks, even though fifth-grade children have well passed the initial stage of acquiring transcoding skills for two-digit numbers. These findings highlight the importance of language specificities in children's number transcoding. Statement of contribution What is already known? Previous research reports that language influences number processing in young children. Number transcoding performances can be conditioned by the linguistic structure of number words. What does this study add? Our results show how the structure of French vigesimal number words impacts number transcoding. They demonstrate that these language influences also affect children who already master basic number competencies.

  3. Comparison of Single and Dual Target Visual Attention Tasks in Children with down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Murphy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of attentional processing in children with Down Syndrome (DS is imperative for developing effective education practices. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether children with DS exhibit impairment in sustained, transient, single-, or dual-target continuous performance tasks. Target detection time and accuracy was compared in children with DS to Typically Developing (TD children of similar nonverbal mental age (as measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, on single and dual- target continuous performance tasks measuring sustained attention, a visual change detection task measuring transient attention, and feature and conjunctive visual search tasks measuring both sustained and transient attention. Results showed that children with DS performed similarly to TD children on sustained and transient attention tasks that only required the detection of a single unique target, but were impaired in overall accuracy on tasks that required dual-target detection. Findings suggest a possible impairment in attention and working memory in children with DS. Error analysis of task responses revealed differences in problem solving strategy between children with DS and TD children, despite similar overall performance. Findings have implications for the education of children with DS and understanding of the nature of intellectual disability per se.

  4. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  5. Comparison of patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior between children with cerebral palsy and children with typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, JM; Forde, C.; Hussey, JM; Gormley, J

    2015-01-01

    Background - Reduced participation in physical activity and increased time spent in sedentary behavior are associated with overweight, chronic disease, and disability. In order to optimize recommendations and interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in children with cerebral palsy (CP), knowledge of their physical activity and sedentary behavior is needed.

  6. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  7. A Comparison of the Oral Health Status of Children Who Are Blind and Children Who Are Sighted in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Sungurtekin, Elif; Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining oral health is central to a high quality of life because it limits the risks of disease. The oral health status of children with visual impairments should be investigated so their health care needs can be determined and preventive dental procedures can be implemented. This paper presents a study that aimed to evaluate the oral health…

  8. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed.

  9. Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': a comparison of English and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny'. English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ('The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny'). This interpretation conforms with classical logic. Mandarin disjunction ('huozhe') can take scope over 'before' ('zai … zhiqian'), so the same sentence can mean 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or before the bunny (I don't know which)'. If children are guided by adult input in the acquisition of sentence meanings, English- and Mandarin-speaking children should assign different interpretations to such sentences. If children are guided by logical principles, then children acquiring either language should initially assign the conjunctive interpretation of disjunction. A truth-value judgment task was used to test this prediction and English- and Mandarin-speaking children were found to behave similarly.

  10. Comparison of metabolism of vitamins D2 and D3 in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Obadofin, Michael O; Levine, Michael A; Singh, Ravinder J; Pettifor, John M

    2010-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets may have increased vitamin D requirements and respond differently to vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3). Our objective was to compare the metabolism of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in rachitic and control children. We administered an oral single dose of vitamin D(2) or D(3) of 1.25 mg to 49 Nigerian children--28 with active rickets and 21 healthy controls. The primary outcome measure was the incremental change in vitamin D metabolites. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ranged from 7 to 24 and 15 to 34 ng/mL in rachitic and control children, respectively (p vitamins D(2) and D(3) in children with rickets (29 ± 17 and 25 ± 11 ng/mL, respectively) and in control children (33 ± 13 and 31 ± 16 ng/mL, respectively). 1,25(OH)(2)D rose significantly (p vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively, in children with rickets. By contrast, control children had no significant increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D (19 ± 28 and 16 ± 38 pg/mL after vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively). We conclude that in the short term, vitamins D(2) and D(3) similarly increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations in rachitic and healthy children. A marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D in response to vitamin D distinguishes children with putative dietary calcium-deficiency rickets from healthy children, consistent with increased vitamin D requirements in children with calcium-deficiency rickets. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Neural basis of dyslexia: a comparison between dyslexic and nondyslexic children equated for reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Hernandez, Arvel; McMillon, Glenn; Taylor-Hill, Heather; Martindale, Jennifer L; Meyler, Ann; Keller, Timothy A; Siok, Wai Ting; Deutsch, Gayle K; Just, Marcel Adam; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2006-10-18

    Adults and children with developmental dyslexia exhibit reduced parietotemporal activation in functional neuroimaging studies of phonological processing. These studies used age-matched and/or intelligence quotient-matched control groups whose reading ability and scanner task performance were often superior to that of the dyslexic group. It is unknown, therefore, whether differences in activation reflect simply poorer performance in the scanner, the underlying level of reading ability, or more specific neural correlates of dyslexia. To resolve this uncertainty, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, with a rhyme judgment task, in which we compared dyslexic children with two control groups: age-matched children and reading-matched children (younger normal readers equated for reading ability or scanner-performance to the dyslexic children). Dyslexic children exhibited reduced activation relative to both age-matched and reading-matched children in the left parietotemporal cortex and five other regions, including the right parietotemporal cortex. The dyslexic children also exhibited reduced activation bilaterally in the parietotemporal cortex when compared with children equated for task performance during scanning. Nine of the 10 dyslexic children exhibited reduced left parietotemporal activation compared with their individually selected age-matched or reading-matched control children. Additionally, normal reading fifth graders showed more activation in the same bilateral parietotemporal regions than normal-reading third graders. These findings indicate that the activation differences seen in the dyslexic children cannot be accounted for by either current reading level or scanner task performance, but instead represent a distinct developmental atypicality in the neural systems that support learning to read.

  12. Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Brage, S; Riddoch, C;

    2008-01-01

    sample of children. We examined 1321 children (663 boys, 658 girls; mean age 9.6+/-0.4 years) from four different countries. Physical activity was measured by the MTI accelerometer. One equation, derived from doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements, was compared with one treadmill-based (TM) and one room......, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed....

  13. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children With and Without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5–5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that, due to deficits in oral language, children who were deaf would display lower levels of social competence than their hearing peers. Furthermore, lang...

  14. Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children

    OpenAIRE

    Khatavkar, Sonal S; Bakhshi, Rochana G

    2014-01-01

    Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 and ...

  15. Comparison of Auditory Perception in Cochlear Implanted Children with and without Additional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of children with cochlear implants who have other difficulties such as attention deficiency and cerebral palsy has increased dramatically. Despite the need for information on the results of cochlear implantation in this group, the available literature is extremely limited. We, therefore, sought to compare the levels of auditory perception in children with cochlear implants with and without additional disabilities. Methods: A spondee test comprising 20 two-syllable words was performed. The data analysis was done using SPSS, version 19. Results: Thirty-one children who had received cochlear implants 2 years previously and were at an average age of 7.5 years were compared via the spondee test. From the 31 children,15 had one or more additional disabilities. The data analysis indicated that the mean score of auditory perception in this group was approximately 30 scores below that of the children with cochlear implants who had no additional disabilities. Conclusion: Although there was an improvement in the auditory perception of all the children with cochlear implants, there was a noticeable difference in the level of auditory perception between those with and without additional disabilities. Deafness and additional disabilities depended the children on lip reading alongside the auditory ways of communication. In addition, the level of auditory perception in the children with cochlear implants who had more than one additional disability was significantly less than that of the other children with cochlear implants who had one additional disability.

  16. Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza PahlavanNezhad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes.   Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender.   Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P

  17. Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, K; Amirsalari, S; Ajalloueyan, M

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling. The findings show that the Hotelling trace of multivariate analysis of variance (F = 6.78, p children was significantly higher than for first-generation children for all intelligence scales except knowledge. It can be assumed that second-generation children joined their family in the use of sign language as the primary experience before a cochlear implant. The use of sign language before cochlear implants is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of chronology of teeth eruption with body mass index among school children at Mangalore: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaratna B Bagewadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development and eruption of the teeth, chronologies of human dentitions, dental age, and tooth formation standards are important aspects applied to dental practice. Body mass index (BMI gives an indication about the nutritional status of the child. It is relevant to know whether BMI has influenced chronology of tooth eruption pattern. Aim: To determine the eruption age of the different permanent teeth and compare eruption age with BMI in a group of children from selected schools in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in which 2928 children ranging in age from 5.5 to 15 years were included in the study. The children were divided into 20 chronological age groups with half year intervals. All the children were examined by a single examiner with the help of a trained assistant. The teeth were examined under natural light with mouth mirror. The comparison was made between mean eruption ages in males and females using the independent t-test. Results: There were 1526 males constituting 52.1% and 1402 females constituting 47.9% of the total sample of 2928 children. The mean age of eruption of maxillary central incisor, maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary and mandibular canines, maxillary and mandibular premolars, maxillary and mandibular second molars were found to have statistical significant with BMI. The mean age of eruption of the teeth in females was found to be earlier than in males, with the exception of the maxillary first molar which is earlier in males. Conclusion: Different categories of BMI were underweight, normal weight, risk of overweight and overweight, wherein overweight children had early eruption of teeth. Girls had early eruption time compared to boys.

  20. Comparison of Gingival Health and Salivary Parameters among Autistic and Non-Autistic School Children in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Hafez M; Motlaq, Suha Saeed; Alsharare, Amal; Alshammery, Ashwaq; Alshammery, Nadia; Khawja, Shabnam Gulzar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder which is manifested as impairment of social interaction, communication and a repetitive behaviour. Autism can obscure dental treatment for the affected patients; furthermore, children with autism commonly have destructive oral habits. Aim The aims of this study were to evaluate the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Plaque Index (PI), salivary pH and buffering capacity of the saliva among autistic children compared to normal children in Riyadh City that may provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services for autistic children. Materials and Methods A total of 50 children diagnosed with autism (mean age 8.5 years) were selected from Azzam Autism School, Riyadh City. The control group consisted of 50 non-autistic school children (mean age 8.7 years), gender matched, selected from Outpatient Clinic, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. MGI, PI, salivary pH and salivary buffer capacity tests were done for all participants. The buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva was grouped under ‘very low’, ‘low’ and ‘normal’. Pearson’s Chi square and one way ANOVA were used to find statistical significance if any among the autistic and the normal control group. Results The results of the study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of MGI, PI and pH of unstimulated resting saliva for autistic group were 1.82 ± 0.65, 1.92 ± 0.35 and 6.8 ± 0.5 respectively. Normal control group had values 1.35 ± 0.85, 1.44 ± 0.43 and 7 ± 0.4 respectively. A statistically significant difference between both groups for all parameters was found. Salivary buffering capacity was found to be normal for the majority among both groups. However, 60% children among the autistic group presented with normal buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva as compared to 70% among the normal control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.544). Conclusion Children

  1. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Phelicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments.

  2. Comparison of indium-111 scintigraphy and colonoscopy with histologic study in children for evaluation of colonic chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolia, V.; Kuhns, L.R.; Chang, C.H.; Slovis, T.L. (Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and colonoscopy were performed in 19 children and adolescents with chronic inflammatory bowel disease to study the correlation of evaluation between these two diagnostic modalities in comparison to histologic study for colonic disease. Seven patients had ulcerative colitis, 10 had Crohn's disease, and two patients had no specific diagnosis after evaluation. The sensitivity of indium-111 scan was 18%, specificity was 62.5%, and accuracy for diagnosing colonic disease was only 37%. In comparison, sensitivity and specificity for colonoscopy were 100 and 57%, respectively. Furthermore, accuracy with colonoscopy was 84%. The authors data suggest that the usefulness of scans is limited to patients in whom standard diagnostic procedures are contraindicated. In addition, it is essential to confirm the visual diagnostic impression on colonoscopy with histologic study.

  3. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  4. Cross Syndrome Comparison of Sleep Problems in Children with Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous findings of frequent sleep problems in children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), the present study aimed to expand our knowledge by using parent report and actigraphy to define sleep problems more precisely in these groups. Twenty-two school-aged children with DS, 24 with WS and 52 typically developing (TD)…

  5. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  6. Comparison of Mathematics Performance of Children and Adolescents with and without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Seth A.; Powell, Sarah R.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Davidson, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is an area of difficulty for most children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Researchers have suggested tailoring academic interventions based on the behavioral phenotype of DS could improve mathematics outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine whether children and adolescents with DS perform differentially compared to…

  7. Attitudes toward stuttering of nonstuttering preschool and kindergarten children: A comparison using a standard instrument prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Mary E; St Louis, Kenneth O; Burgess, Megan E; LeMasters, Staci N

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated attitudes of nonstuttering preschool and kindergarten children toward peers who stutter in order to identify differences by age groups and better understand the genesis of stuttering attitudes. The study also examined the use of a new stuttering attitudes instrument designed for use with young children. The newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes-Stuttering/Child was verbally administered to 27 preschool and 24 kindergarten children who do not stutter in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. Overall, preschoolers held more negative stuttering attitudes than kindergarteners, but results were not uniformly in that direction. In both groups, the attribute of stuttering was viewed more negatively than individuals who stutter. Children viewed the potential of peers who stutter as quite positive, whereas their knowledge about and experience with stuttering were generally limited and some of their beliefs quite negative. Negative or uninformed stuttering attitudes among nonstuttering children begin as early as the preschool years. This study provides empirical evidence for the need to educate young children about the nature of stuttering and how to respond appropriately to peers who stutter. Readers should be able to: (a) describe attitudinal differences between kindergarteners and preschoolers toward peers who stutter; (b) describe the parameters of the POSHA-S/Child; (c) describe the nature of stuttering attitudes in young children relative to their beliefs and self reactions; and (d) describe the implications and future direction of stuttering attitude research in young children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…

  9. Writing with Young Children: A Comparison of Paternal and Maternal Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    The increasing involvement of fathers in active parenthood raises questions concerning their parenting style. This study compared mothers and fathers in their writing interactions with their young children, exploring how parents' writing guidance related to children's early literacy. Mothers and fathers of 51 kindergarteners were videotaped…

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  11. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  12. Quantity Processing in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Evidence from Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Comparison Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf Children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic…

  13. A Comparison of Two Group-Delivered Social Skills Programs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K. A.; Schultz, Janet R.; Newsom, Crighton

    2007-01-01

    A social skills group intervention was developed and evaluated for young children with autism. Twenty-five 4- to 6-year-old (diagnosed) children were assigned to one of two kinds of social skills groups: the direct teaching group or the play activities group. The direct teaching group used a video-modeling format to teach play and social skills…

  14. A comparison of children with ADHD in a natural and built setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Berg, van den C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background - A link has been suggested between children's disconnection from nature and the recent surge in childhood disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Research on benefits of nature for healthy children provides some support for such a link. However, only a few stud

  15. Comparison of ambulatory electroencephagraphy in the diagnosis of epilepsy in children with sleep-derivation electroencephalogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the value of aEEG with sdEEG in the diagnosis of epilepsy in children, improve diagnostic accuracy.Methods:204 suspected epilepsy children were dedected by MRI, rEEG and aEEG, sdEEG, routine examination results as the gold standard computing aEEG, sdEEG diagnostic accuracy, and analyze the impact aEEG, factors sdEEG test results. Results:204 cases of suspected epileptic children diagnosed with epilepsy routine 189 cases, aEEG diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 94.18%, 93.33%, 99.44%, 56.00%, sensitivity sdEEG diagnosis, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 91.01%, 73.33%, 97.73%, 39.29%; aEEG epileptic discharge detection rate of 62.54%, higher than 51.95% sdEEG of; sdEEG in 1 to 3 years old suffering children epileptiform discharges detected positive rate accounted for 69.81%, higher than the 4 to 7 years old and > years the proportion of children, and in three age aEEG epileptiform discharge detection rate more balanced.Conclusions:aEEG inspection sensitivity, specificity for the diagnosis of epilepsy in children is higher than sdEEG, and for the diagnosis of all ages of children, and sdEEG use more flexible, suitable for children under 3 years of diagnosis.

  16. A Comparison of General and Descriptive Praise in Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polick, Amy S.; Carr, James E.; Hanney, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of…

  17. Motor performance and disability in Dutch children with haemophilia : a comparison with their healthy peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Helders, PJM; Van den Berg, HM

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether haemophilic children who are on prophylactic therapy differ from their healthy peers in terms of motor performance and disability. Thirty-nine children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate (eight) and severe (31) haemophilia were included. Patients with severe haemophilia received

  18. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; pacetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  19. Attitudes to Animal Dilemmas: An Exploratory Comparison between Mexican and English Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This research explores some of the factors that influence the relations about empathy and/or rejection that children establish towards some animal species. The role that school has within the social context in these dynamics was considered. Attitudes of young children (aged 7 to 9) from Mexico and England towards specific animal species, examining…

  20. Comparison of Video and Live Modeling in Teaching Response Chains to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…

  1. A comparison of different definitions of growth response in short prepubertal children treated with growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, P; Bjerknes, R; Dahlgren, J

    2011-01-01

    How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response.......How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response....

  2. Maternal Functional Speech to Children: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Zaninelli, M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities benefit from their language environment as much as, or even more than, typically developing (TD) children, but maternal language directed to developmentally delayed children is an under investigated topic. The purposes of the present study were to compare maternal functional language directed to children with two developmental disabilities – Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Down Syndrome (DS) –with TD children and to investigate relations of maternal functional language with child language skills. Participants were 60 mothers and their children with TD (n =20), DS (n =20), or ASD (n =20). Children’s mean developmental age was 24.77 months (SD = 8.47) and did not differ across the groups. Mother and child speech were studied during naturalistic play. We found (a) similarities in maternal functional language directed to the two groups of children with developmental disabilities compared to that directed to TD children and (b) a positive association between subcategories of information-salient speech and child mean length of utterance in TD dyads only. The clinical and developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22119699

  3. Play Therapy Applied by Parents for Children with Darkness Phobia: Comparison of Two Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Isabel; Mendez, Francisco J.; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Two play therapies applied by parents for darkness phobia in young children are compared. Seventy-eight children between the ages of 4 and 8 were recruited from twenty-seven schools. The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: bibliotherapy and games, emotive performances, and no treatment. The treatments were applied…

  4. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  5. Cognitive bias in spider-phobic children: Comparison of a pictorial and a linguistic spider Stroop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Brosschot, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relation between spider fear in children and cognitive processing bias toward threatening information. It was investigated whether spider fear in children is related to a cognitive bias for threatening pictures and words. Pictorial and linguistic Stroop stimuli were administered to 28

  6. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. van Eekelen; C.W. Perquin (Christel); J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); B.W. Koes (Bart); J. Passchier (Jan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was

  7. Comparison of delayed matching-to-sample performance in monkeys and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelonis, John J; Cox, Andrew R; Karr, Michael J; Prunty, Patricia K; Baldwin, Ronald L; Paule, Merle G

    2014-03-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that accuracy on a variety of memory tasks decreases as delay increases, relatively little research has been conducted to quantify this relationship across development in humans or directly compare rates of forgetting between humans and monkeys. This study utilized a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task to compare the relative contributions of proactive interference and attention on the rate of forgetting in monkeys and children. The performance of 1125 children from four to fourteen years of age and 10 adult rhesus monkeys was compared. For this DMTS task, a shape was displayed on the center one of three press-plates. After a delay, the subjects were required to match the original shape with one of three choice shapes to receive a banana-flavored food pellet for monkeys, or a nickel for children. A modified power function provided an excellent fit for the data for monkeys and children. The forgetting rates in children decreased with age, and the forgetting rates for monkeys were most comparable to those of younger children. The data also suggest that proactive interference did not significantly contribute to the forgetting rates for monkeys or younger children. Further, the monkeys appeared to attend to the task at a level similar to that of younger children as evidenced by the similarities in response latencies. The results from this study indicate that the rate of forgetting in monkeys, as well as the mechanisms underlying this rate, appears to share more similarities with that of younger children than of older children.

  8. A Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. Methods: We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). Results: On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers’ levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child’s breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Conclusions: Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits. PMID:21498147

  9. Comparison of patterns and knowledge of benefits and warnings of fish consumption between parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Lin, Shao; Chen, Ming; Luo, Ming; Tang, Jianzhong; Hwang, Syni-An

    2014-07-01

    We examined generational differences in fish consumption and knowledge of benefits/warnings of fish consumption among parents and children. This cross-sectional study gathered self-administered questionnaire data, including demographics, fish consumption behavior (including specific fish species) and knowledge of fish consumption warnings and benefits. Fish were later grouped into four categories by potential mercury contamination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for all variables comparing all adults and children. Benefit/risk knowledge variables were also descriptively analyzed among parent-child pairs only. Multivariate Poisson regression was conducted on pairs to assess risk factors for children eating higher mercury fish. 421 adults and 207 children (171 adult-child pairs) participated (family response rate: 71%). Slightly more adults (97.6%) ate fish in the last year than children (92.3%); however, there was no difference between consumption of fish by category of potential mercury contamination. Both adults (44%) and children (45%) ate high-mercury fish. In 71% of parent-child pairs, both the parent and the child knew of benefits of consuming fish; only 31% knew of warnings. Parental consumption of high or moderately-high-mercury fish was related to the child's consumption of fish in the same category. Parents and children need additional education to make better choices about fish consumption. Education should target the family and include specifics about benefits and risks.

  10. Comparison of self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahane, Sandeep; Shah, Henal; Nagarale, Vivek; Kamath, Ravindra

    2013-09-01

    To compare self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and their unaffected siblings. This cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in an urban setting. It comprised of 31 pairs of children with a learning disability, their unaffected siblings and input from their mothers. All children were assessed with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Mothers were asked to fill Index of parental attitude (IPA) and semi structured proforma with demographic data and questionnaire about her children with a learning disability and his/her unaffected sibling. Self-esteem was found to be lower in children with learning disability. They felt they do not have much to be proud of and have a fewer number of good qualities. They are also inclined to consider themselves as failures. In factors affecting self-esteem, index of parental attitude was found to be unfavorable towards children with learning disability. Mothers felt child was interfering with their activities and was getting on their nerves. In addition, they also felt that they do not understand their child, feel like they do not love their child and wished that child was more like others they know off. More academic failures, academic difficulties and negative school report were also perceived by mother as lowering child's self-esteem. Self-esteem was lower in children with learning disability. In factors affecting self-esteem maternal attitude, academic difficulties, academic failure and negative school reports was found to be unfavorable.

  11. Morphology and Spelling in French: A Comparison of At-Risk Readers and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Poh Wee; Shakory, Sharry; Chen, Xi; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-09-15

    We present two studies that examine the role of morphology in French spelling. In Study 1, we examined the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between inflectional awareness and derivational awareness and spelling within a sample of 77 children in a French immersion programme in Canada. Children completed a non-verbal reasoning measure and French measures of phonological awareness, word reading, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and spelling. Results showed that inflectional morphological awareness in Grade 3 was a predictor of spelling in the same grade. Inflectional awareness in Grade 2 predicted Grade 3 spelling, controlling for reading-related skills and spelling at Grade 2. These analyses support the role of inflectional morphological awareness in the development of spelling of children of a range of reading and spelling abilities. In contrast, derivational awareness in Grades 2 and 3 did not predict spelling concurrently in both grades respectively. Study 2 contrasted the morphological errors in the spellings of six children at risk for reading difficulties with those of six chronological age-matched and six reading level-matched children. Analyses showed that at-risk children exhibited more difficulties with spelling roots and suffixes in words as compared with their age-matched peers, although they performed similarly to children matched on reading level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Awareness of dengue fever among school children: a comparison between private and government schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral disease spreading its tentacles all over the world. Dengue constitutes for major cause of deaths in children. According to WHO, globally it was estimated that approximately 70-100 million people were infected every year. Therefore, the study has been conducted with the aim to assess knowledge regarding dengue fever among school children. Methodology: Total of 500 children were selected from 9th and 10th class of private and government schools using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire method. After assessing knowledge classes were taken by investigators focusing on prevention of dengue fever. Results: Finding of study revealed that among Private schools excellent knowledge was found in 06 (01.2% children, good in 123 (24.6% children, average 112 (22.4% children and poor in 02 (00.41 whereas in Government schools none of students had excellent knowledge, 76(15.2% children were having good knowledge, 178(35.6% children were having average knowledge & 03 (00.6 children were having poor knowledge. The mean knowledge scores were higher in students of Private schools i.e. 31.45 ± 6.41 as compared to students of Government schools i.e. 28.17 ± 5.39 at t=6.19 (p=0.00. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of school students of private and government schools were having average knowledge regarding prevention of dengue fever. Therefore, there is need for further information, education and communication programs regarding prevention of dengue fever and this can be achieved by organizing health education campaigns in community involving schools.

  13. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE TOOTH BRUSHING HABITS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Damla Özbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As they grow, children develop their attitude and behavior related to tooth brushing by taking their parents’ oral-dental health behavior as an example. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a similarity in tooth brushing between primary school-age children and their parents presenting to the Department of Oral, Dental and Jaw Diseases and Surgery and the Department of Pedodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Istanbul University. Patients and Methods: The study included 126 children and their parents, as totally 252 subjects. The data on oral hygiene of the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire form including questions on the qualitative-quantitative tooth brushing habits of the children and their parents and the socio-demographic characteristics of their families. Results: In most of the cases, there was a similarity between children and their parents in terms of frequency of dentist visits, the therapy they underwent in their last dentist visit, the cause of caries, the frequency of tooth brushing, the material used for oral hygiene, the duration of tooth brushing, method of tooth brushing, and tooth sites most brushed, which showed a significant association between children and their parents (p<0.01. Conclusion: Correct knowledge given to the children by their families will positively affect the oral-dental health of the children. Thus, firstly, correct knowledge should be given to the parents so that they can successfully carry out their responsibility in being the correct model for their children in oral-dental health.

  15. Comparison of Think-Aloud and Constructive Interaction in Usability Testing with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Benedikte Skibsted; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children......-aloud, and constructive interaction in acquainted and non-acquainted pairs. Our results show that the pairing of children had impact on identification of usability problems as acquainted dyads identified more problems both in total and of the most severe than non-acquainted dyads and individual testers. Finally...

  16. A Comparison of Motivation and the Process of Teaching in French Language Classes for Children and for Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paternost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of pupils and the question of how to motivate them seems to be the main issue of language teachers. As a French language teacher of both, children and adults, I have acquired quite some experiences in the past seven years of teaching in different language schools. These experiences are a great help in preparing my courses. However, as there is no established curricula in the language schools, which is quite a difference in comparison to public elementary and high schools, every teacher is expected to create his or her particular curriculum. This means literature, topics and matters that course will cover have to be selected by the teacher, and the teacher prepares all the handouts. If the level of satisfaction differs from the expectations of the pupils, they will most likely refuse to participate in the future. Because of that the question of motivation remains one of the main issues in terms of language teaching. The aim of the article is the comparison of the methods of raising motivation among the pupils I teach in two differentlanguage schools. The first group is mainly focused on children and the second group is focused on adults. Key words: motivation, course, grammar, reading comprehension, listening comprehension

  17. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ(2)(2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.......024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight...

  18. A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop-Christy, M H; Le, L; Freeman, K A

    2000-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching developmental skills to children with autism. A multiple baseline design across five children and within child across the two modeling conditions (video and in vivo) and across tasks was used. Each child was presented two similar tasks from his or her curriculum; one task was used for the video condition, while the other was used for the in vivo condition. Video modeling consisted of each child watching a videotape of models performing the target behavior, whereas in vivo modeling consisted of the children observing live models perform the target behavior. After the observations, children were tested for acquisition and generalization of target behaviors. Results suggest that video modeling led to faster acquisition of tasks than in vivo modeling and was effective in promoting generalization. Results are discussed in terms of video modeling's motivating and attention maintaining qualities.

  19. Comparison of Intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol in Children Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysu Aydogan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that, intravenous paracetamol was provided effective analgesia but it was not superior to intravenous tramadol in children undergoing major abdominal surgery. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 275-281

  20. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation.

  1. Intussusception in children: Comparison between ultrasound diagnosis and operation findings in a tropical developing country

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    Usang E Usang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the more common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. The diagnosis may be based mainly on clinical features; however, there are no classic signs and symptoms that are common to all cases. This study reports our experience at US diagnosis and operation findings of children with intussusceptions in a tropical developing economy. Materials and Methods: This was an 8 years retrospective review of intussusceptions in children in a tertiary health facility in a tropical developing country from January 2004 to December 2011. Results: Twenty-five out of 41 children (M:F = 2.2:1 admitted with intussusceptions within the period were studied. The median age was 6.0 ± 5.57 months (range 3 months- 7 years. US positively diagnosed intussusceptions in 20 (80% cases. Conclusion: US can increase diagnostic confidence in intussusceptions.

  2. Comparison of skin prick allergy test in urban and rural children

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    Fakhri Widyanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Children who grow up in rural areas have a lower incidence of atopy and other allergic manifestations than children in urban areas. Several recent studies have suggested that agricultural exposure may protect children from developing asthma and atopy, but these findings are inconsistent. Objective To examine an association between living in rural or urban areas and skin prick allergy test results in children and to detennine associated risk factors for atopy. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Karo district (rural and Medan (urban in October-December 2009. We enrolled primary school children who had a history of atopy in their families. Skin prick testing was done on the volar side of the forearm and included eight aero-allergens: house dust mites, house dust, cotton, chicken feathers, cat dander, cockroaches, mould, and pollen. We analyzed the folloMng risk factors for association Mth atopy: tobacco smoke, pets, livestock exposure, and having older sibling(s. Results We recruited 49 children from the Karo district and 52 children from the city of Medan. There were significant associations between living in an urban area and positive skin prick test results for house dust mites and house dust compared to living in a rural area (P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.11 to 5.91; P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.13 to 12.45, respectively. The reverse was true for cockroach allergens (P=0.02, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.81. Tobacco smoke and livestock exposure were associated Mth negative skin prick test results in rural children (P=O.03, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.81 and P=0.002, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.42, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that lack of livestock exposure was the major risk factor associated Mth any positive skin prick test results in rural children (P=0.004; 95% CI ; 0.02 to 0.49. Conclusion There were differing associations between living in rural and urban areas to various skin prick test results in children. Lack of livestock exposure was the risk

  3. Comparison of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urolithiasis Between Children and Adults: A Single Centre Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Salman; Rahat Aleman Bhatti, Joshua; Hasan, Aisha; Shabbir, Muhammad Usman; Akhter, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urolithiasis and compare the results between children and adults. Materials and methods From January 2011 to January 2015 (four years), ESWL was performed in 104 children and 300 adults for urolithiasis. MODULITH® SLX-F2 lithotripter (Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland) equipment was used for ESWL. The stone-free rates, the number of ESWL sessions required, complication rates and ancillary procedures used were evaluated in a comparative manner. Results The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of children was 7.84±4.22 years and of adults was a 40.22±1.57 years. Mean ± SD of the stone size was 1.28±61 cm in the adults while 1.08 ± 0.59 cm in the children. In adults, the complications included steinstrasse in six (1.98%) patients, fever in 15 (4.95%), hematuria in 19 (6.28%) and sepsis in six (1.98%) patients. In children, steinstrasse was observed in two (1.9%), mild fever in two (1.9%), hematuria in six (5.7%) and sepsis was seen in four (3.8%) patients. The overall complication rate in the adults and in the children, it was found to be 46/300 (15%) and in the children, it was seen to be 14/104 (13%). No statistical difference was found in post-ESWL complications between children and adults (P>0.05). Ancillary procedures including double J (DJ) stent were used in 13 (12.5%) children and 87 (29%) adults. There was a better stone clearance rate in children i.e. 79% as compared to 68% in adults (X2: P=0.036). Conclusion Children can achieve high stone-free rates after ESWL with a lower need for repeat ancillary procedures as compared to adults. However, there is a difference in the post-ESWL complications between these groups. PMID:27800291

  4. Comparison of the major malformation rate of children conceived from cryopreserved embryos and fresh embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-zhen; QIAO Jie; CHI Hong-bin; CHEN Xin-na; LIU Ping; MA Cai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryopreserved embryo transfer has become indispensable in reproductive technology. More and more children are conceived from frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). The risk of birth defects associated with frozen-thawed embryo transfer has been evaluated and conflict results are obtained. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of major malformations in children conceived from cryopreserved embryos with that of children from fresh embryos. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on children conceived from frozen-thawed embryos and fresh embryos between January 2005 and December 2008 at the Reproduction Center of the Third Hospital, Peking University.The major malformation rates were compared between two groups for all children, as well as singletons or twins,separately. The frequencies of different subtypes of malformations classified according to different organ system were also compared.Results Thirty-four of 3125 children from cryopreserved embryos had a major malformation. The malformation rate was 1.09%, which was comparable to that for children after fresh embryos transfer (1.53%(55/3604), OR:0.71, 95% CI; 0.46-1.09). The malformation rate was also similar when the analysis was limited to children from cryopreserved embryos resulted from in vitro fertilization (IVF)(1.39%)and fresh IVF(1.3%). However, children from cryopreserved embryos resulted from intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) had much lower malformation rate than from fresh ICSI(0.63% vs.1.83%, OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16-0.75). No difference was found in the incidence of major malformations in singletons from cryo ICSI (0.73%) and fresh ICS1(1.9%), or from cryo IVF(1.49%) and fresh IVF(1.67%). Similar malformation rate was found in multiples from cryo ICSI(0.52%) and fresh ICSI(1.76%), or cryo IVF(1.30%) and fresh IVF(0.90%). The distribution and risk of the subtype of malformations, such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neural tube, urogenital, rnusculoskeletal and facial

  5. Attitudes to Animal Dilemmas: An Exploratory Comparison Between Mexican and English Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research explores some of the factors that influence the relations about empathy and /or rejection that children establish towards some animal species. The role that school has within the social context in these dynamics was considered. Attitudes of young children (aged 7 to 9) from Mexico and England towards specific animal species, examining attitudinal differences not only between cultures, and educational systems, but between species have been compared. Ecologica...

  6. Adult children's socioeconomic positions and their parents' mortality: a comparison of education, occupational class, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torssander, Jenny

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has shown that the parents of well-educated children live longer than do other parents and that this association is only partly confounded by the parent's own socioeconomic position. However, the relationships between other aspects of children's socioeconomic position (e.g., occupational class and economic resources) and parental mortality have not been examined. Using the Swedish Multi-generation Register that connects parents to their children, this paper studies the associations of children's various socioeconomic resources (education, occupation, and income) and parents' mortality. The models are adjusted for a range of parental socioeconomic resources and include the resources of the parents' partners. In addition to all-cause mortality, five causes of death are analyzed separately (circulatory disease mortality, overall cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer). The results show net associations between all included indicators of children's socioeconomic position and parents' mortality risk, with the clearest association for education. Children's education is significantly associated with all of the examined causes of death except prostate cancer. Breast cancer mortality is negatively related to offspring's education but not the mothers' own education. To conclude, children's education seems to be a key factor compared with other dimensions of socioeconomic position in the offspring generation. This finding suggests that explanations linked to behavioral norms or knowledge are more plausible than those linked to access to material resources. However, it is possible that children's education - to a greater degree than class and income - captures unmeasured parental characteristics. The cause-specific analyses imply that future research should investigate whether offspring's socioeconomic position is linked to the likelihood of developing diseases and/or the chances of treating them. A broader family perspective in the description

  7. Prevalence of rhinovirus in wheezing children: a comparison with respiratory syncytial virus wheezing

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    Huiquan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the distribution and clinical manifestations of rhinovirus infection in wheezing children, and compare the clinical differences between rhinovirus- and respiratory syncytial virus-induced wheezing. Materials and methods This prospective cohort study was carried out in Children's Hospital of Soochow University from Dec 2012 to Nov 2014. We enrolled consecutive hospitalized children <60 months of age presented with wheezing. Clinical data including cough, fever, dyspnea, crackles were recorded by pediatricians on the first day of admission. Meanwhile, nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained to test for respiratory viruses, by using polymerase chain reaction method for rhinovirus, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus, and direct immunofluorescence assay to test for respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1–3, and influenza virus types A and B. Results Rhinovirus was a main causative agent isolated in 14.7% of the hospitalized wheezing children in Suzhou, China, being second to respiratory syncytial virus (21.0%. Different from respiratory syncytial virus infection, which peaked in winter months, rhinovirus could be detected all year round, peaked between July and September, and in November. Children with rhinovirus infection were older and presented with more often allergic sensitizations, blood eosinophilia, and leukocytosis than those of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Logistic regression analysis revealed that rhinovirus-infected children experienced earlier wheezing more often than respiratory syncytial virus children (odds ratio, 3.441; 95% confidence interval, 1.187–9.979; p = 0.023. Conclusion Rhinovirus was a main viral pathogen in wheezing children, especially in summer time. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing was different from respiratory syncytial virus, apart from seasonal epidemics; these two groups differed with regard to age, allergic sensitizations, laboratory test

  8. A comparison of seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among children from geographic regions with different climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Julia A; McLaughlin, Anne P; Stenger, Philip J; Patrie, James; Brown, Mark A; El-Dahr, Jane M; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Byrd, Nora J; Heymann, Peter W

    2016-11-01

    The fall peak in childhood asthma exacerbations is thought to be related to an increase in viral infections and allergen exposure when children return to school. Whether the seasonality of asthma attacks among children from different geographic regions follows similar trends is unclear. To compare seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among school-age children who lived in different geographic locations, with different climates, within the United States. Hospital billing data bases were examined to determine the monthly number of school-age children who were hospitalized or treated in the emergency department (ED) for asthma exacerbations. Data from four cities within three states were compared. Climate data were obtained from archives of the National Climate Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce. An annual peak in asthma exacerbations was observed during the fall months (September through November) among children who lived in Charlottesville, Virginia, as well as throughout the state of Virginia. An increase in exacerbations, which peaked in November, was observed for exacerbations among children who lived in Tucson, Arizona, and Yuma, Arizona. In contrast, exacerbations among children from New Orleans, Louisiana, increased in September but remained elevated throughout the school year. Although there was annual variation in the frequency of exacerbations over time, the seasonal patterns observed remained similar within the locations from year to year. A nadir in the frequency of attacks was observed during the summer months in all the locations. Seasonal peaks for asthma exacerbations varied among the children who lived in geographic locations with different climates, and were not restricted to the beginning of the school year.

  9. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Mariana M.; Carolina Corsi; Marques, Luisa A. P.; Nelci A. C. F. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of...

  10. A comparison of salivary IgA in children with Down syndrome and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Karthika; Milne, Trudy J; Drummond, Bernadette K; Cullinan, Mary P; Coates, Dawn E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in saliva (μg/ml) and also adjusted for salivary flow rate (SFR; μg/min). Twenty children with Down syndrome, ten siblings and twenty parents were recruited. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from the participants and SFR calculated. The measurement of salivary IgA (sIgA) was carried out using an indirect competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The difference in the mean SFR between children with Down syndrome, parents and siblings were not statistically significant. The mean salivary concentration of IgA was higher in children with Down syndrome (95.1 μg/ml) compared with siblings (48.3 μg/ml; p=0.004). When adjusted for SFR children with Down syndrome had mean sIgA levels of 98.8 μg/min and the siblings 48.6 μg/min (p=0.008). The children with Down syndrome had sIgA levels similar to those of the parents (92.5 μg/ml; 93.2 μg/min). There was a positive correlation between age and sIgA concentration in the siblings (p=0.008) but not for children with Down syndrome (p=0.363). This suggests that under similar environmental influences, the levels of sIgA in children with Down syndrome are higher than in the siblings, from a very young age.

  11. A comparison of Likert scale and visual analogue scales as response options in children's questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laerhoven, H; van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; Derkx, B H F

    2004-06-01

    To examine which response options children prefer and which they find easiest to use, and to study the relative reliability of the different response options. A consecutive group of unselected children (n = 120) filled out three questionnaires in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Each questionnaire included seven similar questions, but had different response options: the Likert scale, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the numeric VAS. In general, the questions were not related to the children's particular diseases, but dealt with the frequency of simple activities, their feelings and opinions. The pages with the three different response options were offered in random order. Afterwards, the children rated their preference and ease of use of the different response options on a scale from one to 10. Children preferred the Likert scale (median mark 9.0) over the numeric VAS (median mark 8.0) and the simple VAS (median 6.0). They considered the Likert scale easiest to fill out (median mark 10 vs 9 and 7.5 for the numeric and simple VAS, respectively). Results of the different response options correlated strongly with each other (rho = 0.67-0.90, p Likert scale over the numeric and simple VAS and find it easiest to complete. The Likert scale, the simple VAS and the numeric VAS are of comparable reliability. The Likert scale is recommended for use in questionnaires for children, although research into larger and more diverse samples is needed.

  12. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  13. Modified Blalock Taussig shunt: Comparison between neonates, infants and older children

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    Sarvesh Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to compare various pre-and post-operative parameters and to identify the predictors of mortality in neonates, infants, and older children undergoing Modified Blalock Taussig shunt (MBTS. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 134 children who underwent MBTS over a period of 2 years through thoracotomy were reviewed. Children were divided into three groups-neonates, infants, and older children. For analysis, various pre-and post-operative variables were recorded, including complications and mortality. Results: The increase in PaO 2 and SaO 2 levels after surgery was similar and statistically significant in all the three groups. The requirement of adrenaline, duration of ventilation and mortality was significantly higher in neonates. The overall mortality and infant mortality was 4.5% and 8%, respectively. Conclusion: Neonates are at increased risk of complications and mortality compared with older children. Age (6 ml/kg, mechanical ventilation >24 h and post shunt increase in PaO 2 (P Diff <25% of baseline PaO 2 are independent predictors of mortality in children undergoing MBTS.

  14. Comparisons of Office and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2017-03-01

    To compare office blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring to facilitate the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Children aged 4-16 years with OSA-related symptoms were recruited from a tertiary referral medical center. All children underwent overnight polysomnography, office BP, and 24-hour ABP studies. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to elucidate the association between the apnea-hypopnea index and BP. Correlation and consistency between office BP and 24-hour ABP were measured by Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. In the 163 children enrolled (mean age, 8.2 ± 3.3 years; 67% male). The prevalence of systolic hypertension at night was significantly higher in children with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with primary snoring (44.9% vs 16.1%, P = .006). Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation analyses revealed associations between office BP and 24-hour BP, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated an agreement between office and 24-hour BP measurements. However, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that 24-hour BP (nighttime systolic BP and mean arterial pressure), unlike office BP, was independently associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, after adjustment for adiposity variables. Twenty-four-hour ABP is more strongly correlated with OSA in children, compared with office BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Undernutrition Prevalence of Children under 5 Years in China between 2002 and 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong Mei; ZHAO Li Yun; YANG Zhen Yu; CHANG Su Ying; YU Wen Tao; FANG Hong Yun; WANG Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the undernutrition status of children under 5-year in China, and study the trend between 2002 and 2013. Methods The study was based on two national surveys. Undernutrition wasdetermined against WHOs 2006 growth standards.The prevalence in 2013 and 2002 was weighted by China sixth National Population Census (2010). The relationship between undernutrition and gender/age groups/different areas use weighted logistic regression. Results The results indicated the overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting of Chinese children under 5-year was 8.1%, 2.4%, and 1.9% in 2013, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was higher for children aged 12-47 month, while underweight was higher for children aged 48-59 month. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas. There was a decline of stunting, underweight, and wastingbetween 2002 and 2013 among the children, with greater reduction in rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion The prevalence of undernutrition of children under 5-year remains high in rural areas especially in poor rural areas in China. It is urgent totake action to control undernutrition in the vulnerable areas and subgroups.

  16. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  17. Cultural influences on the development of lateral preferences: a comparison between French and Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, Jacqueline; Dahmen, Riadh

    2004-01-01

    We compared the development of laterality in two cultures that differ in pressure against left-handedness. Tunisian children, who are discouraged by their parents from using their left hand for all food-related activities, were compared to French children, who are allowed to use either the left or right hand. The subjects were 5, 7, and 9 years of age. To check the development of laterality, we tested hand preference (for writing and for performing 14 other manual activities), right-left performance difference, eye preference, and foot preference. The results showed that the frequency of left-handedness and left-eyedness was lower among Tunisian than among French children; this was particularly clear at age 5. Group difference almost disappeared in primary school children. Footedness did not differ between the two groups. Tunisian right-hand writers, although they probably included some children who might not have been right-handed without the cultural pressure, were not less consistent than French right-hand writers on the 14-item scale; they even showed a greater performance difference in favour of the right hand than the French on the pegboard task. These results may indicate that cultural pressure influences handedness at an early age, perhaps by leading towards right-handedness in children whose genetic background might otherwise have induced a chance-determined pattern of handedness.

  18. A comparison of the play skills of preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, Ann; Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Play is commonly acknowledged as being important to children's development. School-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to be less involved in play and more socially isolated than their typically developing peers, but little is known about play of preschool children with DCD. Using a quasi-experimental design, developmental play skills and frequency in engagement in play of two independent groups of preschool children aged 4 to 6 years with (n = 32) and without (n = 31) probable DCD were compared. Play skills were assessed using the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scales and the Play Observation Scale based on 30 minutes of videotape of free play at preschool. Preschool children with probable DCD had a lower developmental play age and engaged less frequently in play than their typically developing peers. Given the importance of play, children with DCD need to be identified and supported to enable them to play at preschool similarly to their peers. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health 2013;33(4):198-208.].

  19. Comparison of outcomes following decompressive craniectomy in children with accidental and nonaccidental blunt cranial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Wilkinson, C Corbett; Stence, Nicholas V; Fenton, Laura Z; McNatt, Sean A; Handler, Michael H

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare clinical outcomes following decompressive craniectomy performed for intracranial hypertension in children with nonaccidental, blunt cranial trauma with outcomes of decompressive craniectomy in children injured by other mechanisms. All children in a prospectively acquired database of trauma admissions who underwent decompressive craniectomy over a 9-year span, beginning January 1, 2000, are the basis for this study. Clinical records and neuroimaging studies were systematically reviewed. Thirty-seven children met the inclusion criteria. Nonaccidental head trauma was the most common mechanism of injury (38%). The mortality rate in patients with abusive brain injury (35.7%) was significantly higher (p cranial trauma have significantly higher mortality following decompressive craniectomy than do children with other mechanisms of injury. This understanding can be interpreted to mean either that the threshold for decompression should be lower in children with nonaccidental closed head injury or that decompression is unlikely to alter the path to a fatal outcome. If decompressive craniectomy is to be effective in reducing mortality in the setting of nonaccidental blunt cranial trauma, it should be done quite early.

  20. Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh S; Santhosh, M C B

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD). Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value) required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion) and Group TI (tracheal intubation). No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10 min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Students t test. Difference between ETLMI (2.49 ± 0.44) and ETTI (2.81 ± 0.65) as well as MACLMI (1.67 ± 0.13) and MACTI (1.77 ± 0.43) was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05 ± 10.76) and BISTI (41.25 ± 3.25) was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh S; Santhosh, M C B

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD). Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value) required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion) and Group TI (tracheal intubation). No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by Anova and Student's t test. Difference between ETLMI (2.49±0.44) and ETTI (2.81±0.65) as well as MACLMI (1.67±0.13) and MACTI (1.77±0.43) was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05±10.76) and BISTI (41.25±3.25) was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS

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    Mahantesh S. Mudakanagoudar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD. Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. AIMS: To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. METHOD: The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and Group TI (tracheal intubation. No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10 min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Students t test. RESULTS: Difference between ETLMI (2.49 ± 0.44 and ETTI (2.81 ± 0.65 as well as MACLMI (1.67 ± 0.13 and MACTI (1.77 ± 0.43 was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05 ± 10.76 and BISTI (41.25 ± 3.25 was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index.

  3. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF UREA BREATH TEST FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH DYSPEPSIA IN COMPARISON TO HISTOPATHOLOGY

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    Naser HONAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Helicobacter pylori infection is the gram negative bacillus with the close association with chronic antral gastritis. Objective - In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of urea breath test (UBT with carbon isotope 13 in comparison with histopathology of gastric antrum for detection of H. pylori infection in children with dyspepsia. Methods - This cross-sectional study was performed at specialized laboratory of Shiraz Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and Nemazee Hospital, Iran, during a 12-months period. This study investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of UBT in comparison with biopsy-based tests. We included a consecutive selection of 60 children who fulfilled Rome III criteria for dyspepsia. All children were referred for performing UBT with carbon isotope 13 (C13 as well as endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from antrum of stomach and duodenum. The pathologic diagnosis was considered as the standard test. Results - The mean age of the participants was 10.1±2.6 (range 7-17 years. From our total 60 patients, 28 (46.7% had positive UBT results and 32 (53.3% had negative UBT results. Pathologic report of 16 (57.1% out of 28 patients who had positive UBT were positive for H. pylori and 12 (42.9% ones were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Conclusion - Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Another multicenter study from our country is recommended.

  4. Comparison between a laser fluorescence device and visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in children

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    Kouchaji, Chaza

    2012-01-01

    Occlusal surfaces of molars are especially susceptible to the development of caries due to the features, such as pits and deep fissures, of their anatomical structure. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence measurements in comparison with visual examination for occlusal caries detection for first permanent molars in children. Methods The study involved 156 permanent molar teeth in 40 children aged 7–12 years. A relatively new technology, the fluorescence laser DIAGNOdent pen, was used for detecting and diagnosing caries on the occlusal surfaces of molars. The visual examination of fissures was based on the Ekstrand classification system. Results The results showed a strong relationship between examination with the DIAGNOdent and visual inspection. DIAGNOdent’s sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 52%, respectively, indicating that the laser fluorescence DIAGNOdent pen is a reproducible and accurate diagnostic tool that may be very helpful in conjunction with visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars in children. PMID:23960547

  5. The speed of magnitude processing and executive functions in controlled and automatic number comparison in children: an electro-encephalography study

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    Jármi Éva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the numerical Stroop paradigm (NSP participants decide whether a digit is numerically or physically larger than another simultaneously presented digit. This paradigm is frequently used to assess the automatic number processing abilities of children. Currently it is unclear whether an equally refined evaluation of numerical magnitude occurs in both controlled (the numerical comparison task of the NSP and automatic (the physical comparison task of the NSP numerical comparison in both children and adults. One of our objectives was to respond this question by measuring the speed of controlled and automatic magnitude processing in children and adults in the NSP. Another objective was to determine how the immature executive functions of children affect their cognitive functions relative to adults in numerical comparison. Methods and results The speed of numerical comparison was determined by monitoring the electro-encephalographic (EEG numerical distance effect: The amplitude of EEG measures is modulated as a function of numerical distance between the to-be-compared digits. EEG numerical distance effects occurred between 140–320 ms after stimulus presentation in both controlled and automatic numerical comparison in all age groups. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing facilitation and interference effects on the latency of the P3b event-related potential component and the lateralized readiness potential (LRP. Interference effects were more related to response than to stimulus processing in children as compared with adults. The LRP revealed that the difficulty to inhibit irrelevant response tendencies was a major factor behind interference in the numerical task in children. Conclusion The timing of the EEG distance effect suggests that a refined evaluation of numerical magnitude happened at a similar speed in each age group during both controlled and automatic magnitude processing. The larger response interference in

  6. Comparison of severe pneumonia caused by Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children

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    Yuqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the incidence and clinical characteristics of severe pneumonia caused by Human metapneumovirus (hMPV to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection in children. Patients and Methods: A total of 151 children hospitalized with severe pneumonia, were tested for hMPV using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. At the same time, samples were tested for RSV and other common respiratory viruses. Medical records, including clinical, laboratory data, and chest radiography findings, were reviewed for all children. Results: Of the 151 samples, 88 (58.3% were positive for respiratory viruses. Of the 88 positive, there were 6 (4.0% with hMPV, 66 (43.7% with RSV, 13 (8.6% with influenza A, 2 (1.3% with parainfluenza virus III, 1 (0.7% with parainfluenza virus I, 1 (0.7% with adenovirus and 1 (0.7% with influenza B. hMPV-infected patients were significantly older than RSV-infected patients (P < 0.001. Children with hMPV pneumonia had fever more frequently (P = 0.03. Two hMPV-positive patients (33.3% required admission to an intensive care unit, and two patients (33.3% required mechanical ventilation. The duration of illness was 18.33 ± 7.09 days. These characteristics of hMPV infections were similar to patients with RSV infections. Conclusion: Human metapneumovirus is an infrequent viral pathogen causing severe pneumonia in children. Children with hMPV were older than those with RSV. The disease caused by hMPV was similar in presentation and severity to RSV, with a minority of children requiring additional respiratory support.

  7. Comparison of efficacy of Adeli suit and neurodevelopmental treatments in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Bar-Haim, Simona; Harries, Netta; Belokopytov, Mark; Frank, Alexander; Copeliovitch, Leonel; Kaplanski, Jacob; Lahat, Eli

    2006-05-01

    This study compared the efficacy of Adeli suit treatment (AST) with neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-four children with CP, Levels II to IV according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were matched by age and functional status and randomly assigned to the AST or NDT treatment groups. In the AST group (n=12; eight males, four females; mean age 8.3 y [SD 2.0]), six children had spastic/ataxic diplegia, one triplegia and five spastic/mixed quadriplegia. In the NDT group (n=12; nine males, three females; mean age 8.1 y [SD 2.2]), five children had spastic diplegia and seven had spastic/mixed quadriplegia. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks (2 hours daily, 5 days per week, 20 sessions). To compare treatments, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and the mechanical efficiency index (EIHB) during stair-climbing were measured at baseline, immediately after 1 month of treatment, and 10 months after baseline. The small but significant time effects for GMFM-66 and EIHB that were noted after 1 month of both intensive physiotherapy courses were greater than expected from natural maturation of children with CP at this age. Improvements in motor skills and their retention 9 months after treatment were not significantly different between the two treatment modes. Post hoc analysis indicated a greater increase in EIHB after 1 month (p=0.16) and 10 months (p=0.004) in AST than that in NDT, predominantly in the children with higher motor function (GMFCS Levels II and III). The results suggest that AST might improve mechanical efficiency without a corresponding gain in gross motor skills, especially in children with higher levels of motor function.

  8. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD: A comparison between subtypes.

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    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls.In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in both groups. We also used children's scores in Children Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 for diagnosing ADHD and specifying ADHD subtypes. Data were entered in SPSS-17 and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA static tests to clarify the differences between ADHD and controls and between ADHD subtypes. Scheffe's test was also used to identify which groups were different from one another. The mean and standard divisions (SD were used for descriptive analysis.ADHD subtypes are significantly different in terms of perseverative responses (p≤ 0/01 and perseverative errors (p≤ 0/001. Based on Scheffe's test, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Hyperactive type (ADHD-H is not that different from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Inattention type (ADHD-I and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Combined type (ADHD-C, but there are significant responses and perseverative differences between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in terms of perseverative errors. ADHD-C shows more perseverative responses and perseverative errors than ADHD-I.The findings of this study revealed that executive function patterns are different in children with ADHD compared to normal children. In this study it was also found that ADHD subtypes are also different in terms of perseveration and response inhibition domains; ADHD-C has more deficits in these domains.

  9. [Psychosomatic aspects of parent-child relations in atopic eczema in childhood. I. Psychodiagnostic test procedures in parents and children in comparison with somatic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Palos, E; Zimmermann, F

    1986-10-01

    A total of 23 children with atopic eczema and 13 control children suffering from non-atopic dermatological disorders were studied. For children between 8 and 14 years the "Hamburg neuroticism and extraversion scale for children and adolescents" (HANES-KJ) was used. In this test no statistically significant differences were observed between children with atopic eczema and children with other dermatological disorders. The mothers and fathers of atopic children were examined for personality profiles using the "Freiburger personality inventory" (FPI). In the FPI, mothers of children with atopic eczema were shown to be less "spontaneous", more "under control" and less "emotional" than the normal population. The fathers of atopic children showed now significant differences compared with the normal population; however, there was a trend towards increased "irritability". In a comparison of FPI profiles within couples with atopic children, mothers showed less "somatic emotional response" in the FPI profile, while the feature "emotional control" was more prominent in the mothers as compared with the respective fathers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Ritz, Christian; Hartvig, Ditte L; Møller, Per

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3 ± 0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0 ± 2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet pear banana yoghurt was used as the food eaten to satiation, and test foods representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, "fatty", and "spicy" flavors were also evaluated (foods not eaten). At baseline and post meal participants evaluated hunger, satiation, liking, and wanting for test foods and yoghurt, and desires on a 150 mm visual analogue score (VAS) scale. The yoghurt was eaten until a state of "comfortable satiation" was reached. Results showed that SSS and SSD were expressed differently in children and adults. In children, SSS was primarily product specific and bound to the yoghurt, whereas in adults SSS was transferred to the uneaten foods sharing sensory characteristics with the yoghurt (namely sweet, sour and "fatty"), which all decreased in their liking post meal. Similar differences were found for SSD. We conclude that children and adults differ in their expression of SSS and SSD, and this might have implications for planning meal compositions.

  11. Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? A comparison between 1987 and 2001

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    Mohammedamin, Robbert SA; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Koning, Sander; van der Linden, Michiel W; Schellevis, François G; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette WA; Koes, Bart W

    2006-01-01

    Background The increasing proportion of skin diseases encountered in general practice represents a substantial part of morbidity in children. Only limited information is available about the frequency of specific skin diseases. We aimed to compare incidence rates of skin diseases in children in general practice between 1987 and 2001. Methods We used data on all children aged 0–17 years derived from two consecutive surveys performed in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Both surveys concerned a longitudinal registration of GP consultations over 12 months. Each disease episode was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. Incidence rates of separate skin diseases were calculated by dividing all new episodes for each distinct ICPC code by the average study population at risk. Data were stratified for socio-demographic characteristics. Results The incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased between 1987 and 2001. Among infants the incidence rate increased. Girls presented more skin diseases to the GP. In the southern part of the Netherlands children consulted their GP more often for skin diseases compared to the northern part. Children of non-Western immigrants presented relatively more skin diseases to the GP. In general practice incidence rates of specific skin diseases such as impetigo, dermatophytosis and atopic dermatitis increased in 2001, whereas warts, contact dermatitis and skin injuries decreased. Conclusion The overall incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased whereas the incidence rates of bacterial, mycotic and atopic skin diseases increased. PMID:16551358

  12. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples.

  13. Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? A comparison between 1987 and 2001

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    van Suijlekom-Smit Lisette WA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing proportion of skin diseases encountered in general practice represents a substantial part of morbidity in children. Only limited information is available about the frequency of specific skin diseases. We aimed to compare incidence rates of skin diseases in children in general practice between 1987 and 2001. Methods We used data on all children aged 0–17 years derived from two consecutive surveys performed in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Both surveys concerned a longitudinal registration of GP consultations over 12 months. Each disease episode was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. Incidence rates of separate skin diseases were calculated by dividing all new episodes for each distinct ICPC code by the average study population at risk. Data were stratified for socio-demographic characteristics. Results The incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased between 1987 and 2001. Among infants the incidence rate increased. Girls presented more skin diseases to the GP. In the southern part of the Netherlands children consulted their GP more often for skin diseases compared to the northern part. Children of non-Western immigrants presented relatively more skin diseases to the GP. In general practice incidence rates of specific skin diseases such as impetigo, dermatophytosis and atopic dermatitis increased in 2001, whereas warts, contact dermatitis and skin injuries decreased. Conclusion The overall incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased whereas the incidence rates of bacterial, mycotic and atopic skin diseases increased.

  14. Comparison of soft tissue facial morphometry in children with Class I and Class II occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Puletto, S; Bignotto, M; Tartaglia, G

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimensional soft tissue facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 167 children aged 6 to 9 years by using a new noninvasive computerized method. For each child, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared CCD cameras, real-time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the x, y, and z coordinates of landmarks. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements and five linear distance ratios were computed. For each age class, mean values were computed for all children with a bilateral Angle Class I occlusion (modified according to Katz) and compared with values obtained in children with a bilateral Class II occlusion. Most of the differences involved three-dimensional angular measurements: Class II children had more convex faces in the sagittal plane and a less prominent mandible than did Class I children. No differences were found in the linear measurements. Only the lower facial height ratio was different between the two occlusion groups, but the difference was not consistent among all the age groups.

  15. Comparison of general health status in mothers of hearing and hearing-impaired children

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    Movallali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.

  16. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

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    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  18. Comparison among Children with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Nonverbal Learning Disorder and Typically Developing Children on Measures of Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) or Asperger's Syndrome (AS) may show difficulties with executive functioning. There were 3 groups in this study who completed a neuropsychological battery of visual-spatial, executive functioning, and reasoning tasks; AS (n = 37), NLD (n = 31), and controls…

  19. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

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    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  20. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.;

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ...... with the corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...... clinics in the same region, were analysed in parallel. Finally, a complementary WQ was sent to the parents of children identified as asthmatic by either or both of this approaches. In response to the WQ 5.9% were claimed to suffer from asthma diagnosed by a doctor. According to the medical records...

  1. The characteristic features of moral socialization: A comparison of Japanese and Australian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Tsunenobu

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study, based on surveys conducted in Japan and Australia, is to examine how certain factors in family and school affect the socialmoral behaviour of pupils. Such factors include relations with teachers, after-school activities, friendships, and time spent helping parents with the housework. To measure the effect of these factors, the study used three indices of social-moral behaviour, showing: (1) the degree to which children conformed to social norms; (2) their behaviour in relation to teachers, family and friends; (3) their ability to find appropriate moral responses in different situations. A number of interesting contrasts were revealed between Australian and Japanese schools. The results showed that the moral education received by Japanese children is not translated into their own behaviour. The author concludes that there is an urgent need to establish moral education based on investigations into the real experiences of children.

  2. Pervasive developmental disorder in the children of immigrant parents: comparison of different assessment instruments

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    Milena Pereira Ponde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe how the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS behaves in relation to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS and to clinical diagnosis based on the criteria defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th Edition (DSM-IV for children of immigrant parents. Forty-nine children of parents who had immigrated to Canada were evaluated. In this sample, the ADOS and the DSM-IV showed complete agreement. Using the standard cut-off point of 30, the CARS showed high specificity and poor sensitivity. The study proposes a cut-off point for the CARS that would include pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS. Reducing the cut-off point to 20/21 increased the specificity of the instrument for this group of children without significantly reducing its sensitivity.

  3. [Premedication in children: a comparison of oral midazolam and rectal bromazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, N; Kitamura, S; Taniguchi, A; Hamao, W; Matsuyama, M

    1995-12-01

    Seventy-seven children for minor surgery of less than 90 minutes in duration were divided into two groups; one group received midazolam syrup and the other received bromazepam suppository. The sedative effect before or after the induction of the anesthetic, the effect on the circulatory system, and the prolongation of the sedative effect after surgery were studied. Regarding the sedative effect before or during the induction of anesthesia, both medications were effective with no significant difference between the two groups. However, the bromazepam suppository had a significantly better sedative effect 1 or 2 hours after the surgery. In children under 4 years of age, the sedative effect during the induction was obtained by administering midazolam syrup before the surgery. It is indicated that midazolam syrup is superior to the bromazepam suppository in children under 4 years of age.

  4. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

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    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  5. A comparison of halothane and sevoflurane for bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Yatindra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare induction and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane for rigid bronchoscopy for removal of foreign bodies in tracheobronchial tree in children. Forty four children (age 1-4 years were allocated randomly to two groups to receive either halothane (group H; n=22 or sevoflurane (group S; n=22 in oxygen. A graded inhalation technique was used with maximum inspiratory concentration of 5% for halothane and 8% for sevoflurane. Time for loss of consciousness and induction time in group H and group S were 2.3+/-0.4 min vs 2.2+/-0.4 min (p>0.05 and 4.6+/-0.7 min vs 4.9+/-0.6 min (p>0.05 respectively. Intubation conditions with rigid bronchoscope were similar in both groups. Fewer children in group H had vocal cord movements as compared to group S on laryngoscopy (3 vs 8, p>0.05. Six children in group H and two children in group S had disturbances of cardiac rhythm (p>0.05. Emergence time was significantly shorter in group S as compared to group H (group H - 29.6+/-10.7 min vs group S- 12.3+/-7.6 min, p<0.05. Modified Aldrete′s score of 8 was achieved significantly faster in group S as compared to group H (group H - 33.8+/-9.3 min vs group S- 17.3+/-6.8 min, p<0.05. Adverse events during induction and recovery were comparable between the two groups except for significantly high incidence of excitement in group S. In conclusion, halothane is as suitable as sevoflurane for children undergoing rigid bronchoscopy for airway foreign body retrieval, but sevoflurane has a quicker recovery.

  6. Comparison of automated brain volumetry methods with stereology in children aged 2 to 3 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Kristina N. [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Latal, Beatrice [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Scheer, Ianina [University Children' s Hospital, Department for Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Rhein, Michael von [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Reich, Bettina; Bauer, Juergen; Gummel, Kerstin [Justus-Liebig University, Pediatric Heart Center, University Hospital Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Roberts, Neil [University of Edinburgh, Clinical Research and Imaging Centre (CRIC), The Queens Medical Research Institute (QMRI), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); O' Gorman Tuura, Ruth [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    The accurate and precise measurement of brain volumes in young children is important for early identification of children with reduced brain volumes and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain volumes can be measured from cerebral MRI (cMRI), but most neuroimaging tools used for cerebral segmentation and volumetry were developed for use in adults and have not been validated in infants or young children. Here, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of three automated software methods (i.e., SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for brain volumetry in young children and compare the measures with corresponding volumes obtained using the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology. Cerebral MRI data were collected from 21 children with a complex congenital heart disease (CHD) before Fontan procedure, at a median age of 27 months (range 20.9-42.4 months). Data were segmented with SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer, and total intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) were compared with corresponding measures obtained using the Cavalieri method. Agreement between the estimated brain volumes (ICV and TBV) relative to the gold standard stereological volumes was strongest for FreeSurfer (p < 0.001) and moderate for SPM segment (ICV p = 0.05; TBV p = 0.006). No significant association was evident between ICV and TBV obtained using SPM NewSegment and FSL FAST and the corresponding stereological volumes. FreeSurfer provides an accurate method for measuring brain volumes in young children, even in the presence of structural brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  7. Quality of Life as reported by children and parents: a comparison between students and child psychiatric outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichstrøm Lars

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the recent decade, a number of studies have begun to address Quality of Life (QoL in children and adolescents with mental health problems in general population and clinical samples. Only about half of the studies utilized both self and parent proxy report of child QoL. Generally children with mental health problems have reported lower QoL compared to healthy children. The question whether QoL assessment by both self and parent proxy report can identify psychiatric health services needs not detected by an established instrument for assessing mental health problems, i.e. the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, has never been examined and was the purpose of the present study. Methods No study exists that compares child QoL as rated by both child and parent, in a sample of referred child psychiatric outpatients with a representative sample of students attending public school in the same catchment area while controlling for mental health problems in the child. In the current study patients and students, aged 8-15.5 years, were matched with respect to age, gender and levels of the CBCL Total Problems scores. QoL was assessed by the self- and parent proxy-reports on the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC. QoL scores were analyzed by non-parametric tests, using Wilcoxon paired rank comparisons. Results Both outpatients and their parents reported significantly lower child QoL on the ILC than did students and their parents, when children were matched on sex and age. Given equal levels of emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by the parents on the CBCL, in the two contrasting samples, the outpatients and their parents still reported lower QoL levels than did the students and their parents. Conclusions Child QoL reported both by child and parent was reduced in outpatients compared to students with equal levels of mental health problems as reported by their parents on the CBCL. This suggests that it

  8. Caring for Children and Older People - A Comparison of European Policies and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Fridberg, Torben

    Current debate is focused on the way we organise, finance and provide care for children and older people. Should day care for children be contracted out? Is a local approach the most beneficial for the organisation of social care? Should home help for older people be financed through an insurance......? With increasing demand for services, most countries search for new ways of meeting need. Overall, trends point towards more pluralism in the welfare systems, where to a greater extent than before the state, voluntary organisations, for-profit organisations, employers and the family function as intrinsic parts...

  9. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  10. A randomized, blinded comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D S; Jensen, R A; Poss, W B

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized, and blinded study was to compare the use of chloral hydrate versus oral midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography. No adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, paradoxical agitation, or significant deviations from baseline vital signs) were noted with either medication. No differences were noted in onset of sedation between the 2 groups, however, the time to complete recovery was significantly shorter with midazolam than with chloral hydrate. The children in the chloral hydrate group had a significantly deeper level of sedation and were more likely to receive a more nearly comprehensive echocardiographic evalation.

  11. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  12. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  13. Intervention for Children with Severe Speech Disorder: A Comparison of Two Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with speech disorder are a heterogeneous group (e.g. in terms of severity, types of errors and underlying causal factors). Much research has ignored this heterogeneity, giving rise to contradictory intervention study findings. This situation provides clinical motivation to identify the deficits in the speech-processing chain…

  14. Comparison of two diets of varying glycemic index on carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Vacca, Maria; De Marco, Donata; Cinquegrana, Giorgio; Laccetti, Marco; Bresciani, Alessandro; Covetti, Giuseppe; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Rubba, Paolo; Parillo, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness. Increased carotid wall thickening and rigidity are considered markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of two hypocaloric diets of varying glycemic index on weight loss and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children. Seventy consecutive obese children attending the Outpatient Weight Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics were invited to participate in an intensive dietary protocol. Twenty-six accepted and were randomly assigned to two different groups: the first group followed a hypocaloric low-glycemic index diet and the second a hypocaloric high-glycemic index diet. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were performed in all children. Quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans were used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameters of the common carotid artery. Considering both groups together, at 6 months, body mass index decreased from 28.3 +/- 3.1 to 25.8 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), systolic blood pressure from 119 +/- 12 to 110 +/- 11 mmHg (Pglycemic index diet. These results justify the advice to obese children to follow a low-glycemic index diet in order to improve their cardiometabolic profile.

  15. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Comparison in Children with and without Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; Mejias, Sandrine; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a pervasive difficulty affecting number processing and arithmetic. It is encountered in around 6% of school-aged children. While previous studies have mainly focused on general cognitive functions, the present paper aims to further investigate the hypothesis of a specific numerical deficit in dyscalculia. The…

  16. Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

    1999-12-01

    The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study.

  17. When do myopia genes have their effect? Comparison of genetic risks between children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Fan, Q.; Polling, J.R.; Guo, X.; Yazar, S.; Khawaja, A.; Hohn, R.; Lu, Y.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Yamashiro, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Gerhold-Ay, A.; Nickels, S.; Zeller, T.; He, M.; Boutin, T.; Bencic, G.; Vitart, V.; Mackey, D.A.; Foster, P.J.; MacGregor, S.; Williams, C.; Saw, S.M.; Guggenheim, J.A.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many genetic loci for refractive error and myopia. We aimed to investigate the effect of these loci on ocular biometry as a function of age in children, adolescents, and adults. The study population consisted of three age groups identified from the international CREA

  18. A comparison of sevoflurane versus propofol for tracheal intubation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Darji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 60 ASA I Children, 4-12 years of age, of either sex undergoing elective surgery. All patients were premedicated with I.V. Midazolam 0.02 mg/kg, Inj. Fentanyl 2μg/kg and Glycopyrolate 0.05mg/kg. 10 minutes before surgery. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group S (SEVOFLURANE 8%+40% O 2 +60%N 2 O and Group P (I.V. Propofol 1%w/v .Centralization of pupils and miosis were used as end points for intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with O 2 , nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. Induction time, Quality of Intubation, Hemodynamic response and complications during endotracheal intubation in children with inhalational induction with Sevoflurane versus and complications during endotracheal intubation studied. Conclusion: In premedicated children both sevoflurane and propofol provides good quality of anesthesia for intubation. Induction time and Hemodynamic response was less in propofol than sevoflurane. Quality of intubating condition was better with propofol than sevoflurane .So Propofol is better than Sevoflurane for tracheal intubation in Children. However Sevoflurane is acceptable alternative in patients with difficult venous access

  19. Teaching Children's Songs: A Taiwan-US Comparison of Approaches by Kindergarten Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare differences in approaches to teaching children's song by kindergarten teachers in Taiwan and the USA. Five public school kindergarten teachers in Taipei, Taiwan, and five public kindergarten teachers in Seattle, USA, were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. They were asked to teach six…

  20. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Tuebingen (Germany); Jenni, Oskar G. [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Centre, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert {sup registered}, a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  1. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  2. A Comparison of Reading Strategies in Genetic Dyslexics and Children with Right and Left Brain Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeller, Kytja K. S.; Armus, Jean

    1986-01-01

    The reading levels of 43 children (ages 7-16) with either genetic dyslexia, right-hemisphere lesions/dysfunction, or left-hemisphere lesions/dysfunction were retrospectively compared. In addition to the genetic dyslexics, 50 percent of left-hemisphere and one third of right-hemisphere impaired boys were disabled readers; but all but one girl were…

  3. A comparison of axillary with rectal thermometry in under 5 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B O Edelu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body temperature measurement is a crucial clinical assessment in the care of an acutely ill child, especially the under fives. Most temperature measurements in our hospital are done from the axilla. Objective: To study the relationship between temperatures taken in the axilla with those taken in the rectum in febrile and afebrile children less than 5 years. Materials and Methods: Rectal and axillary temperatures were taken concurrently in 400 febrile and 400 afebrile children aged less than 5 years using mercury-in-glass thermometers. Result: The rectal temperature measurements ranged from 38.0 to 41.4°C and 36.4 to 37.9°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children respectively while the axillary temperatures ranged from 36.7 to 41.0°C and 35.9 to 37.5°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children, respectively. There were significant differences between the temperatures measured at the two sites in all the age groups studied. There was good positive correlation between the rectal and axillary temperatures. A linear relationship between axillary and rectal temperatures was derived using the simple regression analysis. The equation is: rectal temperature = 0.94×axillary temperature+2.92. Conclusion: Although there′s good correlation between axillary and rectal temperatures, significant difference exits between them that cannot be explained by the addition of any single value or any particular equation.

  4. High resolution ultrasound characterization of soft tissue masses in children. [Comparison with CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasier, C.M.; Seibert, J.J.; Williamson, S.L.; Seibert, R.W.; Lange, T.A.; Corbitt, S.L.; Rodgers, A.B.

    1987-03-01

    Forty-two soft tissue masses in infants and children were examined with high resolution ultrasonography. Sonography was diagnostically specific in 17/42 (40%), useful but not diagnostic in 24/42 (58%), and misleading in 1/42 (2%) of soft tissue masses. Lesions with diagnostic sonographic features included cystic hygroma, fibromatosis colli, lymphadenopathy with abscess formation, and one case of osteomyelitis.

  5. Proximity and Contacts between Older Parents and Their Children: A European Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hank, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this article continues and extends recent cross-national research on proximity and contacts of older parents to their children. In addition to a brief description of the geography of families in 10 continental European countries, determinants of intergenerational proximity…

  6. A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Reinforcement Treatment with Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Jerry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Collected data from parents and school counselors of 22 sexually molested children involved in either psychodynamic or reinforcement theory treatment groups. Psychodynamic group reported slow, steady improvement in child behavior. Reinforcement theory results were more positive in terms of immediate behavior change and maintenance of change.…

  7. Perfectionism, Achievement, and Affect in Children: A Comparison of Students from Gifted, Arts, and Regular Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornelli, Deborah; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the association between dimensions of perfectionism and levels of academic achievement and affect in school-aged children. A sample of 223 students (90 boys, 133 girls) from regular, gifted, and arts programs completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, perceived academic competence, and…

  8. Children's Conceptions of the Seasons: A Comparison of Three Interview Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuness, Linda Bishop; Cohen, Michael R.

    A great deal of work has been accomplished over the past several years on children's conceptualizations of various scientific phenomena. A problem, however, is determining whether one's collection techniques provide a complete picture. In this study three techniques (the repertory grid, draw and describe, and the interview about events) were used…

  9. Parent Report of Early Lexical Production in Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic CDI Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Gatt, Daniela; Hickey, Tina M.; Miekisz, Aneta; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Rinker, Tanja; Ohana, Odelya; dos Santos, Christophe; Kern, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This paper compared the vocabulary size of a group of 250 bilinguals aged 24-36 months acquiring six different language pairs using an analogous tool, and attempted to identify factors that influence vocabulary sizes and ultimately place children at risk for language delay. Each research group used adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative…

  10. A Comparison of the Oral Narrative Abilities between Normal and Learning-Disabled Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.

    The study assessed the oral narrative abilities of 10 normal and 10 learning-disabled (LD) middle school children (11-12 years old). Narratives were assessed using A. Applebee's system for the development of story organization. The narratives were also examined for the specific components used within the stories themselves. Findings revealed…

  11. Comparison of anti-diabetic drug prescribing in children and adolescents in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, Antje; Hsia, Yingfen; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Janhsen, Katrin; Glaeske, Gerd; Furu, Kari; Kieler, Helle; Norgaard, Mette; Clavenna, Antonio; Wong, Ian C. K.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diabetes in children across seven European countries, when using prescribing of anti-diabetics as a proxy for diabetes. A secondary aim was to assess the potential for collaboration between countries using different databases in diabetes re

  12. Children's Interpretation of Disjunction in the Scope of "before": A Comparison of English and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like "The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny". English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ("The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny"). This interpretation conforms…

  13. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  14. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  15. Promoting Imitation in Young Children with Autism: A Comparison of Reciprocal Imitation Training and Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal…

  16. Improving Health among Elementary School Children: A Comparison of Aerobic and Mind-Body Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children today are under much more stress than a few decades ago due to academic pressure, family financial hardship, competition with peers, and stressed parents. Consequently, stress-related health issues and behavioral problems, such as cardiovascular diseases, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, depression, violent or withdrawal…

  17. A Comparison of Vocal Mand Training Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Vitale, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Skinner's classification of verbal behavior, the mand is the first and most advantageous verbal operant to develop. Deficits in vocal mand repertoires are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can lead to decreased social interaction and increased problem behavior. The present investigation compared the effects of…

  18. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  19. [Clinical comparison of idiopathic sudden deafness in children and the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Min; Deng, Jie; Qi, Xing; He, Gang

    2015-07-01

    This retrospective study compared clinical manifestations of idiopathic sudden hearing loss between children and the elderly. 44 pediatric patients and 76 elderly patients diagnosed with idiopathic sudden deafness in our clinic from December 2009 to September 2014 were enrolled. Different clinical parameters were compared. The incidence of initially profound hearing loss was highest and mild hearing loss was lowest in both groups (P 0.05). The number of patients was the most in initially profound type of audiogram pattern and the fewest in ascending type in both groups (P 0.05). The highest recovery rate in children was in those with descending type and the lowest was in those with profound type (P 0.05). Hearing recovery rates of descending type in children were higher than that in elderly patients. Presence of tinnitus in pediatric patients was not relavent to the outcome (P > 0.05). Presence of tinnitus in elderly patients was associated with favorable outcomes. (P 0.05). Presence of dizziness in elderly patients was associated with poor outcomes (P 0.05). Presence of chronic diseases in elderly patients was not associated with the outcome (P > 0.05). The clinical manifestion of idiopathic sudden deafness is respective in Children and in elderly patients.

  20. Comparison of Human Figure Drawings by Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    The study compared human figure drawings (using the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test and Koppitz' Emotional Indicators) of 26 hearing-impaired and 26 normal-hearing children and adolescents. No significant differences were found between groups but the Emotional Indicators did not perform as predicted in determining emotional disturbance. (Author/DB)

  1. Parent Report of Early Lexical Production in Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic CDI Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Gatt, Daniela; Hickey, Tina M.; Miekisz, Aneta; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Rinker, Tanja; Ohana, Odelya; dos Santos, Christophe; Kern, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This paper compared the vocabulary size of a group of 250 bilinguals aged 24-36 months acquiring six different language pairs using an analogous tool, and attempted to identify factors that influence vocabulary sizes and ultimately place children at risk for language delay. Each research group used adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative…

  2. Portuguese Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire -validation and cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Gloria Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate the Portuguese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-PT and compare it to the versions from other countries. METHODS: The questionnaire was previously adapted to the Portuguese language according to international guidelines. 500 questionnaires were delivered to the parents of a Portuguese community sample of children aged 2 to 10 years old. 370 (74% valid questionnaires were obtained, 55 children met exclusion criteria and 315 entered in the validation study. RESULTS: The CSHQ-PT internal consistency (Cronbach's α was 0.78 for the total scale and ranged from 0.44 to 0.74 for subscales. The test-retest reliability for subscales (Pearson's cor-relations, n=58 ranged from 0.59 to 0.85. Our data did not adjust to the original 8 domains structure in Confirmatory Factor Analysis but the Exploratory Factor Analysis extracted 5 factors that have correspondence to CSHQ subscales. CONCLUSION: The CSHQ-PT evidenced psychometric properties that are comparable to the versions from other countries and adequate for the screening of sleep disturbances in children from 2 to 10 years old.

  3. Comparison of Observational Methods and Their Relation to Ratings of Engagement in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brenna K.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Laracy, Seth D.; Olson, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Although, collectively, results of earlier direct observation studies suggest momentary time sampling (MTS) may offer certain technical advantages over whole-interval (WIR) and partial-interval (PIR) recording, no study has compared these methods for measuring engagement in young children in naturalistic environments. This study compared direct…

  4. Children's Eyewitness Memory: A Comparison of Two Interviewing Strategies as Realized by Forensic Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Alexander, Kristen; Cho, Il Cho; Goodman, Gail S.; Thoresen, Christian; Lonnum, Kyrre; Magnussen, Svein

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue for developmental psychology is how to obtain accurate and complete eyewitness memory reports from preschoolers without offering suggestions that might result in false allegations. We examined effects of two interviewing strategies (police/verbal interviews and clinician/prop-assisted interviews) on young children's reports about…

  5. Comparison of duloxetine and methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Nasrin Dodangi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and mostly chronic mental health condition that affects children, adolescents, and adults. Stimulants and atomoxetine are first-line agents for the treatment of ADHD. Despite the impressive track record of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, they fail in 25% of patients due to lack of efficacy or the emergence of unwanted side effects. Accordingly, this study carried out to compare efficacy and safety of duloxetine (a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and methylphenidate (a short acting stimulant in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Methods: Twenty-four children diagnosed with ADHD participated in this 6 weeks open clinical trial. Patients were between 6 to 11 years old that had been referred to psychiatry clinic at Akhavan and Rofide Medical and Rehabilitation Center in Tehran from September 2012 to July 2014. Diagnosis was made by two child psychiatrist according to DSM-IV TR criteria. Thirteen patients received duloxetine and others received methylphenidate. Conner’ parent rating scale-revised-short form (CPRS-RS and ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS were used at the beginning and then each two weeks to assess efficacy of treatment. Routine laboratory tests and electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out in the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Twenty children with ADHD completed the study (Ten in methylphenidate and ten in duloxetine group. In both groups, scales of CPRS-RS and ADHD-RS were reduced from baseline to endpoint, but this reduction in methylphenidate group was significantly greater than duloxetine group (P= 0.000. The most common side effect was gastrointestinal problems in duloxetine group and anorexia in methylphenidate group. No serious side effects and no changes in laboratory and ECG indexes were seen in both groups. Conclusion: Duloxetine is not efficacious as well as methylphenidate in treatment of

  6. Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol

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    Monaz Abdulrahman Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence agitation (EA in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children. Methods: One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg -1 . The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU, the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0, after 5 min (T5, 15 min (T15 and 30 min (T30. Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed. Results: The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg 1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia.

  7. Comparison of various urine collection intervals for caffeine and dextromethorphan phenotyping in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Kashuba, Angela D M; Leeder, J Steven

    2004-07-01

    Caffeine and dextromethorphan have been used successfully both alone and in combination to assess phenotype and enzyme activity in children of various ages. Previous pediatric phenotyping studies with these agents have used varying durations of urine collection. However, the minimum duration required for accurate phenotypic assessment with these compounds in children remains unknown. We calculated the cumulative metabolite recoveries and molar ratios in urine collected from children for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after caffeine and dextromethorphan administration to determine when respective urinary molar ratios stabilize and thus likely accurately reflect enzyme activity. Subjects (n = 24, ages 3-8 years) were given 4 oz of Coca-Cola(R) ( approximately 11.5 mg caffeine) and a single oral dose of dextromethorphan (0.5 mg/kg). Urine was collected at discrete intervals (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 h) during an 8-hour period, and the cumulative metabolite recoveries and urinary molar ratios were calculated. CYP2D6 genotyping was also performed in 21 of 24 subjects. In CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, the extent of recovery for relevant metabolites was equivalent by 4 hours and represented 45% to 60% of the total amount recovered in the 8-hour period. The 2-hour CYP1A2 ratio was significantly different from those of longer collection intervals. Metabolite ratios for all other enzymes (i.e., NAT-2, XO, and CYP2D6) were independent of the duration of urine collection. These data suggest that a 4-hour urine collection is adequate for the concurrent assessment of hepatic CYP1A2, NAT-2, XO, and CYP2D6 activity in children ages 3 to 8 years who are CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, using standard caffeine and dextromethorphan phenotyping methods. Longer collection periods may be required, however, in younger children or CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  8. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th) percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th) percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively pobese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years. Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th) percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age.

  9. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

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    Pordeus Isabela A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75. There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p Conclusions In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits, indicative of reporting bias. Data regarding children's tooth-brushing habits as reported by mothers should be considered with caution in epidemiological surveys on fluoridated dentifrice use and the risk of dental fluorosis.

  10. Comparison of body mass index on children with functional constipation and healthy controls

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    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders, especially in developed population, which categorized to organic or functional (non-organic constipation. Furthermore, obesity is a growing chronic pediatric problem that could cause any compromise in weight and height. The aim of this study is the evaluation of probable relation between obesity and pediatric functional constipation. Methods: This study was conducted as a case-control investigation on 2-14-years-old children those referred to Baqiyatallah University clinic during 2009-2011. The constipated children with organic causes were excluded. The control group of children was those who had not any disorders affecting on height and weight. Quantitative variables were expressed by mean and standard deviation and the correlation was tested with chi2 through SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 259 children (male 51.7% consisting 124 cases and 135 controls were enrolled. The mean age in constipated and normal children was 69.47 ± 35.03 and 74.15 ± 39.68, respectively. BMI over 95% in the control group was 11.9% and in the constipated group was 17.7% that the difference was not statistically significant either (P = 0.188. The only significant association was found between obesity and the duration of constipation and also age (P = 0.008, 0.042, respectively. Conclusion: Although we found a significant relationship between duration of constipation and obesity, there was not a clear association between obesity and presence of constipation. Furthermore, we suggest extended cohort or clinical trial study regarding to the regional nutritional and growth patterns to confirm weight decrease or increase the effect on defecation.

  11. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p dentifrice use and the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:21888664

  12. Longitudinal, cross-cohort comparison of physical activity patterns in Chinese mothers and children

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    Dearth-Wesley Tracy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n = 353 followed over a 2–4 year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006. Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P P  Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.

  13. Multidrug intravenous anesthesia for children undergoing MRI: a comparison with general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrab, Ahmed A; Demian, Atef D; Atallah, Mohamed M

    2007-12-01

    We used a multidrug intravenous anesthesia regimen with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol to provide anesthesia for children during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This regimen was compared with general anesthesia in a randomized comparative study. Outcome measures were safety, side effects and recovery variables in addition to adverse events in relation to age strata. The children received either general anesthesia with propofol, vecuronium and isoflurane [general endotracheal anesthesia (GET) group; n=313] or intravenous anesthesia with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol [intravenous anesthesia (MKP) group; n=342]. Treatment assignment was randomized based on the date of the MRI. Physiological parameters were monitored during anesthesia and recovery. Desaturation (SpO2<93%), airway problems, and the need to repeat the scan were recorded. The discharge criteria were stable vital signs, return to baseline consciousness, absence of any side effects, and ability to ambulate. With the exception of two children (0.6%) in the MKP group, all enrolled children completed the scan. A significantly greater number (2.3%) required a repeat scan in the MKP group (P<0.05) and were sedated with a bolus dose of propofol. The total incidence of side effects was comparable between the MKP (7.7%) and GET groups (7.0%). Infants below the age of 1 year showed a significantly higher incidence of adverse events compared with the other age strata within each group. Within the MKP group, risk ratio was 0.40 and 0.26 when comparing infants aged below 1 year with the two older age strata, respectively. Recovery characteristics were comparable between both groups. Intravenous midazolam, ketamine and propofol provides safe and adequate anesthesia, comparable with that obtained from general endotracheal anesthesia, for most children during MRI.

  14. Ritalin vs. Response Cost in the Control of Hyperactive Children: A Within-Subject Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mark D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) and response cost in reducing the offtask behavior of two boys (7 and 8 years old) with attentional deficit disorders and hyperactivity revealed that response cost (with free time as the reinforcer) was superior to Ritalin in increasing ontask behavior and improving academic performance.…

  15. A Comparison of Clinical and Empirical Literature on Children in Stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on stepchildren and compared clinical to empirical research. Comparisons were made on theoretical approaches, methodology, types of stepfamilies, issues and dependent variables examined, other variables considered, and conclusions drawn. There was little congruence in the foci of studies by researchers and clinicians.…

  16. A Comparison of Clinical and Empirical Literature on Children in Stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on stepchildren and compared clinical to empirical research. Comparisons were made on theoretical approaches, methodology, types of stepfamilies, issues and dependent variables examined, other variables considered, and conclusions drawn. There was little congruence in the foci of studies by researchers and clinicians.…

  17. The Effective Use of Symbols in Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: A Comparison of Word Alone, Integrated Picture Cueing and the Handle Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between a new technique (the Handle Technique), Integrated Picture Cueing, and a Word Alone Method. Results show using a new combination of teaching strategies enabled logographic symbols to be used effectively in teaching word recognition to 12 children with severe learning difficulties. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  19. Comparison of percent body fat estimates using air displacement plethysmography and hydrodensitometry in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, E W; Guo, S S; Chumlea, W C; Towne, B; Roche, A F; Siervogel, R M

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare estimates of body density and percentage body fat from air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in adults and children and to provide a review of similar recent studies. Body density and percentage body fat (% BF) were assessed by ADP and HD on the same day in 87 adults aged 18-69 y (41 males and 46 females) and 39 children aged 8-17 y (19 males and 20 females). Differences between measured and predicted thoracic gas volumes determined during the ADP procedure and the resultant effects of those differences on body composition estimates were also compared. In a subset of 50 individuals (31 adults and 19 children), reliability of ADP was measured and the relative ease or difficulty of ADP and HD were probed with a questionnaire. The coefficient of reliability between %BF on day 1 and day 2 was 96.4 in adults and 90.1 in children, and the technical error of measurement of 1.6% in adults and 1.8% in children. Using a predicted rather than a measured thoracic gas volume did not significantly affect percentage body fat estimates in adults, but resulted in overestimates of percentage body fat in children. Mean percentage body fat from ADP was higher than percentage body fat from HD, although this was statistically significant only in adults (29.3 vs 27.7%, P<0.05). The 95% confidence interval of the between-method differences for all subjects was -7 to +9% body fat, and the root mean square error (r.m.s.e.) was approximately 4% body fat. In the subset of individuals who were asked to compare the two methods, 46 out of 50 (92%) indicated that they preferred the ADP to HD. ADP is a reliable method of measuring body composition that subjects found preferable to underwater weighing. However, as shown here and in most other studies, there are differences in percentage body fat estimates assessed by the two methods, perhaps related to body size, age or other factors, that are sufficient to preclude ADP

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Acetaminophen Plus Ibuprofen to Treat Fever Than any of the Two Alone in Febrile Children

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    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a natural response of the host to infection and a normal part of children's infectious disease. Objectives The purpose of the study was comparison of the combined treatment of acetaminophen and ibuprofen compact with each treatment alone. Methods This Double-blind clinical trial study was done on 540 children with 38°C to 41°C as body temperature. Eligible children after considering inclusion criteria divided in three groups randomly. First group of 183 patients administrated with acetaminophen, the second and the third groups of 178 and 179 patients with ibuprofen and combination. The first dose of antipyretic drug was administered to the patient under the supervision of a physician or nurse. After explanation of benefits and marginal effects to the parents if they accepted the conditions their children were admitted to the study. Parents were free if they wish to withdraw the study before completing. Information of each patient was recorded on a form. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic, one-way ANOVA and SPSS software version 16. Results Out of sample 60.6% were boy. The mean age of children treated with acetaminophen, ibuprofen and combination therapy was 2.21 ± 2.49, 3.00 ± 2.92 and 2.22 ± 2.33 years in the order given. The results showed statistical difference in two (F = 4.45 and P = 0.012 and four hours (F = 3.11 and P = 0.045 after taking drug. A significant difference not observed in the value of temperature decrease within 2 - 4 hours after drug intake, (F = 2.49, P=0.084 but in the time of 0-2 (P = 0.012 and 4-6 hours (P = 0.001 was observed. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that acetaminophen is more effective for a short time but the combination in the long time when ibuprofen placed in the middle position with the respect of time.

  1. Prospective randomized comparison of cefepime and cefotaxime for treatment of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, X; Castaño, E; García, R; Báez, C; Pérez, M; Tejeira, F; McCracken, G H

    1995-04-01

    Ninety infants and children were prospectively randomized to receive cefepime (n = 43) or cefotaxime (n = 47) for therapy of bacterial meningitis. The two treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, duration of illness before enrollment, history of seizures, clinical status on admission, and etiology. Six (7%) patients died--two treated with cefepime and four treated with cefotaxime. Clinical response, cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, development of complications, antibiotic toxicity, and hospital stay were similar for the two treatment regimens. Concentrations of cefepime in cerebrospinal fluid varied from 55 to 95 times greater than the maximal MIC required by the causative pathogens. Audiologic and/or neurologic sequelae were found in 16% of the cefepime-treated patients and 15% of the cefotaxime-treated patients examined 2 to 6 months after discharge. We conclude that cefepime is safe and therapeutically equivalent to cefotaxime for management of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.

  2. A comparison of two group-delivered social skills programs for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K A; Schultz, Janet R; Newsom, Crighton

    2007-05-01

    A social skills group intervention was developed and evaluated for young children with autism. Twenty-five 4- to 6-year-old (diagnosed) children were assigned to one of two kinds of social skills groups: the direct teaching group or the play activities group. The direct teaching group used a video-modeling format to teach play and social skills over the course of the intervention, while the play activities group engaged in unstructured play during the sessions. Groups met for 5 weeks, three times per week, 1 h each time. Data were derived and coded from videotapes of pre- and post-treatment unstructured play sessions. Findings indicated that while members of both groups increased prosocial behaviors, the direct teaching group made more gains in social skills.

  3. Comparison of vitamin D level in children with type 1 diabetes versus control

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    Zahra Alian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most action of vitamin D in body is bone mineral homeostasis.Thereare reports that vitamin D deficiency increases the incidence of type 1diabetes. Aim: to investigate the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in children with type 1 diabetes. Methods and Material: In this prospective cross sectional study 62 patients with type 1 diabetes and 90 healthy individuals were studied. At the first visit, height, weight, blood pressure and sexual maturation then 25OHD, P, Ca, ALKP in both and HbA1c levels in diabetic patients is assessed. Results: In diabetic patients93/6% (n=58 had inadequate and6.5 % (n=4 had adequate level of vitamin D. In the control group, 64/4% (n=58 inadequate and 35.6% (n=32 had adequate levels of vitamin D. Conclusion: This study shows with use of vitamin D in children with vitamin D deficiency prevents of Diabetes in future.

  4. A COMPARISON OF AUTOREFRACTOMETER WITH CYCLOPLEGIC RETINOSCOPY IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 15 YEARS

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    Jaishree

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the accuracy of the autorefractometer with traditional retinoscopy as a means of determining the approximate subjective refraction in children after cycloplegia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observation study carried out in 72 eyes of 72 patients aged 3 to 15 years in upgraded department of Ophthalmology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut between April 2013 to June 2013. The negative spherical power of autorefracto meter was higher than retinoscopic group. The positive spherical power was lower in autorefractometer. DISCUSSION: Our observations in this younger age group amply that the inbuilt automatic fogging system of the autorefractometer fails to neutralize adequ ately the patient's accommodative efforts during manifest refraction. CONCLUSION: Manual retinoscopy is still the most accurate technique to estimate refractive status in children.

  5. Injection pain of propofol in children: A comparison of two formulations without added lidocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz; Ali Eman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Propofol emulsion in medium and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) has been reported to cause less injection pain than other propofol solutions in adult studies. The aim of this study was to compare the injection pain of two different propofol emulsions using two different pain scales on the pediatric population. Materials and Methods: 100 children scheduled for general anesthesia were divided into two groups. Patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol LCT or propofol...

  6. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Lüdtke, R; Moeller, H

    1997-07-01

    In a prospective observational study carried out by 1 homoeopathic and 4 conventional ENT practitioners, the 2 methods of treating acute pediatric otitis media were compared. Group A received treatment with homoeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea), whereas group B received nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. The main outcome measures were duration of pain, duration of fever, and the number of recurrences after 1 year, whereby alpha < 0.05 was taken as significance level. The secondary measures were improvement after 3 hours, results of audiometry and tympanometry, and necessity for additional therapy. These parameters were only considered descriptively. The study involved 103 children in group A and 28 children in group B, aged between 6 months and 11 years in both groups. For duration of pain, the median was 2 days in group A and 3 days in group B. For duration of therapy, the median was 4 days in group A and 10 days in group B: this is due to the fact that antibiotics are usually administered over a period of 8-10 days, whereas homoeopathics can be discontinued at an earlier stage once healing has started. Of the children treated, 70.7% were free of recurrence within a year in group A and 29.3% were found to have a maximum of 3 recurrences. In group B, 56.5% were free of recurrence, and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences. Out of the 103 children in group A, 5 subsequently received antibiotics, though homoeopathic treatment was carried through to the healing stage in the remaining 98. No permanent sequels were observed in either group.

  7. Comparison of pediatric surgical outcomes by the surgeon's degree of specialization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Daniel; Papandria, Dominic; Yang, Jessica; Zhang, Yiyi; Ortega, Gezzer; Colombani, Paul M; Chang, David C; Abdullah, Fizan

    2013-08-01

    Improved surgical outcomes in children have been associated with pediatric surgical specialization, previously defined by surgeon operative volume or fellowship training. The present study evaluates pediatric surgical outcomes through classifying surgeons by degrees of pediatric versus adult operative experience. A cross-sectional study was performed using nationally representative hospital discharge data from 1998 to 2007. Patients under 18 years of age undergoing inpatient operations in neurosurgery, otolaryngology, cardiothoracic, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, and urology were included. An index was created, calculating the proportion of children treated by each surgeon. In-hospital mortality and length of stay were compared by index quartiles. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 119,164 patients were operated on by 13,141 surgeons. Within cardiothoracic surgery, there were 1.78 (p=0.02) and 2.61 (ppediatric specialization respectively with the highest quartile. For general surgery, a 2.15 (p=0.04) increase in odds for mortality was found when comparing surgeons between the lowest and the highest quartiles. Comparing the least to the most specialized surgeons, length of stay increased 1.14 days (p=0.02) for cardiothoracic surgery, 0.58 days (p=0.04) for neurosurgery, 0.23 days (p=0.02) for otolaryngology, and decreased by 1.06 days (psurgery. The present study demonstrates that surgeons caring preferentially for children-as a proportion of their overall practice-generally have improved mortality outcomes in general and cardiothoracic surgery. These data suggest a benefit associated with increased referral of children to pediatric practitioners, but further study is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Sleep Questionnaires in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan S.; Foldes, Emily; Malow, Beth A.; Wiggs, Luci

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to compare two parent completed questionnaires, the Modified Simonds & Parraga Sleep Questionnaire (MSPSQ), and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), used to characterize sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both questionnaires have been used in previous work in the assessment and treatment of children with ASD and sleep disturbance. Participants and methods Parents/caregivers of a sample of 124 children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of six years completed both sleep questionnaires regarding children’s sleep behaviors. Internal consistency of the items for both measures was evaluated as well as the correlation between the two sleep measures. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also conducted to examine the predictive power of the MSPSQ. Results More than three quarters of the sample (78%) were identified as poor sleepers on the CSHQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the items on the CSHQ was 0.68 and Cronbach’s alpha for items on the MSPSQ was 0.67. The total scores for MSPSQ and CSHQ were significantly correlated (r =.70, p<.01). After first identifying the poor sleepers based on the CSHQ, an area under the curve was 0.89 for the MSPSQ. Using a cut off score of 56 on the MSPSQ, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .70. Conclusions In this sample of children with ASD, sleep disturbances were common across all cognitive levels. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to the CSHQ, the MSPSQ has adequate internal consistency. The two measures were also highly correlated. A preliminary cut off of 56 on the MSPSQ offers high sensitivity and specificity commensurate with the widely used CSHQ. PMID:22609024

  9. Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children

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    Sonal S Khatavkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade 1 and 2 were selected. Group A- midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, Group B- midazolam (0.15 mg/kg + ketamine 1 mg/kg. Both groups received drug intranasally 30 min before surgery in recovery room with monitored anesthesia care. Onset of sedation, sedation score, emotional reaction, intravenous cannula acceptance, and mask acceptance were studied. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t test and chi square test. Results: Sedation score, anxiolysis, attitude, reaction to intravenous cannulation, face mask acceptance, and emotional reaction were significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Intra operatively, in both groups, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate had no significant difference; also, post operatively, no significant difference was observed in above parameters, post operative analgesia was significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Conclusions: Intra nasal premedication allows rapid and predictable sedation in children. Midazolam as well as combination of Midazolam with ketamine gives good level of sedation and comfort. But quality of sedation, analgesia, and comfort is significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. No significant side effects were observed in both groups.

  10. Cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese children: a worldwide comparison

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    van Vliet Mariska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growing prevalence rate of pediatric obesity, which is frequently accompanied by several cardiometabolic risk factors, has become a serious global health issue. To date, little is known regarding differences for cardiometabolic risk factors (prevalence and means in children from different countries. In the present review, we aimed to provide a review for the available evidence regarding cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight pediatric populations. We therefore provided information with respect to the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol and hypertension (components of the metabolic syndrome among cohorts from different countries. Moreover, we aimed to compare the means of glucose and lipid levels (triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol and systolic/diastolic blood pressure values. After careful selection of articles describing cohorts with comparable age and sex, it was shown that both prevalence rates and mean values of cardiometabolic risk factors varied largely among cohorts of overweight children. After ranking for high/low means for each cardiometabolic risk parameter, Dutch-Turkish children and children from Turkey, Hungary, Greece, Germany and Poland were in the tertile with the most unfavorable risk factor profile overall. In contrast, cohorts from Norway, Japan, Belgium, France and the Dominican Republic were in the tertile with most favorable risk profile. These results should be taken with caution, given the heterogeneity of the relatively small, mostly clinical cohorts and the lack of information concerning the influence of the values of risk parameters on true cardiometabolic outcome measures in comparable cohorts. The results of our review present a fair estimation of the true differences between cardiometabolic risk profiles among pediatric cohorts worldwide, based on available literature.

  11. Comparison of light and electron microscopy in measurement of esophageal intercellular space in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A; Ciecierega, Thomas; Szabo, Sara; Miranda, Adrian; Gorges, Christina; Simpson, Pippa; Sood, Manu R

    2014-08-01

    A good objective marker of esophageal mucosal damage from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is lacking in children. Increased esophageal epithelial intercellular (EEIC) space measured using electron microscopy (EM) has been proposed as a surrogate of esophageal mucosal damage in adults with GERD. The aim of the present study was to compare EEIC space measured using EM and light microscopy (LM) in children with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) with asymptomatic controls. Distal esophageal mucosal biopsy was used to measure EEIC space using EM in 35 NERD subjects and 8 controls. In a subset of these patients we used phase contrast LM to measure EEIC space area (26 NERD subjects and 8 controls). The median (range) EEIC space measured using EM in the NERD group was 1.15 (0.74-1.64) μm compared with 0.93 (0.67-1.11) μm in the control group (P = 0.002). The median (range) EEIC space measured using LM was 14.4% (9.6%-26.3%) in the NERD group and 9.6% (8.5%-17.2%) in controls (P = 0.003). Using a cutoff value of 1.02 μm for normal EEIC space measured by EM, we obtained 73% sensitivity and 75% specificity to distinguish the NERD group from the control group, and using a cutoff value of 11.1% for EEIC space measured by LM, we obtained 96% sensitivity and 75% specificity. EEIC space is increased in children with NERD compared with that in controls, suggesting that changes in EEIC space can be a useful marker of esophageal mucosal injury in children with NERD. Our results suggest that the accuracy of EM and LM to evaluate EEIC space changes in NERD is comparable, and LM may be a more cost-effective option.

  12. Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515

  13. Comparison of non-cycloplegic photorefraction,cycloplegic photorefraction and cycloplegic retinoscopy in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozdemir; Ozdemir; Zuhal; ?zen; Tunay; Ikbal; Seza; Petrili; Damla; Ergintürk; Acar; Muhammet; Kazim; Erol

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the results of noncycloplegic photorefraction, cycloplegic photorefraction and cycloplegic refraction in preschool and non-verbal children.METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six eyes of 98children(50 females, 48 males) were included in the study. Firstly, non-cycloplegic photorefraction was achieved with Plusoptix A09; secondly, cycloplegic photorefraction was carried out with Plusoptix A09 after10 min cyclopentolate. Finally, 30 min after instillation of twice cyclopentolate, cycloplegic refraction was obtained with autorefraction and/or standard retinoscopy. Spheric equivalent, spheric power, cylindric power and cylindrical axis measurements were statistically compared.RESULTS: The mean age was 28.8±18.5mo(range12-72mo). The differences in spherical equivalent, spheric power and cylindrical power measured by the three methods were found statistically significant(P <0.05).The spherical equivalent and spheric power measured by cycloplegic photorefraction were statistically higher than the measurements of the other methods(P <0.05). The cylindrical power measured by cycloplegic refraction was statistically lower than the measurements of the photorefraction methods(P <0.05). There was no significant difference in cylindrical axis measurements between three methods(P >0.05).CONCLUSION: For the determination of refractive errors in children, the Plusoptix A09 measurements give incorrect results after instillation of cyclopentolate.Additionally, the cylindrical power measured by Plusoptix A09 with or without cycloplegia is higher. However, the non-cycloplegic Plusoptix A09 measures spheric equivalent and spheric power similar to cycloplegic refraction measurements in preschool and non-verbal children.

  14. Teaching Receptive Discriminations to Children With Autism: A Comparison of Traditional and Embedded Discrete Trial Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Carr, James E; LeBlanc, Linda A; Hanney, Nicole M.; Polick, Amy S.; Heinicke, Megan R

    2012-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching (DTT) procedures have proven effective in teaching language to children with autism. Discrete trial teaching uses a highly structured, fast-paced format of instruction that is typically conducted in a one-to-one situation at a desk or table with minimal distractions. We compared this traditional model of DTT to a version of DTT in which instruction was embedded within the context of a more naturalistic, activity-based environment. However, all of the other characterist...

  15. Comparison of two epinephrine concentrations in an articaine solution for local anesthesia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Zurfluh, Monika A.; Daubländer, Monika; van Waes, Hubertus J M

    2015-01-01

    Painless dental treatment is of major interest in pediatric dentistry. Local anesthesia contains epinephrine, which prolongs soft tissue anesthesia.This, however, is often a source of iscomfort for children and is responsible for certain side effects (e.g., self-inflicted soft tissue lesions). The aim of this study was to investigate whether an epinephrine-reduced articaine solution could reduce the duration of soft tissue anesthesia and thereby reduce the risk of self-inflicted soft tissue l...

  16. Treatment of open femur fractures in children: comparison between external fixator and intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Leonhard Erich; Bhaskar, Atul R; Cole, William G; Howard, Andrew W

    2007-01-01

    Open femur fractures in children are uncommon and usually associated with other injuries. In adults, there is a current trend to treat open fractures with intramedullary (IM) devices. The goal of this study was to compare external fixator (EF) to IM devices in the treatment of open femur fractures in children. Diaphyseal femur fractures without growth plate involvement were included. Thirty-five patients (12 IM; 23 EF) were identified. Age, hospital stay, polytrauma, mechanism of injury, and Gustilo-Anderson grade were recorded. Follow-up was at least until the fracture was clinically and radiographically healed. Patients with EFs were 5.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.05-25.5) to have any complication. Excluding pin track infections, patients with EFs were 2.7 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 0.567-13.2) to have a complication. Refractures occurred only in the EF group (6/23, 26%) and not in the IM nailing group (P = 0.062, Fischer exact test). These were associated with varus malunions-all 3 of the EF group with more than 15 degrees of varus at fracture union suffered a refracture. Treatment of open femur fractures in children is a challenging problem. Treatment with IM devices had fewer complications than the EF. We think that whenever possible, the use of IM devices for the treatment of open femur fracture in children should be considered, especially grade 1 open injuries. If EFs are used, avoiding varus malunion may decrease the refracture rate, and secondary change to an IM device should be considered. Comparative cohort study. Grade 3 level of evidence.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mothers’ Beliefs about Their Parenting Very Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers’ parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% mal...

  18. The Comparison of Pulse Oximetry and Cardiac Catheterization in Managing the Treatment of Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Abbasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bachground & aim: Pulse oximetry and cardiac catheterization are concerned in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease. Diagnosis of arterial oxygen saturation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD can be used to assess and manage their effecacy. The purpose of this study was to compare pulse oximetry and cardiac catheterizations in treatment manage of children with congenital heart disease. Methods: In the present cross sectional study, 110 patients with cyanic and non syani heart disease were studied undergoing right and left heart catheterization by pulse oximetry of index finger and simultaneously, oxygen saturation was measured by cardiac catheterization. Data were analyzed with SPSS software by using Pearson correlation and linear regression. Results: A significant correlation was seen between arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation (p<0.0001 as well as heart rate, electrocardiogram and pulse oximetry (p<0.0001 respectively. Furthermore, the presence of cyanosis (p=0.001, digital clubbing of the fingers ((p=0.001, low oxygen saturation in the superior vena cava and right atrium (p=0.002 can reduce the accuracy of pulse oximetry for detection of arterial oxygen saturation. The mean right atrial pressure can effect on accuracy of pulse oximetry to detect heartbeat (p=0.034. Maximum sensitivity and specificity for detection of pulse oximetry oxygen saturation was 88 % and 88 heart rate per minute. Conclusion: Pulse oximetric is a useful tool for estimating the arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in children with congenital heart disease (CHD and is a non-invasive method in comparison with cardiac catheterization. Key words: Pulse oximeter, Congenital Heart Disease, Cardiac Catheterization

  19. Development of and change in cognitive control: a comparison of children, young adults, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Nessler, Doreen; Cycowicz, Yael M; Horton, Cort

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive control involves adjustments in behavior to conflicting information, develops throughout childhood, and declines in aging. Accordingly, developmental and age-related changes in cognitive control and response-conflict detection were assessed in a response-compatibility task. We recorded performance measures, pre-response time (pre-RT) activity and medial frontal negativity (MFN)-sequentially occurring, putative event-related potential (ERP) indexes, respectively, of cognitive control and response-conflict detection. When response conflict reached the highest levels by requiring incompatible responses on posterror trials, children and older adults showed the greatest performance decrements. ERPs indicated that young adults implemented control (pre-RT) and detected the increased conflict (MFN) only when that conflict was at the highest levels, whereas children and older adults did so at lower levels (e.g., posterror, compatible responses). Consequently, the developmental and age-related performance decrements observed here may be due to the undifferentiated and inefficient manner in which children and older adults recruited the processes associated with both cognitive control and response-conflict detection.

  20. A randomized comparison of triple therapy Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens in children with peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, P L; Filin, V A; Volkov, I A; Tatarinov, P A; Belousov, Y B

    2001-01-01

    An open, randomized trial was performed to compare the efficacy of three Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens in children with peptic ulcer disease. A total of 106 children (5 - 15 years) were treated for 1 week with metronidazole, 30 - 40 mg/kg per day depending on age, amoxycillin, 750 mg/day, and one of three anti-secretory agents: proprietary omeprazole, 20 - 40 mg/day depending on age; generic omeprazole, 20 - 40 mg/day; or ranitidine, 150 mg twice daily. The H. pylori eradication rate was significantly higher in patients receiving proprietary omeprazole (88.9%) than in those receiving generic omeprazole (80.0%) or ranitidine (74.3%), and this was associated with a trend towards faster ulcer healing. It is concluded that triple therapy consisting of an anti-secretory agent and two antimicrobials produces effective eradication of H. pylori and ulcer healing in children with peptic ulcer disease, and that proprietary omeprazole is more effective than both ranitidine and the generic formulation used in this study.

  1. Children's health care assistance according to their families: a comparison between models of Primary Care

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    Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.

  2. Children's Understanding of Behavioral Consequences of Epistemic States: A Comparison of Knowledge, Ignorance, and False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneault, Joane

    2015-01-01

    The author addressed the issue of the simultaneity of false belief and knowledge understanding by investigating children's ability to predict the behavioral consequences of knowledge, ignorance, and false belief. The second aim of the study was to explore the role of counterfactuals in knowledge understanding. Ninety-nine (99) children, age 3-7 years old, completed the unexpected transfer task and a newly designed task in which a protagonist experienced 1 of the following 4 situations: knowing a fact, not knowing a fact, knowing a procedure, and not knowing a procedure. The results showed that factual ignorance was as difficult as false belief for the children, whereas the other conditions were all easier than false belief, suggesting that the well-known lag between ignorance and false belief may be partly methodologically based. The results provide support for a common underlying conceptual system for both knowing and believing, and evidence of the role of counterfactual reasoning in the development of epistemic state understanding. Methodological variations of the new task are proposed for future research.

  3. Parental Migration and Education of Left-Behind Children: A Comparison of Two Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The out-migration of parents has become a common childhood experience worldwide. It can confer both economic benefits and social costs on children. Despite a growing literature, the circumstances under which children benefit or suffer from parental out-migration are not well understood. The present study examined how the relationship between parental out-migration and children’s education varies across migration streams (internal vs. international) and across 2 societies. Data are from the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 5,719) and the Indonesian Family Life Survey (N = 2,938). The results showed that children left behind by international migrant parents are worse off in educational attainment than those living with both parents. Internal migration of parents plays a negative role in some cases, though often to a lesser degree than international migration. In addition, how the overall relationship between parental migration and education balances out varies by context: It is negative in Mexico but generally small in Indonesia. PMID:25284888

  4. Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a comparison with ADHD and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakamarri, Jagan K; Filkowski, Megan M; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2011-02-01

    Controversy surrounds the frequency of underdiagnosis vs overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in children and adolescents compared with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Sixty-four children and adolescents (age 7 to 18) treated in a community setting were systematically assessed for diagnostic and treatment histories. Best estimate consensus diagnosis was made using DSM-IV criteria. ADHD was overdiagnosed (all patients with ADHD had received the diagnosis, as did 38% of patients with MDD and 29% of patients with BD, respectively), while MDD was partially underdiagnosed and partially overdiagnosed (57% of MDD patients received the diagnosis, 43% did not; 33% of patients with BD were incorrectly diagnosed with MDD). BD was underdiagnosed, not overdiagnosed (38% received the diagnosis, 62% did not; BD was not diagnosed in the ADHD sample, and in only 5% of the patients with MDD). The absence of a positive family history predicted misdiagnosis of BD (relative risk = 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 5.56). Observational treatment response to stimulants was equally high in all groups (75% to 82%). In the first controlled study on this topic, BD was not over-diagnosed in children and adolescents, as it is often claimed, and ADHD was. Stimulant response was nonspecific and diagnostically uninformative. Studies with larger samples are needed to replicate or refute these results.

  5. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children's eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Both instruments were administered to 88 overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) and 79 normal weight (BMIQEWP-P were not concordant in terms of the type of eating episodes that occurred in the past month. Using the ChEDE as the criterion method, the QEWP-P had reasonably high specificity, but low sensitivity for the presence of binge episodes (sensitivity 50%, specificity 83%) or objective overeating (sensitivity 30%, specificity 79%) during the past month. ChEDE subscales were, however, significantly related to items assessing eating-related distress on the QEWP-P. While parent report of child eating behaviors may provide some general information regarding eating psychopathology in young nontreatment-seeking children, they do not accurately reflect the results of a structured interview.

  6. Comparison on Serum Levels of Procalcitonin of Children with Viral and Bacterial Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare and analyze serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT) of children with viral and bacterial infection and probe into the importance of determining the level of serum PCT in the diagnosis of bacterial infection in order to provide evidences of the clinical use of antibiotics. Methods A total of 85 cases of children with an average age of 8.9 years (10 months-12 years) were enrolled in this study, 53 cases were with viral infection and 32 cases with bacterial infection. We determined serum levels of PCT by semi-quantitative solid phase immunoassay, and the serum levels of PCT were divided into four grades as Results The serum level of PCT of the group with bacterial infection were signiifcantly higher than that of the group with viral infection (P Conclusions Serum PCT is a bacterial sensitive marker of bacterial infection in children, and the determination of the level of serum PCT is helpful for the diagnosis of bacterial infection, which can also be a basis for the use of antibiotics.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary infection in immunocompromised children: comparison with multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, H.N.; Gormez, Aysegul; Oguz, Berna; Haliloglu, Mithat [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Ceyhan, Mehmet [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Sule; Cetin, Mualla [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to detect pulmonary infection in immunocompromised children. To compare MRI and multidetector CT findings of pulmonary abnormalities in immunocompromised children. Seventeen neutropaenic children (6 girls; ages 2-18 years) were included. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was performed with a 64-detector CT scanner. Axial and coronal non-enhanced thoracic MRI was performed using a 1.5-T scanner within 24 h of the CT examination (true fast imaging with steady-state free precession, fat-saturated T2-weighted turbo spin echo with motion correction, T2-weighted half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin echo [HASTE], fat-saturated T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo). Pulmonary abnormalities (nodules, consolidations, ground glass opacities, atelectasis, pleural effusion and lymph nodes) were evaluated and compared among MRI sequences and between MRI and CT. The relationship between MRI sequences and nodule sizes was examined by chi- square test. Of 256 CT lesions, 207 (81%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 76-85%) were detected at MRI. Of 202 CT-detected nodules, 157 (78%, 95% CI 71-83%) were seen at motion-corrected MRI. Of the 1-5-mm nodules, 69% were detected by motion-corrected T2-weighted MRI and 38% by HASTE MRI. Sensitivity of MRI (both axial fat-saturated T2-weighted turbo spin echo with variable phase encoding directions (BLADE) images and HASTE sequences) to detect pulmonary abnormalities is promising. (orig.)

  8. Smartphone applications (apps) for heart rate measurement in children: comparison with electrocardiography monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Fu, Yun-Ching; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Hwang, Betau; Jan, Sheng-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) measurement is essential for children with abnormal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HR measurement by smartphone applications (apps) could be a feasible alternative to an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. A total of 40 children, median age of 4.3 years, were studied. Using four free smartphone apps, pulse rates were measured at the finger (or toe) and earlobe, and compared with baseline HRs measured by ECG monitors. Significant correlations between measured pulse rates and baseline HRs were found. Both correlation and accuracy rate were higher in the earlobe group than the finger/toe group. When HR was app (median of 65 vs 76%). The accuracy rates in the finger/toe group were significantly lower than those in the earlobe group for all apps when HR was ≥ 120 bpm (27 vs 65%). There were differences among apps in their abilities to measure pulse rates. Taking children's pulse rate from the earlobe would be more accurate, especially for tachycardia. However, we do not recommend that smartphone apps should not be used for routine medical use or used as the sole form of HR measurement because the results of their accuracy are not good enough.

  9. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  10. Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: a comparison to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Kaiser, Martha D; Wyk, Brent C Vander; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of two characteristic deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD); social impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. To this end, we used comparable experiences of social exclusion and rule violation to probe potentially atypical neural networks in ASD. In children and adolescents with and without ASD, we used the interactive ball-toss game (Cyberball) to elicit social exclusion and a comparable game (Cybershape) to elicit a non-exclusive rule violation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified group differences in brain responses to social exclusion and rule violation. Though both groups reported equal distress following exclusion, the right insula and ventral anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactive during exclusion in children with ASD. In rule violation, right insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex were hyperactive in ASD. Right insula showed a dissociation in activation; it was hypoactive to social exclusion and hyperactive to rule violation in the ASD group. Further probed, different regions of right insula were modulated in each game, highlighting differences in regional specificity for which subsequent analyses revealed differences in patterns of functional connectivity. These results demonstrate neurobiological differences in processing social exclusion and rule violation in children with ASD.

  11. Comparison of Trans-scleral Fixation of PMMA and Foldable Intraocular Lens in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuping Zou; Zhende Lin; Bo Feng; Shaozhen Li

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the difference of the effects of PMMA and foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) trans-sclerally fixed in pediatric eyes. Methods: Thirty-two children (43 eyes) who had undergone trans-scleral fixation of IOL were retrospected, of whom 5 children were implanted PMMA IOL in both eyes, 6children were implanted PMMA IOL in one eye and foldable IOL in the other eye, 12children were implanted foldable IOL in one eye and 9 chilrden were implanted PMMA IOL in one eye. Mean age was 5.3 years ( range 2.5 ~ 12 years ). Twelve children had traumatic cataract and the others congenital cataract before lens extraction. Results: Foldable group (18 eyes ): Mean follow-up was 12.1 months. Visual acuity (VA): compared with the best corrected VA before IOL fixation, postoperative best corrected VA improved in 16 eyes, remained unchanged in 2 eyes. In 14 eyes, one or two stitches were needed to seal the incision. Complications: Severe anterior chamber reaction was seen in 3 eyes. Intraocular bleeding was found in 3 eyes. IOL decentration was detected in 1 eye. Iris capture of IOL was seen in one eye. PMMA group (25 eyes ):Mean follow-up was 20.3 months. Visual acuity (VA): compared with the best corrected VA before IOL fixation, postoperative best corrected VA improved in 19 eyes,remained unchanged in 5 eyes and got worse in one eye. In 24 eyes, one to three stitches were needed to seal the incision. Complications: Severe anterior chamber reaction was seen in 5 eyes. Intraocular bleeding was found in 4 eyes. IOL decentration was seen in one eye. Iris capture of IOL was seen in 3 eyes. Intraocular pressure elevated in one eye. Conclusion: Our study shows that trans-scleral fixation of IOL is a safe procedure in pediatric eyes. Foldable IOL showed similar effect compared with PMMA IOL in pediatric trans-scleral fixation. Eye Science 2001; 17:61 ~ 64.

  12. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

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    Giuliana Valerio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or the World Health Organization (WHO curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001. The CDC 99(th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2, higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3 and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9 than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1. Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of

  13. Severe Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Comparison from Two International Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001). The CDC 99th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2), higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3) and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9) than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile, in particular in children ≤10 years. Conclusions Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age. PMID:24386280

  14. Pragmatic language assessment in Williams syndrome: a comparison of the Test of Pragmatic Language-2 and the Children's Communication Checklist-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Martens, Marilee A; Fox, Robert; Rabidoux, Paula; Andridge, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are recognized as having a strong desire for social relationships, yet many of them have difficulty forming and maintaining peer relationships. One cause may be impairments in pragmatic language. The current study compared the assessment of pragmatic language skills in individuals with WS using the Test of Pragmatic Language-Second Edition (TOPL-2; Phelps-Terasaki & Phelps-Gunn, 2007) and the Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition (CCC-2; Bishop, 2003). Twenty children and adolescents diagnosed with WS were given the TOPL-2, and their parents completed the CCC-2. The TOPL-2 identified 8 of the 14 older children (ages 8-16 years) as having pragmatic language impairment and all of the 6 younger children (ages 6-7 years) as having such. In comparison, the CCC-2 identified 6 of the 14 older children and 2 of the 6 younger children as having pragmatic language impairment. The older group also had a higher composite score than the younger group on the CCC-2. The TOPL-2 identified significantly more participants as having pragmatic language impairment than did the CCC-2. The TOPL-2 may be more useful in assessing pragmatic language in older children than younger children. The results offer important preliminary clinical implications of language measures that may be beneficial in the assessment of individuals with WS.

  15. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review

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    Mohammad Mehdi NASEHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Nasehi MM, Sakhaei R, Moosazadeh M, Aliramzany M. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:17-24 .AbstractObjectiveSeveral factors are involved in the etiology of febrile seizure (FS, among themis zinc (Zn, which has been discussed in various studies. The present systematic review compares Zn levels in children with FS and a control group.Materials & MethodsWe searched keywords of febrile seizure, febrile convulsion, children, childhood,fever, trace elements, risk factor, predisposing, zinc, Zn, and epilepsy in thefollowing databases: SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The quality ofresearch papers was assessed using a checklist. Data was extracted from primarystudies based on demographic variables and amounts of Zn in case and controlgroups.ResultsTwenty primary studies were entered in the present study. Of which, eighteenstudies, reported that Zn serum levels were significantly lower in the case group(patients with FS than the control group.ConclusionThe present systematic review indicated that Zn is one factor for predicting FS.A low level of this element among children can be regarded as a contributingfactor for FS, a conclusion with a high consensus among different studies carriedout in different parts of the world. ReferencesHeydarian F, Ashrafzadeh F, Ghasemian A. Serum ZINC level in Patients with simple febrile seizure. Iran J Child Neurology 2010; 14(2:41-44.Mahyar A, Pahlavan AA, Varasteh-Nejad A. Serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure. Acta Medica Iranica 2008; 46(6: 477-80.Kunda GK, Rabin F, Nandi ER, Sheikh N, Akhter S. Etiology and Risk Factors of Febrile Seizure – An Update. Bangladesh J Child Health 2010; 34 (3:103-112.Abbaskhaniyan A, Shokrzadeh M, Rafati MR, Mashhadiakabr M, Arab A, Yazdani J. Survey and Relation of Serum Magnesium Level in Children with Seizure. J Mazand Univ

  16. A Comparison of the Interactive Play Behaviours between Children with Albinism and Their Siblings and Children without Albinism and Their Non-Albino Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javangwe, Gwatirera; Mukondyo, Rachel Z.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the nature of the interactive play behaviours of children with albinism and children without albinism and compared the interactive behaviours of both children with albinism and children without albinism. Naturalistic observations were conducted during periods of free play, using the interactive play behaviour checklist aided by…

  17. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  18. Tonsillectomy compared to acute tonsillitis in children: a comparison study of societal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupe, P; Hox, V; Debruyne, F; Schrooten, W; Claes, N V; Lemkens, N; Lemkens, P

    2012-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in children; its main indications are recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The effectiveness of tonsillectomy for severe recurrent tonsillitis is generally accepted; however its socio-economic cost is less well investigated. This study aims to determine and compare the societal cost of a tonsillectomy and a severe throat infection. The costs for both tonsillectomy and severe throat infection were evaluated. Costs of the surgical procedure and hospital stay were calculated based on resource use and personnel input at the participating hospital. The cost of work-related disability for both treatments was measured based on a questionnaire filled in by 275 parents of children undergoing a tonsillectomy. Data from two Belgian institutions (NIS and FOD) were used to calculate the cost of parents' absenteeism. An episode of acute tonsillitis in the child results in a longer period of parents' work absenteeism (mean of 3.1 +/- 0.3 days) compared to tonsillectomy (2.2 +/- 0.2 days). The cost of economic productivity loss amounts to 613 Euros (NIS) or 759 Euros (FOD) for acute tonsillitis and 435 Euros (NIS) or 539 Euros (FOD) for a tonsillectomy. The medical costs linked to the surgical procedure at the local department correspond to 535 Euros and for an acute tonsillitis to 46 Euros. From societal perspective, a tonsillectomy costs the equivalent of 1.4 times the cost of a severe throat infection. This indicates that in children suffering from recurrent acute tonsillitis, watchful waiting results in a higher cost compared to tonsillectomy, given the cumulative costs of parents' absenteeism.

  19. Crowded letter and crowded picture logMAR acuity in children with amblyopia: a quantitative comparison.

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    O'Boyle, Cathy; Chen, Sean I; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, picture acuity tests are thought to overestimate visual acuity (VA) compared with letter tests, but this has not been systematically investigated in children with amblyopia. This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4-6 years (mean=68.7, range=48-83 months) underwent VA measurements. VA chart testing order was randomised, but the amblyopic eye was tested before the fellow eye. All participants wore up-to-date refractive correction. The Kay Picture test significantly overestimated VA by 0.098 logMAR (95% limits of agreement (LOA), 0.13) in the amblyopic eye and 0.088 logMAR (95% LOA, 0.13) in the fellow eye, respectively (pamblyopia on VA results (p>0.23). For both the amblyopic and fellow eyes, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a systematic and predictable difference between Kay Picture and Keeler Letter charts across the range of acuities tested (Keeler acuity: amblyopic eye 0.75 to -0.05 logMAR; fellow eye 0.45 to -0.15 logMAR). Linear regression analysis (pamblyopia. Due to the predictable difference found between both crowded logMAR acuity tests, it is reasonable to adjust Kay Picture acuity thresholds by +0.10 logMAR to compute expected Keeler Letter acuity scores. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Comparison of direct and indirect measures of walking energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J; Tseh, Wayland; Caputo, Jennifer L; Apperson, Kathy; McGreal, Sheri; Morgan, Don W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the heartrate (HR) version of the energy expenditure index (EEIHR) as a proxy for measurement of walking oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen children (eight males, five females; mean age 11 years 2 months [SD 3 years], age range 6 to 15 years) with hemiplegic CP, participated in this study. The study was conducted over three sessions. During session 1, participants were familiarized with testing procedures and given 5 minutes of treadmill walking practice. In session 2, participants completed three 5-minute walking bouts on the treadmill at 0.67m x s(-1) to familiarize themselves with treadmill locomotion. During the final session participants walked at 0.67, 0.89, and 1.12m x s(-1) for 5 minutes while gross oxygen consumption (gross VO2; walking VO2/speed), net VO2 ([walking VO2-resting VO2]/speed), and EEIHR ([walking HR-resting HR]/speed) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each bout. Correlational analyses indicated no relationship (p>0.05) between measures of gross VO2 and EEIHR at each speed. Although no association was evident between net VO2 and EEIHR at 0.67 and 0.89m x s(-1), a moderate relationship (r=0.64; p<0.05) was present between these variables at 1.12m x s(-1). Examination of individual data revealed that most participants displayed an unmatched pattern of response between net VO2 and EEIHR. Our results suggest that caution should be applied when using EEIHR to estimate walking energy expenditure in children with CP.

  1. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

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    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  2. CT of acute pyelonephritis in children : comparison with Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy

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    Lee, Sun Wha; Baek, Seung Yeon; Lee, Seung Joo [Ewha University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare CT with scintigraphy in the detection of parenchymal lesions of acute pyeolonephritis in children, and to assess the diagnostic value of CT. This study involved 32 children with acute pyelonephritis; their ages ranged from 1 month to 10 years. Renal Ct, Tc-99m DMSA planar and SPECT images, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the number, size, shape, density, and location of pyelonephritis lesions, as seen on CT and scintigraphic images. In 43 involved kidneys, 193 parenchymal lesions of acute pyelonephritis were identified. The results of CT were abnormal in 42 kidneys (98%), and those of scintigraphy , in 39 (91%). CT showed single or multiple hypoenhancing parenchymal lesions; these were streaky (n=151), wedge-shaped (n=34), or oval (n=8), and ranged from about 3 - 30 mm in maximum diameter. Abscess (n=5), renal fascial thickening (n=6) and thickening of the bridging septae (n=7) were associated. Scintigraphic findings were more precisely identified on SPECT than on planar images. For the detection of 55 of 193 pyelonephritis lesions, CT was more sensitive than scintigraphy; 29 of the 55 lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter. For the detection of phyelonephritic lesions, particularly smaller ones, and for the evaluation of complications such as abscess formation, CT is more sensitive than Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy. We conclude that in children with subtle scintigraphic findings who are in serious clinical condition or in whom complications are suspected, CT is a useful tool for assessing a therapeutic plan and the prognosis of acute pyelonephritis. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Brief Report: Comparison of Sensory-Motor and Cognitive Function between Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Kawasaki, Chisato; Tsuchida, Reiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examined differences in sensory-motor, cognitive, and verbal impairment between 10 Japanese preschool children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) 10 children with high functioning autism (HFA) using the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers. AS children surpassed HFA children in verbal skills but HFA children were better…

  4. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  5. Cough quality in children: a comparison of subjective vs. bronchoscopic findings

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    Cox Nancy C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is the most common symptom presenting to doctors. The quality of cough (productive or wet vs dry is used clinically as well as in epidemiology and clinical research. There is however no data on the validity of cough quality descriptors. The study aims were to compare (1 cough quality (wet/dry and brassy/non-brassy to bronchoscopic findings of secretions and tracheomalacia respectively and, (2 parent's vs clinician's evaluation of the cough quality (wet/dry. Methods Cough quality of children (without a known underlying respiratory disease undergoing elective bronchoscopy was independently evaluated by clinicians and parents. A 'blinded' clinician scored the secretions seen at bronchoscopy on pre-determined criteria and graded (1 to 6. Kappa (K statistics was used for agreement, and inter-rater and intra-rater agreement examined on digitally recorded cough. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine if cough quality related to amount of airway secretions present at bronchoscopy. Results Median age of the 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls enrolled was 2.6 years (IQR 5.7. Parent's assessment of cough quality (wet/dry agreed with clinicians' (K = 0.75, 95%CI 0.58–0.93. When compared to bronchoscopy (bronchoscopic secretion grade 4, clinicians' cough assessment had the highest sensitivity (0.75 and specificity (0.79 and were marginally better than parent(s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85 (95%CI 0.77–0.92. Intra-observer (K = 1.0 and inter-clinician agreement for wet/dry cough (K = 0.88, 95%CI 0.82–0.94 was very good. Weighted K for inter-rater agreement for bronchoscopic secretion grades was 0.95 (95%CI 0.87–1. Sensitivity and specificity for brassy cough (for tracheomalacia were 0.57 and 0.81 respectively. K for both intra and inter-observer clinician agreement for brassy cough was 0.79 (95%CI 0.73–0.86. Conclusions Dry and wet cough in children, as determined by clinicians and

  6. Comparison Study of the Stuttered Words Type in Stuttering Children and Adults

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    Maryam Mokhlessin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since knowing the mechanisms which evoke non-fluency is the first step in the treatment of stuttering, and there are very few researches in Persian which consider the role of the linguistic factors behind stuttering, this study is an attempt to provide answers to some of numerous questions about stuttering by comparing the stuttered words` type in stuttered children and adults. Materials and Methods: In this study stuttered people were divided into 5 age groups as follows: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-16, and older than 17 years old. Each group had ten participants. Forty-two of the 50 participants were male, and the youngest person was 3 years old and the eldest one was 32 years old. The study method involved recording at least 5 minuets of spontaneous speech of every one who was diagnosed of suffering from stuttering by two speech and language pathologists. The percent of non-fluency on every word's type was determined where a content word was followed or preceded by a function word (Function-Function-Content words and Function-Content words contexts. Then these findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of this study show while function words are dominantly more stuttered than content words in children less than 13 years old in Function-Function-Content words context, we consider more disfluency on content words and second function word by getting old. We consider more stuttering on function words in children less that 13 years old in Function-Content words context too and increased non-fluency on content word by growing up. Results also show meaningful differences between the fifth group and others in the amount of stuttering on second function word in the Function-Function-Content words contexts and also between the first group and the others in amount of non-fluency both on function and content words in Function-Content words context. Conclusion: People who stutter from Farsi speakers

  7. Injection pain of propofol in children: A comparison of two formulations without added lidocaine

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    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol emulsion in medium and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT has been reported to cause less injection pain than other propofol solutions in adult studies. The aim of this study was to compare the injection pain of two different propofol emulsions using two different pain scales on the pediatric population. Materials and Methods: 100 children scheduled for general anesthesia were divided into two groups. Patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol LCT or propofol MCT/LCT. Assessment and evaluation of the Ontario Children′s Hospital Pain Scale (mCHEOPS and the Wong-Baker Faces Scale (WBFS were performed at the start of the injection until the patients lose consciousness. Results: There were no significant differences between groups in terms of demographic data. According to the mCHEOPS scale, the pain incidence of propofol LCT was 5%, whereas for propofol MCT/LCT it was 15% (P 0.05. Conclusions: Propofol MCT/LCT does not decrease injection pain; contrary to the general assumption, it causes more pain than propofol LCT in children.

  8. Treatment of symptomatic osteoporosis in children: a comparison of two pamidronate dosage regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Soto, Tania; Pacaud, Danièle; Stephure, David; Trussell, Rebecca; Huang, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonate treatment for bone fragility has expanded beyond children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) to those with other causes of low bone mass. However, clinical efficacy and optimal dosing in non-OI patients has not been established. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of patients with non-OI-related bone fragility to describe the effects of two different pamidronate treatment regimens on the bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rate of these children. Between 2000 and 2009, 15 non-OI patients aged 8-16 years received pamidronate 1 mg/kg intravenously for 1 day every 3 months (4 mg/kg/year) or 1 mg/kg/day for 3 days every 4 months (9 mg/kg/year). After 1 year of pamidronate, the two groups had a comparable increase in adjusted BMD and reduction in fragility fractures. No serious adverse effects were observed. Since the long-term effects of bisphosphonate are unknown, large trials are needed to delineate the minimal effective dose in these patients.

  9. A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children

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    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children.Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases or intravenous diazepam (60 cases at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one.Findings: In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8% patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes.Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70% patients within 10 minutes. The difference was,however, not statistically significant (P=0.9. The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam.Conclusion: Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures.

  10. Comparison of LMA-ProSealTM with LMA ClassicTM in Anaesthetised Paralysed Children

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    Pravesh Kanthed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA, though popular in anaesthesia practice provides low oropharyngeal seal pressure and there are concerns with its use during positive pressure ventilation for fear of gastric distension with subsequent gastric regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is a modified LMA with a larger, wedge shaped cuff and a drain tube. This modification improves the seal around glottis when compared to a cLMA and its drain tube prevents gastric distension and offers protection against aspiration when properly placed. We compared PLMA and cLMA in 100 anaesthetized, paralysed children with 50 patients in each group with respect to ease of insertion, oropharyngeal seal pressure and pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. Gastric tube insertion was also assessed for the PLMA. The ease of insertion and the number of attempts at insertion were found to be comparable in the two groups while the oropharyngeal seal pressure was significantly higher in the PLMA group (P < 0.001. The pharyngolaryngeal morbidity was comparable in both the groups. There was no incidence of regurgitation or aspiration in either group. The PLMA offered high reliability of gastric tube placement and significantly increased oropharyngeal seal pressure over the cLMA. This might have an important implication for use of this device for positive pressure ventilation in children.

  11. Characteristics of mesenteric lymphadenitis in comparison with those of acute appendicitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Itai; Siedner-Weintraub, Yael; Stibbe, Shir; Rekhtman, David; Weiss, Daniel; Simanovsky, Natalia; Arbell, Dan; Hashavya, Saar

    2017-02-01

    Mesenteric lymphadenitis (ML) is considered as one of the most common alternative diagnosis in a child with suspected acute appendicitis (AA). In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with ML (n = 99) were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings to patients diagnosed with AA (n = 102). This comparison was applied for both lymph nodes smaller and larger than 10 mm. When compared to patients with AA, patients with ML had significantly longer duration of symptoms prior to emergency department (ED) presentation (2.4 ± 2.6 vs 1.4 ± 1.4 days, P = 0.002) and multiple ED presentations (1.3 ± 0.7 vs 1.05 ± 0.3, P appendicitis. • Despite its prevalence, only few studies addressed the clinical characteristics of this clinical entity and their comparison with acute appendicitis. What is New: • Mesenteric lymphadenitis and acute appendicitis could be differentiated by multiple clinical and laboratory parameters. • No significant difference was found between those presenting with small and large lymph nodes.

  12. Acute appendicitis in children: comparison of clinical diagnosis with ultrasound and CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, S.P.; Guelfguat, M.; Springer, S.; Singh, S.P. [Department of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center and the Long Island Campus of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042 (United States); Leonidas, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center and the Long Island Campus of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042 (United States); Department of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, 270-05 76th Avenue, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Background. There is strong evidence that imaging with ultrasound and CT can be of substantial diagnostic value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children, but there is limited information of the impact of imaging on the management of these patients and its possible effect on surgical findings. Objective. We studied the impact of imaging in the management of acute appendicitis, in particular its effect on the rate of negative appendectomies and perforations. Patients and methods. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records and imaging findings of 633 consecutive children and adolescents seen on an emergency basis with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis. Two hundred seventy patients were operated upon on clinical evidence alone, while 360 were referred for US or CT, and occasionally both, because of doubtful clinical findings. Results. Acute appendicitis was found in 237 of those on clinical grounds alone, 68 of whom had perforation and related complications. Thus the rate of negative exploration and the rate of perforation were13 % and 29 %, respectively. One hundred eighty-two patients had preoperative US (sensitivity 74 %, specificity 94 %), 119 had CT (sensitivity 84 %, specificity 99 %), and 59 had both US and CT (sensitivity 75 %, specificity 100 %, but often with interpretation at variance with each other). The rate of negative appendectomy and perforation was 8 % and 23 %, respectively, for US, 5 % and 54 % for CT, and 9 % and 71 % when both examinations were performed. There is no statistical significance between the rates of diagnostic performance of US, CT, or their combination, nor between the negative appendectomy rates of each group, but the rate of perforation was significantly higher when CT was performed, alone or after US. Conclusion. The retrospective nature of the study prevents precise definition of the clinical characteristics and selection criteria for diagnostic examinations that may contribute to the management of children

  13. Comparison Between Diuretic Urography (IVP and Diuretic Renography for Diagnosis of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

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    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO is one of the most common causes of urinary tract obstruction in children. Several methods are used to diagnose upper urinary tract obstruction including renal ultrasonography (US, intravenous pyelogram (IVP, diuretic renography (DR, magnetic resonance urography (MRU and antegrade or retrograde pyelography. Nowadays it is suggested to use diuretic renography as the best method for diagnosing of UPJO. There is no comparative study between IVP and DR scan for diagnosis of UPJO in children. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare IVP with furosemide injection and diuretic renography in diagnosis of clinically significant UPJO. Patients and Methods: This was a cross sectional study performed in 153 UPJO suspected children (121 boys, 32 girls based on US findings in cases presented with urinary tract infection (UTI, prenatal hydronephrosis, abdominal/flank pain, abdominal mass and hematuria. Renal ultrasound was used as an initial screening tool for detection of urinary tract abnormality. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was ruled out by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG. Serum creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, urinalysis and urine culture was screened in all cases. IVP with furosemide and DR were performed as soon as possible after the mentioned workup. Results: During a five year period, 46 out of 153 patients were diagnosed as UPJO based on diuretic renography: the age ranged from 4 months to 13 years (mean: 3.1 ± 0.78 years. There was a significant higher (76% proportion of UPJO in the boys and in the left side (78%. The sensitivity of IVP with furosemide injection in diagnosis of UPJO was 91.3% whereas DR was accepted as standard for diagnostic procedure in diagnosis of UPJO. Conclusions: Although DR is accepted as the best method for diagnosis of UPJO, we found a small sensitivity difference between IVP and DR in kidneys with normal or near normal function. In many settings such as

  14. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Afrooz; Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ahmady, Mozhgan Kar; Amiri, Shole

    2014-03-01

    sadness inhibition and positive cognitive coping in separation anxious children. ECBT, in comparison with CBT; effectively improved emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety.

  15. A comparison of risk factors for wheeze and recurrent cough in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; Westergaard, Tine; Pedersen, Bo V

    2005-01-01

    In a study of 2,978 Danish children aged 5 years from two suburban counties of Copenhagen, carried out in 1998, the authors compared risk factor profiles for wheeze and recurrent cough without wheeze by using polytomous logistic regression to clarify whether the two conditions are likely to have...... the same etiology. Data were obtained 1) by a mailed parental questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions and supplementary questions on cough, sociodemography, perinatal factors, and environmental exposure); 2) through general practitioners (familial allergic disease......); and 3) from the National Medical Birth Register (birth weight). Wheeze (WH) was defined as more than one episode of wheeze within the last 12 months (irrespective of cough status) and recurrent cough without WH (RC) as cough occurring outside colds and usually lasting for periods of more than 1 week...

  16. Comparison of fMRI and PEPSI during language processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, S; Steury, K; Richards, T; Corina, D; Abbott, R; Dager, S R; Berninger, V

    2001-02-01

    The present study explored the correlation between lactate as detected by MR spectroscopy (MRS) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in male children during auditory-based language tasks. All subjects (N = 8) participated in one proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) and one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session that required phonological and lexical judgments to aurally presented stimuli. Valid PEPSI data was limited in the frontal areas of the brain due to the magnetic susceptibility of the eye orbits and frontal sinuses. Findings from the remainder of the brain indicate that subjects show a significant consistency across imaging techniques in the left temporal area during the lexical task, but not in any other measurable area or during the phonological task. Magn Reson Med 45:217-225, 2001.

  17. Oral therapy in children with cholera: a comparison of sucrose and glucose electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, D A; Islam, S; Brown, K H; Islam, A; Kabir, A K; Chowdhury, A M; Ali, M A

    1980-01-01

    We performed a double-blind trial comparing sucrose electrolyte oral solution with glucose electrolyte oral solution in children less than 5 years of age with severe cholera-like diarrhea. Of 111 patients studied (102 with bacteriologically confirmed cholera), 55 received sucrose solution and 56 received glucose solution. The success rates, as defined by the absence of the need to give unscheduled intravenous therapy, were similar in the two groups (73% and 77% in the sucrose and glucose groups, respectively). There was no difference in purging rates between the two groups. The primary determinant of success for oral fluid regardless of the sugar was the purging rate. Sucrose malabsorption was responsible for oral therapy failure in one child. This study demonstrates that sucrose is an effective alternative to glucose in the oral therapy solution, but either must be used in conjunction with intravenous solution when treating severe dehydrating diarrhea.

  18. Efficacy comparison of cetirizine and loratadine for allergic rhinitis in children

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    Juliana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Allergic rhinitis represents a global health problem affecting 10% to more than 40% of the population worldwide. Several studies in recent years have described the efficacy of second-generation antihistamines in younger children. It is not well established whether cetirizine is more effective than loratadine in reducing symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of loratadine with cetirizine for treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of 100 children, aged 13 to 16 years, from October to November 2009 at two junior high schools in Medan. Group I received 10 mg of cetirizine and group II received 10 mg of loratadine, each once daily in the morning for 14 days. Drug efficacy was assessed by changes from baseline symptom scores and evaluation of therapeutic responses after 3 days, 7 days and 14 days of treatment. Results The efficacy of cetirizine compared to that of loratadine was not statistically significant in diminishing nasal symptoms after 3 days, 7 days and 14 days of treatment (P=0.40, P=0.07, and P=0.057, respectively. Evaluation of side effects, however, revealed significantly fewer headaches in the cetirizine group after 3 days and 7 days of treatment (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively than in the loratidine group. In addition, the loratadine group had significantly more instances of palpitations after 7 days of treatment (P=0.04 compared to the cetirizine group. Conclusion There was no significant difference in cetirizine and loratadine treatment effectiveness on allergic rhinitis. However, loratadine was found to cause more headaches and palpitations than cetirizine. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:61-6].

  19. Comparison of two epinephrine concentrations in an articaine solution for local anesthesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Monika A; Daubländer, Monika; van Waes, Hubertus J M

    2015-01-01

    Painless dental treatment is of major interest in pediatric dentistry. Local anesthesia contains epinephrine, which prolongs soft tissue anesthesia.This, however, is often a source of iscomfort for children and is responsible for certain side effects (e.g., self-inflicted soft tissue lesions). The aim of this study was to investigate whether an epinephrine-reduced articaine solution could reduce the duration of soft tissue anesthesia and thereby reduce the risk of self-inflicted soft tissue lesions, while still providing an adequate anesthesia. In a non-interventional clinical study, routine dental treatment was performed on children and adolescents. An articaine 4% solution with an epinephrine-reduced solution (Ubistesin™ mite, 1:400,000) and a conventional epinephrine solution (Ubistesin™ forte, 1:100,000) were compared in terms of duration of soft tissue anesthesia. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (mite: 75, forte: 83) were treated (80% with infiltration anesthesia). In both groups, the average volume of the injection was comparable (mite: 1.2 ml, forte: 1.1 ml). One patient from each group showed unwanted side effects. In both groups, the local anesthesia was complete or sufficient (96%) to perform the planned treatment. The average treatment time was 24 minutes in the mite group and 28 minutes in the forte group. The difference in mean duration of soft tissue anesthesia was statistically significant (p = 0.001, mite: 2.1 h, forte: 2.8 h). Thanks to its high efficacy, tolerance, and reduced soft tissue anesthesia, the articaine 4% solution with the reduced epinephrine concentration (1:400,000) was considered a safe and suitable drug for routine treatments in pediatric dentistry.

  20. Comparison of functional electrical stimulation to long leg braces for upright mobility for children with complete thoracic level spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaroti, D; Akers, J M; Smith, B T; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, R R

    1999-09-01

    To prospectively compare functional electrical stimulation (FES) to long leg braces (LLB) as a means of upright mobility for children with motor-complete thoracic level spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Intrasubject group comparison of two interventions. Nonprofit pediatric orthopedic rehabilitation facility specializing in SCI. Convenience sample of five children between 9 and 18 years old with motor-complete thoracic level SCI. The hip and knee extensors were excitable by electrical stimulation. The FES system consisted of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted to the hip and knee extensors and a push-button activated stimulator worn about the waist. Standing was accomplished by simultaneous stimulation of all implanted muscles. For foot and ankle stability, either ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) or supramalleolar orthoses were used. The LLB system consisted of a custom knee-ankle foot orthosis (KAFO) for four subjects and a custom reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) for one subject who required bracing at the hip. For both interventions, either a front-wheeled walker or Lofstrand crutches were used as assistive devices. Each subject was trained in the use of both FES and LLB in seven standardized upright mobility activities: stand and reach, high transfer, toilet transfer, floor to stand, 6-meter walk, stair ascent, and stair descent. For each mobility activity, five repeated measures of level of independence, using the 7-point Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, and time to completion were recorded for each intervention. Subjects were also asked which intervention they preferred. For 94% of comparisons, subjects required equal (70%) or less (24%) assistance using FES as compared with LLB. Six of the seven mobility activities required less time to complete using FES, two activities at significant levels. The FES system was preferred in 62% of the cases, LLB were desired 27% of the time, and there was no preference in 11% of the cases. The FES system

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Hereditary Bleeding Disorders and in Children and Adolescents with Stroke: Cross-Sectional Comparison to Siblings and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Bruno; von Mackensen, Sylvia; Holzhauer, Susanne; Funk, Stephanie; Klamroth, Robert; Kurnik, Karin; Krümpel, Anne; Halimeh, Susan; Reinke, Sarah; Frühwald, Michael; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions compared with siblings/peers. Methods. Group 1 (6 treatment centers) consisted of 74 children/adolescents aged 8-16 years with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD), 12 siblings, and 34 peers. Group 2 (one treatment center) consisted of 70 children/adolescents with stroke/transient ischemic attack, 14 siblings, and 72 peers. HrQoL was assessed with the "revised KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen" (KINDL-R) questionnaire. Multivariate analyses within groups were done by one-way ANOVA and post hoc pairwise single comparisons by Student's t-tests. Adjusted pairwise comparisons were done by hierarchical linear regressions with individuals nested within treatment centers (group 1) and by linear regressions (group 2), respectively. Results. No differences were found in multivariate analyses of self-reported HrQoL in group 1, while in group 2 differences occurred in overall wellbeing and all subdimensions. These differences were due to differences between patients and peers. After adjusting for age, gender, number of siblings, and treatment center these differences persisted regarding self-worth (p = .0040) and friend-related wellbeing (p children with HBD, HrQoL was comparable to siblings and peers. In children with stroke/TIA HrQoL was comparable to siblings while peers, independently of relevant confounder, showed better self-worth and friend-related wellbeing.

  2. Comparison of 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effectiveness and safety of pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge tansconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system and 20-gauge vitrectomy system for posterior capsule opacification (PCO in pseudophakic children. METHODS: Retrospectively study. Pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy system was performed for PCO in the study group (32 eyes. Patients in the control group (34 eyes underwent capsulotomy and vitrectomy using standard 20-gauge vitrectomy system, providing a comparison between 2 groups with regard to preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. The two groups were performed consequentially. The patients ages ranged from 2 to 13y (means: 6.61±2.73y. Surgical technique, intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, IOP, and recurrent PCO were recorded. RESULTS: The surgical procedure was performed uneventfully in all patients. Visual acuity improved significantly in both groups. BCVA improved in 22 eyes (81.5% in the study group and in 28 eyes (87.5% in the control group. There was no statistical difference of visual acuity that were attainable in two groups (H=0.115, P=0.909. Mean postoperative IOP showed no significant difference between the groups at 1wk. All sort of PCO were accomplished by 20-gauge system, while 25-gauge system was effective for pearls style and 2 grade of fibrous PCO, and was insufficient to grade 3 of PCO. In the study group two cases were not accomplished by 25-gauge system while 20-gauge system conquered them. Compared with the control group, mean operative time for opening and closing the sclerotomy in the study group was considerably reduced. The mean follow-up was 38.2mo (range: 8-79mo. During the follow-up period, no incision leakage, corneal edema, vitreous loss, IOL damage, retinal detachment, recurrent PCO, or other

  3. HIGH AND LOW DOSE IVIG THERAPY IN GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME CHILDREN: A COMPARISON

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    P. KARIMZADEH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (GuillainBarre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune-medicatedperipheral nervous system disease in children; with the near disappearanceof poliomyelitis, GBS is responsible for the great majority of cases ofacute flaccid paralysis. So far, in several controlled studies, corticosteroids,plasmapheresis and IVIG have been utilized in pediatric patients, afflictedwith GBS. Regarding IVIG therapy, two methods have been used; thehigh dose (1 gr/kg/day for 2 days, and the low dose (400mg/kg/day for5 days. Review of literature shows that a faster rate of recovery can beaccomplished in patients who receive total dose of IVIG in 2 days ascompared to the dose being given over 5 days.Materials & Methods: In this study we have compared these two types of treatment in aninvestigation, conducted in the Mofid Children Hospital on pediatricpatients who had sudden onset of acute flaccid paralysis, and werediagnosed as having GBS. Based on histories, physical examination andelectrodiagnosis, subjects were divided in two groups, the high doseIVIG treatment, 1gr/kg/day for 2 days (experimental group, and the lowdose IVIG treatment, 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days (control group. Statisticalanalyses were then carried out using the appropriate software.Results: Result of this study showed a faster rate of recovery for patients in thehigh dose IVIG group; in this group duration of weakness of limbs wasshorter and returning of DTR was faster than in controls. In fact, in thistype of treatment, the relationship between high dose IVIG therapy anddrug side effects was not significant.Conclusion: Base upon the finding in the present study, we conclude that the highdose IVIG therapy is superior to low dose, in view of faster duration ofrecovery and shorter hospital stay.Also we may infer that shorter hospital stay could be a factor in reducingof more nasocomial infection.In conclusion, we suggest using

  4. HIGH AND LOW DOSE IVIG THERAPY IN GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME CHILDREN: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KARIMZADEH MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (Guillain-Barre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune-medicated peripheral nervous system disease in children; with the near disappearance of poliomyelitis, GBS is responsible for the great majority of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. So far, in several controlled studies, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis and IVIG have been utilized in pediatric patients, afflicted with GBS. Regarding IVIG therapy, two methods have been used; the high dose (1 gr/kg/day for 2 days, and the low dose (400mg/kg/day for 5 days. Review of literature shows that a faster rate of recovery can be accomplished in patients who receive total dose of IVIG in 2 days as compared to the dose being given over 5 days.Materials & Methods:In this study we have compared these two types of treatment in an investigation, conducted in the Mofid Children Hospital on pediatric patients who had sudden onset of acute flaccid  paralysis, and were diagnosed as having GBS. Based on histories, physical examination and electrodiagnosis, subjects were divided in two groups, the high dose IVIG treatment, 1gr/kg/day for 2 days (experimental group, and the low dose IVIG treatment, 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days (control group. Statistical analyses were then carried out using the appropriate software.Results:Result of this study showed a faster rate of recovery for patients in the high dose IVIG group; in this group duration of weakness of limbs was shorter and returning of DTR was faster than in controls. In fact, in this type of treatment, the relationship between high dose IVIG therapy and drug side effects was not significant.Conclusion:Base upon the finding in the present study, we conclude that the high dose IVIG therapy is superior to low dose, in view of faster duration of recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also we may infer that shorter hospital stay could be a factor in reducing of more nasocomial infection. In

  5. Comparison of low-dose and high-dose cosyntropin stimulation testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeroglu, Ayse Pinar; Kleis, Lora; Postellon, Daniel C; Wood, Michael A

    2011-04-01

      There is no consensus among pediatric endocrinologists in using low-dose (LD) versus high-dose (HD) cosyntropin to test for secondary/tertiary adrenal insufficiency. This paper compares LD and HD cosyntropin stimulation testing in children for evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and suggests a new peak cortisol cut-off value for LD stimulation testing to avoid false positivity.   Data of 36 children receiving LD (1 µg) and HD (249 µg) cosyntropin consecutively during growth hormone (GH) stimulation testing were analyzed in two groups. Group A were patients who passed GH stimulation testing and were not on oral, inhaled or intranasal steroids (intact hypothalamic-pituitary axis, n= 19). Group B were patients who failed GH stimulation testing and/or were on oral, inhaled or intranasal steroids (impaired hypothalamic-pituitary axis, n= 17).   In group A, the mean peak cortisol response in LD cosyntropin was 18.5 ± 2.4 µg/dL and that for the HD cosyntropin was 24.8 ± 3.1 µg/dL (r: 0.76, P≤ 0.05). In group B, the mean peak cortisol response in LD cosyntropin was 15.7 ± 6.1 µg/dL and that for HD cosyntropin was 21.7 ± 7.9 µg/dL (r: 0.98, P≤ 0.05). When a standard cut-off of 18 µg/dL was used, 37% of the patients with intact HPAA failed LD cosyntropin testing, but a cut-off of 14 µg/dL eliminated false positive results.   LD cosyntropin stimulation testing results should be interpreted cautiously when used alone to prevent unnecessary long-term treatment. Using a lower cut-off for LD (≥14 µg/dL) seems to avoid false positive results and still detects most cases of impaired HPAA. © 2011 The Authors.Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. A comparison of axillary and tympanic membrane to rectal temperatures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Paramita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Core body temperature measurement is not commonly done in pediatric populations because it is invasive and difficult to perform. Therefore, axillary and tympanic membrane temperature measurements are preferable, but their accuracy is still debatable. Objective To compare the accuracy of axillary and tympanic temperatures to rectal temperature in children with fever, and to measure the cut-off point for fever based on each temperature measurement method. Methods A diagnostic study was conducted among feverish children aged 6 months to 5 years who were consecutively selected from the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic, Pediatric Emergency Unit, and the inpatient ward in the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH, from December 2014 to January 2015. Subjects underwent three measurements within a two minute span, namely, the axillary, tympanic membrane, and rectal temperature measurements. The values obtained from the examination were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results The cut-off for fever on axilla was 37.4oC and on tympanic membrane was  37.4oC, with sensitivity 96% (95%CI 0.88 to 0.98 and 93% (95%CI 0.84 to 0.97, respectively; specificity 50% (95%CI 0.47 to 0.84 and 50% (95%CI 0.31 to 0.69, respectively; positive predictive value/PPV 90% (95%CI 0.81 to 0.95 and 85% (95%CI 0.75 to 0.91, respectively; and negative predictive value/NPV 83% (95%CI 0.61 to 0.94 and 69% (95%CI 0.44 to 0.86, respectively. The optimal cut-off of tympanic membrane and axilla temperature was 37.8oC (AUC 0.903 and 0.903, respectively. Conclusion Axillary temperature measurement is as good as tympanic membrane temperature measurement and can be used in daily clinical practice or at home. By increasing the optimum fever cut-off point for axillary and tympanic membrane temperature to 37.8oC, we find sensitivity 81% and 88%, specificity 86% and 73%, PPV 95% and 91%, and NPV 95% and 91%, respectively.

  7. Visual Attending Preferences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison between Live and Video Presentation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa; Azuma, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the…

  8. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  9. Comparaison des Patterns de Sommeil d'Enfants Deficients et d'Enfants Autistiques (Comparison of Sleep Patterns in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Children with Autism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubar, Jean-Claude; And Others

    Based on the hypothesis that cognition and sleep are linked, this study compared the sleep patterns of nine children (ages 6-16) with autism with those of children with mental retardation and no disabilities. The children with autism were observed for two consecutive nights at a laboratory where their sleep patterns were recorded. Results found…

  10. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  11. Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health…

  12. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  13. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  14. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

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    Navdeep Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg/ height (m². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and World Health Organization (WHO standards. All three methods gave different results. The present study revealed that WHO standards gave higher estimates of overweight and obesity while IOTF gave lower estimates. The level of agreement (k=0.94 between the WHO and CDC standards was higher. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  15. Comparison of motion correction techniques applied to functional near-infrared spectroscopy data from children

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    Hu, Xiao-Su; Arredondo, Maria M.; Gomba, Megan; Confer, Nicole; DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Shalinsky, Mark; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    Motion artifacts are the most significant sources of noise in the context of pediatric brain imaging designs and data analyses, especially in applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in which it can completely affect the quality of the data acquired. Different methods have been developed to correct motion artifacts in fNIRS data, but the relative effectiveness of these methods for data from child and infant subjects (which is often found to be significantly noisier than adult data) remains largely unexplored. The issue is further complicated by the heterogeneity of fNIRS data artifacts. We compared the efficacy of the six most prevalent motion artifact correction techniques with fNIRS data acquired from children participating in a language acquisition task, including wavelet, spline interpolation, principal component analysis, moving average (MA), correlation-based signal improvement, and combination of wavelet and MA. The evaluation of five predefined metrics suggests that the MA and wavelet methods yield the best outcomes. These findings elucidate the varied nature of fNIRS data artifacts and the efficacy of artifact correction methods with pediatric populations, as well as help inform both the theory and practice of optical brain imaging analysis.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Stable and Dynamic Furniture on Physical Activity and Learning in Children.

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    Garcia, Jeanette M; Huang, Terry T; Trowbridge, Matthew; Weltman, Arthur; Sirard, John R

    2016-12-01

    We compared the effects of traditional (stable) and non-traditional (dynamic) school furniture on children's physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE), information retention, and math skills. Participants were 12 students (8.3 years, 58 % boys) in grades 1-5. Participants wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer (to assess PA), and an Oxycon Mobile indirect calorimetry device (to assess EE) for 40 min (20 min for each session). Each session consisted of a nutrition lecture, multiple choice questions related to the lecture, and grade-appropriate math problems. We used paired t tests to examine differences between the stable and dynamic furniture conditions. Average activity counts were significantly greater in the dynamic than the stable furniture condition (40.82 vs. 9.81, p furniture condition, and did not impede information acquisition or concentration. Future studies should compare the long-term effects of traditional and dynamic furniture on health and academic outcomes in schools and other settings.

  17. A comparison of methods for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L; Carr, James E; Kodak, Tiffany M; Jostad, Candice M; Kisamore, April N

    2011-01-01

    Many early intervention curricular manuals recommend teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations (i.e., receptive labeling) using the simple-conditional method in which component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus before the learner is required to respond conditionally. Some have argued that this procedure might be susceptible to faulty stimulus control such as stimulus overselectivity (Green, 2001). Consequently, there has been a call for the use of alternative teaching procedures such as the conditional-only method, which involves conditional discrimination training from the onset of intervention. The purpose of the present study was to compare the simple-conditional and conditional-only methods for teaching receptive labeling to 3 young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The data indicated that the conditional-only method was a more reliable and efficient teaching procedure. In addition, several error patterns emerged during training using the simple-conditional method. The implications of the results with respect to current teaching practices in early intervention programs are discussed.

  18. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

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    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  19. Radionuclide cystography in children: comparison of direct (retrograde) and indirect (intravenous) techniques

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    Majd, M.; Kass, E.J.; Belman, A.B. (Children' s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC (U.S.A.))

    1985-01-01

    One hundred twenty children with a known history of vesico-ureteral reflux were evaluated by both direct and indirect methods of radionuclide cystography. The indirect studies were technically optimal in only 99 patients. In 20 of them neither the direct cystogram nor the indirect cystogram showed evidence of reflux. In the remaining 79 patients the direct cystograms demonstrated reflux in 112 ureters while the indirect cystograms showed reflux in only 66 ureters, a false negative rate of 41%. Reflux was not demonstrated in any on the indirect study which was not also noted on the direct cystogram. Indirect radionuclide cystography has a low sensitivity for the detection of reflux and should not be used as the initial screening test. If renal scintigraphy is part of the follow-up evaluation of patients with previously documented reflux, an indirect radionuclide cystogram may be obtained. However, the study is only reliable if reflux is noted. A negative study does not necessarily exclude reflux, and the patient should be evaluated further by direct cystography.

  20. Teaching receptive discriminations to children with autism: a comparison of traditional and embedded discrete trial teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Carr, James E; Leblanc, Linda A; Hanney, Nicole M; Polick, Amy S; Heinicke, Megan R

    2012-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching (DTT) procedures have proven effective in teaching language to children with autism. Discrete trial teaching uses a highly structured, fast-paced format of instruction that is typically conducted in a one-to-one situation at a desk or table with minimal distractions. We compared this traditional model of DTT to a version of DTT in which instruction was embedded within the context of a more naturalistic, activity-based environment. However, all of the other characteristics of DTT (e.g., pacing, tight stimulus control, targets selected by the teacher) were retained. Receptive discriminations were taught to 2 4-year-old boys, diagnosed with autism in traditional or embedded DTT. Results showed that for both boys, traditional and embedded DTT were equally effective and efficient. Additionally, measures were collected on participant affect and a concurrent-chains preference evaluation was used to determine which teaching procedure was preferred by the participants. The two procedures produced similar levels of positive and negative affect and were equally preferred by 1 participant while embedded DTT produced more positive affect and was more preferred by the other.

  1. A randomised comparison of the LMA SupremeTM and LMAProSealTM in children.

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    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Gordon, J; Langen, K E; Anderson, K

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a randomised trial comparing the size-2 LMA Supreme™ with the LMA ProSeal™ in 60 children undergoing surgery. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation, ease of gastric tube placement, quality of the airway during anaesthetic maintenance and complications. There were no statistically significant differences between the LMA Supreme and LMA ProSeal in median (IQR [range]) insertion time (12 (10-15 [7-18]) s vs 12 (10-13 [8-25]) s; p = 0.90), airway leak pressures (19 (16-21 [12-30]) cmH(2) O vs 18 (16-24 [10-34]) cmH(2) O; p = 0.55), fibreoptic position of the airway or drain tube, ease of gastric access and complications. Both devices provided effective ventilation requiring minimal airway manipulation. The LMA Supreme can be a useful alternative to the LMA ProSeal when single-use supraglottic devices with gastric access capabilities are required.

  2. A comparison of injuries sustained from recreational compared to organized motorized vehicle use in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahida, Justin B; Asti, Lindsey; Patel, Kishan; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Groner, Jonathan I; Raval, Mehul V

    2015-07-01

    To examine the injury severity and patterns of injury for pediatric motorized recreational vehicle (MRV) drivers injured during organized events (OE) compared to recreational use (RU). All pediatric MRV injuries between 2006 and 2012 in our institutional trauma registry were studied for mechanism of injury, initial evaluation, and treatment. Injuries with an Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥2 were categorized by body region and diagnosis. Out of 589 collisions, 92 (16%) occurred during an OE. Compared to RU drivers, OE drivers were more likely to wear helmets (92% vs. 40%, p<0.001) and other protective equipment (79% vs. 6%, p<0.001). There was no difference in rates of hospital admission, rates of surgical intervention, injury severity scores, rates of intensive care unit admission, or lengths of stay. There were no differences in injuries by body region or injury type, except that dislocations were more common in OE drivers (2% vs. 0%, p=0.038). Despite higher rates of helmet and protective gear use, pediatric MRV drivers participating in OEs sustain similarly severe injuries as drivers using MRVs recreationally. No differences were observed in body regions involved or outcomes. Public perception that OE use of MRV for children is safe should be addressed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparison of molecular detection methods for pertussis in children during a state-wide outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Zerr, D M; Kronman, M P; Adler, A L; Berry, J E; Rich, S; Buccat, A M; Xu, M; Englund, J A

    2016-04-27

    A state-wide pertussis outbreak occurred in Washington during the winter-spring months of 2012, concurrent with respiratory viral season. We compared performance characteristics of a laboratory-developed pertussis PCR (LD-PCR for Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii) and rapid multiplex PCR (RM-PCR) for respiratory viruses (FilmArray™, BioFire, B. pertussis data unblinded following FDA approval post outbreak). We analyzed three cohorts of patients using physician testing orders as a proxy for clinical suspicion for pertussis or respiratory viruses: Cohort 1, tested by LD-PCR for pertussis pathogens only by nasopharyngeal swab; Cohort 2, by RM-PCR for respiratory viruses only by mid-nasal turbinate swab; and Cohort 3, by both methods. B. pertussis was detected in a total of 25 of the 490 patients in Cohort 3 in which LD-PCR detected 20/25 (80 %) cases and the RM-PCR detected 24/25 (96 %; p = 0.2). Pertussis pathogens were detected in 21/584 (3.6 %) of samples from Cohort 1 where clinicians had a relatively strong suspicion for pertussis. In contrast, B. pertussis was detected in only 4/3071 (0.1 %) specimens from Cohort 2 where suspicion for pertussis was lower (p < 0.001 for comparison with Cohort 1). In summary, the two laboratory methods were comparable for the detection of B. pertussis.

  4. Comparison of Intravenous Midazolam Drip with Intermittent Intravenous Diazepam in the Treatment of Refractory Serial Seizures in Children

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    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Karimzadeh P, Torabian S, Damadi S, Khaje A. Comparison of Intravenous Midazolam Drip with Intermittent Intravenous Diazepam in The Treatment of Refractory Serial Seizures in Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 15-19. ObjectiveSerial seizures occur commonly in inpatient epileptic children. This type ofseizure due to its characteristics has a significant impact on the patient’s health.Untreated serial seizures lead to status epilepticus; therefore, finding a moreeffective treatment for such patients is essential. This study was performed tocompare the outcome of intermittent intravenous diazepam in the pediatricneurology clinic and intravenous midazolam in the pediatric intensive care unit(PICU, in order to introduce an alternative treatment for serail seizures.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 38 inpatient children aged 6 mo-15 years with refractory serialseizures were treated by first line antiepileptic drugs and then randomlytreated with either intermittent intravenous diazepam in the neurology ward orintravenous midazolam in PICU.ResultsFourteen (70% diazepam group patients and 13 (72.2% midazolam grouppatients had good response to treatment, there was no significant differencebetween the two groups. Four midazolam group patients and two diazepamgroup patients needed mechanical ventilation and were intubated duringtreatment, with no significant difference between the two groups. Durationsof mechanical ventilation and PICU and hospital stay were not significantlydifferent between the two groups.ConclusionIntermittent intravenous diazepam is an effective alternative therapy formidazolam drip in the treatment of serial seizures due to similar therapeuticeffects and fewer side effects.ReferencesHaut SR. Seizure clustering. Epilepsy Behav 2006Feb;8(1:50-5.Caraballo RH, Cersosimo RO, Fejerman N. Benign focal seizures of adolescence: a prospective study. Epilepsia 2004 Dec;45(12:1600-3.Haut SR, Swick C

  5. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of Calcitonin and Pamidronate Treatments in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

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    Neslihan Onenli Mungan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study was to compare the treatments of calcitonin and pamidronate by clinical, biochemical, and radiological findings in children with osteogenesis imperfecta and evaluate the efficiency of pamidronate treatment. Patients and methods: A total of 12 patients, aged 41±38 (1-120 months were studied. Group 1 was consisted of six patients who had received intranasal calcitonin at a dosage of 4-6 U/kg three times a week before switching to pamidronate treatment. Group 2 was also consisted of six patients who had received only pamidronate infusion at a dosage of 0.5-2 mg/kg every two months. Results: Annual fracture rates decreased from 2.72 ± 0.80 to 0.40 ± 0.70 (p0.05, and from -3.08 ± -0.61 to -2.29 ± -0.56 in pamidronate group. The difference between the Z-scores of bone mineral density after calcitonin and pamidronate treatments was statistically significant (p<0.05. The Z-scores of pre (-3.44 ± -0.96 and post (-2.47 ± -0.60 pamidronate treatments of whole 12 patients were significantly different (p<0.001. Conclusion: Pamidronate was significantly more effective in reducing pain, annual fracture rate, and increasing bone mineral density and mobility than calcitonin without any severe adverse effects even in the neonatal period and severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 667-674

  7. Assessment of Differential Renal Function in Children with Hydronephrosis: Comparison of DMSA and MAG-3

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    Cem Akbal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Nuclear imaging techniques such as 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3 are widely used for the diagnosis and follow-up of urinary tract obstructions. Both imaging techniques provide the differential renal function (DRF in slightly different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the MAG-3 scan as an adjunct or alternative to DMSA for evaluating DRF in children with hydronephrosis. Materials and Methods Eighty-one patients with hydronephrosis were enrolled in this study. Patient age, sex, anteroposterior renal pelvis diameter (RPD at the time of diagnosis, parenchymal thickness and the DRF percentage found by both DMSA and MAG-3 were recorded. DMSA scintigraphy was used for detecting renal scars and estimating DRF. MAG-3 scintigraphy was used for evaluation of renal clearance, the collecting system’s outflow pattern and estimating DRF. Results A total of 102 renal units (38 left, 22 right and 21 bilateral were evaluated. High correlation rates were found when we compared both tests’ DRF values according to antero-posterior renal pelvic diameter and patient age (p>0.05. In all groups compared in the present study, both tests demonstrated very similar results and DRF values. Statistical analysis of cut-offs (45%, 40%, 10% were also similar in both methods (p>0.05, kappa >0.7, r=0.926 Pearson. Conclusion DMSA and MAG-3 are tests that are of assistance in the evaluation of hydronephrosis. Compared to DMSA, MAG-3 also provides valuable information to evaluate DRF values in hydronephrotic renal unit (RU. Avoiding unnecessary DMSA imaging will save time and cost and prevent over-radiation of the pediatric population.

  8. Temporal artery and axillary thermometry comparison with rectal thermometry in children presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Adam J; Juliano, Michael L; Conley, Sean P; Cronyn, Patrick D; McGlynn, Andrea; Auten, Jonathan D

    2017-06-11

    Accurate temperature readings, often obtained rectally, are an important part of the initial evaluation of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. Temporal artery thermometry (TAT) is one way to noninvasively measure temperature. We sought to compare the accuracy of axillary and temporal artery temperatures compared to rectal. This prospective study included children age 0-36months presenting to the Emergency Department of a large military treatment facility. Rectal, axillary, and temporal artery temperatures were obtained. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) were reported. The effect of cutoff values 99.9°F, 100.4°F, and 102.2°F on test characteristics were also evaluated. The sensitivities of axillary and temporal artery thermometry to detect rectal fever is 11.5% and 61.5% respectively. Cutoff values did not significantly alter test characteristics. In this study, temporal artery thermometry was 0.2°C lower than rectal temperature, axillary measurement was 0.9°C below the reference standard. Mean temperature difference in the febrile group between TAT and rectal thermometry was >0.5°C compared with a mean temperature difference 0.05°C in afebrile patients. The findings of our study do not support using axillary thermometry to screen pediatric patients for fever in the emergency department. TAT cannot be recommended as a rectal thermometry replacement where height and duration of fever are used in pediatric disease prediction models. TAT may have a role in screening for fever in the appropriate pediatric patient population like primary orthopedic or trauma presentations where the balance between device precision, data capture and patient comfort may favor use of TAT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Venous malformations of the limbs: the Birmingham experience, comparisons and classification in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Derick A; McCafferty, Ian; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Lester, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    The management of vascular anomalies in upper and lower limbs is complex. The current practice at Birmingham Children's Hospital is based on a multidisciplinary approach, involving plastic surgeons, interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, dermatologists and laser specialists. This study reviews the management strategies for peripheral venous malformations (VMs) and proposes a simple classification system to aid treatment. A retrospective review was undertaken involving all paediatric patients presenting with (VMs) of the upper and lower limbs, managed by the same multidisciplinary team over a period of 3 years. A total of 33 patients were identified, of whom 19 had lesions located in the upper limb. Treatment modalities included surgery, sclerotherapy, a combination of the two and conservative management. The indications for treatment included: (1) worsening pain, (2) increased swelling, (3) reduced function, (4) bleeding or ulceration and finally, (5) cosmetic deformity. Following treatment, outcome measures with regards to the symptoms were graded into (1) improved, (2) worsened and (3) unchanged. Based on magnetic resonance imaging, we were able to apply our classification to separate the lesions into Type 1a (superficial localised): nine, Type 1b (superficial diffused): five, Type 2 (Fascia/muscle infiltration): nine, Type 3 (Bone/joint infiltration): seven and Type 4 (Extensive whole-limb infiltration): three. In patients with upper limb VMs (n=19), eight lesions (42%) were superficial and localised (Type 1a) while the rest were diffused lesions. In contrast, in the lower limb (n=14), only one lesion (7%) was superficial while the rest were diffused lesions. Lower success rate for treatment was noted in lower limb malformations (pVMs in peripheral limbs is discussed in this article. An anatomical classification is described which aids in management and communication. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons

  10. Comparison of Oral Midazolam With Intravenous Midazolam for Sedation Children During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

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    Ahmad Khodadad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Upper endoscopy is a common procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of upper digestive tract diseases. The increasing number of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures has led to increasing attention on the safety and efficacy of medications used for sedation during the procedure. This randomized blinded interventional study was designed to compare the effect of oral midazolam with intravenous (IV midazolam as a sedative medication in 119 children undergoing endoscopy. The mean time to sedation was 2.2±0.7 in IV midazolam group and 30.9±0 in oral midazolam group which was statistically significant difference between two groups. Separation from parents in oral midazolam group was as follow: 2 patients were high resistant (3.5%, 2 patients were resisted first and then relaxed (3.5% and 55 patients were separated from their parents without any resistance (93%; whereas in IV midazolam group, 8 patients were high resistant (13.3%, 29 patients were relatively resistant (48.3% and 23 patients were separated from their parents without any resistance (38.3% that shows significant differences between the two groups. In terms of patient comfort during endoscopy, there was also a significant difference between the two groups. In oral midazolam, group parents were more consent, compared with the other group. The present study showed that oral midazolam is a safe and effective sedation during upper endoscopy in pediatrics. Oral midazolam reducing patients' anxiety during separation from parents leads the easy use of endoscopy and comfort of patients during endoscopy as compared with IV midazolam. Oral or IV midazolam were not able to put most patients in deep sedation level.

  11. A comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A S; Mahmoud, K M; Kasemy, Z A

    2017-04-01

    Sugammadex is designed to be a reversal agent for steroidal muscle relaxants. The current trial was aimed to compare between sugammadex and neostigmine concerning the recovery time from neuromuscular blockade. We hypothesised that sugammadex might have shorter recovery time than neostigmine. Sixty paediatric patients aged 2-10 years scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 4 mg/kg sugammadex (Group S) or 0.35 mg/kg neostigmine and 0.02 mg/kg atropine (Group N) as a reversal agent for rocuronium at the end of surgery. Primary outcome was the recovery time [time from starting of sugammadex or neostigmine till reaching train of four (TOF) ratio> 0.9] whereas secondary outcomes included number of patients who needed another dose of sugammadex or neostigmine to reach TOF ratio> 0.9, extubation time (time from stoppage of anaesthetic inhalation until the patient fulfilled criteria for safe extubation, post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge time and post-operative adverse effects. The mean recovery and extubation times were significantly shorter (P = 0.002 and 0.005) in Group S compared with Group N (2.5 and 2.0 min vs. 12.6 min and 4.3 min respectively). In the Group N, eight patients needed another reversal dose compared with one patient in Group S (P = 0.035). PACU discharge time showed no significant difference between both groups. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and dry mouth were significantly higher in Group N. Sugammadex administration in children resulted in faster recovery and extubation times and lower incidence of adverse events compared with neostigmine. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The 'best fit' endotracheal tube in children --comparison of four formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkistani, A; Abdullah, K M; Delvi, B; Al-Mazroua, K A

    2009-10-01

    Uncuffed endotracheal tubes are still being recommended by most pediatric of anesthetists at our Institutes. Different algorithms and formulae have been proposed to choose the best-fitting size of the tracheal tube. The most widely accepted is related to the age of the child [inner diameter [ID] in mm = (age in yr/4) + 4; the second is a body, length-related formula (ID in mm = 2 + height in cm/30); the third, a multivariate formula (ID in mm = 2.44 + age in yr x 0.1 + height in cm x 0.02 + weight in kg x 0.016]5; the fourth, the width of the 5th fingernail is used for ID prediction of the ETT (ID in mm = maximum width of the 5th fingernail). The primary endpoint of this prospective study was to compare the size of the 'best fit' tracheal tube with the size predicted using each of the above mentioned formulae. With Institutional Ethics Committee approval and parental consent, 27 boys, 23 girls, ASA I-III, 2-10 years, scheduled for different surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation, were enrolled in the study. The size of 'best fit' endotracheal tubes in those children were compared. The internal diameter considered the 'best fit' by the attending pediatric anesthesiologist was compared to age-based, length-based, multivariate-based and 5th fingernail width-based formulae. For all tests, P best fit', age-based, length-based, multivariate and 5th fingernail techniques were 5.31 (0.691), 5.54 (0.622), 5.82 (0.572), 5.71 (0.67) and 5.43 (0.821) mm, respectively. The age-based and 5th fingernail width-based predictions of ETT size are more accurate than length-based and multivariate-based formulae in terms of mean value and case matching.

  13. Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics in children with type 1 diabetes according to pancreatic autoantibodies

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    Ji Hae Choi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with autoantibody-positive and patients with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes at initial presentation. Methods:We analyzed 96 patients under 18 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. One or both of the pancreatic autoantibodies-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA and insulin autoantibody (IAA-were measured in all patients, and we reviewed clinical and laboratory characteristics according to the presence of these autoantibodies. Results:GADA was examined in 48 of 87 patients, and 55.2% of patients were positive. IAA was checked in 88 patients, and 39.8% were positive. Both GADA and IAA were measured in 83 patients, and 22.8% had both antibodies. The patients who had one or both autoantibodies (autoantibody-positive group were younger than those not having any autoantibody (autoantibody-negative group. The autoantibody-positive group had lower BMI, corrected sodium level, and serum effective osmolarity, compared to the autoantibody-negative group (P&lt;0.05. Similar differences were found between the GADA-positive and GADA-negative groups. However, there were no significant differences between the IAA- positive and IAA-negative groups. Conclusion:The prevalence of pancreatic autoantibodies was significantly higher in the under-6 years age group than in the other age groups. These findings suggest that measurement of autoantibodies at the initial diagnosis of diabetes is very useful for detecting immune-mediated type 1 diabetes and providing intensive insulin therapy, especially in younger children.

  14. Comparison of quantiferon test with tuberculin skin test for the detection of tuberculosis infection in children.

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    Onur, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Sami; Arıca, Vefik; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Arica, Seçil Gunher

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of Quantiferon-TB gold test (QFT-GIT) remains to be documented in pediatric population. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a conventional test available for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We aimed to investigate the concordance between QFT-GIT and TST in children with and without tuberculosis infection. Ninety-seven patients, aged 3 months-14 years, admitted to pediatric outpatient clinics of Dr. Sadi Konuk Training Hospital Bakırköy, Turkey between March 2008 and April 2009 were recruited. Demographic features, TST results, history of exposure to active tuberculosis (TB), chest X-ray findings, clinical history, presence of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination scar were recorded. Patients were categorized into four groups namely, active TB, LTBI, no TB and healthy. It was found that BCG scar positivity did not influence QFT-GIT results. There was a statistically significant agreement between QFT-GIT and TST results (κ = 0.486; p < 0.01). In patients ≥ 5 years of age, TST positivity and QFT positivity had a significant relationship (p < 0.01). In all patient groups, sensitivity and specificity was 65.85 % and 82.14 %, respectively. In active TB group, TST and QFT-GIT results demonstrated significant agreement ratio of 40.8 % (κ = 0.364; p < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity was 100 % and 30 %, respectively. Utilization of QFT-GIT in the diagnosis of LTBI reduces false-positive results and prevents unnecessary treatment with INH and its adverse effects.

  15. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

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    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  16. Comparison of Oral Midazolam With Intravenous Midazolam for Sedation Children During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Ahmad; Aflatoonian, Majid; Jalilian, Rozita; Babaei, Nazanin; Motamed, Farzaneh; Ebrahime Soltani, Alireza; Rasoolzadeh, Behnaz; Motavasselian, Fatemeh; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Upper endoscopy is a common procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of upper digestive tract diseases. The increasing number of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures has led to increasing attention on the safety and efficacy of medications used for sedation during the procedure. This randomized blinded interventional study was designed to compare the effect of oral midazolam with intravenous (IV) midazolam as a sedative medication in 119 children undergoing endoscopy. The mean time to sedation was 2.2±0.7 in IV midazolam group and 30.9±0 in oral midazolam group which was statistically significant difference between two groups. Separation from parents in oral midazolam group was as follow: 2 patients were high resistant (3.5%), 2 patients were resisted first and then relaxed (3.5%) and 55 patients were separated from their parents without any resistance (93%); whereas in IV midazolam group, 8 patients were high resistant (13.3%), 29 patients were relatively resistant (48.3%) and 23 patients were separated from their parents without any resistance (38.3%) that shows significant differences between the two groups. In terms of patient comfort during endoscopy, there was also a significant difference between the two groups. In oral midazolam, group parents were more consent, compared with the other group. The present study showed that oral midazolam is a safe and effective sedation during upper endoscopy in pediatrics. Oral midazolam reducing patients' anxiety during separation from parents leads the easy use of endoscopy and comfort of patients during endoscopy as compared with IV midazolam. Oral or IV midazolam were not able to put most patients in deep sedation level.

  17. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Omeprazole Granule and Suspension Forms in Children: A Randomized, Parallel Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, S; Dehghanzadeh, G; Haghighat, M; Mirzaei, R; Rahimi, H R

    2016-03-01

    Although, omeprazole is widely used for treatment of gastric acid-mediated disorders. However, its pharmacokinetic and chemical instability does not allow simple aqueous dosage form formulation synthesis for therapy of, especially child, these patients. The aim of this study was at first preparation of suspension dosage form omeprazole and second to compare the blood levels of 2 oral formulations/dosage forms of suspension & granule by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The omeprazole suspension was prepared; in this regard omeprazole powder was added to 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to make final concentration 2 mg/ml omeprazole. After that a randomized, parallel pilot trial study was performed in 34 pediatric patients with acid peptic disorder who considered usage omeprazole. Selected patients were received suspension and granule, respectively. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for omeprazole levels using validated HPLC method. The mean omeprazole blood concentration before usage the next dose, (trough level) were 0.12±0.08 µg/ml and 0.18±0.15 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively and mean blood level after dosing (C2 peak level) were 0.68±0.61 µg/ml and 0.86±0.76 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively. No significant changes were observed in comparison 2 dosage forms 2 h before (P=0.52) and after (P=0.56) the last dose. These results demonstrate that omeprazole suspension is a suitable substitute for granule in pediatrics.

  18. A comparison of phonemic and phonological awareness in educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

  19. Comparison of indicators of iron deficiency in Kenyan children1–6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frederick KE; Martorell, Reynaldo; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Cole, Conrad R; Ruth, Laird J; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2015-01-01

    Background In the absence of a feasible, noninvasive gold standard, iron deficiency (ID) is best measured by the use of multiple indicators. However, the choice of an appropriate single iron biomarker to replace the multiple-criteria model for screening for ID at the population level continues to be debated. Objective We compared ID defined as ≥2 of 3 abnormal ferritin (8.3 mg/L), or zinc protoporphyrin (ZP; >80 μmol/mol) concentrations (ie, multiple-criteria model) with ID defined by abnormal concentrations of any of the independent candidate iron biomarkers (ferritin alone, TfR alone, or ZP alone) and TfR/ferritin index (ID, >500). Values either were adjusted for inflammation [as measured by C-reactive protein (>5 mg/L) and α1-acid glycoprotein (>1 g/L) before applying cutoffs for ID] or were unadjusted. Design In this community-based cluster survey, capillary blood was obtained from 680 children (aged 6–35 mo) for measurement of iron status by using ferritin, TfR, and ZP. Results On the basis of the multiple-criteria model, the mean (±SE) prevalence of ID was 61.9 ± 2.2%, whereas the prevalences based on abnormal ferritin, TfR, or ZP concentrations or an abnormal TfR/ferritin index were 26.9 ± 1.7%, 60.9 ± 2.2%, 82.8 ± 1.6%, and 43.1 ± 2.3%, respectively, for unadjusted values. The prevalences of ID were higher for adjusted values only for low ferritin and an elevated TfR/ferritin index compared with the unadjusted values. The κ statistics for agreement between the multiple-criteria model and the other iron indicators ranged from 0.35 to 0.88; TfR had the best agreement (κ = 0.88) with the multiple-criteria model. Positive predictive values of ID based on the other iron indicators in predicting ID based on the multiple-criteria model were highest for ferritin and TfR. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that TfR (AUC = 0.94) was superior to the other indicators in diagnosing ID based on the multiple-criteria model (P < 0

  20. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Farhana Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME and Ishihara′s Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ′Unable to test′ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes ( P < 0.001 but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or "matching" approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities.

  1. Stress among Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison Involving Physiological Indicators and Parent Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Ciara; James, Jack E

    2017-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i.e., cortisol, alpha-amylase, and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate) between matched groups of parents of children with (N = 38) and without (N = 38) ASD. Participants completed questionnaires, collected saliva samples for the purpose of measuring cortisol and alpha-amylase, and wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 h. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher levels of parental distress, anxiety, and depression than parents of typically developing children. Parent-reported distress, anxiety, depression, and health were not correlated with physiological measures. With the exception that parents of children with ASD had significantly lower cortisol levels 30 min after waking, no other significant group differences were found for physiological measures. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher use of a number of adaptive coping strategies (e.g., emotional support) in comparison to parents of typically developing children. Results are discussed in the context of implications for future research directions, stress research, and practical implications for parental support.

  2. A Rural-Urban Comparison in Emergency Department Visits for U.S. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Mason, Ashley E; Boyd, Brian; Sikich, Linmarie; Baranek, Grace

    2017-03-01

    We examined rural-urban differences in emergency department visits, and child and clinical characteristics associated with visits for U.S. children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rural children with ASD were twice more likely to have emergency department visits in urban hospitals than rural children without ASD. The children with ASD in rural areas were economically disadvantaged and concentrated in the South and Midwest regions. Rural children diagnosed with ASD and multiple comorbidities during emergency department visits were 1.6 times as that of urban children. Rural children with ASD, particularly those with multiple comorbidities, require more emergency department services when compared with urban children with ASD.

  3. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  4. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  5. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  6. Haptic Identification of Raised-Line Drawings When Categorical Information Is Given: A Comparison between Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Mazella, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Research into haptic picture perception has mostly concerned adult participants, and little is known about haptic picture perception in visually impaired and sighted children. In the present study, we compared 13 visually impaired children (early blind and low vision) aged 9-10 years and 13 agematched blindfolded sighted children on their ability…

  7. Sleep-patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Television watching before bedtime was more common among urban school children and they had shorter total sleep time. They had signs of sleep deprivation. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Despite longer sleep time, parents of rural children felt the need for more sleep.

  8. Comparison of Family and Therapist Perceptions of Physical and Occupational Therapy Services Provided to Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa C.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Chiarello, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents and therapists have similar perceptions of therapy services provided to young children with cerebral palsy (CP), reflecting collaboration and provision of family-centered care. Forty-six parents of young children with CP and 40 therapists providing services for those children participated.…

  9. A Rural-Urban Comparison in Emergency Department Visits for U.S. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Mason, Ashley E.; Boyd, Brian; Sikich, Linmarie; Baranek, Grace

    2017-01-01

    We examined rural-urban differences in emergency department visits, and child and clinical characteristics associated with visits for U.S. children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rural children with ASD were twice more likely to have emergency department visits in urban hospitals than rural children without ASD. The children…

  10. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  11. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  12. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka

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    Ruf Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented with a preliminary diagnosis of PTSD were randomly assigned either to six sessions Narrative Exposure Therapy for children (KIDNET or six sessions of meditation-relaxation (MED-RELAX. Outcome measures included severity of PTSD symptoms, level of functioning and physical health. Results In both treatment conditions, PTSD symptoms and impairment in functioning were significantly reduced at one month post-test and remained stable over time. At 6 months follow-up, recovery rates were 81% for the children in the KIDNET group and 71% for those in the MED-RELAX group. There was no significant difference between the two therapy groups in any outcome measure. Conclusion As recovery rates in the treatment groups exceeded the expected rates of natural recovery, the study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of NET as well as meditation-relaxation techniques when carried out by trained local counselors for the treatment of PTSD in children in the direct aftermath of mass disasters. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT00820391

  13. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Kohiladevy, Mahendran; Ruf, Martina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-05-13

    The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented with a preliminary diagnosis of PTSD were randomly assigned either to six sessions Narrative Exposure Therapy for children (KIDNET) or six sessions of meditation-relaxation (MED-RELAX). Outcome measures included severity of PTSD symptoms, level of functioning and physical health. In both treatment conditions, PTSD symptoms and impairment in functioning were significantly reduced at one month post-test and remained stable over time. At 6 months follow-up, recovery rates were 81% for the children in the KIDNET group and 71% for those in the MED-RELAX group. There was no significant difference between the two therapy groups in any outcome measure. As recovery rates in the treatment groups exceeded the expected rates of natural recovery, the study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of NET as well as meditation-relaxation techniques when carried out by trained local counselors for the treatment of PTSD in children in the direct aftermath of mass disasters. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT00820391.

  14. The Comparison of Drawing Family and the House-Tree-Person Test in Children with Addicted and Non-Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shafiei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest that drawing indices in the are more in the house-tree-Person paintings and family drawings of the children with addicted parents in comparison to the non-addicted group, scoring higher in terms of the number of drawing indices such as depression and anxiety symptoms, weak self-esteem, and valuelessness. Conclusion: It can be said that the parents' drug abuse intensifies and expedites children's physical, affective and behavioral problems.

  15. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children

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    Caroline eJolly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6-7 years old; N=85 and second-graders (7-8 years old; N=88. Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation.

  16. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Caroline; Gentaz, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD) children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6-7 years old; N = 85) and second-graders (7-8 years old; N = 88). Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation.

  17. Profiles of Children with down Syndrome Who Meet Screening Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Comparison with Children Diagnosed with ASD Attending Specialist Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, G.; Howlin, P.; Salomone, E.; Moss, J.; Charman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that around 16% to 18% of children with Down syndrome (DS) also meet diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are indications that profiles of autism symptoms in this group may vary from those typically described in children with ASD. Method: Rates of autism symptoms and emotional…

  18. Comparison of Health-Related Quality of Life among 10- to 12-Year-Old Children with Chronic Illnesses and Healthy Children: The Parents' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Orlygsdottir, Brynja

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 10- to 12-year-old Icelandic children with or without chronic health condition or illness. A total of 912 Icelandic parents (510 mothers and 402 fathers) and 480 children (209 boys and 271 girls) participated in…

  19. Autism, attachment and parenting: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, language disorder, and non-clinical children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, A.H.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Daalen, E. van; Dietz, C.; Naber, F.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have severe and pervasive impairments in the development of social interaction, which may affect the attachment relationship with their parents and may have an impact on parenting. In the current investigation 89 families with young children (mean age

  20. Does the Native Language Influence Lexical Composition in Very Preterm Children at the Age of Two Years? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Study of Italian and Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at <32 gestational weeks) children at 24 months (controls: 125 Italian and 146 Finnish full-term children). The investigation also covered the effect of maternal education…

  1. Autism, attachment and parenting: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, language disorder, and non-clinical children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, A.H.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Daalen, E. van; Dietz, C.; Naber, F.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have severe and pervasive impairments in the development of social interaction, which may affect the attachment relationship with their parents and may have an impact on parenting. In the current investigation 89 families with young children (mean age 26.

  2. Thorax and pelvis kinematics during walking, a comparison between children with and without cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Goten, Laura Vander; De Koster, Berdien; Degelaen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional postural control and pathological thorax and pelvis motions are often observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and can be considered as an indicator of diminished dynamic stability. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between children with CP and typically developing children in three-dimensional thorax and pelvis kinematics during walking. Three electronic databases were searched by using different combinations of keywords. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by two researchers with the Strobe quality checklist. Ten studies (methodological quality: 32% to 74%) with in total 259 children with CP and 220 typically developing children (mean age: 7.6 to 13.6 year) were included. Compared to typically developing children, children with bilateral CP showed an increased range of motion of the thorax, pelvis and spine during walking. The results of the children with unilateral CP were less clear. In general, children with bilateral CP showed larger movement amplitudes of the trunk compared to children without CP. This increase in movement amplitudes could influence the dynamic stability of the body during walking. In children with unilateral CP, the results were less obvious and further research on this topic is required.

  3. A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem-solving skill, school behavior, and family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, P A; Weissberg, R P; Guare, J; Liebenstein, N L

    1990-02-01

    The study compared 86 children with learning disabilities (LD) with 86 matched children without learning disabilities (NLD) on three domains of variables: social problem-solving skill, teacher-rated school behavior and competence, and family background. The children with LD and the NLD group differed on variables in all three domains. More specifically, the children with LD were able to generate fewer alternatives for solving social problem situations, showed less tolerance for frustration and less adaptive assertiveness, and had more overall classroom behavior problems and less personal and social competence in a variety of areas as rated by teachers. Children having LD also showed more family background difficulties (e.g., lack of educational stimulation at home, economic difficulties). The findings suggest the need for greater attention to social and behavioral remediation for children with LD and greater involvement of their families, in addition to the cognitive and academic remediation emphasized in existing curricula for children with LD.

  4. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Hereditary Bleeding Disorders and in Children and Adolescents with Stroke: Cross-Sectional Comparison to Siblings and Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HrQoL in children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions compared with siblings/peers. Methods. Group 1 (6 treatment centers consisted of 74 children/adolescents aged 8–16 years with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD, 12 siblings, and 34 peers. Group 2 (one treatment center consisted of 70 children/adolescents with stroke/transient ischemic attack, 14 siblings, and 72 peers. HrQoL was assessed with the “revised KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen” (KINDL-R questionnaire. Multivariate analyses within groups were done by one-way ANOVA and post hoc pairwise single comparisons by Student’s t-tests. Adjusted pairwise comparisons were done by hierarchical linear regressions with individuals nested within treatment centers (group 1 and by linear regressions (group 2, respectively. Results. No differences were found in multivariate analyses of self-reported HrQoL in group 1, while in group 2 differences occurred in overall wellbeing and all subdimensions. These differences were due to differences between patients and peers. After adjusting for age, gender, number of siblings, and treatment center these differences persisted regarding self-worth (p=.0040 and friend-related wellbeing (p<.001. Conclusions. In children with HBD, HrQoL was comparable to siblings and peers. In children with stroke/TIA HrQoL was comparable to siblings while peers, independently of relevant confounder, showed better self-worth and friend-related wellbeing.

  6. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Park, Isabel K; Neelly, Linda B; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism.

  7. Gait patterns comparison of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy to those of control subjects considering the effect of gait velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Gravel, Denis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Houde, Sylvie; Gagnon, Denis

    2010-07-01

    3D analysis of the gait of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was the topic of only a few studies and none of these considered the effect of gait velocity on the gait parameters of children with DMD. Gait parameters of 11 children with DMD were compared to those of 14 control children while considering the effect of gait velocity using 3D biomechanical analysis. Kinematic and kinetic gait parameters were measured using an Optotrak motion analysis system and AMTI force plates embedded in the floor. The data profiles of children with DMD walking at natural gait velocity were compared to those of the control children who walked at both natural and slow gait velocities. When both groups walked at similar velocity, children with DMD had higher cadence and shorter step length. They demonstrated a lower hip extension moment as well as a minimal or absent knee extension moment. At the ankle, a dorsiflexion moment was absent at heel strike due to the anterior location of the center of pressure. The magnitude of the medio-lateral ground reaction force was higher in children with DMD. Despite this increase, the hip abductor moment was lower. Hip power generation was also observed at the mid-stance in DMD children. These results suggest that most of the modifications observed are strategies used by children with DMD to cope with possible muscle weakness in order to provide support, propulsion and balance of the body during gait.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate is altered in children with sickle cell disease: a comparison between Hb SS and Hb SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Rafael Pereira; Nascimento, Alana Ferreira; Sousa, Sandra Mara Bispo; Bastos, Paulo Roberto Velasco; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal failure is common among older patients with sickle cell disease; this is preceded by subclinical glomerular hyperfiltration. Data about renal function of adults with sickle cell disease have been reported, but data on children is scarce, especially when comparing heterozygotic and homozygotic patients. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the glomerular filtration rate of heterozygotic and homozygotic children with sickle cell disease. Methods The glomerular filtration rate of 11 children with sickle cell disease [7 homozygotic (SS) and 4 heterozygotic (SC)] with a mean age of 11 years (standard deviation: ± 5 years) was evaluated using standard laboratory techniques. Results are presented as descriptive analysis. Results Our results suggest that glomerular hyperfiltration is present in children with sickle cell disease; this is more evident in homozygotic than heterozygotic children. Conclusion There is evidence of a need to monitor the renal function of children with sickle cell disease when special attention should be paid to homozygotic patients. PMID:24255619

  9. Using a virtual environment to study child pedestrian behaviours: a comparison of parents' expectations and children's street crossing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Corbett, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare parents' expectations for their children crossing streets with children's actual crossing behaviours and determine how accurately parents judge their own children's pedestrian behaviours to be. Using a fully immersive virtual reality system interfaced with a 3D movement measurement system, younger (7-9 years) and older (10-12 years) children's crossing behaviours were assessed. The parent viewed the same traffic conditions and indicated if their child would cross and how successful she/he expected the child would be when doing so. Comparing children's performance with what their parents expected they would do revealed that parents significantly overestimated the inter-vehicle gap threshold of their children, erroneously assuming that children would show safer pedestrian behaviours and select larger inter-vehicle gaps to cross into than they actually did; there were no effects of child age or sex. Child and parent scores were not correlated and a logistic regression indicated these were independent of one another. Parents were not accurate in estimating the traffic conditions under which their children would try and cross the street. If parents are not adequately supervising when children cross streets, they may be placing their children at risk of pedestrian injury because they are assuming their children will select larger (safer) inter-vehicle gaps when crossing than children actually do. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Comparison of Changes in Body Composition during Puberty Development of Obese and Normal-weight Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN MA; NING FENG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; YONG-BO HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in body composition, including fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) during puberty development of obese and normal-weight children in China, and to explore the effect of age and gender on body composition. Methods A total of 356 children at the age of 7-15 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of 10 normal-weight and obese children in each age group was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFMI and FMI were calculated according to the following formula: FFMI (kg·mT~(-2))= FFM(kg) / height~2 (m~2) and FMI (kg· m~2)= FM (kg) / height~2 (m~2). Results The fat mass and fat free mass of obese children were significantly higher than those of normal-weight children (P<0.05). The FMI and FFMI of obese children increased significantly with age and were higher than those of the same sex, gender, and age normal-weight children (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of fat mass, fat free mass, FMI, and FFMI are different in obese and normal-weight children, and gender effects are significant in boys having higher levels of these indicators than in girls. FFMI and FMI can be used as monitoring indexes in weight control of obese children.

  11. Sensitization patterns to food and inhalant allergens in childhood: a comparison of non-sensitized, monosensitized, and polysensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Brand, Paul L P

    2011-03-01

    The clinical interpretation of children sensitized to numerous allergens is challenging. We examined differences between children sensitized to zero, one, or more allergens. This was a retrospective analysis of all specific IgE tests in children 0-18 yrs of age sent to our laboratory by general practitioners and hospital-based specialists for allergy testing between 1990 and 2003. Of all 9044 children tested, 5439 (60.1%) were not sensitized to any of the aeroallergens or food allergens tested. Three thousand six hundred and five children (39.9%) had one or more positive specific IgE tests, 1120 of which (31.1%) were monosensitized (73% to aeroallergens and 27% to food allergens), 1709 (47.4%) were sensitized to two to four allergens, and 776 (21.5%) to five or more allergens (polysensitization). Polysensitization was more common in children 4-11 yrs of age (24.8%) than in younger (18.7%) or older children (18.3%, p food allergens (hen's egg 9.7%, peanut 4.6%, wheat 0.8%, soy 0.7%). Between 55.7% (cow's milk) and 87.9% (soy) of children sensitized to food were cosensitized to aeroallergens, while only 25.4% (house dust mite) to 39.5% (dog) of children sensitized to aeroallergens were cosensitized to food. Polysensitization is common in children, in particular in boys. It is most common in school-aged children. The strong association with total serum IgE values and the striking cosensitization between biologically unrelated allergens suggest that polysensitization is the expression of a distinct clinical, more severe, atopic phenotype, and not of biologic cross-reactivity to similar allergens.

  12. On the behavior of children in the garden comparisons reasons and countermeasures%在园幼儿攀比行为的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜姝

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and status of early childhood behavior comparisons, analysis of the causes of early childhood behavior comparisons, the main part of the children have a higher level of economic family, parents of young children spoiled, error educational activities of teachers and the lack of education of the joint family and the kindergarten and the like. And put forward some measures on the elimination of kindergarten children Joneses behavior, such as early childhood family education to create a good environment, love and doting parents to correctly handle the relationship between the teacher for young children and non-discriminatory and actively carry out cooperation in home education.%本文阐述了幼儿攀比行为概念及现状情况,分析了幼儿攀比行为的形成原因,主要有部分幼儿家庭经济水平较高、家长对幼儿溺爱、教师的错误教育行为以及家庭与幼儿园联合教育的缺失等。并且提出了关于消除幼儿园中幼儿攀比行为的一些对策,如为幼儿营造良好的家庭教育环境,家长正确处理爱与溺爱的关系,教师对幼儿进行无差别对待并且积极开展家园教育合作等。

  13. Fat and muscle mass in different groups of pre-pubertal and pubertal rural children. Cross-cultural comparisons between Sahelian (rural Senegal) and Amazonian (Beni River, Bolivia) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefice, Eric; Luna Monrroy, Selma J; Lopez Rodriguez, Ronald W; Ndiaye, Gnagna

    2011-07-01

    An increase in fat accretion is essential for triggering the puberty spurt. Hence, nutritional constraints may influence puberty timing. To measure changes in fat and muscle mass in children living in natural environments but with different nutritional exposures. Cross-comparisons of children from rural Senegal and lowland (Amazonian) Bolivia were carried out. Anthropometric measurements of stature, weight, four subcutaneous skin-folds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac) and arm circumference were made. Children were divided into two age groups (5-9.9-year-olds or 'pre pubescents' (n = 381) and 10-15-year-olds or 'pubescents' (n = 692)). Senegalese girls menstruated later than Bolivian girls and Senegalese boys also matured later than Bolivian boys. Bolivian children displayed more fat and muscle before puberty and during puberty than the Senegalese. They also had more fat deposited on the trunk. There were substantial differences in living conditions and nutritional patterns between both locations. In Senegal, nutritional stress is likely to appear early during in utero life and to persist throughout the growth period, including puberty. This leads to a deficit in fat accretion before and during puberty that is associated with a considerable delay in puberty occurrence. In Bolivia, such stress is far less severe. Variability in puberty should be analysed taking into account these differences.

  14. Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome : a comparison with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, S.; Stockmann, L.; van Buggenhout, G.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.; Swaab, H.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome. Forty-six children with an extra X chromosome (29 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 17 girls with Tri

  15. A Comparison of Rural and Urban Indian Children's Visual Detection of Threatening and Nonthreatening Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkunas, Michael J.; Coss, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that young children preferentially attend to snakes, spiders, and lions compared with nondangerous species, but these results have yet to be replicated in populations that actually experience dangerous animals in nature. This multi-site study investigated the visual-detection biases of southern Indian children towards two…

  16. Comparison of Growth Parameters in Five Year-Old Children with and Without History of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghanpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays Low birth weight(LBW or birth weight<2500g is one of the most serious problems among children around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the growth parameters(weight, height, head circumference and BMI of LBW children at the age of five years with normal birth weight (NBW: birth weight: 2500- 4000 g children. Methods: In a cross-sectional analytic study, growth parameters of five year-old children referred to Azadshahr health care center in Yazd, Iran, from December 2008 to June 2009 were evaluated. NBW and LBW children were selected as control and case groups, respectively. Results: Means of all growth parameters were significantly lower in LBW group. Frequency of severe failure to thrive and short stature was significantly higher in LBW group. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW group and frequency of obesity was higher in NBW one. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW girls. Conclusion: Considering that growth in LBW children is slower than NBW children in the first five years of life, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of growth assessment of LBW children for early and timely diagnosis, work-up and management of growth retardation and prevention of subsequent problems.

  17. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  18. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  19. ERP Responses of Elementary-Age Children to Video Game Simulations of Two Stimuli Types: Study 1 and 2 Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Schroer, Joseph E.; Thomas, Robin; Zhang, Xinge; Chou, Michael; Chou, Tricia

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that brain activity may differ during varied types of video game play was investigated in two studies of event-related potentials exhibited by children age 7 to 12 when processing game-based stimuli requiring correct/incorrect responses or choices between two imaginative alternative responses. The first study had 22 children of…

  20. Cost Comparison of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention and Treatment as Usual for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Matson, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) may result in improved cognitive, adaptive and social functioning and reductions in autism severity and behavioral problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For a subset of children, normal functioning may be the result. However, due to the intensity (20-40 h per week for 3 years with…

  1. A Comparison of the Social Competence of Children with Moderate Intellectual Disability in Inclusive versus Segregated School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n = 20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n…

  2. Basic Numerical Skills in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Symbolic vs Non-Symbolic Number Magnitude Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…

  3. ERP Responses of Elementary-Age Children to Video Game Simulations of Two Stimuli Types: Study 1 and 2 Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Schroer, Joseph E.; Thomas, Robin; Zhang, Xinge; Chou, Michael; Chou, Tricia

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that brain activity may differ during varied types of video game play was investigated in two studies of event-related potentials exhibited by children age 7 to 12 when processing game-based stimuli requiring correct/incorrect responses or choices between two imaginative alternative responses. The first study had 22 children of…

  4. Parents' Support during Different Writing Tasks: A Comparison between Parents of Precocious Readers, Preschoolers, and School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…

  5. Parental comparison of the prosodic and paralinguistic ability of children with cochlear implants and their normal hearing siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Christiansen, Lærke; Uglebjerg, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    The everyday communication of children is commonly observed by their parents. This paper examines the responses of parents (n=18) who had both a Cochlear Implant (CI) and a Normal Hearing (NH) child. Through an online questionnaire, parents rated the ability of their children on a gamut of speech...

  6. Parenting Stress, Salivary Biomarkers, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Comparison between Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Ciara; James, Jack E.; Leader, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may experience higher levels of stress and health problems than parents of children with typical development. However, most research has focused on mothers, with emphasis on parent-reported stress and wellbeing. This study compared parenting responsibility, distress, anxiety, depression,…

  7. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing pa

  8. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  9. Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on black children and white children over age six and their mothers (from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) indicate no racial differences in total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices (affection and spanking). Parenting practices were reciprocally related to child's antisocial behavior for whites, but did not…

  10. Mothers' Socialization of Children's Emotion in India and the USA: A Cross- and within-Culture Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Salvina, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephanie L.; Writer, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Parent responses to children's emotions vary within and across cultures. The present study compared mothers' reports of their emotional and behavioral responses in hypothetical situations depicting their children experiencing anger, sadness, or physical pain in two communities in India (traditional old city, "N" = 60; suburban middle…

  11. Hearing impairment and vowel production. A comparison between normally hearing, hearing-aided and cochlear implanted Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; Hide, Oydis; De Maeyer, Sven; Gillis, San; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of the Belgian Standard Dutch vowels in children with hearing impairment and in children with normal hearing. In a balanced experimental design, the 12 vowels of Belgian Standard Dutch were recorded in three groups of children: a group of children with normal hearing, a group with a conventional hearing aid and a group with a cochlear implant. The formants, the surface area of the vowel space and the acoustic differentiation between the vowels were determined. The analyses revealed that many of the vowels in hearing-impaired children showed a reduction of the formant values. This reduction was particularly significant with respect to F2. The size of the vowel space was significantly smaller in the hearing-impaired children. Finally, a smaller acoustic differentiation between the vowels was observed in children with hearing impairment. The results show that even after 5 years of device use, the acoustic characteristics of the vowels in hearing-assisted children remain significantly different as compared to their NH peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  13. Quality of Life of Children with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Self-Reports and Proxy Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Halis; Sart, Zeynep Hande; Börkan, Bengü; Korkmaz, Baris; Babür, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how children with learning disabilities (LD) perceive their quality of life (QoL) and to compare self-reports and proxy reports regarding their QoL. Children with LD, their typically developing peers, their parents and teachers responded to the child, parent, and teacher forms of KINDL® Questionnaire for Measuring…

  14. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  15. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing

  16. COMPARISON OF STRESS LEVELS IN THE PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY AND PARENTS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN VADODARA REGION OF GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vivek H. Ramanandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting is inherently stressful at times and several studies have shown that being a caregiver of a child who is disabled is even more stressful. A number of studies have identified the factors which exacerbate or mediate parenting stress in caregivers of children who are disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the parenting stress levels in parents of children who have cerebral palsy as compared to parents of normal children. Further objectives were to ascertain variables predictive of parenting stress levels. Methods: The Gujarati translated version of Parenting Stress Index/Short Form was first validated and was given to 49 parents of children with cerebral palsy (Group-A who were attending Varun Mahajan Apang Shishu Mandal, Vadodara and to the 50 parents of normal children(Group-B. Caregivers also completed a demographic questionnaire. 43 questionnaires from Group-A and 45 from Group-B were returned to the researcher. Means and frequencies were used to summarise the demographic data. T-tests were performed to establish whether there was any significant difference between the parenting stress levels in Group-A and Group-B. Results: The parents in Group-A showed clinically significant, and in many cases, pathological levels of parenting stress as compared to the parents in Group-B. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that parenting stress is complex matter and it is important to predict the parenting stress levels of caregivers of disabled children. Therapists should evaluate the needs of each family individually and follow a family centred approach when managing children with cerebral palsy.

  17. Blood Lead Concentrations of Children in the United States: A Comparison of States Using Two Very Large Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keneil K; Oleske, James M; Gomez, Hernan F; Davidow, Amy L; Bogden, John D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there are substantial differences by state between 2 large datasets in the proportion of children with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs); to identify states in which the percentage of elevated BLLs is high in either or both datasets; and to compare the percentage of elevated BLLs in individual states with those of children living in Flint, Michigan, during the months when these children were exposed to lead-contaminated drinking water. Tables of BLLs for individual states from the Quest Diagnostics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention datasets for 2014-2015, containing more than 3 million BLLs of young children?lead exposure (primary prevention) and identify children with elevated BLLs (secondary prevention). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Recognition of Disorders and Emotional Problems of Deaf Children Using House-Tree-Person and Draw-A-Person Tests in Comparison with Normal Children of Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Deaf children have special emotional reactions, Understanding these characteristics and problems can help medical and paramedical professionals, parents and teachers to reach the purpose of behavioral adaptability.The present study was performed in order to recognize disorders, emotional problems and functions of deaf children compared with normal children in emotional components of anxiety, depression, aggression, impulsiv-ity and lack of compromise. Materials & Methods: In order to recognize emotional disorders and problems of deaf children, sample groups of 120 male and female patients (60 deaf children and 60 children with nor-mal hearing with equal number of male and female enrolled in primary schools of Hamadan province were selected by multi stage randomly sampling in this casual_comparative study. House-Tree-Person (HTP and Draw-A-Person tests (DAP were used to determine their emotional problems. Results:Our results indicate that in terms of parameters related to the two tests (distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and impulsivity and lack of compromise, participants' overall scores in two tests by major scales such as anxiety (?=0.01, P< 0.05; 3.48, 3.13 aggression (?= 0.05 , 0.01, P< 0.05; 6.12 ,3.97 depression (?=0.05 P<0.05 ; 3.75,3.81 , impulsivity (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05 ; 3.47, 3.01 and lack of compromise (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05; 4.89, 4.95 are significantly different from each other. Conclusion:The deaf children in terms of denotative parameters related to the two tests are sig-nificantly different from normal children; and the overall scores obtained on each of the scales generally show a significant difference with normal children,In the deaf group with regard to gender variable (male and female significant differences in some of the scales such as distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and lack of compromise iare observed between

  19. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    in posttest. None of treatments affected on anger and sadness inhibition and positive cognitive coping in separation anxious children. Conclusion: ECBT, in comparison with CBT; effectively improved emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety.

  20. Comparison of shifting attention function in 7-13-years-old children with fluent speech and developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowsar Esfandeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Attention has causal role in speech and language processing. Studies are limited about relation between attention and language development. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate the difference shifting attention function in children with developmental stuttering and fluent speech.Methods: Thirty children who stutter (21 boys and 9 girls and thirty children who did not stutter (21 boys and 9 girls were evaluated. Shifting attention function was investigated using Wisconsin card sorting test. The data were analyzed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent t, and Mann-Whitney U-tests.Results: Between group analysis showed significant differences for all of the indexes in Wisconsin card sorting test . The number of categories completed in children who stutter was significantly less than that control group (p<0.05. But preservative errors, total errors, total tries, time of test performance and try for first pattern in children who stutter was more than in the control group and data differences were significant for all of the indexes (p<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that children with and without stuttering are different in shifting attention function and children who stutter have weaker function in shifting attention. The findings were linked to emerging theoretical frameworks of stuttering development and that were taken to suggest a possible role for attention processes in developmental stuttering.