WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-lipid type species

  1. Molecular Typing of Nocardia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of clinically significant Nocardia species is essential for the definitive diagnosis, predict antimicrobial susceptibility, epidemiological purposes, and for an effective treatment. Conventional identification of Nocardia species in routine medical laboratories which is based on phenotypic (cellular morphology, colonial characteristics, biochemical and enzymatic profiles, and chemotaxonomic characteristics is often laborious, and time-consuming. The procedure requires expertise, and newer species can be difficult to differentiate with accuracy from other related species. Alternative methods of identification, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and molecular biology techniques allow a better characterization of species. The taxonomy of the genus Nocardia has been dramatically been revised during the last decade and more than 30 valid human clinical significance species of Nocardia have been reported. The use of molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or PCR restriction endonuclease analysis has been the focus of recent investigations to distinguish the isolates of Nocardia from other actinomycetes genera. The methods have revolutionized the characterization of the Nocardiae by providing rapid, sensitive, and accurate identification procedures. The present review describes the currently known medically important pathogenic species of Nocardia.

  2. DNA typing in wildlife crime: recent developments in species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Shanan S; Linacre, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Species identification has become a tool in the investigation of acts of alleged wildlife crimes. This review details the steps required in DNA testing in wildlife crime investigations and highlights recent developments where not only can individual species be identified within a mixture of species but multiple species can be identified simultaneously. 'What species is this?' is a question asked frequently in wildlife crime investigations. Depending on the material being examined, DNA analysis may offer the best opportunity to answer this question. Species testing requires the comparison of the DNA type from the unknown sample to DNA types on a database. The areas of DNA tested are on the mitochondria and include predominantly the cytochrome b gene and the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Standard analysis requires the sequencing of part of one of these genes and comparing the sequence to that held on a repository of DNA sequences such as the GenBank database. Much of the DNA sequence of either of these two genes is conserved with only parts being variable. A recent development is to target areas of those sequences that are specific to a species; this can increase the sensitivity of the test with no loss of specificity. The benefit of targeting species specific sequences is that within a mixture of two of more species, the individual species within the mixture can be identified. This identification would not be possible using standard sequencing. These new developments can lead to a greater number of samples being tested in alleged wildlife crimes.

  3. Mating type sequences in asexually reproducing Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenényi, Z.; Moretti, A.; Waalwijk, C.; Oláh, B.; Hornok, L.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avena

  4. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-12-01

    Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.

  5. Pollen types of the Egyptian species of tribe Lactuceae (subfamily Cichorioideae-Compositae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, A.K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Pollen morphology of forty six Egyptian species representing twenty three genera of the tribe Lactuceae was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seven pollen types were recognized: Geropogon pollen type, Koelpinia pollen type, Lactuca pollen type, Launaea pollen type, Rhagadiolus pollen type, Scolymus pollen type and Scorzonera pollen type. Descriptions, a key, light microscope (LM) and scaning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of each pollen type are provided.

  6. NON-LIPID MECHANISMS OF STATINS ACTION FOR HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Shevchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are widely used in the treatment of heart transplant recipients. It is assumed that the effectiveness of statins after heart transplantation is due not only to hypolipidemic effects, but also to non-lipid effects, including anti-inflammato- ry. In the review are presented the recently published results of the pro-and retrospective studies on the role of statins in the treatment of post-heart transplant recipients. Also there were analyzed the immunomodulatory and anti-in- flammatory mechanisms based on reduced levels of C-reactive protein, decreased concentration of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2R, suppression of tissue factor expression by monocytes etc. Another important factor is the role of statins in reducing the risk of cancer for transplant recipients. The use of statins in the treatment with immunosuppressive agents is an important factor in optimizing the long-term outcomes, reduction in the incidence of acute rejection and coronary artery disease of transplanted heart, increasing the duration and quality of life for heart transplant recipients. 

  7. Molecular typing of Brucella species isolates from livestock and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Shome, Rajeswari; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; NarayanaRao, Krishnamsetty; Vivekananda; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty

    2012-01-01

    Although host specificity has been observed in different species of Brucella, crossing the animal host boundary is likely to occur at any time. In this study, Bruce ladder PCR and abortus-melitensis-ovis-suis (AMOS) PCR assays were used to characterize 47 Brucella isolates from Indian origin in order to know exact species for understanding epidemiology of brucellosis. Out of them, 28, 14, and 5 isolates were found to be Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis, respectively. Further analysis by AMOS PCR has identified that all the B. abortus isolates belong to any one of the biovar 1, 2, or 4; of the five B. suis isolates, three belong to biovar 1 and two belong to any one of the biovar 2, 3, 4, or 5. Although this multiplex Bruce ladder PCR is useful in differentiating all Brucella species, elaborate study is required to further characterize the isolates at exact biovar level.

  8. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2016-04-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues.

  9. Typing Candida Species Using Microsatellite Length Polymorphism and Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    To gain more insight into the epidemiological relationships between isolates of Candida spp. obtained from various origins, several molecular typing techniques have been developed. Two methods have emerged in the 2000s as soon as enough knowledge of the Candida spp. genomes was available to choose adequate loci and primers, namely microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). To contrast with previous PCR-based methods, specific amplifications with stringent conditions easily reproducible are the basis of MLP and MLST. MLST relies on Sanger sequencing to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms within housekeeping genes. MLP needs a first in silico step to select tandemly repeated stretches of two to five nucleotides. One of the two primers used to amplify a microsatellite locus is labeled and fragment sizing is automatically performed using high-resolution electrophoresis platforms. MLST provides results easily comparable between laboratories and active MLST schemes are publicly available for the main Candida species. For comparative studies, MLP needs standards to compensate for the electrophoretic variations depending on the platforms used. Both methods can help us gain insight into the genetic relatedness of fungal isolates, both with advantages and drawbacks, and the choice of one method rather than the other depends on the task in question.

  10. Revision of type material of nivicolous species of Stemonitales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, H.; Moreno, G.; Illana, C.

    2005-01-01

    The types of Comatricha anastomosans Kowalski, C. filamentosa Meyl., C. suksdorfii Ellis & Everh. var. aggregata Meyl. and Lamproderma longifilum H. Neubert, Nowotny & K. Baumann were studied. Comatricha anastomosans is synonymized with C. filamentosa, C. suksdorfii var. aggregata with Symphytocarpu

  11. Species differences in liver type I iodothyronine deiodinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.H. Schoenmakers (Christian); I.G.A.J. Pigmans (I. G A J); T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe type I iodothyronine deiodinase (ID-I) of liver is an important enzyme for the conversion of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the active thyroid hormone 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3). Because it is an integral membrane protein of low abundance, purification of ID-I from rat liver has

  12. Species-specific and mating type-specific DNA regions adjacent to mating type idiomorphs in the genus Neurospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T A; Metzenberg, R L

    1995-09-01

    Mating type idiomorphs control mating and subsequent sexual development in Neurospora crassa and were previously shown to be well conserved in other Neurospora species. The centromere-proximal flanks of the A and a idiomorphs, but not the distal flanks from representative heterothallic, pseudohomothallic, and homothallic Neurospora species contain apparent species-specific and/or mating type-specific sequences adjacent to the well-conserved idiomorphs. The variable flank is bordered by regions that are highly homologous in all species. The sequence of approximately 1 kb immediately flanking the conserved idiomorphs of each species was determined. Sequence identity between species ranged from 20% (essentially unrelated) to > 90%. By contrast, the mt-A1 gene shows 88-98% identity. Sequence and hybridization data also show that the centromere-proximal flanks are very different between the two mating types for N. intermedia, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, but not for N. sitophila and N. crassa. The data suggest a close evolutionary relationship between several of the species; this is suppported by phylogenetic analysis of their respective mt-A1 genes. The origin of the variable regions adjacent to the evolutionarily conserved mating type idiomorphs is unknown.

  13. Ocular infections caused by Candida species: Type of species, in vitro susceptibility and treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Motukupally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report clinical and microbiological profile of patients with ocular candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Patients with ocular candidiasis were retrospectively identified from microbiology records. Significant isolates of Candida species were identified by Vitek 2 compact system. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and caspofungin was determined by E test and of natamycin by microbroth dilution assay. Data on treatment and outcome were collected from medical records. Results: A total of 42 isolates of Candida were isolated from patients with keratitis-29, endophthalmitis-12 and orbital cellulitis-1. The most common species isolated was Candida albicans (12-keratitis, 4-endophthalmitis, 1-orbital cellulitis. All except one isolate were susceptible to amphotericin B. MIC of caspofungin was in the susceptible range in 28 (96.5% corneal isolates while 12 out of 29 (41.3% corneal isolates were sensitive to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole was seen in four corneal isolates. All isolates were susceptible to natamycin and all except two isolates were resistant or susceptible dose-dependent to itraconazole. Outcome of healed ulcer was achieved in 12/18 (66.6% patients treated medically, while surgical intervention was required in 11 patients. Among the isolates from endophthalmitis patients, 11/12 were susceptible to amphotericin B, 6/12 to voriconazole and all to natamycin. Ten out of 11 patients (one patient required evisceration with endophthalmitis were given intravitreal amphotericin B injection with variable outcome. Conclusions: Ocular candidiasis needs early and specific treatment for optimal results. Candida species continue to be susceptible to most commonly available antifungals including amphotericin B, voriconazole and natamycin.

  14. Germination requirements and seedling responses to water availability and soil type in four eucalypt species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Wolfgang; Milberg, Per; Lamont, Byron B.

    2002-03-01

    We conducted experiments on seed germination, seedling survival and seedling growth of four Eucalyptus species to identify factors that might explain why they are restricted to the two major soil types in southwestern Australia, deep sands ( E. macrocarpa, E. tetragona) and lateritic loam ( E. loxophleba, E. wandoo). At high temperatures (28 °C), germination in darkness was lower for the two 'loam species' than for the 'sand species', while there were no differences in light or at low temperatures (10 °C). Germination commenced earlier, and was faster in the sand species than in the loam species, but was almost inhibited in all species by -1.0 MPa. E. tetragona proved the most drought-tolerant in terms of germination level and seedling survival. Seedlings of the sand species had much longer roots two weeks after germination in the absence of water stress, and the roots of more seedlings continued to elongate under moderate water stress (-1.0 MPa), than the two loam species. Roots were longer in all species, except E. macrocarpa, at -0.5 MPa than at -0.1 MPa, despite seedlings having a smaller mass and hypocotyl length. As water availability declined, there was a tendency for the sand species to survive longer on sand than on loam while soil type had no effect on the loam species. Pattern and duration of seedling survival of the loam species was similar to that of the sand species despite their smaller seeds. We conclude that seedlings from the large-seeded sand species are able to penetrate the soil profile faster and deeper, but that they are not less prone to drying soils than seedlings from the small-seeded loam species. Instead, seed size and germination speed are important prerequisites to cope successfully with unstable soil surfaces and to exploit the rapidly descending water in deep sands.

  15. On the identity of the type species of Actinopus tarsalis (Araneae: Actinopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura T. Miglio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The type species of the Neotropical Actinopus, A. tarsalis Perty, 1833, is redescribed based on material from the type locality, the state of Piauí, Brazil. The species appears to be restricted to northeastern Brazil and is newly recorded from the state of Sergipe. An old record from the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rejected. Actinopus tarsalis differs from other species of the genus by details of the male copulatory bulb: tegular apophysis absent, robust embolar base, inserted basally at a right angle (90°; embolar apices apex flattened and expanded, arrow-shaped in dorsal view.

  16. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  17. Phylogeny and identification of Pantoea species and typing of Pantoea agglomerans strains by multilocus gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delétoile, Alexis; Decré, Dominique; Courant, Stéphanie; Passet, Virginie; Audo, Jennifer; Grimont, Patrick; Arlet, Guillaume; Brisse, Sylvain

    2009-02-01

    Pantoea agglomerans and other Pantoea species cause infections in humans and are also pathogenic to plants, but the diversity of Pantoea strains and their possible association with hosts and disease remain poorly known, and identification of Pantoea species is difficult. We characterized 36 Pantoea strains, including 28 strains of diverse origins initially identified as P. agglomerans, by multilocus gene sequencing based on six protein-coding genes, by biochemical tests, and by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with other species of Enterobacteriaceae revealed that the genus Pantoea is highly diverse. Most strains initially identified as P. agglomerans by use of API 20E strips belonged to a compact sequence cluster together with the type strain, but other strains belonged to diverse phylogenetic branches corresponding to other species of Pantoea or Enterobacteriaceae and to probable novel species. Biochemical characteristics such as fosfomycin resistance and utilization of d-tartrate could differentiate P. agglomerans from other Pantoea species. All 20 strains of P. agglomerans could be distinguished by multilocus sequence typing, revealing the very high discrimination power of this method for strain typing and population structure in this species, which is subdivided into two phylogenetic groups. PCR detection of the repA gene, associated with pathogenicity in plants, was positive in all clinical strains of P. agglomerans, suggesting that clinical and plant-associated strains do not form distinct populations. We provide a multilocus gene sequencing method that is a powerful tool for Pantoea species delineation and identification and for strain tracking.

  18. Effects of competition and facilitation on species assemblage in two types of tropical cloud forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Long

    Full Text Available Competition and facilitation between tree individuals are two kinds of non-random processes influencing the structure and functioning of forest communities, but how these two plant-plant interactions change along gradient of resources or environments remains very much a matter of debate. We developed a null model to test the size-distance regression, and assessed the effects of competition and facilitation (including interspecific interactions, intraspecific interactions and overall species interactions on each adult tree species assemblage [diameter at breast height (dbh ≥5 cm] across two types of tropical cloud forest with different environmental and resource regimes. The null model test revealed that 17% to 27% tree species had positive dbh-distance correlations while 11% to 19% tree species showed negative dbh-distance correlations within these two forest types, indicating that both competition and facilitation processes existed during the community assembly. The importance of competition for heterospecific species, and the intensity of competition for both heterospecific and overall species increased from high to low resources for all the shared species spanning the two forests. The importance of facilitation for conspecific and overall species, as well as that the intensity of facilitation for both heterospecific and conspecific species increased with increasing low air temperature stress for all the shared species spanning the two forests. Our results show that both competition and facilitation processes simultaneously affect parts of species assemblage in the tropical cloud forests. Moreover, the fact that nearly 50% species assemblage is not detected with our approaches suggest that tree species in these tropical forest systems are assembled with multiple ecological processes, and that there is a need to explore the processes other than the two biotic interactions in further researches.

  19. Type-studies in the Polyporaceae—I. Tropical species described by C. H. Persoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryvarden, Leif

    1973-01-01

    The type specimens of 20 tropical polypores described by C. H. Persoon have been examined. Eleven species are accepted, seven are reduced to synonymy, while one name is a nomen nudum. One type is so poorly developed that no conclusive determination is possible. The combination Trametes marianna

  20. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  1. Wildlife species composition in various forest types on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmana, C.; Manshur, A.; Rusdian, O.; Putro, H. R.; Hakim, F.; Ermyanyla, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sebuku is one of the small islands in South Kalimantan Provincehaving various forest types with high potential economic in mining sector. Based on it’s business permit, the island has been divided up into several mining concessions. So that biological diversity studies in this island is an interesting in order to serve biological baseline data if someday this island to be extractedfor mining. This research was conducted on 28th November to 5th December 2015 aims to explore wildlife species inhabit mangrove forest, beach forest, and lowland forest usinga rectangle transect (40 x 1000 meter) in each forest type. The results show there are 90 wildlife species identified in Sebuku Island. The beach forest has the highest wildlife species richness (36 species), while the area having the highest protected wildlife species isthe lowland forest. Mangrove forests generally have a lower wildlife species richness. Nevertheless, in Sebuku Island, can be found mangrove forest that have a quite high wildlife species richness (28 species, 50% protected). It is due to silt sedimentation in the estuary area, so that this area become feeding ground for shore and migratory birds.

  2. Two Types of Ventilated Porometers Compared on Broadleaf and Coniferous Species 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D.

    1981-01-01

    Two ventilated porometers (diffusion and steady-state) were compared on four broadleaf and five coniferous species. The diffusion porometer gave consistently lower conductance values for both types of species, reflecting a direct stomatal response to low chamber humidity. At high conductance values, the porometers produced a linear and nearly equal response, but the diffusion porometer was less sensitive at low conductance values. This was due to lower air flow (20% of the velocity in the steady-state porometer) and water vapor sorption (by its acrylic plastic chamber). The broadleaf species had less variation (R2 = 0.81) than did the coniferous species (R2 = 0.61), but, with the latter, there was better correspondence between the two porometers, possibly due to sampling technique. Conductance values were clustered by species. PMID:16661946

  3. Sea cucumber sibling species: polypeptide chain types and oxygen equilibrium of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, C

    1966-06-03

    The hemoglobin of the "thin" sibling species of Thyonella gemmata (phylum: Echinodermata; class: Holothuria) has three electrophoretically distinct polypeptide chains. In "stout" sibling species of T. gemmata there are only two chain types. These results account for the greater number of multiple hemoglobins in "thins" than in "stouts," as well as for differences in the amounts of some of the multiple hemoglobins when comparisons are mnade of hemolyzates of erythrocytes from the water vascular systemn and from the main body cavity of the "thin" but not the "stout" sibling species.

  4. Exploring the relationship between species discrimination and plant functional types with hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Alonzo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data has been used extensively to map vegetation function and to classify plant functional types (PFTs) and species. Still, room remains to explore how these two exercises are related. Species-specific variations can hinder the broader applicability of models, and likewise, the role of functional differences in species discrimination has only recently been conceptually framed. The relationship between our ability to discriminate species with hyperspectral data and how species are grouped into plant functional types bears examination. Here we present an exploratory data analysis of this relationship using hyperspectral data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for approximately 56 plant species over five ecosystems. We address three main research questions: 1) How spectrally separable are species overall?; 2) Which wavelengths and functional indices/features best discriminate species and do these relate to functional differences?; and 3) What optical functional types appear to exist across species? Reflectance spectra from each site were extracted from areas of known species dominance, and a suite of vegetation indices and spectral feature parameters (e.g., red edge wavelength) were calculated. Reflectance data and index/feature data were used separately in analyses. Classification via Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) was used to reduce data dimensionality and determine spectral separability across all species. The resulting kappa coefficient represents overall class separability, and the error matrix contains information on which pairs of species were more or less separable. The importance of individual variables to species discrimination was evaluated using the total structure coefficients for each function. These allowed us to identify the information a function carries that is useful for discrimination. We also calculated the potency index, a measure of the total contribution of each variable

  5. The type-species of Psilochlorops Duda (Diptera, Chloropidae and its position in the phylogeny of the genus, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Riccardi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type-species of Psilochlorops Duda (Diptera, Chloropidae and its position in the phylogeny of the genus, with the description of a new species. The genus Psilochlorops is known only for the Neotropical Region and had six described species to date. Psilochlorops niger sp. nov. is herein described and the male genitalia of P. clavitibia, the type-species of the genus, is described in detail. A new cladistic analysis of Psilochlorops is presented, including all known species of the genus.

  6. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yat Ming; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yeo, Winnie; Mo, Frankie; Yu, Mei Yung; Lee, Kun Min; Ho, Wendy C S; Yeung, Apple C M; Law, Priscilla T Y; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4) years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%), HPV-18 (21.6%), HPV-52 (11.9%), and HPV-58 (9.3%). Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1%) patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79). However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  7. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yat Ming Lau

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4 years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%, HPV-18 (21.6%, HPV-52 (11.9%, and HPV-58 (9.3%. Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1% patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90, whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79. However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  8. Trade-off between root porosity and mechanical strength in species with different types of aerenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, G G; Insausti, P; Grimoldi, A A; Vega, A S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the existence of a trade-off between aerenchyma formation and root mechanical strength. To this end, relationships among root anatomical traits and mechanical properties were analysed in plant species with contrasting root structural types: Paspalidium geminatum (graminaceous type), Cyperus eragrostis (cyperaceous type), Rumex crispus (Rumex type) and Plantago lanceolata (Apium type). Variations in anatomical traits and mechanical strength were assessed as a function of root diameter by exposing plants to 0, 7, 15 and 30 d of control and flooded conditions. For each species, the proportion of root cortex was positively associated with the increment of root diameter, contributing to the increase in root porosity under both control and flooded conditions. Moreover, cell lysis produced an additional increase in root porosity in most species under flooded conditions (except R. crispus). Both structural types that presented a uniseriate layer (epidermis) to cope with compression (Rumex and Apium types) were progressively weakened as root porosity increased. This effect was significant even when the increment of root porosity was solely because of increased root diameter (R. crispus), as when both processes (root diameter and cell lysis) added porosity to the roots (P. lanceolata). Conversely, structural types that presented a multiseriate ring of cells in the outer cortex (graminaceous and cyperaceous types) maintained mechanical strength over the whole range of porosity, in spite of lysogenic processes registered in the inner cortex. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a strong trade-off between aerenchyma formation and mechanical strength in root structural types that lacked a multiseriate ring of tissue for mechanical protection in the outer cortex. The results suggest that this ring of tissue plays a significant role in maintaining the mechanical strength of roots when flooding induces the generation of additional aerenchyma

  9. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  10. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  11. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  12. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  13. Temporal variability in California grasslands: soil type and species functional traits mediate response to precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Going, B M; Anacker, B L; Harrison, S P

    2012-09-01

    Plant communities on infertile soils may be relatively resistant to climatic variation if species in these communities have "stress-tolerant" functional traits that limit their ability to respond to climate. Alternatively, such communities may be more sensitive to climatic variation if their relatively sparse vegetative cover exposes species to more extreme changes in factors such as temperature or wind. We compared temporal variability in species richness and composition over 10 years between grasslands on infertile serpentine and "normal" sedimentary soils. Variability in species richness and species composition tracked mean annual precipitation on both soils, but variability was lower in serpentine grasslands. Communities on serpentine had lower functional diversity and had species with more "stress-tolerant" traits than non-serpentine communities (i.e., shorter stature, lower specific leaf area, and lower leaf area). Within and between soils, variability in species richness and temporal turnover were lower in communities scoring as more stress tolerant on a multivariate index of these traits; however, community variability was unrelated to functional diversity. Within 41 species found commonly on both soils, variability in occurrence and cover were also lower on serpentine soils, even though intraspecific trait differences between soils were minimal; this suggests a direct effect of soil type on species variability in addition to the indirect, trait-mediated effect. Communities with higher biomass had higher annual variability in species occurrence and cover. Our results suggest that infertile soils reduce compositional variability indirectly by selecting for stress-tolerant traits and directly by limiting productivity. We conclude that communities on infertile soils may respond more conservatively to predicted changes in precipitation, including increased variability, than communities on soils of normal fertility.

  14. Woody species composition, diversity and structure of riparian forests of four watercourses types in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oumarou Sambaré; Fidèle Bognounou; Rüdiger Wittig; Adjima Thiombiano

    2011-01-01

    Riparian forests are classified as endangered ecosystems in general, particularly in sahelian countries like Burkina Faso because of human-induced alterations and civil engineering works. The modification of this important habitat is continuing, with little attention being paid to the ecological or human consequences of these changes. The objective of this study is to describe the variation of woody species diversity and dynamic in riparian forests on different type of watercourse banks along phytogeographical gradient in Burkina Faso. All woody species were systematically measured in 90 sample plots with sides of 50 m × 20 m.Density, dominance, frequency and species and family importance values were computed to characterize the species composition. Different diversity indices were calculated to examine the heterogeneity of riparian forests. A total of 196 species representing 139 genera and 51 families were recorded in the overall riparian forests. The species richness of individuals with dbh ≥ 5cm increased significantly from the North to the South along the phytogeographical gradient and varied significantly between the different types of riparian forests. Similarity in tree species composition between riparian forests was low, which indicates high beta diversity and reflects differences in habitat conditions and topography.The structural characteristics varied significantly along the phytogeographical gradient and between the different types of riparian forests.The diameter class distribution of trees in all riparian forests showed a reverse “J” shaped curve except riparian forest of stream indicating vegetation dominated by juvenile individuals. Considering the ecological importance of riparian forest, there is a need to delineate and classify them along watercourses throughout the country.

  15. Genomics and transcriptomics of Xanthomonas campestris species challenge the concept of core type III effectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Brice; Bolot, Stéphanie; Guy, Endrick; Denancé, Nicolas; Lautier, Martine; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Portier, Perrine; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Arlat, Matthieu; Carrère, Sébastien; Koebnik, Ralf; Noël, Laurent D

    2015-11-18

    The bacterial species Xanthomonas campestris infects a wide range of Brassicaceae. Specific pathovars of this species cause black rot (pv. campestris), bacterial blight of stock (pv. incanae) or bacterial leaf spot (pv. raphani). In this study, we extended the genomic coverage of the species by sequencing and annotating the genomes of strains from pathovar incanae (CFBP 1606R and CFBP 2527R), pathovar raphani (CFBP 5828R) and a pathovar formerly named barbareae (CFBP 5825R). While comparative analyses identified a large core ORFeome at the species level, the core type III effectome was limited to only three putative type III effectors (XopP, XopF1 and XopAL1). In Xanthomonas, these effector proteins are injected inside the plant cells by the type III secretion system and contribute collectively to virulence. A deep and strand-specific RNA sequencing strategy was adopted in order to experimentally refine genome annotation for strain CFBP 5828R. This approach also allowed the experimental definition of novel ORFs and non-coding RNA transcripts. Using a constitutively active allele of hrpG, a master regulator of the type III secretion system, a HrpG-dependent regulon of 141 genes co-regulated with the type III secretion system was identified. Importantly, all these genes but seven are positively regulated by HrpG and 56 of those encode components of the Hrp type III secretion system and putative effector proteins. This dataset is an important resource to mine for novel type III effector proteins as well as for bacterial genes which could contribute to pathogenicity of X. campestris.

  16. Presence of two types of flowers with respect to nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chaitali Anand; Chaitrali Umranikar; Pooja Shintre; Anuja Damle; Janhavi Kale; Jahnavi Joshi; Milind Watve

    2007-06-01

    Many species of animal-pollinated flowers are known to vary widely in the nectar content of flowers. Some proportion of flowers in many species is apparently nectarless, and such flowers are believed to be ‘cheaters’. Cheating may explain a part of the variability in nectar content. If cheating exists as a qualitatively different strategy then we expect bimodality in the distribution of nectar content of flowers. It has been shown in a multispecies study that gregarious species have a higher proportion of cheater flowers. We studied the frequency distribution of total nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species Lantana camara and Utricularia purpurascens, which differed in other floral and ecological characters. At the population level, both the species showed significant bimodality in the total sugar content of flowers. The obvious sources of heterogeneity in the data did not explain bimodality. In Lantana camara, bimodality was observed within flowers of some of the individual plants sampled. In Utricularia purpurascens the proportion of nectarless flowers was more in high-density patches, suggesting that the gregariousness hypothesis may work within a species as well. The results support the hypothesis of cheating as a distinct strategy since two distinct types of flowers were observed in both the species. The effect of density in Utricularia purpurascens also supports the gregariousness hypothesis.

  17. Records and Distribution of New World Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Psychodidae, Diptera), With Special Emphasis on Primary Types and Species Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David; Wolkoff, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article includes the records and distribution of Phlebotomine sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) in the New World based on the specimen collections housed in 2 repositories, the US National Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Entomology, Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Approximately 128 species have primary types housed in the 2 repositories, including holotypes (47 species, 3 subspecies), "types" (7 species), allotypes (52 species, 6 subspecies), lectotypes (4 species), paratypes (93 species, 10 subspecies), and neoallotype (1 species), mounted on slides, with a total of 1,107 type slides. For species diversity, collection data from 24 countries in the sand fly database were analyzed according to the number of species present, specimen records, decade of collections, and countries where collections were conducted.

  18. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  19. Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found.

  20. Species identification and molecular typing of human Brucella isolates from Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Abu S; Habibi, Nazima; Osman, Amr; Shaheed, Faraz; Khan, Mohd W

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of major concern in Kuwait and the Middle East. Human brucellosis can be caused by several Brucella species with varying degree of pathogenesis, and relapses are common after apparently successful therapy. The classical biochemical methods for identification of Brucella are time-consuming, cumbersome, and provide information limited to the species level only. In contrast, molecular methods are rapid and provide differentiation at intra-species level. In this study, four molecular methods [16S rRNA gene sequencing, real-time PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)-8, MLVA-11 and MLVA-16 were evaluated for the identification and typing of 75 strains of Brucella isolated in Kuwait. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of all isolates showed 90-99% sequence identity with B. melitensis and real-time PCR with genus- and species- specific primers identified all isolates as B. melitensis. The results of ERIC-PCR suggested the existence of 75 ERIC genotypes of B. melitensis with a discriminatory index of 0.997. Cluster classification of these genotypes divided them into two clusters, A and B, diverging at ~25%. The maximum number of genotypes (n = 51) were found in cluster B5. MLVA-8 analysis identified all isolates as B. melitensis, and MLVA-8, MLVA-11 and MLVA-16 typing divided the isolates into 10, 32 and 71 MLVA types, respectively. Furthermore, the combined minimum spanning tree analysis demonstrated that, compared to MLVA types discovered all over the world, the Kuwaiti isolates were a distinct group of MLVA-11 and MLVA-16 types in the East Mediterranean Region.

  1. A single multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for seven pathogenic Leptospira species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphan Boonsilp

    Full Text Available The available Leptospira multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme supported by a MLST website is limited to L. interrogans and L. kirschneri. Our aim was to broaden the utility of this scheme to incorporate a total of seven pathogenic species.We modified the existing scheme by replacing one of the seven MLST loci (fadD was changed to caiB, as the former gene did not appear to be present in some pathogenic species. Comparison of the original and modified schemes using data for L. interrogans and L. kirschneri demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the two schemes was not significantly different. The modified scheme was used to further characterize 325 isolates (L. alexanderi [n = 5], L. borgpetersenii [n = 34], L. interrogans [n = 222], L. kirschneri [n = 29], L. noguchii [n = 9], L. santarosai [n = 10], and L. weilii [n = 16]. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of the 7 loci demonstrated that each species corresponded to a discrete clade, and that no strains were misclassified at the species level. Comparison between genotype and serovar was possible for 254 isolates. Of the 31 sequence types (STs represented by at least two isolates, 18 STs included isolates assigned to two or three different serovars. Conversely, 14 serovars were identified that contained between 2 to 10 different STs. New observations were made on the global phylogeography of Leptospira spp., and the utility of MLST in making associations between human disease and specific maintenance hosts was demonstrated.The new MLST scheme, supported by an updated MLST website, allows the characterization and species assignment of isolates of the seven major pathogenic species associated with leptospirosis.

  2. Characterization of qnrB-like genes in Citrobacter species of the American Type Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tomoo; Sabtcheva, Stefana; Mitsutake, Kotaro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-06-01

    Among five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Citrobacter strains, qnrB60 in Citrobacter freundii ATCC 6879, an isolate from the preantibiotic era, and qnrB61 in Citrobacter braakii ATCC 51113(T), a type strain belonging to the C. freundii complex, were identified. Meanwhile, a truncated qnrB-like pseudogene was identified in C. freundii ATCC 8090(T) and ATCC 43864. No qnrB-like sequence was found in Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028(T). These findings underscore the close relationship between this species and qnrB.

  3. Identification of species and capsular types of Klebsiella clinical isolates, with special reference to Klebsiella planticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Ohta, M; Agata, N; Kido, N; Arakawa, Y; Ito, H; Komatsu, T; Kato, N

    1989-01-01

    In the 77 reference strains for Klebsiella K types, there are 17 strains (22.1%) of Klebsiella planticola, 6 strains (7.8%) of Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 strain (1.3%) of Klebsiella terrigena, and 53 strains (68.8%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The species K. planticola, which was originally isolated from botanical and aquatic environments and hence thus named, was also identified at high incidence (81 strains, 18.5%) among the 439 recent clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. Among these K. planticola strains of hospital origin, 52 (64%) were isolated from sputum, 17 (21%) from urine, and the remaining 12 (15%) from other sources. The capsular types of these isolates were determined by the gel precipitation reaction. Seventy of 81 K. planticola isolates (86.4%) were typable by antisera to Klebsiella reference strains for K types and the K types of the clinical isolates distributed to 35 kinds of K types. The proportion of typable strains among clinical isolates of K. planticola was very similar to those in K. pneumoniae (87.5%) and K. oxytoca (86.0%).

  4. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India)], E-mail: ranjit_ism@yahoo.com; Naji, Raid Kamel [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)], E-mail: rknaji@gmail.com

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Type Species of the Genus Citrobacter, Citrobacter freundii MTCC 1658

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shailesh; Kaur, Chandandeep; Kimura, Kazuyuki; Takeo, Masahiro; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2013-01-01

    We report the 5.0-Mb genome sequence of the type species of the genus Citrobacter, Citrobacter freundii strain MTCC 1658, isolated from canal water. This draft genome sequence of C. freundii strain MTCC 1658T consists of 5,001,265 bp with a G+C content of 51.61%, 4,691 protein-coding genes, 70 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs.

  6. Glycation of Wild-Type Apomyoglobin Induces Formation of Highly Cytotoxic Oligomeric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Clara; Carafa, Vincenzo; Altucci, Lucia; Irace, Gaetano; Borriello, Margherita; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Sirangelo, Ivana

    2015-11-01

    Protein glycation is a non-enzymatic, irreversible modification of protein amino groups by reactive carbonyl species leading to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Several proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases have been found to be glycated in vivo and the extent of glycation is related to the pathologies of the patients. Although it is now accepted that there is a direct correlation between AGEs formation and the development of neurodegenerative diseases related to protein misfolding and amyloid aggregation, several questions still remain unanswered: whether glycation is the triggering event or just an additional factor acting on the aggregation pathway. We have recently shown that glycation of the amyloidogenic W7FW14F apomyoglobin mutant significantly accelerates the amyloid fibrils formation providing evidence that glycation actively participates to the process. In the present study, to test if glycation can be considered also a triggering factor in amyloidosis, we evaluated the ability of different glycation agents to induce amyloid aggregation in the soluble wild-type apomyoglobin. Our results show that glycation covalently modifies apomyoglobin and induces conformational changes that lead to the formation of oligomeric species that are not implicated in amyloid aggregation. Thus, AGEs formation does not trigger amyloid aggregation in the wild-type apomyoglobin but only induce the formation of soluble oligomeric species able to affect cell viability. The molecular bases of cell toxicity induced by AGEs formed upon glycation of wild-type apomyoglobin have been also investigated.

  7. Using mating-type gene sequences for improved phylogenetic resolution of Collectotrichum species complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meizhu; Schardl, Christopher L; Nuckles, Etta M; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2005-01-01

    Colletotrichum species are defined primarily on the basis of host preference and morphology of the organism in planta and in culture. However the genus contains several species complexes that encompass such a broad range of morphological and pathological variation that the species name is of relatively little use either to the taxonomist or plant pathologist. Phylogenetic analyses, primarily based on variable regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, have indicated that these species complexes comprise a variable number of identifiable monophyletic clades. However rDNA sequences often are insufficiently diverse to fully resolve such closely related lineages. A group of isolates representing three species complexes (C. graminicola, C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum) were analyzed by using the high mobility group (HMG)-encoding sequence of the MAT1-2 mating type sequence, which has been shown in other fungi to be especially suitable for distinguishing relationships among closely related groups. Results were compared with those obtained from analysis of variable regions of the rDNA as well as from standard morphological classification methods. Results achieved through analysis of MAT1-2 sequences correlated well with those obtained by analysis of rDNA sequences but provided significantly better resolution among the various lineages. Morphological traits, including hyphopodia size, colony appearance, spore size, appresorial shape and size and host preference, frequently were unreliable as indicators of phylogenetic association. Spore shape and hyphopodia shape more often were useful for this purpose.

  8. Genetic diversity of Greek Aegilops species using different types of nuclear genome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Konstantinos G; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2010-09-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analyses were used to evaluate genetic variability and relationships of Greek Aegilops species. Thirty-eight accessions of seven Greek Aegilops species [Ae. triuncialis (genome UC), Ae. neglecta (UM), Ae. biuncialis (UM), Ae. caudata (C), Ae. comosa (M), Ae. geniculata (MU) and Ae. umbellulata (U)] as well as Triticum accessions were studied. Nineteen RAPD and ten ISSR primers yielded 344 and 170 polymorphic bands, respectively, that were used for the construction of dendrograms. Regardless of the similarity coefficient and marker type used, UPGMA placed 38 Aegilops accessions into one branch while the other branch consisted of wheat species. Within the Aegilops cluster, subgroups were identified that included species that shared the same genome or belonged to the same botanical section. Within the Triticum cluster, two robust subgroups were formed, one including diploid wheat and another including polyploid wheat. In conclusion, results showed that there is genetic diversity in the Greek Aegilops species studied, and clustering based on genetic similarities was in agreement with botanical classifications.

  9. Climate and landscape explain richness patterns depending on the type of species' distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianou, Mariana A.; Koutsias, Nikolaos; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the patterns of species richness and their environmental drivers, remains a central theme in ecological research and especially in the continental scales where many conservation decisions are made. Here, we analyzed the patterns of species richness from amphibians, reptiles and mammals at the EU level. We used two different data sources for each taxon: expert-drawn species range maps, and presence/absence atlases. As environmental drivers, we considered climate and land cover. Land cover is increasingly the focus of research, but there still is no consensus on how to classify land cover to distinct habitat classes, so we analyzed the CORINE land cover data with three different levels of thematic resolution (resolution of classification scheme ˗ less to more detailed). We found that the two types of species richness data explored in this study yielded different richness maps. Although, we expected expert-drawn range based estimates of species richness to exceed those from atlas data (due to the assumption that species are present in all locations throughout their region), we found that in many cases the opposite is true (the extreme case is the reptiles where more than half of the atlas based estimates were greater than the expert-drawn range based estimates). Also, we detected contrasting information on the richness drivers of biodiversity patterns depending on the dataset used. For atlas based richness estimates, landscape attributes played more important role than climate while for expert-drawn range based richness estimates climatic variables were more important (for the ectothermic amphibians and reptiles). Finally we found that the thematic resolution of the land cover classification scheme, also played a role in quantifying the effect of land cover diversity, with more detailed thematic resolution increasing the relative contribution of landscape attributes in predicting species richness.

  10. Changes of predominant species/biovars and sequence types of Brucella isolates, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfen; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yuan, Xitong; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Zhoujia; Zhen, Qing; Yu, Yaqin; Huang, Liuyu; Cui, Buyun; Chen, Zeliang

    2013-11-01

    Human brucellosis incidence in China was divided into 3 stages, high incidence (1950-1960s), decline (1970-1980s) and re-emergence (1990-2000s). Human brucellosis has been reported in all the 32 provinces, of which Inner Mongolia has the highest prevalence, accounting for over 40% of the cases in China. To investigate the etiology alteration of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, the species, biovars and genotypes of 60 Brucella isolates from this province were analyzed. Species and biovars of the Brucella strains isolated from outbreaks were determined based on classical identification procedures. Strains were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Sequences of 9 housekeeping genes were obtained and sequence types were defined. The distribution of species, biovars and sequence types (STs) among the three incidence stages were analyzed and compared. The three stages of high incidence, decline and re-emergence were predominated by B. melitensis biovar 2 and 3, B. abortus biovar 3, and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively, implying changes in the predominant biovars. Genotyping by MLST revealed a total of 14 STs. Nine STs (from ST28 to ST36), accounting for 64.3% of all the STs, were newly defined and different from those observed in other countries. Different STs were distributed among the three stages. ST8 was the most common ST in 1950-1960s and 1990-2000s, while ST2 was the most common in 1970-1980s. The prevalence of biovars and sequence types of Brucella strains from Inner Mongolia has changed over time in the three stages. Compared with those from other countries, new sequence types of Brucella strains exist in China.

  11. Differences in photosynthetic responses of NADP-ME type C4 species to high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska, Elżbieta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Krupnik, Tomasz; Drożak, Anna; Rogowski, Paweł; Parys, Eugeniusz; Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian

    2017-03-01

    Three species chosen as representatives of NADP-ME C4 subtype exhibit different sensitivity toward photoinhibition, and great photochemical differences were found to exist between the species. These characteristics might be due to the imbalance in the excitation energy between the photosystems present in M and BS cells, and also due to that between species caused by the penetration of light inside the leaves. Such regulation in the distribution of light intensity between M and BS cells shows that co-operation between both the metabolic systems determines effective photosynthesis and reduces the harmful effects of high light on the degradation of PSII through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have investigated several physiological parameters of NADP-ME-type C4 species (e.g., Zea mays, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Digitaria sanguinalis) grown under moderate light intensity (200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and, subsequently, exposed to excess light intensity (HL, 1600 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Our main interest was to understand why these species, grown under identical conditions, differ in their responses toward high light, and what is the physiological significance of these differences. Among the investigated species, Echinochloa crus-galli is best adapted to HL treatment. High resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus of E. crus-galli to HL was accompanied by an elevated level of phosphorylation of PSII proteins, and higher values of photochemical quenching, ATP/ADP ratio, activity of PSI and PSII complexes, as well as integrity of the thylakoid membranes. It was also shown that the non-radiative dissipation of energy in the studied plants was not dependent on carotenoid contents and, thus, other photoprotective mechanisms might have been engaged under HL stress conditions. The activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase as well as the content of malondialdehyde and H2O2 suggests that antioxidant defense is not

  12. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Lyons

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6% and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%. Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  13. Five new species of Jaspis (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida:Astrophorina) from Brazil with redescription of the type species Jaspis johnstonii (Schmidt, 1862).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Juliana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-10-07

    The genus Jaspis comprises 32 valid species, six of which were previously recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Two species have already been recorded from the Brazilian coast: J. johnstonii and J. salvadori (Rio Grande do Sul and Espírito Santo States respectively). Their respective type specimens, deposited at Muséum National d'Historie Naturelle, Paris (Jaspis salvadori, holotype) and at Universalmuseum Joanneum, Zoology Center of Natural History, Austria (Jaspis johnstonii, syntype) were reexamined, but due to differences in spicule composition these records are considered to be invalid. The present paper describes five new species of Jaspis collected on the Brazilian coast (Jaspis atolensis sp. nov., J. iacuitaster sp. nov., J. corticomicroxea sp. nov., J. variaster sp. nov. and J. gigoxea sp. nov.) bringing the total number of species worldwide to 36, all of which were compared in tabular format. The type species, Jaspis johnstonii, was also redescribed.

  14. Molecular typing of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gloria M; Casillas-Vega, Néstor; Garza-González, Elvira; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Rivera, Gildardo; Rodríguez, Jesús Ancer; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. Based on molecular identification, these two species have been further differentiated into molecular types. The aim of this work was to characterize clinical cryptococcal isolates recovered from six hospitals in Northeast Mexico from 1995 to 2011. One hundred and sixty-six isolates, which were characterized by biochemical tests and in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole, and M13 PCR fingerprinting, were included in this study. Utilizing phenotypic tests, 153 isolates (92.16 %) were identified as C. neoformans and 13 (7.83 %) as C. gattii. All isolates were susceptible to all antifungals tested. Employing M13 PCR fingerprinting, eight molecular types were detected. VNI was the most common genotype (124 cases; 74.6 %), followed by VNII (15 cases; 9 %), VNIII (8 cases; 4.8 %), VNIV (6 cases; 3.6 %), VGI (6 cases; 3.6 %), VGII (3 cases; 1.8 %), and VGIII and VGIV (2 cases, 1.2 % each). We confirm the presence of C. gattii in clinical isolates in Northeast Mexico, and a high clonal diversity in the studied strains of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

  15. Examination of type material of two species of Litomosoides (Filarioidea : Onchocercidae, parasites from bats ; taxonomic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain O.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Type material of Litomosoides hamletti Sandground, 1934 from Glossophaga soricina soricina in Brazil and L. penai Jiménez- Quirós & Arroyo, 1 960 from Carollia perspicillata azteca in Costa Rica, was examined. The morphology of the spicules shows that these species belong to the carinii group. Their synonymy with L. guiterasi Pérez Vigueras, 1934, from Artibeus jamaicensis yucatanicus in Cuba, does not appear justified because they are distinct in several characters (body length, width of female, size and shape of buccal cavity and capsule, shape of right spicule. L. hamletti is a valid species; L. penai is closely related to it and is considered to be a sub-species, L. hamletti penai Jiménez-Quirós & Arroyo, 1960: The material recovered from Glossophaga spp., previously assigned to L guiterasi by several authors, is identified as L. h. hamletti. L. guiterasi appears to be closely related to L chandleri Esslinger, 1973; L. chitwoodi n. sp. (= Litomosoides sp. Chitwood, 1938 seems close to these species; all three are parasites of Artibeus spp.

  16. EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES, TREE CROWN TYPE AND SEASONS ON SOIL ACIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Sarıyıldız

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of tree species, crown type, seasons and distance from the stem on soil pH. The soil samples (depth of 0-15 and >15 cm were collected from under pine (Pinus sylvestris L., spruce (Picea orientalis L. and alder (Alnus glutinosa L. trees in November 2002, March and June 2003 at distance of 30, 90, 180 and 270 cm from the stem. Highest pH was found under alder trees, whereas lowest pH was found under pine trees. There was a decrease in soil pH from Autumn to Summer for all species. In Autumn and Spring, pine and spruce showed an increase in soil pH from the stem to the distance of 180 cm. After that they showed a decrease, whereas in Summer, they didn’t show any changes with the distances. Alder, however, didn’t show any significant changes between the distances in any season. It was found that the differences in soil pH between species, seasons and the distances from the stem were significantly affected by the changes in pH of organic layer. In conclusion, the results in the present study indicate that tree species, seasons and the distance from the stem are all important factors influencing soil pH, and should be considered together in future studies.

  17. Spectral Data Captures Important Variability Between and Among Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Serbin, S. P.; Kingdon, C.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Narrowband spectral data in the visible, near and shortwave infrared (400-2500 nm) are being used increasingly in plant ecology to characterize the biochemical, physiological and water status of vegetation, as well as community composition. In particular, spectroscopic data have recently received considerable attention for their capacity to discriminate plants according to functional properties or 'optical types.' Such measurements can be acquired from airborne/satellite remote sensing imagery or field spectrometers and are commonly used to directly estimate or infer properties important to photosynthesis, carbon and water fluxes, nutrient dynamics, phenology, and disturbance. Spectral data therefore represent proxies for measurements that are otherwise time consuming or expensive to make, and - more importantly - provide the opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of taxonomic or functional groups. We have found that spectral variation within species and functional types can in fact exceed the variation between types. As such, we recommend that the traditional quantification of characteristics defining species and/or functional types must be modified to include the range of variability in those properties. We provide four examples of the importance of spectral data for describing within-species/functional type variation. First, within temperate forests, the spectral properties of foliage vary considerably with canopy position. This variability is strongly related to differences in specific leaf area between shade- and sun-lit leaves, and the resulting differences among leaves in strategies for light harvesting, photosynthesis, and leaf longevity. These results point to the need to better characterize leaf optical properties throughout a canopy, rather than basing the characterization of ecosystem functioning on only the sunlit portion of the canopy crown. Second, we show considerable differences in optical properties of foliage from

  18. Conserved repertoire of orthologous vomeronasal type 1 receptor genes in ruminant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura Hiroaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, pheromones play an important role in social and innate reproductive behavior within species. In rodents, vomeronasal receptor type 1 (V1R, which is specifically expressed in the vomeronasal organ, is thought to detect pheromones. The V1R gene repertoire differs dramatically between mammalian species, and the presence of species-specific V1R subfamilies in mouse and rat suggests that V1R plays a profound role in species-specific recognition of pheromones. In ruminants, however, the molecular mechanism(s for pheromone perception is not well understood. Interestingly, goat male pheromone, which can induce out-of-season ovulation in anestrous females, causes the same pheromone response in sheep, and vice versa, suggesting that there may be mechanisms for detecting "inter-species" pheromones among ruminant species. Results We isolated 23 goat and 21 sheep intact V1R genes based on sequence similarity with 32 cow V1R genes in the cow genome database. We found that all of the goat and sheep V1R genes have orthologs in their cross-species counterparts among these three ruminant species and that the sequence identity of V1R orthologous pairs among these ruminants is much higher than that of mouse-rat V1R orthologous pairs. Furthermore, all goat V1Rs examined thus far are expressed not only in the vomeronasal organ but also in the main olfactory epithelium. Conclusion Our results suggest that, compared with rodents, the repertoire of orthologous V1R genes is remarkably conserved among the ruminants cow, sheep and goat. We predict that these orthologous V1Rs can detect the same or closely related chemical compound(s within each orthologous set/pair. Furthermore, all identified goat V1Rs are expressed in the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory epithelium, suggesting that V1R-mediated ligand information can be detected and processed by both the main and accessory olfactory systems. The fact that ruminant and rodent V1Rs

  19. Systematic study of the genus Vogesella gen. nov. and its type species, Vogesella indigofera comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D J; Woese, C R; MacDonell, M T; Colwell, R R

    1997-01-01

    A blue-pigmented colony that had a metallic copper-colored sheen was isolated in 1973 from a standard spread plate count preparation of oxidation pond sediment. Over the next 11 years, an additional 12 strains of blue-pigmented bacteria were isolated from freshwater samples and compared to several reference strains of bacteria. Morphological and biochemical tests revealed that these 13 isolates were very similar to [Pseudomonas] indigofera ATCC 19706T (T = type strain) and ATCC 14036. A numerical analysis (in which simple matching similarity coefficients were clustered by the unweighted pair group mathematical averaging method) of morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed 90.0% relatedness between the 13 isolates and [P.] indigofera ATCC 19706T and ATCC 14036 and 73.6% relatedness between the 13 isolates and a cluster containing Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 25416T, Janthinobacterium lividum ATCC 12473T, and the Pseudomonas species tested. A phylogenetic analysis, in which both 5S rRNA and 16S rRNA were used, also revealed that the 13 isolates were closely related to each other and to strains ATCC 19706T and ATCC 14036. In addition, both 5S rRNA and 16S rRNA analyses demonstrated that the isolates and strains ATCC 19706T and ATCC 14036 were members of the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria and were closely related to Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12742T but sufficiently distinct to warrant placement in a new genus. Accordingly, we propose that the 13 isolates and strains ATCC 19706T and ATCC 14306 be placed in the genus Vogesella gen. nov., which is named in honor of Otto Voges, who first isolated and described this blue-pigmented eubacterium in 1893. We also propose that [P.] indigofera be renamed Vogesella indigofera comb. nov. and designated the type species of the genus; strain ATCC 19706 is the type strain of this species.

  20. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  1. Catalogue of genera and their type species in the mite Suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, R B

    2015-06-11

    This paper provides details of 300 genus-group names in the suborder Uropodina, including the superfamilies Microgynioidea, Thinozerconoidea, Uropodoidea, and Diarthrophalloidea. For each name, the information provided includes a reference to the original description of the genus, the type species and its method of designation, and details of nomenclatural and taxonomic anomalies where necessary. Twenty of these names are excluded from use because they are nomina nuda, junior homonyms, or objective junior synonyms. The remaining 280 available names appear to include a very high level of subjective synonymy, which will need to be resolved in a future comprehensive revision of the Uropodina.

  2. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyi Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G, building patch (B, mature patch (M and degenerate patch (D. To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1 Different species (or functional groups had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2 Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3 Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4 The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′ were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  3. Alterations in Fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Species in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Southern China Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Anne eLê

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection between gut microbiota and metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, members of commensal bacteria found in human gut, in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D patients from Southern China. Methods: Fifty patients with T2D and thirty control individuals of similar BMI were recruited from Southern China. T2D and control subjects were confirmed with both oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in feces were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 statistical software.Results: In comparison to control subjects T2D patients had significantly more total Lactobacillus (+18%, L. bugaricus (+13%, L. rhamnosum (+37% and L. acidophilus (+48% (P <0.05. In contrast, T2D patients had less amounts of total Bifidobacteria (-7% and B. adolescentis (-12% (P <0.05. Cluster analysis showed that gut microbiota pattern of T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophillus, together with lesser numbers of B. adolescentis (P <0.05. Conclusion: The gut microflora in T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of Lactobacillus and lesser numbers of Bifidobacterium species.

  4. Salt stress induces the formation of a novel type of 'pressure wood' in two Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Dennis; Lautner, Silke; Wildhagen, Henning; Behnke, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz; Fromm, Jörg; Polle, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    • Salinity causes osmotic stress and limits biomass production of plants. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying hydraulic adaptation to salinity. • Anatomical, ecophysiological and transcriptional responses to salinity were investigated in the xylem of a salt-sensitive (Populus × canescens) and a salt-tolerant species (Populus euphratica). • Moderate salt stress, which suppressed but did not abolish photosynthesis and radial growth in P. × canescens, resulted in hydraulic adaptation by increased vessel frequencies and decreased vessel lumina. Transcript abundances of a suite of genes (FLA, COB-like, BAM, XET, etc.) previously shown to be activated during tension wood formation, were collectively suppressed in developing xylem, whereas those for stress and defense-related genes increased. A subset of cell wall-related genes was also suppressed in salt-exposed P. euphratica, although this species largely excluded sodium and showed no anatomical alterations. Salt exposure influenced cell wall composition involving increases in the lignin : carbohydrate ratio in both species. • In conclusion, hydraulic stress adaptation involves cell wall modifications reciprocal to tension wood formation that result in the formation of a novel type of reaction wood in upright stems named 'pressure wood'. Our data suggest that transcriptional co-regulation of a core set of genes determines reaction wood composition.

  5. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  6. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryhim, Jason R; Adams, Douglas H; Spaet, Julia L Y; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Somatic serogroups, capsular types, and species of fecal Klebsiella in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, P; Hansen, D S; Mestre, F; Lehtonen, L; Vaahtovuo, J; Vehma, M; Möttönen, T; Saario, R; Luukkainen, R; Nissilä, M

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) carry fecal Klebsiella strains that belong to serotypes or species specific for AS. Somatic serotypes (O groups), capsular (K) serotypes, and biochemically identified species were determined for fecal klebsiellae isolated from 187 AS patients and 195 control patients. The controls were patients with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. The 638 isolates of Klebsiella that were obtained represented 161 strains; 81 from AS patients and 80 from the controls. The average number of Klebsiella strains per patient was 1.7 for the AS group and 1.5 for the control group. The most common O group was O1, which was observed for isolates from 23 of 187 AS patients and 24 of 195 control patients. Next in frequency was group O2, which was observed for isolates from 17 AS patients and 15 control patients. Regarding the K serotypes, 59 different types were identified, revealing a heterogeneous representation of Klebsiella strains, without a predominance of any serotype. By biochemical identification, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequently occurring species, being found in 45 AS patients and 45 control patients. Next in the frequency was K. oxytoca, which was observed in 26 AS patients and in 29 control patients. K. planticola and K. terrigena occurred in only a minority of patients. Altogether, when analyzed either separately or simultaneously according to O groups, K serotypes, and biochemically identified species, no evidence of the existence of AS-specific Klebsiella strains was obtained. These findings do not indicate participation of Klebsiella in the etiopathogenesis of AS.

  8. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Pannekoek

    Full Text Available Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  9. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Belfiori

    Full Text Available Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T

  11. Reactive oxygen species production and Brugia pahangi survivorship in Aedes polynesiensis with artificial Wolbachia infection types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Andrews

    Full Text Available Heterologous transinfection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been shown previously to induce pathogen interference phenotypes in mosquito hosts. Here we examine an artificially infected strain of Aedes polynesiensis, the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, which is the causative agent of Lymphatic filariasis (LF throughout much of the South Pacific. Embryonic microinjection was used to transfer the wAlbB infection from Aedes albopictus into an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. polynesiensis. The resulting strain (designated "MTB" experiences a stable artificial infection with high maternal inheritance. Reciprocal crosses of MTB with naturally infected wild-type Ae. polynesiensis demonstrate strong bidirectional incompatibility. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the MTB strain differ significantly relative to that of the wild-type, indicating an impaired ability to regulate oxidative stress. Following a challenge with Brugia pahangi, the number of filarial worms achieving the infective stage is significantly reduced in MTB as compared to the naturally infected and aposymbiotic strains. Survivorship of MTB differed significantly from that of the wild-type, with an interactive effect between survivorship and blood feeding. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between decreased ROS levels and decreased survival of adult female Aedes polynesiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of Wolbachia with ROS production and antioxidant expression, iron homeostasis and the insect immune system. We discuss the potential applied use of the MTB strain for impacting Ae. polynesiensis populations and strategies for reducing LF incidence in the South Pacific.

  12. Detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus species and strains: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Harold; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Moya-Beltrán, Ana; Issotta, Francisco; Atavales, Joaquín; Acuña, Lillian G; Johnson, D Barrie; Quatrini, Raquel

    2016-09-01

    The genus Acidithiobacillus comprises several species of Gram-negative acidophilic bacteria that thrive in natural and man-made low pH environments in a variety of geo-climatic contexts. Beyond their fundamental interest as model extreme acidophiles, these bacteria are involved in the processing of minerals and the desulfurization of coal and natural gas, and are also sources of environmental pollution due to their generation of acid mine drainage and corrosion of cement and concrete structures. Acidithiobacillus spp. are therefore considered a biotechnologically relevant group of bacteria, and their identification and screening in natural and industrial environments is of great concern. Several molecular typing methodologies have been instrumental in improving knowledge of the inherent diversity of acidithiobacilli by providing information on the genetic subtypes sampled in public and private culture collections; more recently, they have provided specific insight into the diversity of acidithiobacilli present in industrial and natural environments. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of techniques used in molecular detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus spp. These methods will be discussed in the context of their contribution to the general and specific understanding of the role of the acidithiobacilli in microbial ecology and industrial biotechnology. Emerging opportunities for industrial and environmental surveillance of acidithiobacilli using next-generation molecular typing methodologies are also reviewed.

  13. Myotrioza myopori Taylor, a designation of the type species for the genus Myotrioza gen. nov. (Psylloidea: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S

    2016-04-04

    Taylor et al. (2016) described twenty new species in one new genus of Australian jumping plant-lice from the plant family Scrophulariaceae but did not nominate a type species, a requirement under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature under Article 13.3 to make the genus name available (ICZN 1999).

  14. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828) with description of a new genus

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2013-01-01

    The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to th...

  15. Tree species functional group is a more important driver of soil properties than tree species diversity across major European forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Muhie Dawud, Seid; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo; Ratcliffe, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    The influence of tree species diversity and functional group on soil properties (carbon stock, pH and C/N ratio) has not been explored across major European forest types. We evaluated the relative importance of tree species diversity and functional group on soil carbon (C) stocks, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types in the six regions Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Italy and Spain. We sampled soils in 209 permanent plots along a species diversity gradient from monocultures to 5-species mixtures in the exploratory platform of the FunDivEurope project. Carbon stocks in the topsoil (forest floor (FF), 0-10 cm, and FF+0-10 cm) were positively, but weakly, related to diversity across the regions. While the C/N ratio in the FF+0-10 cm layer decreased significantly with increasing diversity in the Spanish region, pH was unrelated to species diversity across the regions. Tree species functional group (conifer proportion) explained a larger proportion of the variability in soil properties than species diversity. Conifer admixture increased C stock and C/N ratio, and decreased pH, but the impacts differed between the regions for some soil layers. Differences in mean annual temperature, actual evapotranspiration and soil texture between the regions were possible driving factors behind the different functional group effects in Finland, Spain and Germany. The results suggest that targeted selection of tree species with desired characteristics, e.g. complementary traits for resource use, is a preferred management approach for influencing soil C stock, C/N ratio and pH in mixed forests rather than increasing tree species diversity per se.

  16. Stomatal complex types, stomatal density, and the stomatal index in some species of dioscorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahaman A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea alata L. has three stomatal complex types, namely, paracytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 50, 18, and 32, respectively. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent­age frequency value of 100. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. Both D. esculenta and D. rotundata have paracytic stomata, with a percentage frequency of 100. The range of variation of stomatal density is from 10 (lowest value in D. alata and D. dumentorum to 27 (highest value in D. bulbifera. The stomatal index also varies, from 24 in D. alata to 47 in D. cayenensis. The size of stomata in all species is small, varying in length from 0.74 μm in D. alata to 1.79 μm in D. dumentorum. An indented dichotomous key based on stomatal features was constructed to distinguish and identify the species.

  17. Species- and cell type-specific interactions between CD47 and human SIRPalpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shyamsundar; Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Sen, Shamik; Boder, Eric T; Discher, Dennis E

    2006-03-15

    CD47 on red blood cells (RBCs) reportedly signals "self" by binding SIRPalpha on phagocytes, at least in mice. Such interactions across and within species, from mouse to human, are not yet clear and neither is the relation to cell adhesion. Using human SIRPalpha1 as a probe, antibody-inhibitable binding to CD47 was found only with human and pig RBCs (not mouse, rat, or cow). In addition, CD47-mediated adhesion of human and pig RBCs to SIRPalpha1 surfaces resists sustained forces in centrifugation (as confirmed by atomic force microscopy) but only at SIRPalpha-coating densities far above those measurable on human neutrophils, monocytes, and THP-1 macrophages. While interactions strengthen with deglycosylation of SIRPalpha1, low copy numbers explain the absence of RBC adhesion to phagocytes under physiologic conditions and imply that the interaction being studied is not responsible for red cell clearance in humans. Evidence of clustering nonetheless suggests mechanisms of avidity enhancement. Finally, using the same CD47 antibodies and soluble SIRPalpha1, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were assayed and found to display CD47 but not bind SIRPalpha1 significantly. The results thus demonstrate that SIRPalpha-CD47 interactions, which reportedly define self, exhibit cell type specificity and limited cross-species reactivity.

  18. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  19. Phylogeny and Identification of Pantoea Species and Typing of Pantoea agglomerans Strains by Multilocus Gene Sequencing ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delétoile, Alexis; Decré, Dominique; Courant, Stéphanie; Passet, Virginie; Audo, Jennifer; Grimont, Patrick; Arlet, Guillaume; Brisse, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans and other Pantoea species cause infections in humans and are also pathogenic to plants, but the diversity of Pantoea strains and their possible association with hosts and disease remain poorly known, and identification of Pantoea species is difficult. We characterized 36 Pantoea strains, including 28 strains of diverse origins initially identified as P. agglomerans, by multilocus gene sequencing based on six protein-coding genes, by biochemical tests, and by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with other species of Enterobacteriaceae revealed that the genus Pantoea is highly diverse. Most strains initially identified as P. agglomerans by use of API 20E strips belonged to a compact sequence cluster together with the type strain, but other strains belonged to diverse phylogenetic branches corresponding to other species of Pantoea or Enterobacteriaceae and to probable novel species. Biochemical characteristics such as fosfomycin resistance and utilization of d-tartrate could differentiate P. agglomerans from other Pantoea species. All 20 strains of P. agglomerans could be distinguished by multilocus sequence typing, revealing the very high discrimination power of this method for strain typing and population structure in this species, which is subdivided into two phylogenetic groups. PCR detection of the repA gene, associated with pathogenicity in plants, was positive in all clinical strains of P. agglomerans, suggesting that clinical and plant-associated strains do not form distinct populations. We provide a multilocus gene sequencing method that is a powerful tool for Pantoea species delineation and identification and for strain tracking. PMID:19052179

  20. Characterization of Platymessa with redescription of the type species and a new generic synonymy (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Miguel; Kury, Adriano B

    2016-03-01

    The genus Platymessa was originally described by Mello-Leitão and diagnosed following the Roewerian system. It originally included two species from the Colombian Andes. Subsequently, a third species was described: Platymessa transversalis Roewer, 1963, which is herein transferred to the genus Chusgonobius Roewer, 1952, forming the new combination Chusgonobius transversalis. Herein, an emended diagnosis is given to Platymessa, the type species, Platymessa h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941, is redescribed and P. nigrolimbata Mello-Leitão, 1941 is considered its junior subjective synonym. Brachylibitia Mello-Leitão, 1941, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Platymessa and its type species, Brachylibitia ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941, considered a species inquirenda, forming the new combination Platymessa ectroxantha. Genital morphology of Platymessa h-inscriptum is described and some characters are discussed regarding their importance in cosmetid taxonomy. Novel forms of sexual dimorphism are described in coxa IV.

  1. The Species versus Subspecies Conundrum: Quantitative Delimitation from Integrating Multiple Data Types within a Single Bayesian Approach in Hercules Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Pan; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-07-01

    With the recent attention and focus on quantitative methods for species delimitation, an overlooked but equally important issue regards what has actually been delimited. This study investigates the apparent arbitrariness of some taxonomic distinctions, and in particular how species and subspecies are assigned. Specifically, we use a recently developed Bayesian model-based approach to show that in the Hercules beetles (genus Dynastes) there is no statistical difference in the probability that putative taxa represent different species, irrespective of whether they were given species or subspecies designations. By considering multiple data types, as opposed to relying exclusively on genetic data alone, we also show that both previously recognized species and subspecies represent a variety of points along the speciation spectrum (i.e., previously recognized species are not systematically further along the continuum than subspecies). For example, based on evolutionary models of divergence, some taxa are statistically distinguishable on more than one axis of differentiation (e.g., along both phenotypic and genetic dimensions), whereas other taxa can only be delimited statistically from a single data type. Because both phenotypic and genetic data are analyzed in a common Bayesian framework, our study provides a framework for investigating whether disagreements in species boundaries among data types reflect (i) actual discordance with the actual history of lineage splitting, or instead (ii) differences among data types in the amount of time required for differentiation to become apparent among the delimited taxa. We discuss what the answers to these questions imply about what characters are used to delimit species, as well as the diverse processes involved in the origin and maintenance of species boundaries. With this in mind, we then reflect more generally on how quantitative methods for species delimitation are used to assign taxonomic status. © The Author(s) 2015

  2. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  3. Anatomical study of different fruit types in Argentine species of Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarini, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of 11 species of Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum were studied. Cross and/or longitudinal microtome sections, stained mostly with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were prepared for microscopic examination. The fruits, notably heterogeneous, were classified into three categories. Three different kinds of cells were found of the epidermis, immediately below which a hypodermis, consisting in any of five types of structures, was always found. The mesocarp presented two histologically differentiated zones, an external one (formed by normal or spongy parenchyma, depending on the species, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and with proliferations among the seeds. This morpho-anatomical information was used to distinguish between non-capsular dehiscent fruits and the berry traditionally described for Solanum. The relationship between structure and function, and the probable dispersal syndromes are also discussed.Se estudiaron los frutos de 11 especies de Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum. Para ello, se efectuaron cortes microtómicos longitudinales y/o transversales, teñidos en su mayor parte con azul astral/fucsina, y fueron examinados al microscopio. Los frutos, notablemente heterogéneos, fueron clasificados en tres categorías. Tres diferentes tipos de células fueron encontrados en la epidermis, e inmediatamente por debajo se observó siempre una hipodermis, constituida por uno de cinco tipos de estructuras. El mesocarpio presentó dos zonas histológicamente diferenciadas: una externa (formada por parénquima normal o esponjoso, según la especie y una interna, comúnmente jugosa y con proliferaciones entre las semillas. Esta información morfoanatómica fue usada para distinguir entre el fruto dehiscente no capsular y la baya tradicionalmente descrita para Solanum. Se discutieron además la relación entre estructura y función y los probables síndromes de dispersión.

  4. First description of adults of the type species of the genus Glossocercus Chandler, 1935 (Cestoda: Gryporhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Olivares, Mirza P; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; García-Varela, Martín

    2013-02-01

    The type species of the genus Glossocercus Chandler, 1935, G. cyprinodontis Chandler, 1935, was described as metacestode (larval stage) from the mesentery of the sheepshead minnow fish (Cyprinodon variegatus Lacépède) from Galveston Bay, Texas. The description was based on the morphology of the rostellar hooks; however, the features of the internal morphology of the proglottides could no be provided. In the present study we describe for the first time the features of the adult G. cyprinodontis from the intestine of Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus and Egretta rufescens Gmelin in Mexico. Glossocercus cyprinodontis possesses similar strobilar morphology with the two other congeneric species, both distributed in the Neartic and Neotropical regions, i.e. Glossocercus caribaensis (Rysavy et Macko, 1971) and Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819). However, G. cyprinodontis differs mainly in the shape of the rostellar hooks (those of G. cyprinodontis possess the handle and the guard strongly sclerified compared to those of G. auritus and G. caribaensis) and their size (total length of 175-203 microm in G. cyprinodontis compared to 189-211 microm in G. caribaensis and 220-285 microm in G. auritus). Generic diagnosis of Glossocercus is emended: rostellar hooks in two rows with ten hooks of different shape and length in each, scolex large and globular, proglottides craspedote, wider than long, genital pores irregularly alternating, vagina transverse, surrounded by epithelial cells, ventral to cirrus-sac, uterus bar-shaped in mature proglottides, occupies all space between osmoregulatory ducts with eggs in gravid proglottides, ovary lobed in middle of proglottis, cirrus-sac elongate, between osmoregulatory canals, cirrus armed with spinitriches and apical tuft of slender spinitriches.

  5. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Venturas

    Full Text Available Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short

  6. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Dario, Hannah L; Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon; Davis, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short-term. Severe droughts can drive

  7. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (Pstructure (Psoil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands.

  8. Mineral Types and Tree Species Determine the Functional and Taxonomic Structures of Forest Soil Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Y; Nicolitch, O; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2017-03-01

    mineralogy influences the diversity, structure, and function of soil bacterial communities in relation to the soil conditions is crucial to better understanding the relative role of the soil bacterial communities in nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in nutrient-poor environments. The present study determined in detail the diversity and structure of bacterial communities associated with different mineral types incubated for 2.5 years in the soil under different tree species using cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses. Our data showed an enrichment of specific bacterial taxa on the minerals, specifically on the most weathered minerals, suggesting that they play key roles in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Tree species diversity effects on soil microbial biomass, diversity and activity across European forest types

    OpenAIRE

    Carnol, Monique; Baeten, Lander; Bosman, Bernard; De Wandeler, Hans; Muys, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Increasing tree species diversity in forests might contribute to ecosystem-service maintenance, as well as to the reconciliation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services within the frame of multifunctional and sustainable forestry. Individual tree species influence biogeochemical cycling through element deposition (throughfall, litterfall), and through microbial activities in the soil. Yet, the influence of mixing tree species on these ecosystem processes is unclear, in particular ...

  10. Prey-Predator Three Species Model Using Predator Harvesting Holling Type II Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, S.; Rekha, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents three species harvesting model in which there is one predator species and two others are prey species. We derive boundedness and equilibrium point for this system. Also we derive the stability of this system analytically. We find bifurcation for this system. We have derived the binomic equilibrium point by using Pontryagin’s maximum principle (PMP). Presented are various suitable analytical and numerical examples with Maple 18 programming.

  11. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, E.J.; Hodgson, J.C.; Lainson, F. A.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS). Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method u...

  13. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  14. Prediction of cardiovascular events in statin-treated stable coronary patients of the treating to new targets randomized controlled trial by lipid and non-lipid biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit J Arsenault

    Full Text Available Several plasma non-lipid biomarkers have been shown to predict major cardiovascular events (MCVEs in population studies. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between lipid and non-lipid biomarkers levels achieved during statin therapy and the incidence of MCVEs in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD. We conducted a substudy of the TNT (Treating to New Targets study, which was a randomized trial that compared the efficacy of high (80 mg versus low (10 mg dose atorvastatin for the secondary prevention of CHD. Fasting plasma levels of standard lipids and of 18 non-lipid biomarkers were obtained after an 8-week run-in period on atorvastatin 10 mg in 157 patients who experienced MCVEs during the 4.9 years of study follow-up and in 1349 controls. MCVE was defined as CHD death, nonfatal, non-procedure-related myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal or nonfatal stroke. After adjusting for age, sex and treatment arm, plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, insulin, neopterin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, lipoprotein(a [Lp(a], and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE were predictive of recurrent MCVEs (P ≤ 0.02 for each doubling of plasma concentration. However, no significant association was observed between the risk of recurrent MCVEs and plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, cystatin C, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, osteopontin, soluble CD40 ligand, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. After further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and BMI, the relationship between hsCRP, insulin and MCVE were no longer significant, while the relationship between Lp(a, neopterin, NT-proBNP and sRAGE and MCVE remained

  15. Herpetofaunal species composition and relative abundance among three New England forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Deborah D. Rudis

    1990-01-01

    Drift fences and pitfall traps captured > 2000 reptiles and amphibians during 2 years; the most common species were wood frog (Rana sylvatica), American toad (Bufo americanus), and redback salamander (Plethodon cinereus). There were differences in species abundances among streamside and upland...

  16. Illustrated type catalogue of Amphidromus Albers, 1850 in the Natural History Museum, London, and descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcharit, Chirasak; Ablett, Jonathan; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    The collection of the Southeast Asian tree snail genus Amphidromus Albers, 1850 at the Natural History Museum, London includes more than 100 lots of type specimens representing 85 name-bearing types, 9 paratypes and 6 paralectotypes, and one nomen nudum. Lectotypes are here designated for Amphidromuscambojiensis, Amphidromusperakensisglobosus, Amphidromuscolumellarisgloriosa, Amphidromusmaculiferusinflata, Amphidromuslepidus, Amphidromussinistralislutea, Amphidromusmoniliferus, Amphidromusmaculiferusobscura, Amphidromussinistralisrosea and Amphidromussinensivicaria. In addition, the missing types of A.A. Gould were discovered and their type status is discussed. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, two new Amphidromus species, Amphidromus (Syndromus) globonevilli Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. and Amphidromus (Syndromus) principalis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. were recognized and are described herein.

  17. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-03

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  18. Electric signals and species recognition in the wave-type gymnotiform fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugère, V; Krahe, R

    2010-01-15

    Gymnotiformes are South American weakly electric fish that produce weak electric organ discharges (EOD) for orientation, foraging and communication purposes. It has been shown that EOD properties vary widely across species and could thus be used as species recognition signals. We measured and quantified the electric signals of various species using a landmark-based approach. Using discriminant function analysis to verify whether these signals are species specific based on different signal parameters, we found that the EOD waveform is a more specific cue than EOD frequency, which shows large overlap across species. Using Apteronotus leptorhynchus as a focal species, we then performed a series of playback experiments using stimuli of different species (varying in frequency, waveform, or both). In an experiment with restrained fish, we found, in contrast to what we predicted, that the choice of stimulus waveform did not affect the production of communication signals. In an experiment with free-swimming fish, the animals spent more time near the playback electrodes and produced more communication signals when the stimuli were within their conspecific frequency range. Waveform again had no measurable effect. The production of communication signals correlated with the frequency difference between the stimulus and the fish's own EOD, but approach behavior did not.

  19. A comparative study of oral candidal species carriage in patients with type1 and type2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh P Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus can have profound effects upon the oral tissues especially in patients with poor glycemic control being prone to severe and/or recurrent infections particularly candidiasis. The main aim was to study the association between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus and candidal carriage. Materials and Methods: The study design comprised of previously diagnosed 30 patients each with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Group A and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Group B and 30 age-, sex- and dental status-matched healthy non-diabetic individuals as controls (Group C. The saliva samples were collected and inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA and chromogenic agar culture medium. Candidal colony forming units per ml (CFU/ml values were determined. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman′s rank correlation and Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant higher positive candidal growth in Group A and Group B when compared to Group C. The CFU/ml values were significantly higher in Groups A and B as compared with Group C. Significant positive correlation of CFU/ml with fasting blood sugar level and HbA1c% in both Groups A and B was seen. Oral signs and symptoms observed in diabetics were dry mouth, burning sensation, fissuring and atrophic changes of tongue and erythematous areas, which positively correlated with candidal load. Conclusion: The glycemic control status of the diabetic patients may directly influence candidal colonization. The quantitative and biochemical characterization allows better insight into the study of association of diabetes mellitus and candida.

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  2. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  3. Soil carbon stocks, mineralization rates, and CO{sub 2} effluxes under 10 tree species on contrasting soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, P.; Elberling, B. [Copenhagen Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Geography; Vesterdal, L. [Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning, Horsholm (Denmark)

    2005-06-01

    Forest ecosystems, particularly younger forest ecosystems, are potential sinks for carbon. This study evaluated soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) effluxes in relation to soil organic carbon (SOC) content in temperate forests. In this study, 10 even-aged first generation monoculture stands at 3 sites along a gradient in soil fertility were examined. Results from laboratory experiments were used to determine SOC stocks and the mineralization rate of organic matter in O and A horizons, measured as CO{sub 2} production per unit soil carbon. The goal was to quantify the variation in soil carbon dioxide effluxes and potential accumulation of SOC in forest soils for a variety of tree species planted on contrasting soil types. SOC stocks varied greatly between tree species, but were most influenced by soil types. SOC stocks were much higher for stands on low-fertility sandy soils than stands on fertile loamy soils. Soil CO{sub 2} effluxes were measured twice in 2002. Variability within temperature adjusted fluxes did not clearly depend on tree species or soil type. Laboratory results showed that potential carbon dioxide rates were affected by site. They also doubled for soils from nutrient rich sites compared to nutrient poor sites. Therefore, the combined effect of contrasting CO{sub 2} production rates and stocks of soil carbon could explain the similar CO{sub 2} effluxes measured in the field. It was concluded that SOC sequestration in future afforestation projects would depend on soil type and tree species. SOC storage may increase with afforestation given the appropriate selection of tree species. 37 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. An Interval Type-2 Fuzzy System with a Species-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Nonlinear System Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ta Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a species-based hybrid of the electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM and back-propagation algorithms (SEMBP for an interval type-2 fuzzy neural system with asymmetric membership functions (AIT2FNS design. The interval type-2 asymmetric fuzzy membership functions (IT2 AFMFs and the TSK-type consequent part are adopted to implement the network structure in AIT2FNS. In addition, the type reduction procedure is integrated into an adaptive network structure to reduce computational complexity. Hence, the AIT2FNS can enhance the approximation accuracy effectively by using less fuzzy rules. The AIT2FNS is trained by the SEMBP algorithm, which contains the steps of uniform initialization, species determination, local search, total force calculation, movement, and evaluation. It combines the advantages of EM and back-propagation (BP algorithms to attain a faster convergence and a lower computational complexity. The proposed SEMBP algorithm adopts the uniform method (which evenly scatters solution agents over the feasible solution region and the species technique to improve the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimum. Finally, two illustrative examples of nonlinear systems control are presented to demonstrate the performance and the effectiveness of the proposed AIT2FNS with the SEMBP algorithm.

  5. Depositories of the type material of the species Coccidophilus lozadaiGonzalez, 2012 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 6 paratypes of the species Coccidophilus lozadai Gonzalez, 2012, are deposited in the collection of Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA, Lima, Peru. The holotype and remaining paratypes are deposited in the Museo de Historia Natural (MUSM, Lima, Peru, and National Museum of Natural History (USNM, Washington, D.C., USA.

  6. Species specificities among primates probed with commercially available fluorescence-based multiplex PCR typing kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshige, Yuuji; Ohtaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Ogawa, Hisae; Ishii, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshimichi

    2015-09-01

    To assess species specificities among primates of signals from short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in two commercially available kits, mainly the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit and additionally the GenePrint PowerPlex 16 system, we analyzed 69 DNA samples from 22 nonhuman primate species representing apes, Old World Monkeys (OWMs), New World Monkeys (NWMs), and prosimians. Each prosimian species and the NWM cotton-top tamarin apparently lacked all STR loci probed. Only one peak, the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from all other NWMs, except the owl monkey. In contrast, several loci, including the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from each OWM species. Notably, for each ape sample, the amelogenin peaks were concordant with morphological gender of the individual. Among the primates, especially in apes, the numbers of alleles for STR loci were increasing according to their phylogenetic order: prosimiansprimates for a few commercially released multiplex STR kits examined in this study would contribute to forensic examinations.

  7. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  8. Direct evidence on the existence of [Mo132]Keplerate-type species in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumyajit; Planken, Karel L; Kim, Robbert; Mandele, Dexx v d; Kegel, Willem K

    2007-10-15

    We demonstrate the existence of discrete single molecular [Mo(132)] Keplerate-type clusters in aqueous solution. Starting from a discrete spherical [Mo(132)] cluster, the formation of an open-basket-type [Mo(116)] defect structure is shown for the first time in solution using analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments.

  9. Investigation on the differences of accumulating Escherichia coli in three types of shellfish species, involving in the environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Li, Tiejun; Liu, Huan; Zhu, Jinping

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated accumulation of Escherichia coli and aerobic colony count in three types of shellfish species. The results indicated that the capability of accumulating E. coli and aerobic colony count for Sinonovacula constricta was stronger than that for Meretrix meretrix and Tegillarca granosa, and capability of accumulating E. coli for M. meretrix was slightly stronger than that for T. granosa. However, no significant difference was observed in the capability of accumulating aerobic colony count between M. meretrix and T. granosa. Moreover, accumulation of E. coli in S. constricta is affected by contaminated seawater and E. coli were accumulated much faster and more in S. constricta when the seawater contaminated more serious. Meanwhile, the results suggested that the populations of E. coli in S. constricta changed in accordance with the weather. This is the first study to investigate the differences of accumulating E. coli in three types of shellfish species.

  10. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828 with description of a new genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813 is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813 is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767 = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion loti (Kirby, 1808 = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800 = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n.

  11. New approach to discriminate between mass and particle species type behavior of $\\phi$ meson at FAIR energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Kalyan

    2013-01-01

    In the study of heavy ion collision, $\\phi$ meson is of special significance from the point of view that though it is a meson, at the same time has a mass comparable to baryons. Therefore a comparison of any parameter of $\\phi$ with other baryons can help to differentiate between mass and particle species type dependence of particle production. The variation of width of the rapidity distribution on beam rapidity and the rapidity distribution of strangeness enhancement factor have been studied with UrQMD generated mesons and baryons at various FAIR energies to ascertain mass/species type behavior of $\\phi$ meson. The width of the rapidity distribution is found to bear a power law with beam rapidity with a clear indication of violation of mass ordering at $\\phi$ meson. Results on strangeness enhancement factor $E_S$ of various strange particles also reveals a similar mass ordering violation at $\\phi$ meson indicating particle nature of $\\phi$ meson.

  12. Complementation of a Clostridium perfringens spo0A mutant with wild-type spo0A from other Clostridium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Hsiu; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate whether C. perfringens can be used as a model organism for studying the sporulation process in other clostridia, C. perfringens spo0A mutant IH101 was complemented with wild-type spo0A from four different Clostridium species. Wild-type spo0A from C. acetobutylicum or C. tetani, but not from C. botulinum or C. difficile, restored sporulation and enterotoxin production in IH101. The ability of spo0A from C. botulinum or C. difficile to complement the lack of spore formation in IH101 might be due, at least in part, to the low levels of spo0A transcription and Spo0A production.

  13. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of Pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson F Alex

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS. Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method used, restricted sample selection or true niche association. Bovine respiratory isolates of P. multocida (n = 133 from the UK, the USA and France, collected between 1984 and 2008 from both healthy and clinically affected animals, were typed using MLST. Isolates of P. multocida from cases of HS, isolates from other host species and data from the MLST database were used as comparison. Results Bovine respiratory isolates were found to be clonal (ISA 0.45 with 105/128 belonging to clonal complex 13 (CC13. HS isolates were not related to bovine respiratory isolates. Of the host species studied, the majority had their own unique sequence types (STs, with few STs being shared across host species, although there was some cross over between porcine and bovine respiratory isolates. Avian, ovine and porcine isolates showed greater levels of diversity compared to cattle respiratory isolates, despite more limited geographic origins. Conclusions The homogeneity of STs of bovine respiratory P. multocida observed, and the differences between these and P. multocida subpopulations from bovine non-respiratory isolates and non-bovine hosts may indicate niche association.

  14. Full genome sequence analysis of a novel adenovirus of rhesus macaque origin indicates a new simian adenovirus type and species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Malouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple novel simian adenoviruses have been isolated over the past years and their potential to cross the species barrier and infect the human population is an ever present threat. Here we describe the isolation and full genome sequencing of a novel simian adenovirus (SAdV isolated from the urine of two independent, never co-housed, late stage simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The viral genome sequences revealed a novel type with a unique genome length, GC content, E3 region and DNA polymerase amino acid sequence that is sufficiently distinct from all currently known human- or simian adenovirus species to warrant classifying these isolates as a novel species of simian adenovirus. This new species, termed Simian mastadenovirus D (SAdV-D, displays the standard genome organization for the genus Mastadenovirus containing only one copy of the fiber gene which sets it apart from the old world monkey adenovirus species HAdV-G, SAdV-B and SAdV-C.

  15. Klebocin typing of Klebsiella species isolated from nosocomial infection in intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal R

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Klebocin typing and antibiotic resistance have been studied for 518 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, [106 from intensive care unit (ICU sites, 182 from ICU staff flora, 192 from patient flora and 38 from clinical specimens]. The overall typability was 71.62%. The most common mnemonic types among various sources were 111, 211, and 112. Of the total strains tested, 28.37% strains were found to be untypable. These strains are labelled as "444". When klebocin typing was used in association with antibiogram, in 86.84% cases of clinical infection probable source of infection could be detected. Thus a combination of two typing methods poses a significant contribution in epidemiological studies.

  16. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.

  17. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    supply (C/N ratio and pH). The studies were carried out in (1) forest floor and mineral soil to 20 cm depth across six different sites of major European forest types based on samples from one to five tree species mixtures along a latitudinal gradient from Spain to Finland, (2) soil profiles down to 40 cm...... in Poland, diversity led to higher topsoil pH. However, there was a negative effect on N status as indicated by the higher C/N ratios in the deeper soil layers (20-40 cm). Further investigations are needed to unravel whether the increasing effect on soil C/N ratio results from more N-poor organic matter...... inputs or a more efficient uptake of N from the organic matter in diverse stands. Diversity positively influenced C stock particularly in mineral soils as concurrently observed across the six different sites, under the comparable environmental conditions and in two species mixtures as represented...

  18. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  19. [Species and strain composition of microbial associations oxidizing different types of gold-bearing concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Melamud, V S; Savari, E E; Sedel'nikova, G V; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative abundance of microbial species within an association was found to depend on the energy substrate and the oxidation temperature of sulfide minerals. The number of microbial cells varied depending on the position of reactor in the chain, i.e., the stage of the energy substrate oxidation. Microbial associations oxidized the energy substrate more efficiently than any of their individual components. The increase in pulp density up to the solid : liquid ratio of 1 : 2.5 had an unfavorable effect on microorganisms comprising microbial associations.

  20. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  1. Antibacterial force of the luting-type of glass ionomer cement toward Lactobacillus species and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Warna Aju Fatmawati

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rigid restoration is attached within oral cavity using adhesive cement layer. The hardening adhesive cement fills and tights the rough tooth surface with reciprocal opposing restorations. The luting type of glass ionomer cement was mostly used in the clinic for crown cementation as well as poured restoration. We can be taken a problem how strong is antibacterial effect of the luting type of glass ionomer cement to Lactobacillus species and Streptococcus Mutans. The purpose of the research was to know the antibacterial force of the luting-type of glass ionomer cement toward Lactobacillus species and Streptococcus mutans. This research was a laboratory experiment. The samples of the research were divided into two groups, treated-group (Fuji and Shofu and controlled-group. The numbers of samples in each group consisted of 7 pieces. Taking 0,5 ml of artificial saliva in which the sample of the luting-type of glass ionomer cement (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick had been immersed and storing it into Petri dish containing warm MRSA and 0,1 ml Lactobacillus sp. using poured technique. The mixture was subsequently incubated, and the colony was counted on the observation of 1st day, 7th day, and 14th day. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD. The result of the research showed that the greatest mean value of the bacterial colony presented in the controlled-group and the smallest was in the group of Shofu. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05. The released fluoride from glass ionomer cement occurred in the damaging phase caused by polyacrylate that released H+ ion from carboxyl group (COOH. The fluoride influenced the growth of bacteria by decelerating the activity of gycolytic enolase enzyme. The luting-type of glass ionomer cement had antibacterial force toward Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus sp. The luting-type of glass ionomer cement of Shofu possessed greater antibacterial force than Fuji and controlledgroup.

  2. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  3. Two types of phase diagrams for two-species Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z B; Yao, D X; Bao, C G

    2016-01-01

    Under the Thomas-Fermi approximation, a relatively much simpler analytical solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the two-species BEC have been derived. Additionally, a model for the asymmetric states has been proposed, and the competition between the symmetric and asymmetric states has been evaluated. The whole parameter-space is divided into zones, each supports a specific phase, namely, the symmetric miscible phase, the symmetric immiscible phase, or the asymmetric phase. Based on the division the phase-diagrams against any set of parameters can be plotted. Thereby, the effects of these parameters can be visualized. There are three critical values in the inter-species interaction $% V_{AB} $ and one in the ratio of particle numbers $N_{A}/N_{B}$. They govern the transitions between the phases. Two cases, (i) the repulsive $V_{AB}$ matches the repulsive $% V_{A}+V_{B}$, and (ii) the attractive $V_{AB}$ nearly cancels the effect of the repulsive $V_{A}+V_{B}$ have been particularly taken int...

  4. Distribution of carbapenem resistance determinants among epidemic and non-epidemic types of Acinetobacter species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Satowa; Yamane, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Masato; Konda, Toshifumi; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo

    2014-06-01

    We performed a comparative molecular analysis on three types of clinically isolated Acinetobacter spp.: epidemic sequence types (STs) of Acinetobacter baumannii (epidemic ST-AB), non-epidemic sequence types of A. baumannii (non-epidemic ST-AB) and non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. A total of 87 isolates - 46 A. baumannii, 25 A. pittii and 16 A. nosocomialis - from 43 hospitals were analysed. Of these, 31 A. baumannii isolates were ST1 or ST2 according to the Pasteur Institute multilocus sequence typing scheme and were defined as epidemic ST-AB. The other 15 A. baumannii isolates were defined as non-epidemic ST-AB. The epidemic ST-AB isolates harboured the blaOXA-23-like gene or had an ISAba1 element upstream of blaOXA-51-like, or both, whereas non-epidemic ST-AB and non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. isolates harboured blaOXA-58-like or metallo-β-lactamase genes, or both. The proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates was significantly higher in the epidemic ST-AB isolates (48 %) than that in the other types of Acinetobacter isolates (5 %) (PAcinetobacter spp. isolates than with epidemic ST-AB isolates, regardless of bacterial species. In addition, this study revealed that, even in Japan, where IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase producers are endemic, epidemic ST-AB harbouring blaIMP have not yet emerged.

  5. [An object-based information extraction technology for dominant tree species group types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Fan, Wen-yi; Lu, Wei; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Information extraction for dominant tree group types is difficult in remote sensing image classification, howevers, the object-oriented classification method using high spatial resolution remote sensing data is a new method to realize the accurate type information extraction. In this paper, taking the Jiangle Forest Farm in Fujian Province as the research area, based on the Quickbird image data in 2013, the object-oriented method was adopted to identify the farmland, shrub-herbaceous plant, young afforested land, Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and broad-leave tree types. Three types of classification factors including spectral, texture, and different vegetation indices were used to establish a class hierarchy. According to the different levels, membership functions and the decision tree classification rules were adopted. The results showed that the method based on the object-oriented method by using texture, spectrum and the vegetation indices achieved the classification accuracy of 91.3%, which was increased by 5.7% compared with that by only using the texture and spectrum.

  6. Synteny in toxigenic Fusarium species: the fumonisin gene cluster and the mating type region as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Vries, de P.M.; Hesselink, T.; Arts, J.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genomic approach was used to study the mating type locus and the gene cluster involved in toxin production ( fumonisin) in Fusarium proliferatum, a pathogen with a wide host range and a complex toxin profile. A BAC library, generated from F. proliferatum isolate ITEM 2287, was used to

  7. Reactive species, cellular repair and risk factors in the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus: review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlyand, Leonid E; Philipson, Louis H

    2006-05-01

    Insulin resistance (IRe) and a failure of insulin secretion are the major features of the early pathophysiology of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but the etiology is still not well understood. We suggest that: 1. The cellular mechanisms that protect against oxidative stress per se are capable of creating a reactive species-dependent IRe. 2. Reactive species-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to disruption of lipid metabolism, increased intracellular lipid content, and can also contribute to lipid-dependent IRe in myocytes and adipocytes. 3. Metabolic secretagogues that stimulate insulin secretion by the activation of initial steps in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway can also lead to increased reactive species production and cellular destruction contributing to beta-cell damage and apoptosis. These events that underlie the repair mechanisms in beta-cells, muscle and adipocytes, are important factors in the early etiology of T2D, leading to both IRe and decreased insulin secretion. This hypothesis is supported by data from multiple disciplines and includes aging, obesity and genetic factors in promoting multiple failures in this system leading to the onset of T2D. On the basis of this hypothesis therapeutic strategies should be directed towards increasing insulin secretion and reducing IRe without increasing reactive species production or concentration. Pharmacological or other approaches that result in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis could be beneficial for both IRe and T2D.

  8. Redox tuning and species distribution in Maya Blue-type materials: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Domine, Marcelo E; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente

    2013-08-28

    Maya Blue-type specimens prepared from indigo (1 wt %) plus kaolinite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, sepiolite, and silicalite are studied. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the extracts from these specimens combined with spectral and solid-state voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques provide evidence for the presence of a significant amount of dehydroindigo and isatin accompanying indigo and other minority organic compounds in all samples. Solid-state electrochemistry data permits the estimatation of indigo loading in archeological Maya Blue, which is in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 wt %. These results support a view of 'genuine' Maya Blue-type materials as complex polyfunctional organic-inorganic hybrids.

  9. Towards a typing strategy for Arcobacter species isolated from humans and animals and assessment of the in vitro genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douidah, Laid; De Zutter, Lieven; Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    Arcobacter species have a widespread distribution with a broad range of animal hosts and environmental reservoirs, and are increasingly associated with human illness. To elucidate the routes of infection, several characterization methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment-length polymorphism, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR have already been applied, but without proper validation or comparison. At present, no criterion standard typing method or strategy has been proposed. Therefore, after the validation of PFGE, those commonly applied typing methods were compared for the characterization of six human- and animal-associated Arcobacter species. With a limited number of isolates to be characterized, PFGE with restriction by KpnI is proposed as the first method of choice. However, ERIC-PCR represents a more convenient genomic fingerprinting technique when a large number of isolates is involved. Therefore, a first clustering of similar patterns obtained after ERIC-PCR, with a subsequent typing of some representatives per ERIC cluster by PFGE, is recommended. As multiple genotypes are commonly isolated from the same host and food, genomic plasticity has been suggested. The in vitro genomic stability of Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus was assessed under two temperatures and two oxygen concentrations. Variability in the genomic profile of A. cryaerophilus was observed after different passages for different strains at 37°C under microaerobic conditions. The bias due to these genomic changes must be taken into account in the evaluation of the relationship of strains.

  10. Detection, identification, and typing of Listeria species from baled silages fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, D M; Grassi, M A; Morra, P; Piano, S; Tabacco, E; Borreani, G

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobiosis, critical for successful ensilage, constitutes a challenge in baled silages. The loss of complete anaerobiosis causes aerobic deterioration and silages undergo dry matter and nutrient losses, pathogen growth, and mycotoxin production. Silage may represent an ideal substrate for Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogen of primary concern in several cheeses. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria in baled silage fed to cows producing milk for a protected designation of origin cheese, and to characterize isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR. Listeria spp. were detected in 21 silages and L. monocytogenes in 6 out of 80 of the analyzed silages; 67% of positives were found in molded zones. Results of the PCR typing showed genotypic homogeneity: 72.9 and 78.8% similarity between strains of Listeria spp. (n=56) and L. monocytogenes (n=24), respectively. Identical profiles were recovered in molded and nonmolded areas, indicating that contamination may have occurred during production. The application of PCR allowed the unambiguous identification of Listeria isolated from baled silages, and repetitive sequence-based PCR allowed a rapid and effective typing of isolates. Results disclose the potential of the systematic typing of Listeria in primary production, which is needed for the understanding of its transmission pathways. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The status of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with redescription of the type species, R. myliobatidis, and description of three new species from two species of Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2006-09-01

    As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.

  12. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  13. A new Beneziphius beaked whale from the ocean floor off Galicia, Spain and biostratigraphic reassessment of the type species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Miján

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the fossil record of beaked whales (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Ziphiidae is continuously improving, the geological age of new taxa is often poorly constrained. Based on a partial cranium from deep seafloor deposits off Galicia, Spain, we describe a new species of the stem beaked whale genus Beneziphius, B. cetariensis sp. nov. The latter differs from the type species B. brevirostris in the larger size, the rostrum being proportionally longer, the premaxillae being longer than the maxillae at the apex of the rostrum, the left premaxillary sac fossa being transversely concave, and the ascending process of the premaxilla reaching the vertical. Considering that the stratigraphic context of deep-sea deposits off the Iberian Peninsula is not precisely known, we provisionally propose an extended, middle Miocene to early Pliocene interval for the geological age of B. cetariensis. Nonetheless, the palynological analysis of sediment sampled from cavities in the cranium of the holotype of B. brevirostris, discovered during the second part of the nineteenth century in inland deposits of Antwerp (north of Belgium, yield an early to mid-Serravallian age (13.2–12.8 Ma, late middle Miocene. B. brevirostris is thus the oldest described species of the “Messapicetus clade”, a large clade of stem ziphiids in which most species are dated from the late Miocene. The description of the Galician species B. cetariensis broadens the biogeographic distribution of Beneziphius and confirms the strong ziphiid faunal affinities between the eastern coast of the North Atlantic and the southern margin of the North Sea Basin.

  14. Kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes from the Viguiera species inhibit vascular smooth muscle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Sergio R; Tirapelli, Carlos R; da Costa, Fernando B; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2006-08-01

    The research, development and use of natural products as therapeutic agents, especially those derived from plants, have been increasing in recent years. Despite the fact that plants provide a rich source of novel biologically active compounds, only a small percentage have been phytochemically investigated and studied for their medical potential. Viguiera is a genus that belongs to the family Asteraceae and to the sunflower tribe Heliantheae, which is widespread mostly in Mexico and in other areas of the Andes and upland areas of Brazil. A review on the secondary metabolites pointed out that sesquiterpene lactones and diterpenes, of the kaurane and pimarane-type, are the main compounds produced by these plants. Some reports have shown that kaurane- and pimarane-type diterpenes exert several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory action, antimicrobial and antispasmodic activities. Kaurenoic and pimaradienoic acids, which are the main secondary metabolites isolated by our research group from the roots of Viguiera robusta and V. arenaria, respectively, have been evaluated on vascular smooth muscle contractility. We showed that these diterpenoids are able to inhibit the vascular contractility mainly by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Additionally, in this review we discuss the structure-activity relationship of the diterpenes regarding their inhibitory activity on vascular contractility.

  15. Frequency and type of renal lesions in dogs naturally infected with leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Colin-Flores, R F; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of renal lesions associated with positive titers against Leptospira sp. in a stray dog population. Three hundred fifty pairs of kidneys and an equal number of serum samples were collected from dogs captured by the dog pound of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Euthanasia of dogs was performed following the regulations of the Official Mexican Health Ministry (NOM-033-ZOO-1995). Serum samples were evaluated with the microscopic agglutination test, and tissue samples were processed and fixed in paraffin. After staining with hematoxylin and eosin, the frequency of renal lesions was determined and classified. As an additional evaluation, samples with interstitial nephritis were stained by the Warthin-Starry method in order to observe the presence of spirochete forms that could be morphologically compatible with Leptospira spp. We found that 98% of cases presented at least one type of lesion. The main histological lesions found were mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 63.7% (n= 223), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis (MPGN+IN) in 34% (n= 119), nephrosclerosis in 0.57% (n= 2), mesangial glomerulonephritis in 0.28% (n= 1), and interstitial nephritis (IN) in 0.28% (n= 1). Thirty-four percent (n= 122) of the dogs were seropositive to Leptospira sp., mainly against serovar canicola. Among dogs with IN (alone or associated with MPGN) (n= 120), 49.1% were seropositive to Leptospira sp., but only 17% of them showed spirochete forms compatible with the bacteria. A statistical association between seropositive dogs and the presence of MPGN+IN was determined (P < 0.0001; odds ratio 2.7, confidence interval 1.7-4.5). We concluded that the frequency of renal lesions found in this study is high and L. canicola is probably the most common circulating serovar in dogs from this area. Dogs that have been in contact with Leptospira spp. have a higher risk of developing renal lesions of

  16. Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing System for Medically Relevant Bipolaris Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cau D.; Purfield, Anne E.; Fader, Robert; Pascoe, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is the gold standard genotyping technique for many microorganisms. This classification approach satisfies the requirements for a high-resolution, standardized, and archivable taxonomic system. Here, we describe the development of a novel MLST system to assist with the investigation of an unusual cluster of surgical site infections caused by Bipolaris spp. in postoperative cardiothoracic surgery (POCS) patients during January 2008 to December 2013 in the southeastern United States. We also used the same MLST system to perform a retrospective analysis on isolates from a 2012 Bipolaris endophthalmitis outbreak caused by a contaminated product. This MLST system showed high intraspecies discriminatory power for Bipolaris spicifera, B. hawaiiensis, and B. australiensis. Based on the relatedness of the isolates, the MLST data supported the hypothesis that infections in the POCS cluster were from different environmental sources while confirming that the endophthalmitis outbreak resulted from a point source, which was a contaminated medication. PMID:26202112

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  18. Bridging the species divide: transgenic mice humanized for type-I interferon response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Harari

    Full Text Available We have generated transgenic mice that harbor humanized type I interferon receptors (IFNARs enabling the study of type I human interferons (Hu-IFN-Is in mice. These "HyBNAR" (Hybrid IFNAR mice encode transgenic variants of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 with the human extracellular domains being fused to transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of mouse sequence. B16F1 mouse melanoma cells harboring the HyBNAR construct specifically bound Hu-IFN-Is and were rendered sensitive to Hu-IFN-I stimulated anti-proliferation, STAT1 activation and activation of a prototypical IFN-I response gene (MX2. HyBNAR mice were crossed with a transgenic strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the IFN-responsive MX2 promoter (MX2-Luciferase. Both the HyBNAR and HyBNAR/MX2-Luciferase mice were responsive to all Hu-IFN-Is tested, inclusive of IFNα2A, IFNβ, and a human superagonist termed YNSα8. The mice displayed dose-dependent pharmacodynamic responses to Hu-IFN-I injection, as assessed by measuring the expression of IFN-responsive genes. Our studies also demonstrated a weak activation of endogenous mouse interferon response, especially after high dose administration of Hu-IFNs. In sharp contrast to data published for humans, our pharmacodynamic readouts demonstrate a very short-lived IFN-I response in mice, which is not enhanced by sub-cutaneous (SC injections in comparison to other administration routes. With algometric differences between humans and mice taken into account, the HyBNAR mice provides a convenient non-primate pre-clinical model to advance the study of human IFN-Is.

  19. Responses of soil N-fixing bacteria communities to invasive plant species under different types of simulated acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Jun; Du, Daolin

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios, and where the invasive ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and the native species ( Amaranthus tricolor L.) grew mixed or isolated for 3 months. A. retroflexus itself did not exert significant effects on the diversity and richness of SNB but did it under certain SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios. Compared to soils where the native species grew isolated, the soils where the invasive A. retroflexus grew isolated showed lower relative abundance of some SNB classes under certain SAD treatments. Some types of SAD can alter soil nutrient content which in turn could affect SNB diversity and abundance. Specifically, greater SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios tended to have more toxic effects on SNB likely due to the higher exchange capacity of hydroxyl groups (OH-) between SO4 2- and NO3 -. As a conclusion, it can be expected a change in the structure of SNB after A. retroflexus invasion under acid deposition rich in sulfuric acid. This change may create a plant soil feedback favoring future A. retroflexus invasions.

  20. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    in Poland, diversity led to higher topsoil pH. However, there was a negative effect on N status as indicated by the higher C/N ratios in the deeper soil layers (20-40 cm). Further investigations are needed to unravel whether the increasing effect on soil C/N ratio results from more N-poor organic matter...... supply (C/N ratio and pH). The studies were carried out in (1) forest floor and mineral soil to 20 cm depth across six different sites of major European forest types based on samples from one to five tree species mixtures along a latitudinal gradient from Spain to Finland, (2) soil profiles down to 40 cm......, particularly in topsoil layers. Diversity did not affect fine root characteristics of the young forests and effects on soil properties were different under the investigated contexts. Across the different European sites, diversity had no effect on C/N ratio and pH but under comparable environmental conditions...

  1. Homology analysis of pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia pestis based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Shi, Guoxiang; Cui, Zhigang; Hai, Rong; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Kewei; Qiu, Haiyan; Gu, Wenpeng; Du, Xiaoli; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme and used it to study the population structure and evolutionary relationships of three pathogenic Yersinia species. MLST of these three Yersinia species showed a complex of two clusters, one composed of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis and the other composed of Yersinia enterocolitica. Within the first cluster, the predominant Y. pestis sequence type 90 (ST90) was linked to Y. pseudotuberculosis ST43 by one locus difference, and 81.25% of the ST43 strains were from serotype O:1b, supporting the hypothesis that Y. pestis descended from the O:1b serotype of Y. pseudotuberculosis. We also found that the worldwide-prevalent serotypes O:1a, O:1b, and O:3 were predominated by specific STs. The second cluster consisted of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, two of which may not have identical STs. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains formed a relatively conserved group; most strains clustered within ST186 and ST187. Serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 were separated into three distinct blocks. Nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica STs were more heterogeneous, reflecting genetic diversity through evolution. By providing a better and effective MLST procedure for use with the Yersinia community, valuable information and insights into the genetic evolutionary differences of these pathogens were obtained.

  2. A review of the primary types of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Paulsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Lucanidae are reviewed following an examination of all primary types. Although the continued existence of the species is unknown and some possibly are extinct there are five recently extant species, including one species that is described here as new. The holotypes for all available names are pictured, and synonymies discussed and updated. Lectotypes are designated for Apterocyclus honoluluensis Waterhouse and A. munroi Sharp. A key to species and a revised catalog for the genus are provided.

  3. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons-Bell, Maya; Durant, Fallon; Hammelman, Jennifer; Bessonov, Nicholas; Volpert, Vitaly; Morokuma, Junji; Pinet, Kaylinnette; Adams, Dany S; Pietak, Alexis; Lobo, Daniel; Levin, Michael

    2015-11-24

    The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol) can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina). We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts), and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies. Taken together

  4. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Emmons-Bell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina. We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts, and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies

  5. Comprehensive Detection and Discrimination of Campylobacter Species by Use of Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G.; Aston, D. Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm−1 and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  6. Plasmids in Mycoplasma species isolated from goats and sheep and their preliminary typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Elmiro R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-five (105 clinical isolates of mycoplasma from caprine origin and one isolate from ovine were surveyed for plasmids, which were present in thirty-three (31% of them. These mycoplasmas originated from 13 herds. Ten of them were symptomatic for mycoplasmal disease (mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia and three herds were asymptomatic, i.e., clinically normal. Twenty-eight isolates were Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides LC (large colony or caprine biotype, four were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and one was Mycoplasma cottewii. The isolated plasmids were linearized by EcoRI, EcoRV, EcoRI and EcoRV or BamHI and EcoRV, and were of five sizes (1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9 Kbp. Based on restriction enzyme digestion and size of the linearized supercoiled extrachromosomal DNA, five plasmid types were recovered (p1II, p2III, p2V, p3I, and p4IV. The small size of these DNA elements probably exclude replicative forms of DNA virus, which are equal or larger than 8.0 Kbp.

  7. Type III Effector VopC Mediates Invasion for Vibrio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are associated with infections caused by contaminated food and water. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 is a shared feature of all clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and some V. cholerae strains. Despite its being responsible for enterotoxicity, no molecular mechanism has been determined for the T3SS2-dependent pathogenicity. Here, we show that although Vibrio spp. are typically thought of as extracellular pathogens, the T3SS2 of Vibrio mediates host cell invasion, vacuole formation, and replication of intracellular bacteria. The catalytically active effector VopC is critical for Vibrio T3SS2-mediated invasion. There are other marine bacteria encoding VopC homologs associated with a T3SS; therefore, we predict that these bacteria are also likely to use T3SS-mediated invasion as part of their pathogenesis mechanisms. These findings suggest a new molecular paradigm for Vibrio pathogenicity and modify our view of the roles of T3SS effectors that are translocated during infection.

  8. Comparison of CD45 extracellular domain sequences from divergent vertebrate species suggests the conservation of three fibronectin type III domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, M; Matthews, R J; Robb, B; Litman, G W; Bork, P; Thomas, M L

    1996-08-15

    Mammalian CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed by all nucleated cells of hematopoietic origin. In lymphocytes, CD45 is required for Ag-induced signal transduction due to its ability to positively regulate Src family members. The mechanisms by which CD45 function is regulated are unknown. Indeed, the interactions of CD45 extracellular domains are largely undefined. To gain insight into potentially important regions of the extracellular domain, we sought to identify conserved features from divergent species. cDNAs encoding the putative CD45 homologue from Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) were isolated. The cDNA sequence predicts a protein of 1200 amino acids that contains a 452-amino acid extracellular domain, a 22-amino acid transmembrane region, and a 703-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. Alignment searches revealed that the Heterodontus cytoplasmic domain sequence was most identical to mammalian CD45 and a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase sequence identified from chickens, ChPTP lambda. A dendrogram with other transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase sequences suggest that the Heterodontus and chicken sequences represents CD45 orthologues for their respective species. Analysis of vertebrate CD45 extracellular domain sequences indicates the conservation of three structural regions: a region containing potential O-linked carbohydrate sites, a cysteine-containing region, and a region containing three fibronectin type III domains. For each vertebrate species, multiple isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of three exons that encode a portion of the region containing potential O-linked glycosylation sites. These studies provide evidence for a conservation in CD45 extracellular domain structure between divergent species and provide a basis for understanding CD45 extracellular domain interactions.

  9. Study of types of some species of "Filaria" (Nematoda) parasites of small mammals described by Von Linstow and Molin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O

    2011-05-01

    Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB) and Vienna (NMW) Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897) n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899) Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis), Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858) Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium), Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858) as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorer vulgaris (= Sorex araneus), is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior

  10. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  11. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  12. Molecular typing of the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis and Pichia guilliermondii recovered from wine related sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Patricia; Barata, André; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Fernández-Espinar, M Teresa; Loureiro, Virgilio; Querol, Amparo

    2006-01-15

    A total of 63 strains of Dekkera bruxellensis and 32 strains of Pichia guilliermondii isolated from wine related environments were identified by restriction analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region of the rDNA. These strains were subjected to intraspecific discrimination using mtDNA restriction and RAPD-PCR analysis. The isolates identified as D. bruxellensis yielded 3 different molecular patterns of mtDNA restriction using the endonuclease HinfI. The pattern A was the most frequent (58 strains) among strains from different sources, regions and countries. Pattern B (4 strains) and C (one strain) were determined in isolates from Portuguese wines. The discrimination among the pattern A strains was achieved by a RAPD-PCR assay with 3 primers (OPA-2, OPA-3 and OPA-9). A total of 12 haplotypes were obtained with the combination of the patterns provided by the 3 OPAs. The pattern 2 was the most frequent and extensively distributed being found in strains from different countries and from different sources like wine, barrique wood and insects. The strains of P. guilliermondii were characterized with restriction of mtDNA using the endonuclease HinfI yielding 7 different restriction patterns. These patterns were associated with different efficiencies of 4-ethylphenol production. Patterns A to D corresponded to 19 strains producing low levels of 4-ethylphenol (50 mg/l), when grown in synthetic media supplemented with 100 mg/l of p-coumaric acid. The high degree of polymorphism observed shows that intraspecific typing is essential for accurate yeast dissemination studies in wine related environments.

  13. A comparison of the hydraulic efficiency of a palm species (Iriartea deltoidea) with other wood types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; McCulloh, Katherine A; Phillips, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    Palms are an important component of tropical ecosystems, living alongside dicotyledonous trees, even though they have a very different growth pattern and vascular system. As monocots, vessels in palms are located within vascular bundles and, without a vascular cambium that many dicotyledonous trees possess, palms cannot add additional vessels to their vascular system as they get older and taller. This means that hydraulic architecture in palms is more predetermined, which may require a highly efficient hydraulic system. This preset nature, along with the decoupling of hydraulic and mechanical functioning to different cell types, may allow palms to have a more efficient hydraulic system than dicotyledonous trees. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the efficiency of the hydraulic system in the palm Iriartea deltoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) and compare this efficiency with other tree forms. We measured cross-sectional areas of roots, stems and fronds as well as leaf areas of I. deltoidea saplings. Likewise, cross-sections were made and vessel diameters and frequencies measured. This allowed for the calculation of theoretical specific conductivity (K(S,calc)), theoretical leaf-specific conductivity (K(L,calc)), and vessel diameter and vessel number ratios between distal and proximal locations in the palms. Iriartea deltoidea palms were found to have the largest, least frequent vessels that diverged most from the square packing limit (maximum number of vessels that fit into a given area) compared with other major tree forms, and they therefore invested the least space and carbon into water transport structures. Likewise, conduits tapered by ∼1/3 between ranks (root, bole and petiole), which represents an efficient ratio with regard to the trade-offs between safety and efficiency of the conducting system. Conduits also exhibited a high conservation of the sum of the conduit radii cubed (Σr(3)) across ranks, thereby approximating Murray's law patterning. Therefore, our

  14. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E

    2007-11-01

    C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis.

  15. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828) with description of a new genus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813...

  16. Effects of Water Pollution in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria Fish Species Composition, Histology, Shrimp Fishery and Fishing Gear Type

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.F.N. Abowei; E.N. Ogamba

    2013-01-01

    The effect of water pollution in Koluama Area in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to determine its effects on fish species composition, histology, shrimp fishery and fishing gear type. A total of twenty (20...

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Aller, A.I.; Canton, E.; Castanon-Olivares, L.R.; Chowdhary, A.; Cordoba, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Govender, N.; Hagen, F.; Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Johnson, E.; Kidd, S.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; St-Germain, G.; Trilles, L.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available. We established ECVs for these species and agents based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions. A total of 2,985 to

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Aller, A.I.; Canton, E.; Castanon-Olivares, L.R.; Chowdhary, A.; Cordoba, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Govender, N.; Hagen, F.; Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Johnson, E.; Kidd, S.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; St-Germain, G.; Trilles, L.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available. We established ECVs for these species and agents based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions. A total of 2,985 to

  19. Evidence of transfer by conjugation of type IV secretion system genes between Bartonella species and Rhizobium radiobacter in amoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharee Saisongkorh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

  20. Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2009-04-01

    The rhizosphere is of central importance not only for plant nutrition, health and quality but also for microorganism-driven carbon sequestration, ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. A multitude of biotic and abiotic factors are assumed to influence the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. In this review, recent studies on the influence of the two factors, plant species and soil type, on rhizosphere-associated microbial communities are discussed. Root exudates and the response of microorganisms to the latter as well as to root morphology were shown to shape rhizosphere microbial communities. All studies revealed that soil is the main reservoir for rhizosphere microorganisms. Many secrets of microbial life in the rhizosphere were recently uncovered due to the enormous progress in molecular and microscopic tools. Physiological and molecular data on the factors that drive selection processes in the rhizosphere are presented here. Furthermore, implications for agriculture, nature conservation and biotechnology will also be discussed.

  1. Candida species and other yeasts in the oral cavities of type 2 diabetic patients in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, Blanca Lynne

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species and to study factors associated to oral cavity colonization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A total of 107 diabetics were classified into controlled and uncontrolled according to glycosylated hemoglobin values. Each patient was assessed for stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and an oral rinse to search for yeast. The study also determined the state of oral health via Klein and Palmer CPO indexes for permanent dentition, dental plaque by O’Leary, and a periodontal chart.Results: We found yeasts in 74.8% of the patients. A total of 36 of the 52 subjects with controlled diabetes presented yeasts and 44 in the uncontrolled; no significant differences (p = 0.2 were noted among the presence of yeasts and the control of blood glucose. The largest number of isolates corresponded to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. Uncontrolled individuals presented a significantly higher percentage of yeast different from C. albicans (p = 0.049. Conclusions: We found a high percentage of Candida colonization and uncontrolled individuals had greater diversity of species. The wide range of CFU/ml found both in patients with oral candidiasis, as well as in those without it did not permit distinguishing between colonization and disease. We only found association between isolation of yeasts and the low rate of salivary flow.

  2. Sequence analysis of the 3’-untranslated region of HSP70 (type I genes in the genus Leishmania: its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Jose M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Leishmaniases are a group of clinically diverse diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. To distinguish between species is crucial for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as for treatment decisions. Recently, sequencing of the HSP70 coding region has been applied in phylogenetic studies and for identifying of Leishmania species with excellent results. Methods In the present study, we analyzed the 3’-untranslated region (UTR of Leishmania HSP70-type I gene from 24 strains representing eleven Leishmania species in the belief that this non-coding region would have a better discriminatory capacity for species typing than coding regions. Results It was observed that there was a remarkable degree of sequence conservation in this region, even between species of the subgenus Leishmania and Viannia. In addition, the presence of many microsatellites was a common feature of the 3´-UTR of HSP70-I genes in the Leishmania genus. Finally, we constructed dendrograms based on global sequence alignments of the analyzed Leishmania species and strains, the results indicated that this particular region of HSP70 genes might be useful for species (or species complex typing, improving for particular species the discrimination capacity of phylogenetic trees based on HSP70 coding sequences. Given the large size variation of the analyzed region between the Leishmania and Viannia subgenera, direct visualization of the PCR amplification product would allow discrimination between subgenera, and a HaeIII-PCR-RFLP analysis might be used for differentiating some species within each subgenera. Conclusions Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this region, which is readily amplified using a single pair of primers from both Old and New World Leishmania species, might be useful as a molecular marker for species discrimination.

  3. Sequence analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of HSP70 (type I) genes in the genus Leishmania: its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M; Chicharro, Carmen; García, Lineth; Parrado, Rudy; Puerta, Concepción J; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-04-28

    The Leishmaniases are a group of clinically diverse diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. To distinguish between species is crucial for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as for treatment decisions. Recently, sequencing of the HSP70 coding region has been applied in phylogenetic studies and for identifying of Leishmania species with excellent results. In the present study, we analyzed the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Leishmania HSP70-type I gene from 24 strains representing eleven Leishmania species in the belief that this non-coding region would have a better discriminatory capacity for species typing than coding regions. It was observed that there was a remarkable degree of sequence conservation in this region, even between species of the subgenus Leishmania and Viannia. In addition, the presence of many microsatellites was a common feature of the 3'-UTR of HSP70-I genes in the Leishmania genus. Finally, we constructed dendrograms based on global sequence alignments of the analyzed Leishmania species and strains, the results indicated that this particular region of HSP70 genes might be useful for species (or species complex) typing, improving for particular species the discrimination capacity of phylogenetic trees based on HSP70 coding sequences. Given the large size variation of the analyzed region between the Leishmania and Viannia subgenera, direct visualization of the PCR amplification product would allow discrimination between subgenera, and a HaeIII-PCR-RFLP analysis might be used for differentiating some species within each subgenera. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this region, which is readily amplified using a single pair of primers from both Old and New World Leishmania species, might be useful as a molecular marker for species discrimination.

  4. Regulation of type I interferon responses by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agod, Zsofia; Fekete, Tünde; Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Szabo, Attila; Moon, Hyelim; Boldogh, Istvan; Biro, Tamas; Lanyi, Arpad; Bacsi, Attila; Pazmandi, Kitti

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generated continuously under physiological conditions have recently emerged as critical players in the regulation of immune signaling pathways. In this study we have investigated the regulation of antiviral signaling by increased mtROS production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which, as major producers of type I interferons (IFN), are the key coordinators of antiviral immunity. The early phase of type I IFN production in pDCs is mediated by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs), whereas the late phase of IFN response can also be triggered by cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), expression of which is induced upon TLR stimulation. Therefore, pDCs provide an ideal model to study the impact of elevated mtROS on the antiviral signaling pathways initiated by receptors with distinct subcellular localization. We found that elevated level of mtROS alone did not change the phenotype and the baseline cytokine profile of resting pDCs. Nevertheless increased mtROS levels in pDCs lowered the TLR9-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators slightly, whereas reduced type I IFN production markedly via blocking phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), the key transcription factor of the TLR9 signaling pathway. The TLR9-induced expression of RIG-I in pDCs was also negatively regulated by enhanced mtROS production. On the contrary, elevated mtROS significantly augmented the RIG-I-stimulated expression of type I IFNs, as well as the expression of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS) protein and the phosphorylation of Akt and IRF3 that are essential components of RIG-I signaling. Collectively, our data suggest that increased mtROS exert diverse immunoregulatory functions in pDCs both in the early and late phase of type I IFN responses depending on which type of viral sensing pathway is stimulated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  6. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD typing of Campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Rusul, Gulam; Huda, Nurul; Cogan, Tristan; Corry, Janet

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively.

  7. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus.

  8. Species composition, distribution and habitat types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the associated conservation implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorinda A Hart

    Full Text Available Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity.

  9. Species composition, distribution and habitat types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the associated conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A; Bowker, Meyrick B; Tarboton, Warwick; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI) value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity.

  10. Species Composition, Distribution and Habitat Types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Associated Conservation Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A.; Bowker, Meyrick B.; Tarboton, Warwick; Downs, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Maputaland–Pondoland–Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI) value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity. PMID:24662948

  11. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species impairs postischemic neovascularization in mice with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Téni G; Heymes, Christophe; You, Dong; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Mees, Barend; Waeckel, Ludovic; Duriez, Micheline; Vilar, José; Brandes, Ralph P; Levy, Bernard I; Shah, Ajay M; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    We hypothesized that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may affect postischemic neovascularization. The response to unilateral femoral artery ligation was studied in wild-type or gp91(phox)-deficient control or type 1 diabetic mice or in animals treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or with in vivo electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Rac1 (50 microg) for 21 days. Postischemic neovascularization was reduced in diabetic mice in association with down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A protein levels. In diabetic animals vascular endothelial growth factor levels and postischemic neovascularization were restored to nondiabetic levels by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAC administration or the inhibition of ROS generation by gp91(phox) deficiency or by administration of dominant-negative Rac1. Finally, diabetes reduced the ability of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells. Treatment with NAC (3 mmol/L), apocynin (200 micromol/L), or the p38MAPK inhibitor LY333351 (10 micromol/L) up-regulated the number of endothelial progenitor cell colonies derived from diabetic BM-MNCs by 1.5-, 1.6-, and 1.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ischemic hindlimb model, injection of diabetic BM-MNCs isolated from NAC-treated or gp91(phox)-deficient diabetic mice increased neovascularization by approximately 1.5-fold greater than untreated diabetic BM-MNCs (P < 0.05). Thus, inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction improves the angiogenic and vasculogenic processes and restores postischemic neovascularization in type 1 diabetic mice.

  13. Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yoshimi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species.

  14. [On the validity of the genus Otidilepis Yamaguti, 1959 (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and the classification of the rostellar hooks of its type species, O. tetraciS (Cholodkowsky, 1906)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, A K

    2014-01-01

    The type material on Otidilepis tetracis (Cholodkowsky, 1906), the type species of the genus Otidilepis Yamaguti, 1959 is reinvestigated. The validity of the genus Otidilepis is confirmed. It is clearly distinguished from the genus Hispaniolepis Lopez Neyra, 1942 by the form and dimensions of the rostellar hooks as well as by the proportions of the attachment organs of the scolex (diameter of suckers: width of the rostellum). "Orthodiorchoid" type based on the hooks of D. acuminata (Clerc, 1902), type species of the genus Diorchis Clerc, 1903, is introduced. The former "diorchoid" type, based on the hooks of D. americana Ransom, 1909, is renamed in "americanoid". Rostellar hooks of O. tetracis belong to the americanoid type.

  15. Bacteroides fragilis type VI secretion systems use novel effector and immunity proteins to antagonize human gut Bacteroidales species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-03-29

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are multiprotein complexes best studied in Gram-negative pathogens where they have been shown to inhibit or kill prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and are often important for virulence. We recently showed that T6SS loci are also widespread in symbiotic human gut bacteria of the order Bacteroidales, and that these T6SS loci segregate into three distinct genetic architectures (GA). GA1 and GA2 loci are present on conserved integrative conjugative elements (ICE) and are transferred and shared among diverse human gut Bacteroidales species. GA3 loci are not contained on conserved ICE and are confined to Bacteroides fragilis Unlike GA1 and GA2 T6SS loci, most GA3 loci do not encode identifiable effector and immunity proteins. Here, we studied GA3 T6SSs and show that they antagonize most human gut Bacteroidales strains analyzed, except for B. fragilis strains with the same T6SS locus. A combination of mutation analyses,trans-protection analyses, and in vitro competition assays, allowed us to identify novel effector and immunity proteins of GA3 loci. These proteins are not orthologous to known proteins, do not contain identified motifs, and most have numerous predicted transmembrane domains. Because the genes encoding effector and immunity proteins are contained in two variable regions of GA3 loci, GA3 T6SSs of the species B. fragilis are likely the source of numerous novel effector and immunity proteins. Importantly, we show that the GA3 T6SS of strain 638R is functional in the mammalian gut and provides a competitive advantage to this organism.

  16. Use of whole-genus genome sequence data to develop a multilocus sequence typing tool that accurately identifies Yersinia isolates to the species and subspecies levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Miquette; Chattaway, Marie A; Reuter, Sandra; Savin, Cyril; Strauch, Eckhard; Carniel, Elisabeth; Connor, Thomas; Van Damme, Inge; Rajakaruna, Lakshani; Rajendram, Dunstan; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas R; McNally, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Yersinia is a large and diverse bacterial genus consisting of human-pathogenic species, a fish-pathogenic species, and a large number of environmental species. Recently, the phylogenetic and population structure of the entire genus was elucidated through the genome sequence data of 241 strains encompassing every known species in the genus. Here we report the mining of this enormous data set to create a multilocus sequence typing-based scheme that can identify Yersinia strains to the species level to a level of resolution equal to that for whole-genome sequencing. Our assay is designed to be able to accurately subtype the important human-pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica to whole-genome resolution levels. We also report the validation of the scheme on 386 strains from reference laboratory collections across Europe. We propose that the scheme is an important molecular typing system to allow accurate and reproducible identification of Yersinia isolates to the species level, a process often inconsistent in nonspecialist laboratories. Additionally, our assay is the most phylogenetically informative typing scheme available for Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mike

    2016-03-24

    Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of

  18. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the

  19. A name for the 'blueberry tetra', an aquarium trade popular species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes, Characidae), with comments on fish species descriptions lacking accurate type locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M M F; Dagosta, F C P; Camelier, P; Oyakawa, O T

    2016-07-01

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from a tributary of the upper Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its exuberant colour in life, with blue to purple body and red fins, is appreciated in the aquarium trade. Characters to diagnose the new species from all congeners are the presence of a single humeral blotch, absence of a distinct caudal-peduncle blotch, absence of a well-defined dark mid-lateral stripe on body, the presence of 16-18 branched anal-fin rays, nine branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched pelvic-fin rays. A brief comment on fish species descriptions solely based on aquarium material and its consequence for conservation policies is provided. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California’s Historic Drought of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Evan D.; Dario, Hannah L.; Jacobsen, Anna L.; Pratt, R. Brandon; Davis, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short-term. Severe droughts can drive

  1. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  2. Adipokines (Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin) Differentially Regulate All Hormonal Cell Types in Primary Anterior Pituitary Cell Cultures from Two Primate Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento-Cabral, André; Peinado, Juan R; Halliday, Lisa C; Malagon, María M; Castaño, Justo P; Kineman, Rhonda D; Luque, Raúl M

    2017-03-06

    Adipose-tissue (AT) is an endocrine organ that dynamically secretes multiple hormones, the adipokines, which regulate key physiological processes. However, adipokines and their receptors are also expressed and regulated in other tissues, including the pituitary, suggesting that locally- and AT-produced adipokines might comprise a regulatory circuit that relevantly modulate pituitary cell-function. Here, we used primary pituitary cell-cultures from two normal nonhuman-primate species [Papio-anubis/Macaca-fascicularis] to determine the impact of different adipokines on the functioning of all anterior-pituitary cell-types. Leptin and resistin stimulated GH-release, a response that was blocked by somatostatin. Conversely, adiponectin decreased GH-release, and inhibited GHRH-, but not ghrelin-stimulated GH-secretion. Furthermore: 1) Leptin stimulated PRL/ACTH/FSH- but not LH/TSH-release; 2) adiponectin stimulated PRL-, inhibited ACTH- and did not alter LH/FSH/TSH-release; and 3) resistin increased ACTH-release and did not alter PRL/LH/FSH/TSH-secretion. These effects were mediated through the activation of common (AC/PKA) and distinct (PLC/PKC, intra-/extra-cellular calcium, PI3K/MAPK/mTOR) signaling-pathways, and by the gene-expression regulation of key receptors/transcriptional-factors involved in the functioning of these pituitary cell-types (e.g. GHRH/ghrelin/somatostatin/insulin/IGF-I-receptors/Pit-1). Finally, we found that primate pituitaries expressed leptin/adiponectin/resistin. Altogether, these and previous data suggest that local-production of adipokines/receptors, in conjunction with circulating adipokine-levels, might comprise a relevant regulatory circuit that contribute to the fine-regulation of pituitary functions.

  3. Two new species of Pratinus Attems, with taxonomic notes on the genus and a redescription of its type-species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1964-01-01

    Recently, in my paper on the Paradoxosomatidae of Borneo (JEEKEL, 1963), I discussed the taxonomy of the genus Pratinus Attems, 1937, and showed that the species of this genus in the wide sense as conceived by ATTEMS (1937, 1953) in majority belong to three other genera, viz., Orthomorpha Bollman, 1

  4. Cellular and lipopolysaccharide fatty acid composition of the type strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella nonpathogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyurenko, Z P; Opanasenko, L S; Koval', G M; Turyanitsa, A I; Ruban, N M

    2001-01-01

    The cellular and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fatty acid compositions of the type strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. terrigena, K. planticola, and "K. trevisanii" were studied. The cellular fatty acids of klebsiellae were presented by straight-chain saturated and monounsaturated, cyclopropane, and hydroxy fatty acids. Hexadecanoic, methylenehexadecanoic, octadecenoic and hexadecenoic acids prevailed. The K. pneumoniae strain mainly differed from the strains of other species by two and more times lower level of dodecanoic acid in cells. Variations of cyclopropane and unsaturated fatty acid contents in cells were observed. LPS fatty acids profiles of klebsiellae mainly consisted of straight-chain saturated and hydroxy fatty acids with predominance of tetradecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acids. LPS fatty acids profiles of K. oxytoca, K. terrigena, K. planticola, and "K. trevisanii" strains were very similar and differed from that of the K. pneumoniae strain by higher levels of dodecanoic acid (approximately 5-6 times) and absence of 2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid. The obtained data indicated more close relatedness of K. oxytoca, K. terrigena, and K. planticola and some their remoteness from K. pneumoniae.

  5. A native species with invasive behaviour in coastal dunes: evidence for progressing decay and homogenization of habitat types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Degn, Hans Jørgen; Damgaard, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    A new species has recently invaded coastal dune ecosystems in North West Europe. The native and expansive inland grass, Deschampsia flexuosa, progressively dominating inland heaths, has recently invaded coastal dunes in Denmark, occasionally even as a dominant species. A total of 222 coastal...... in nutrient level and that human influences may cause a native species to be invasive in new ecosystems. This could be a radical example of change in species composition due to a long lasting exceedance of critical load of nitrogen. The investigation also showed a general increase in cover of the most...... dominant species....

  6. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobacters of human clinical (e.g. C. jejuni or veterinary (e.g. C. fetus relevance. However, other, emerging, Campylobacter species have been isolated increasingly from environmental, food animal or human clinical samples. We describe herein MLST methods for five emerging Campylobacter species: C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus. The concisus/curvus method uses the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, whereas the other methods use the seven loci defined for C. jejuni (i.e., aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, pgm, and tkt. Multiple food animal and human clinical C. hyointestinalis (n=48, C. lanienae (n=34 and C. sputorum (n=24 isolates were typed, along with 86 human clinical C. concisus and C. curvus isolates. A large number of sequence types (STs were identified using all four MLST methods. Similar to Campylobacter MLST methods described previously, these novel MLST methods identified mixed isolates containing two or more strains of the same species. Additionally, these methods speciated unequivocally isolates that had been typed ambiguously using other molecular-based speciation methods, such as 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, the design of degenerate primer pairs for some methods permitted the typing of related species; for example, the C. hyointestinalis primer pairs could be used to type C. fetus strains. Therefore, these novel Campylobacter MLST methods will prove useful in speciating and differentiating strains of multiple, emerging Campylobacter species.

  7. Myxoma Virus dsRNA Binding Protein M029 Inhibits the Type I IFN-Induced Antiviral State in a Highly Species-Specific Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a Leporipoxvirus that possesses a specific rabbit-restricted host tropism but exhibits a much broader cellular host range in cultured cells. MYXV is able to efficiently block all aspects of the type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral state in rabbit cells, partially in human cells and very poorly in mouse cells. The mechanism(s) of this species-specific inhibition of type I IFN-induced antiviral state is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that MYXV encoded protein M029, a truncated relative of the vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that inhibits protein kinase R (PKR), can also antagonize the type I IFN-induced antiviral state in a highly species-specific manner. In cells pre-treated with type I IFN prior to infection, MYXV exploits M029 to overcome the induced antiviral state completely in rabbit cells, partially in human cells, but not at all in mouse cells. However, in cells pre-infected with MYXV, IFN-induced signaling is fully inhibited even in the absence of M029 in cells from all three species, suggesting that other MYXV protein(s) apart from M029 block IFN signaling in a species-independent manner. We also show that the antiviral state induced in rabbit, human or mouse cells by type I IFN can inhibit M029-knockout MYXV even when PKR is genetically knocked-out, suggesting that M029 targets other host proteins for this antiviral state inhibition. Thus, the MYXV dsRNA binding protein M029 not only antagonizes PKR from multiple species but also blocks the type I IFN antiviral state independently of PKR in a highly species-specific fashion. PMID:28157174

  8. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests.

  9. Three new species of the Indo-Pacific fish genus Hime (Aulopidae, Aulopiformes), all resembling the type species H. japonica (Günther 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomon, Martin F; Struthers, Carl D

    2015-11-19

    Descriptions of three new species of the aulopid genus Hime from the central and western Pacific and presumably the easternmost Indian Ocean are presented. Hime surrubea sp. nov., confined to the Hawaiian Island region, has been misidentified in species accounts and faunal lists as H. japonica and although resembling it is separable from that species by its shorter caudal peduncle, slightly larger head, larger eye, especially relative to head size, and slightly smaller pectoral and pelvic fins. Hime capitonis sp. nov. is known conclusively only from seamounts off the southern tip of New Caledonia and Vanuatu, and is distinguishable by its distinctively large head (32.3-35.6% SL) and eyes (orbital diameter 10.8-13.0% SL) and relatively few scales between the anus and anal fin origin (7-9). The Indonesian H. caudizoma sp. nov. is so far known from only 8 specimens, acquired in markets in southeastern Lombok and presumably caught nearby in what would be regarded the eastern reaches of the Indian Ocean. The species is recognisable by its dorsal fin of rather uniform moderate height with nearly straight distal margin and 17 rather than 16 rays, none of which is filamentous in either sex, the second penultimate ray rather than anterior rays the longest in males. Like the other two described here, H. caudizoma has among the largest head and eyes of the family. Observations on the dorsal fin form and other features of H. microps Parin & Kotlyar, 1989 are provided based on a large male specimen collected at Rapa Iti, Austral Islands and a re-evaluation of the original description.

  10. Loss of TRPML1 promotes production of reactive oxygen species: is oxidative damage a factor in mucolipidosis type IV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, Jessica; St Croix, Claudette; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2014-01-15

    TRPML1 (transient receptor potential mucolipin 1) is a lysosomal ion channel permeable to cations, including Fe2+. Mutations in MCOLN1, the gene coding for TRPML1, cause the LSD (lysosomal storage disease) MLIV (mucolipidosis type IV). The role of TRPML1 in the cell is disputed and the mechanisms of cell deterioration in MLIV are unclear. The demonstration of Fe2+ buildup in MLIV cells raised the possibility that TRPML1 dissipates lysosomal Fe2+ and prevents its accumulation. Since Fe2+ catalyses the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), we set out to test whether or not the loss of TRPML1 promotes ROS production by Fe2+ trapped in lysosomes. Our data show that RPE1 (retinal pigmented epithelial 1) cells develop a punctate mitochondrial phenotype within 48 h of siRNA-induced TRPML1-KD (knockdown). This mitochondrial fragmentation was aggravated by Fe2+ exposure, but was reversed by incubation with the ROS chelator α-Toc (α-tocopherol). The exposure of TRPML1-KD cells to Fe2+ led to loss of ΔΨm (mitochondrial membrane potential), ROS buildup, lipid peroxidation and increased transcription of genes responsive to cytotoxic oxidative stress in TRPML1-KD cells. These data suggest that TRPML1 redistributes Fe2+ between the lysosomes and the cytoplasm. Fe2+ buildup caused by TRPML1 loss potentiates ROS production and leads to mitochondrial deterioration. Beyond suggesting a new model for MLIV pathogenesis, these data show that TRPML1's role in the cell extends outside lysosomes.

  11. Homocysteine and reactive oxygen species in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: The pleiotropic effects of folate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homocysteine has emerged as a novel independent marker of risk for the development of cardiovascular disease over the past three decades. Additionally, there is a graded mortality risk associated with an elevated fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy. Metabolic syndrome (MS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are now considered to be a strong coronary heart disease (CHD risk enhancer and a CHD risk equivalent respectively. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy in patients with MS and T2DM would be expected to share a similar prevalence to the general population of five to seven percent and of even greater importance is: Declining glomerular filtration and overt diabetic nephropathy is a major determinant of tHcy elevation in MS and T2DM. There are multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in an excess of reactive oxygen species associated with MS, T2DM, and the accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy. HHcy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and its individual role and how it interacts with the other multiple toxicities are presented. The water-soluble B vitamins (especially folate and cobalamin-vitamin B12 have been shown to lower HHcy. The absence of the cystathionine beta synthase enzyme in human vascular cells contributes to the importance of a dual role of folic acid in lowering tHcy through remethylation, as well as, its action of being an electron and hydrogen donor to the essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. This folate shuttle facilitates the important recoupling of the uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme reaction and may restore the synthesis of the omnipotent endothelial nitric oxide to the vasculature.

  12. Pharmacovirological impact of an integrase inhibitor on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA species in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffinet, Christine; Allespach, Ina; Oberbremer, Lena; Golden, Pamela L; Foster, Scott A; Johns, Brian A; Weatherhead, Jason G; Novick, Steven J; Chiswell, Karen E; Garvey, Edward P; Keppler, Oliver T

    2009-08-01

    Clinical trials of the first approved integrase inhibitor (INI), raltegravir, have demonstrated a drop in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA loads of infected patients that was unexpectedly more rapid than that with a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and apparently dose independent. These clinical outcomes are not understood. In tissue culture, although their inhibition of integration is well documented, the effects of INIs on levels of unintegrated HIV-1 cDNAs have been variable. Furthermore, there has been no report to date on an INI's effect on these episomal species in vivo. Here, we show that prophylactic treatment of transgenic rats with the strand transfer INI GSK501015 reduced levels of viral integrants in the spleen by up to 99.7%. Episomal two-long-terminal-repeat (LTR) circles accumulated up to sevenfold in this secondary lymphoid organ, and this inversely correlated with the impact on the proviral burden. Contrasting raltegravir's dose-ranging study with HIV patients, titration of GSK501015 in HIV-infected animals demonstrated dependence of the INI's antiviral effect on its serum concentration. Furthermore, the in vivo 50% effective concentration calculated from these data best matched GSK501015's in vitro potency when serum protein binding was accounted for. Collectively, this study demonstrates a titratable, antipodal impact of an INI on integrated and episomal HIV-1 cDNAs in vivo. Based on these findings and known biological characteristics of viral episomes, we discuss how integrase inhibition may result in additional indirect antiviral effects that contribute to more rapid HIV-1 decay in HIV/AIDS patients.

  13. Analysis of the type of Achnanthes exigu Grunow (Bacillariophyta) with the description of a new Antarctic diatom species

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. C.; C. Cocquyt; Karthick, B.; Van De Vijver, B.

    2014-01-01

    A study was made of the type material of Achnanthidium exiguum (Grunow) Czarnecki. This often encountered and apparently ubiquitous species was originally described as Stauroneis exilis by Kützing from the island of Trinidad and later re–named as Achnanthes exigua by Grunow. The type material for this taxon (Kützing sample 397), housed in the Van Heurck collection at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Meise was investigated and the ultrastructure of this taxon was documented using both L...

  14. Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent

  15. Tree Species Composition, Diversity and Above Ground Biomass of Two Forest Types at Redang Island, Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud KHAIRIL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the tree species composition, diversity and above ground biomass at Redang Island, Terengganu. Two plots of 0.1 ha were established at the inland forest and coastal forest of the island. As the result, a total of 387 trees ≥ 5 diameters at breast height (DBH were recorded. The coastal forest recorded 167 individuals representing 48 species from 37 genera and 26 families while the inland forest had 220 individuals representing 50 species from 43 genera and 25 families. Shorea glauca (Dipterocarpaceae was the most important species at the coastal forest with a Species Importance Value Index (SIVi of 10.5 % while Dipterocarpus costulatus (Dipterocarpaceae was the most important species at the inland forest with 13.8 %. Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family in both forest plots with FIVi at 20.4 % in the coastal and 21.5 % in the inland forest. The Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index (H’ was considered high in both forest plots with 3.4 (H’max = 3.9 at the coastal forest and 3.5 (H’max = 4.0 at the inland forest. Sorenson’s Community Similarity Coefficient (CCs showed that tree species communities between the two forest plots had moderate similarity with CC = 0.5. The Shannon Evenness Index (J’ in the two forest plots was 0.89. The total above ground biomass at the coastal forest was 491 t/ha and at the inland forest it was 408 t/ha. From all the species recorded in this study, 11 species were listed as threatened species by IUCN Red Data Book, of which four were listed as endangered and critically endangered, six were listed as lower risk and one species was listed as vulnerable.

  16. Influences of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, plant genotypes, and tissue types on the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated induction of transgenic hairy roots was previously demonstrated in Vitis vinifera L. and a few other Vitis species. In this study, 13 Vitis species, including V. aestivalis, V. afghanistan, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. flexuosa, V. labrusca, V. nesbittiana, V. pal...

  17. The role of cold storage and seed source in the germination of three Mediterranean shrub species with contrasting dormancy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasques, Ana; Vallejo, V. Ramón; Santos, M. Conceição; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Context: The use of native species in ecological restoration is highly recommended but, in practice, it is often impaired by knowledge gaps in the germination ecology of suitable species. Aims: This study aimed to assess the role of storage conditions and seed source on the germination of three Medi

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and flucytosine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Chowdhary, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Hagen, F.; Govender, N.; Guarro, J.; Johnson, E.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; Trilles, L.; Kidd, S.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are not available for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex. MIC distributions were constructed for the wild type (WT) to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) for C. neoformans and C. gattii versus amphotericin B and flucytosine. A total

  19. Comparison of two DNA sequence-based typing schemes for the Fusarium solani Species Complex and proposal of a new consensus method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourgogne, A.; Gueidan, C.; de Hoog, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Machouart, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used approach for differentiating microbial isolates presenting many advantages such as easy access through online databases and straightforward interpretation. For the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), three gene regions have been widely used to

  20. Comparison of two DNA sequence-based typing schemes for the Fusarium solani Species Complex and proposal of a new consensus method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourgogne, A.; Gueidan, C.; de Hoog, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Machouart, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used approach for differentiating microbial isolates presenting many advantages such as easy access through online databases and straightforward interpretation. For the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). three gene regions have been widely used to

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and flucytosine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Chowdhary, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Hagen, F.; Govender, N.; Guarro, J.; Johnson, E.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; Trilles, L.; Kidd, S.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are not available for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex. MIC distributions were constructed for the wild type (WT) to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) for C. neoformans and C. gattii versus amphotericin B and flucytosine. A total

  2. A new double digestion ligation mediated suppression PCR method for simultaneous bacteria DNA-typing and confirmation of species: an Acinetobacter sp. model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stojowska

    Full Text Available We have designed a new ddLMS PCR (double digestion Ligation Mediated Suppression PCR method based on restriction site polymorphism upstream from the specific target sequence for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of bacterial strains. The ddLMS PCR combines a simple PCR used for species or genus identification and the LM PCR strategy for strain differentiation. The bacterial identification is confirmed in the form of the PCR product(s, while the length of the PCR product makes it possible to differentiate between bacterial strains. If there is a single copy of the target sequence within genomic DNA, one specific PCR product is created (simplex ddLMS PCR, whereas for multiple copies of the gene the fingerprinting patterns can be obtained (multiplex ddLMS PCR. The described ddLMS PCR method is designed for rapid and specific strain differentiation in medical and microbiological studies. In comparison to other LM PCR it has substantial advantages: enables specific species' DNA-typing without the need for pure bacterial culture selection, is not sensitive to contamination with other cells or genomic DNA, and gives univocal "band-based" results, which are easy to interpret. The utility of ddLMS PCR was shown for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb complex, the genetically closely related and phenotypically similar species and also important nosocomial pathogens, for which currently, there are no recommended methods for screening, typing and identification. In this article two models are proposed: 3' recA-ddLMS PCR-MaeII/RsaI for Acb complex interspecific typing and 5' rrn-ddLMS PCR-HindIII/ApaI for Acinetobacter baumannii intraspecific typing. ddLMS PCR allows not only for DNA-typing but also for confirmation of species in one reaction. Also, practical guidelines for designing a diagnostic test based on ddLMS PCR for genotyping different species of bacteria are provided.

  3. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Jing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT and low night temperature (LNT on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4 and CAM, growth forms (herbaceous, woody, and economic purposes (crop, non-crop. We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are

  4. A computer program for fast and easy typing of a partial endoglucanase gene sequence into genospecies and sequevars 1&2 of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB sequevars 1 and 2 that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. Recently, the R. solanacearum species complex strains have been reclassified into three genospecies: R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven to be a non-race 3 biovar 2 (non-phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2). Currently, sequevars of R. solanacearum species complex strains can only be determined by phylogenetic analysis of a partial endoglucanase (egl) sequence of approximately 700-bp in length. Such analysis, however, requires expert knowledge to properly trim the sequence, to include the correct reference strains, and to interpret the results. By comparing GenBank egl sequences of representative R. solanacearum species-complex strains, we identified genospecies- and sequevar 1 and 2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also designed primers to amplify a shorter, 526-bp, egl fragment from R. solanacearum species complex strains for easy sequencing of the amplicon, and to facilitate direct and specific amplification of egl from R. solanacearum-infected plant samples without the need of bacterial isolation. We wrote a computer program (Ralstonia solanacearum typing program) that analyzes a minimum 400-bp user-input egl sequence from a R. solanacearum strain for egl homology and SNP content to determine 1) whether it belongs to the R. solanacearum species complex, 2) if so, to which genospecies, and 3) whether it is of the sequevar type (sequevars 1 and 2) associated with the select agent/quarantined R. solanacearum strain. The program correctly typed all 371 tested egl sequences with known sequevars, obtained either from GenBank or through personal communication. Additionally, the program successfully typed 25 R. solanacearum strains in our

  5. Typing and antifungal susceptibility of the candida species isolated in geriatric patients at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Yılmaz Hancı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we aimed to detect, identification and distribution of the Candida species in blood and urine samples; and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates in geriatric patients Methods: All Candida species isolated from blood and urine cultures samples of patients over than 65 years of during the period December 2011 -November 2014 in İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital were enrolled in this study. For Candida species identification conventional methods, colony appearance in candida chromogenic agar and for some unidentified isolates API ID32C AUX (BioMérieux, France was used. Antifungal susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed with API ATB Fungus 3 (BioMérieux, France. Results: During the study period 681 Candida species were isolated in blood and urine samples of patients over than 65 years. When the sample species were evaluated, Candida species detected in 561(82.4% urine sample, and 120 (17.6% blood samples. Most isolated species were respectively detected C. albicans (47.0%, C.parapsilosis (16.0%, C.tropicalis (15.9%, C.glabrata (12.2%, C.kefy (3.7% and C.krusei (2.8%. C. albicans detected the most common in urine samples (51.7 %, on the other hand C.parapsilosis the most common species in blood samples (50.8%. In general surgery unit, C.tropicalis was found as the most common isolate. On the other hand C.albicans the most common species in the other units and services. C.parapsilosis rate in blood cultures increased with age. Antifungal susceptibility of the Candida bloodstream isolates were detected as 97.5% for flucytosine, 95.8% for amfotericin B, 82.5% for fluconazole, 91.7% for itraconazole and 77.5% for voriconazole. Conclusion: The most frequently isolated yeast species in blood and urinesamples of geriatric patients has been found C. albicans. C.parapsilosis especially frequently isolated from blood cultures and increasing the frequency with age. Voriconazole in Candida

  6. Phylogeny and Identification of Pantoea Species and Typing of Pantoea agglomerans Strains by Multilocus Gene Sequencing ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Delétoile, Alexis; Decré, Dominique; Courant, Stéphanie; Passet, Virginie; Audo, Jennifer; Grimont, Patrick; Arlet, Guillaume; Brisse, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans and other Pantoea species cause infections in humans and are also pathogenic to plants, but the diversity of Pantoea strains and their possible association with hosts and disease remain poorly known, and identification of Pantoea species is difficult. We characterized 36 Pantoea strains, including 28 strains of diverse origins initially identified as P. agglomerans, by multilocus gene sequencing based on six protein-coding genes, by biochemical tests, and by antimicrobial ...

  7. Impact of deep coalescence on the reliability of species tree inference from different types of DNA markers in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia

    Full Text Available An important challenge for phylogenetic studies of closely related species is the existence of deep coalescence and gene tree heterogeneity. However, their effects can vary between species and they are often neglected in phylogenetic analyses. In addition, a practical problem in the reconstruction of shallow phylogenies is to determine the most efficient set of DNA markers for a reliable estimation. To address these questions, we conducted a multilocus simulation study using empirical values of nucleotide diversity and substitution rates obtained from a wide range of mammals and evaluated the performance of both gene tree and species tree approaches to recover the known speciation times and topological relationships. We first show that deep coalescence can be a serious problem, more than usually assumed, for the estimation of speciation times in mammals using traditional gene trees. Furthermore, we tested the performance of different sets of DNA markers in the determination of species trees using a coalescent approach. Although the best estimates of speciation times were obtained, as expected, with the use of an increasing number of nuclear loci, our results show that similar estimations can be obtained with a much lower number of genes and the incorporation of a mitochondrial marker, with its high information content. Thus, the use of the combined information of both nuclear and mitochondrial markers in a species tree framework is the most efficient option to estimate recent speciation times and, consequently, the underlying species tree.

  8. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Genome sequence of the type strain CLIB 1764T (=CBS 14374T of the yeast species Kazachstania saulgeensis isolated from French organic sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Sarilar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazachstania saulgeensis is a recently described species isolated from French organic sourdough. Here, we report the high quality genome sequence of a monosporic segregant of the type strain of this species, CLIB 1764T (=CBS 14374T. The genome has a total length of 12.9 Mb and contains 5326 putative protein-coding genes, excluding pseudogenes and transposons. The nucleotide sequences were deposited into the European Nucleotide Archive under the genome assembly accession numbers FXLY01000001–FXLY01000017.

  10. Genome sequence of the type strain CLIB 1764(T) (= CBS 14374(T)) of the yeast species Kazachstania saulgeensis isolated from French organic sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarilar, Véronique; Sterck, Lieven; Matsumoto, Saki; Jacques, Noémie; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Tinsley, Colin R; Sicard, Delphine; Casaregola, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Kazachstania saulgeensis is a recently described species isolated from French organic sourdough. Here, we report the high quality genome sequence of a monosporic segregant of the type strain of this species, CLIB 1764(T) (= CBS 14374(T)). The genome has a total length of 12.9 Mb and contains 5326 putative protein-coding genes, excluding pseudogenes and transposons. The nucleotide sequences were deposited into the European Nucleotide Archive under the genome assembly accession numbers FXLY01000001-FXLY01000017.

  11. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    OpenAIRE

    Teemu Smura; Soile Blomqvist; Tytti Vuorinen; Olga Ivanova; Elena Samoilovich; Haider Al-Hello; Carita Savolainen-Kopra; Tapani Hovi; Merja Roivainen

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains ty...

  12. Tree species diversity and stand structure along major community types in lowland primary and secondary moist deciduous forests in Tripura,Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koushik Majumdar; Uma Shankar; Badal Kumar Datta

    2012-01-01

    Tree species diversity and population structure at different community types were described and analyzed for primary and secondary lowland moist deciduous forests in Tripura.Overall 10,957 individual trees belonging to 46 family,103 genera and 144 species were counted at ≥30 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) using 28 permanent belt transects with a size of 1 ha (10 m × 1000 m).Four different tree communities were identified.The primary forests was dominated by Shorea robusta (mean density 464.77 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Schima wallichii (336.25 trees·ha-1,82 species),while the secondary forests was dominated by Tectona grandis (333.88 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Hevea brasiliensis (299.67 trees·ha-1,82 species).Overall mean basal area in this study was 18.01 m2·ha-1; the maximum value was recorded in primary Shorea forest (26.21 m2·ha-1).Mean density and diversity indices were differed significantly within four different communities.No significant differences were observed in number of spccies,genera,family and tree basal cover area.Significant relationships were found between the species richness and different tree population groups across the communities.Results revealed that species diversity and density were increased in those forests due to past disturbances which resulted in slow accumulation of native oligarchic small tree species.Seventeen species were recorded with <2 individuals of which Saraca asoka (Roxb,) de Wilde and Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.etc.extensively used in local ethnomedicinal formulations.The present S.robusta Gaertn dominated forest was recorded richer (105 species) than other reported studies.Moraceae was found more speciose family instead of Papilionaceae and Euphorbiaceae than other Indian moist deciduous forests.Seasonal phenological gap in such moist deciduous forests influenced the population of Trachypithecus pileatus and capped langur.The analysis of FIV suggested a slow trend of shifting the population of

  13. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  14. Two new species of Vestrogothia (Phosphatocopina, Crustacea) of Orsten-type preservation from the Upper Cambrian in western Hunan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although fossils of Orsten-type preservation represented by Skaracarida and Phosphatocopina were first reported from the Middle and Upper Cambrian in western Hunan, South China in 2005, diversified phosphatocopine species have never been appropriately described and elucidated in terms of their evolutionary relationships. Here, we described two new species of Phosphatocopina, Vestrogothia anterispinata sp. nov. and V. bispinata sp. nov. The evolutionary relationship among all the valid species of Phosphatocopina is discussed and the phylogeny of Phosphatocopina is reestablished using cladistic analysis. Accordingly, phosphatocopines primitively evolved along two lineages: one evolved towards the emergence of lobes; the other evolved towards the emergence of dorsal spines. Respectively, lobes originated independently three times, and dorsal spines originated only once. With regard to the dorsal rims, interdorsum originated first, whereas dorsal furrow originated independently twice on the basis of interdorsum. Probably Hesslandona may represent a polyphyletic group, whereas Vestrogothia a monophyletic group.

  15. Variance analysis on different trees species depending on soil type – uncontaminated and heavy metals contaminated ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our research work regarding the dynamics of vegetation growth of miscellaneous species of trees planted and monitored in the particular environment of the tailing pond in Bozanta Mare (Maramures County. The structure of soil bearing high content of heavy metals and cyanides considerably impacts the ecologic conditions of tailing ponds. Aspects related to soil characteristics (such as structure, size of particles, porosity, texture, chemical composition are included. Vegetal species that have accommodated within the tail pond are included as well. In the framework of our experiment we have planted seedlings belonging to four species of trees: Quercus petraea, Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, Salix caprea. We have planted the seedlings in different location contexts in the tailing pond (“in situ”, as we have also planted “ex situ” witness trees. Our aim was to monitor the dynamics of growth of the stem and of cuttings. Our contribution, based on the outcomes of our research, consists in the formulation of functional correlations spotted between cormophites and micro biota, between the species of trees and their environmental underlying conditions, with the overarching goal to optimize the activities undertaken in order to alleviate the tailing ponds inherent to mining activities.

  16. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, L.; Carvalheiro, L.G.; Aguirre-Gutierrez, J.; Bos, M.; Groot, de G.A.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.; Reemer, M.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Scheper, J.A.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maint

  17. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828) with description of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n.

  18. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828) with description of a new genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n. PMID:23950673

  19. An investigation into the influences of species and biotype on the type of IgA1 protease produced by isolates of Haemophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, B W; Ip, C L

    1999-04-01

    A total of 59 isolates of different Haemophilus spp., mostly from clinical specimens, was characterised, biotyped and examined for production of type 1 or type 2 IgA1 protease. IgA1 protease activity was not found in any isolate of a species with no or low virulence for man including H. parainfluenzae, H. haemolyticus, H. aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, H. paraphrohaemolyticus and H. haemoglobinophilus. IgA1 protease was produced by all isolates of H. influenzae and H. aegyptius and by some isolates of H. parahaemolyticus. The type of IgA1 protease appeared to be independent of the biotype of the isolate in H. influenzae. For the first time some isolates of H. aegyptius were found that produced type 2 IgA1 protease. IgA1 protease production in H. parahaemolyticus may be associated with the virulence of the isolate.

  20. Root respiratory characteristics associated with plant adaptation to high soil temperature for geothermal and turf-type Agrostis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Lambers, Hans; Huang, Bingru

    2006-01-01

    Respiration is a major avenue of carbohydrates loss. The objective of the present study was to examine root respiratory characteristics associated with root tolerance to high soil temperature for two Agrostis species: thermal Agrostis scabra, a species adapted to high-temperature soils in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, and two cultivars ('L-93' and 'Penncross') of a cool-season turfgrass species, A. stolonifera (creeping bentgrass), that differ in their heat sensitivity. Roots of thermal A. scabra and both creeping bentgrass cultivars were exposed to high (37 degrees C) or low soil temperature (20 degrees C). Total root respiration rate and specific respiratory costs for maintenance and ion uptake increased with increasing soil temperatures in both species. The increases in root respiratory rate and costs for maintenance and ion uptake were less pronounced for A. scabra than for both creeping bentgrass cultivars (e.g. respiration rate increased by 50% for A. scabra upon exposure to high temperature for 28 d, as compared with 99% and 107% in 'L-93' and 'Penncross', respectively). Roots of A. scabra exhibited higher tolerance to high soil temperature than creeping bentgrass, as manifested by smaller decreases in relative growth rate, cell membrane stability, maximum root length, and nitrate uptake under high soil temperature. The results suggest that acclimation of respiratory carbon metabolism plays an important role in root survival of Agrostis species under high soil temperatures, particularly for the thermal grass adaptation to chronically high soil temperatures. The ability of roots to tolerate high soil temperatures could be related to the capacity to control respiratory rates and increase respiratory efficiency by lowering maintenance and ion uptake costs.

  1. Investigation of the Relation Between Primary Topographic Variables with Presence, Frequency and Quantitative Characteristics of Plant Species and Vegetation Types (Case Study: Baghe- Shadi Forest, Harat, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shojaee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between slope, aspect and elevation and quantitative characteristics of plant species, totally 125 sampling plots were selected in a block systematic design. In each sampling, plot presence, number, height, diameter at breast height (for trees or root collar (for shrubs and crown diameters were measured and recorded. Also, we recorded vegetation type according to the portion of species in the plot. Correlation analysis was conducted according to the scale of variables using Pierson, Spearman, Phi and Cramer and Eta coefficients. Results found that elevation is the most important factor affecting presence and density and also type in the study area. Altogether, Atlas Pistach (P. atlantica F. & M and Wild Almond (A. scoparia Spach. in low elevations and Maple (A. cinerascens L., Marsh-arrow-grass (A. lycioedes Spach. and mountain almond (A. elaefnifolia Spach. in higher elevations had better conditions. Slope had a negative correlation with presence of Wild Almond and Send Cherry (Ephedra spp, and positive correlation with the presence of other species. Also, Wild Pistach trees present in southern aspects showed more basal area and volume in these aspects. Results of this research can be used in the detection of suitable points for development of plant species. Regression analysis showed that frequency of almond and Send Cherry and average height of almond and wild Pistach were predictable according to elevation and slope. Of course, coefficient of determination was low in all cases.

  2. Synthesis of an unexpected [Zn2](2+) species utilizing an MFI-type zeolite as a nano-reaction pot and its manipulation with light and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akira; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Yumura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Kuroda, Yasushige

    2015-06-07

    Compared with mercury, the existence of [Zn2](2+) species is rare. We succeeded in preparing a stable [Zn2](2+) species by utilizing an MFI-type zeolite as a nano-reaction pot, which was confirmed using XAFS spectroscopy: the bands at R = 2.35 Å due to the Zn(+)-Zn(+) scattering and at 9660.7 eV due to the 1s-σ* (the anti-bonding orbital comprised of the 4s-4s orbital) transition of the [Zn2](2+) species. This species also gives the characteristic band around 42 000 cm(-1) due to its σ-σ* transition. Furthermore, UV-irradiation corresponding to the σ-σ* transition causes the bond dissociation, forming two unprecedented Zn(+) ions, and detached Zn(+) ions were recombined through heat-treatment at 573 K: [Zn(+)-Zn(+)] ⇄ 2Zn(+). These processes were reproduced by applying the DFT calculation method to the assumed triplet, σ(α)-σ*(α), structure formed on the M7-S2 site with the specific Al array in the MFI-type zeolite. Research into the specific field using zeolites to synthesize "ultra-state ions" is very promising.

  3. Identification of human papillomavirus type 156, the prototype of a new human gammapapillomavirus species, by a generic and highly sensitive PCR strategy for long DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhy, Diego; Bolatti, Elisa M; Piccirilli, Gustavo; Sánchez, Adriana; Fernandez Bussy, Ramón; Giri, Adriana A

    2013-03-01

    This study developed a hanging-droplet long PCR, a generic and highly sensitive strategy to facilitate the identification of new human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes. This novel procedure used for the first time the hanging-droplet PCR technique for the amplification of long DNA fragments with generic primers targeting the L1 and E1 regions. It was first applied to the amplification of types belonging to the highly divergent genus Gammapapillovirus (γ-PV). The hanging-droplet long PCR was 100-fold more sensitive than a simple long PCR procedure, detecting as few as ten copies of HPV-4. Nineteen skin samples, potentially containing putative HPV types from the γ-PV genus, were also screened. The method identified four γ-PV genomic halves from new and previously described putative types, and made the full characterization of HPV-156 possible. This novel virus meets the criteria for a new species within the γ-PV genus, with nucleotide identities in the L1 ORF ranging from 58.3 to 67.3 % compared with representative types of the current γ-PV species. HPV-156 showed the highest identity to HPV-60 (67.3 %) from species γ-4, and was consistently closely related to it in both late- and early-gene-derived phylogenies. In conclusion, this report provides a versatile and highly sensitive approach that allowed identification of the prototype of a new species within the γ-PV genus. Its application with primers targeting the different genera in which both human and non-human PVs are distributed may facilitate characterization of the missing members of the family Papillomaviridae.

  4. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  5. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    Full Text Available Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous. Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.

  6. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolates in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L K H; Souza Junior, A H; Costa, C R; Faganello, J; Vainstein, M H; Chagas, A L B; Souza, A C M; Silva, M R R

    2010-01-01

    A total of 124 Cryptococcus isolates, including 84 clinical strains obtained from cerebrospinal fluid from AIDS patients and 40 environmental isolates from pigeon excreta and from Eucalyptus trees, were studied. The varieties, serotypes, phospholipase activity and molecular profile of these isolates were determined. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A was identified in 120 isolates and Cryptococcus gattii serotype B in four isolates. The clinical isolates showed higher phospholipase activity than environmental isolates. Similar patterns of in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and no resistance were found for all isolates. Molecular type VNI (C. neoformans var. grubii) was recovered in 80 clinical and 40 environmental isolates while the type VGIII (C. gattii) was found in four clinical isolates. This study demonstrated for the first time the molecular types of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus isolates in the midwest Brazil region.

  7. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John F; Hall, Graham P; McDonald, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys.

  8. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. McEvoy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models or 40m above individuals (multirotor models. Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Jiangella gansuensis strain YIM 002(T) (DSM 44835(T)), the type species of the genus Jiangella and source of new antibiotic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Carro, Lorena; Liu, Lan; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Tong; Hozzein, Wael N; Lapidus, Alla; Huntemann, Marcel; Reddy, T B K; Varghese, Neha; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Ivanova, Natalia N; Göker, Markus; Pillay, Manoj; Eisen, Jonathan A; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Jiangella gansuensis strain YIM 002(T) is the type strain of the type species of the genus Jiangella, which is at the present time composed of five species, and was isolated from desert soil sample in Gansu Province (China). The five strains of this genus are clustered in a monophyletic group when closer actinobacterial genera are used to infer a 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny. The study of this genome is part of the GenomicEncyclopedia ofBacteria andArchaea project, and here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this taxon. The genome of J. gansuensis strain YIM 002(T) contains a single scaffold of size 5,585,780 bp, which involves 149 pseudogenes, 4905 protein-coding genes and 50 RNA genes, including 2520 hypothetical proteins and 4 rRNA genes. From the investigation of genome sizes of Jiangella species, J. gansuensis shows a smaller size, which indicates this strain might have discarded too much genetic information to adapt to desert environment. Seven new compounds from this bacterium have recently been described; however, its potential should be higher, as secondary metabolite gene cluster analysis predicted 60 gene clusters, including the potential to produce the pristinamycin.

  10. Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, N.; Dewulf, E.M.; Neyrinck, A.M.; Bindels, L.B.; Cani, P.D.; Mahillon, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Thissen, J.P.; Gueimonde, M.; Reyes-Gavilán, de los C.G.; Delzenne, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims : Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations bet

  11. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  12. Two types of phase diagrams for two-species Bose-Einstein condensates and the combined effect of the parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. B.; Liu, Y. M.; Yao, D. X.; Bao, C. G.

    2017-07-01

    Under the Thomas-Fermi approximation, an approach is proposed to solve the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (CGP) for the two-species Bose-Einstein condensate analytically. The essence of this approach is to find out the building blocks to build the solution. By introducing the weighted strengths, relatively simpler analytical solutions have been obtained. A number of formulae have been deduced to relate the parameters when the system is experimentally tuned at various status. These formulae demonstrate the combined effect of the parameters, and are useful for the evaluation of their magnitudes. The whole parameter space is divided into zones, where each supports a specific phase. All the boundaries separating these zones have analytical expressions. Based on the division, the phase diagrams against any set of parameters can be plotted. In addition, by introducing a model for the asymmetric states, the total energies of the lowest symmetric and asymmetric states have been compared. Thereby, in which case the former will be replaced by the latter has been evaluated. The CGP can be written in a matrix form. For repulsive inter-species interaction V AB , when the parameters vary and cross over the singular point of the matrix, a specific state transition will happen and the total energy of the lowest symmetric state will increase remarkably. This provides an excellent opportunity for the lowest asymmetric state to emerge as the ground state. For attractive V AB , when the parameters tend to a singular point, the system will tend to collapse. The effects caused by the singular points have been particularly studied.

  13. Susceptibility of Aedes flavopictus miyarai and Aedes galloisi mosquito species in Japan to dengue type 2 virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raweewan Srisawat; Thipruethai Phanitchat; Narumon Komalamisra; Naoki Tamori; Lucky Runtuwene; Kaori Noguchi; Kyoko Hayashida; Shinya Hidano; Naganori Kamiyama; Ikuo Takashima; Tomohiko Takasaki; Ichiro Kurae; Narihiro Narita; Takashi Kobayashi; Yuki Eshita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential of local mosquitoes to act as vectors for dengue transmission in Japan.Methods: Serotype 2 Th NH28/93 was used to test the dengue susceptibility profiles of Aedes flavopictus miyarai(Ae. f. miyarai), Aedes galloisi(Ae. galloisi) and Aedes albopictus(Ae.albopictus), which were collected in Japan. We used Aedes aegypti from Thailand as a positive control. The mosquitoes were infected with the virus intrathoracically or orally. At 10 or 14 days post infection, the mosquitoes were dissected and total RNA was extracted from their abdomens, thoraxes, heads and legs. Mosquito susceptibility to dengue virus was evaluated using RT-PCR with dengue virus-specific primers. Differences in the infection and mortality rates of the different mosquito species were tested using Fisher’s exact probability test.Results: The infection rates for dengue virus administered intrathoracically to Ae. f. miyarai,Ae. galloisi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identical by RT-PCR on Day 10 post infection.All of the body parts we tested were RT-PCR-positive for dengue virus. For the orally administered virus, the infection rates in the different body parts of the Ae. f. miyarai mosquitoes were slightly higher than those of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but were similar to the control mosquitoes(P > 0.05). The mortality rates for Ae. f. miyarai and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were similar(P = 0.19). Our data indicated that dengue virus was able to replicate and disseminate to secondary infection sites in all of the four mosquito species(Japanese and Thai).Conclusions: Ae. albopictus is a well-known candidate for dengue transmission in Japan. However, our data suggest that Ae. f. miyarai from Ishigaki Island(near Okinawa Island) and Ae. galloisi from Hokkaido(Northern Japan) should also be regarded as potential vectors for dengue transmission in these regions. Further studies on these mosquitoes should be conducted.

  14. Susceptibility of Aedes flavopictus miyarai and Aedes galloisi mosquito species in Japan to dengue type 2 virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raweewan Srisawat; Ikuo Takashima; Tomohiko Takasaki; Ichiro Kurae; Narihiro Narita; Takashi Kobayashi; Yuki Eshita; Thipruethai Phanitchat; Narumon Komalamisra; Naoki Tamori; Lucky Runtuwene; Kaori Noguchi; Kyoko Hayashida; Shinya Hidano; Naganori Kamiyama

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential of local mosquitoes to act as vectors for dengue transmission in Japan. Methods: Serotype 2 ThNH28/93 was used to test the dengue susceptibility profiles of Aedes flavopictus miyarai (Ae. f. miyarai), Aedes galloisi (Ae. galloisi) and Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), which were collected in Japan. We used Aedes aegypti from Thailand as a positive control. The mosquitoes were infected with the virus intrathoracically or orally. At 10 or 14 days post infection, the mosquitoes were dissected and total RNA was extracted from their abdomens, thoraxes, heads and legs. Mosquito susceptibility to dengue virus was evaluated using RT-PCR with dengue virus-specific primers. Differences in the infection and mortality rates of the different mosquito species were tested using Fisher's exact probability test. Results: The infection rates for dengue virus administered intrathoracically to Ae. f. miyarai, Ae. galloisi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identical by RT-PCR on Day 10 post infection. All of the body parts we tested were RT-PCR-positive for dengue virus. For the orally admin-istered virus, the infection rates in the different body parts of the Ae. f. miyarai mosquitoes were slightly higher than those of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but were similar to the control mosquitoes (P>0.05). The mortality rates for Ae. f. miyarai and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were similar (P=0.19). Our data indicated that dengue virus was able to replicate and disseminate to secondary infection sites in all of the four mosquito species (Japanese and Thai). Conclusions: Ae. albopictus is a well-known candidate for dengue transmission in Japan. However, our data suggest that Ae. f. miyarai from Ishigaki Island (near Okinawa Island) and Ae. galloisi from Hokkaido (Northern Japan) should also be regarded as potential vectors for dengue transmission in these regions. Further studies on these mosquitoes should be conducted.

  15. Species D human adenovirus type 9 exhibits better virus-spread ability for antitumor efficacy among alternative serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Uchino

    Full Text Available Species C human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5 is widely used as a vector for cancer gene therapy, because it efficiently transduces target cells. A variety of HAdV-C5 vectors have been developed and tested in vitro and in vivo for cancer gene therapy. While clinical trials with HAdV-C5 vectors resulted in effective responses in many cancer patients, administration of HAdV-C5 vectors to solid tumors showed responses in a limited area. A biological barrier in tumor mass is considered to hinder viral spread of HAdV-C5 vectors from infected cells. Therefore, efficient virus-spread from an infected tumor cell to surrounding tumor cells is required for successful cancer gene therapy. In this study, we compared HAdV-C5 to sixteen other HAdV serotypes selected from species A to G for virus-spread ability in vitro. HAdV-D9 showed better virus-spread ability than other serotypes, and its viral progeny were efficiently released from infected cells during viral replication. Although the HAdV-D9 fiber protein contains a binding site for coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, HAdV-D9 showed expanded tropism for infection due to human CAR (hCAR-independent attachment to target cells. HAdV-D9 infection effectively killed hCAR-negative cancer cells as well as hCAR-positive cancer cells. These results suggest that HADV-D9, with its better virus-spread ability, could have improved therapeutic efficacy in solid tumors compared to HAdV-C5.

  16. Prevalence of three campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, using multilocus sequence typing in wild birds of the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith I; Shriver, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the US, usually due to the consumption of undercooked poultry. Research on which avian species transmit the bacterium is limited, especially in the US. We sampled wild birds in three families-Anatidae, Scolopacidae, and Laridae-in eastern North America to determine the prevalence and specific strains of Campylobacter. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 9.2% for all wild birds sampled (n = 781). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (8.1%), while Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari prevalence estimates were low (1.4% and 0.3%, respectively). We used multilocus sequence typing PCR specific to C. jejuni to characterize clonal complexes and sequence types isolated from wild bird samples and detected 13 novel sequence types, along with a clonal complex previously only associated with human disease (ST-658). Wild birds share an increasing amount of habitat with humans as more landscapes become fragmented and developed for human needs. Wild birds are and will remain an important aspect of public health due to their ability to carry and disperse emerging zoonotic pathogens or their arthropod vectors. As basic information such as prevalence is limited or lacking from a majority of wild birds in the US, this study provides further insight into Campylobacter epidemiology, host preference, and strain characterization of C. jejuni.

  17. A vesicular stomatitis virus replicon-based bioassay for the rapid and sensitive determination of multi-species type I interferon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berger Rentsch

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN comprise a family of cytokines that signal through a common cellular receptor to induce a plethora of genes with antiviral and other activities. Recombinant IFNs are used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, multiple sclerosis, and certain malignancies. The capability of type I IFN to suppress virus replication and resultant cytopathic effects is frequently used to measure their bioactivity. However, these assays are time-consuming and require appropriate biosafety containment. In this study, an improved IFN assay is presented which is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV replicon encoding two reporter proteins, firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein. The vector lacks the essential envelope glycoprotein (G gene of VSV and is propagated on a G protein-expressing transgenic cell line. Several mammalian and avian cells turned out to be susceptible to infection with the complemented replicon particles. Infected cells readily expressed the reporter proteins at high levels five hours post infection. When human fibroblasts were treated with serial dilutions of human IFN-β prior to infection, reporter expression was accordingly suppressed. This method was more sensitive and faster than a classical IFN bioassay based on VSV cytopathic effects. In addition, the antiviral activity of human IFN-λ (interleukin-29, a type III IFN, was determined on Calu-3 cells. Both IFN-β and IFN-λ were acid-stable, but only IFN-β was resistant to alkaline treatment. The antiviral activities of canine, porcine, and avian type I IFN were analysed with cell lines derived from the corresponding species. This safe bioassay will be useful for the rapid and sensitive quantification of multi-species type I IFN and potentially other antiviral cytokines.

  18. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens.

  19. Rapid species identification and epidemiological analysis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. by a PCR-based open reading frame typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Endo, Kentaro; Sawase, Kaori; Anetai, Marie; Narita, Kazuya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Ishifuji, Katsunori; Kurota, Makiko; Suwabe, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has become a global problem. In this study, 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complexes, identified using a conventional biochemical method at our hospital during 2004-2013, were studied for species identification and epidemiological analyses. Species identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, a partial sequence analysis of rpoB and a PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method. The POT method can not only identify the species of ACB complexes but also simultaneously determine the international epidemic clones and the genetic identities of Acinetobacterbaumannii in several hours. Carbapenem resistance gene detection by PCR, molecular epidemiological analysis by PFGE and Pasteur Institute multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were performed. All three methods identified 18 isolates as A. baumannii (n=10), Acinetobacterpittii (n=4) and Acinetobacternosocomialis (n=4). A metallo-β-lactamase gene in all strains of A. pittii and A. nosocomialis and an ISAba1 gene in the upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene in eight strains of A. baumannii were detected, respectively, as carbapenemase-related genes. Results from PFGE demonstrated that nine strains of A. baumannii were closely related genetically. Results of MLST analysis showed that A. baumannii are classifiable to sequence type 2. These results were consistent with those obtained using the POT method. This POT method can easily and rapidly identify the international epidemic clones and the identities of A. baumannii. It can be a useful tool for infection control.

  20. Wild-type MIC distributions, epidemiological cutoff values and species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida: time for harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Andes, D; Diekema, D J; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Sheehan, D

    2010-12-01

    Both the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) have MIC clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole (FLU) and Candida. EUCAST CBPs are species-specific, and apply only to C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, while CLSI CBPs apply to all species. We reassessed the CLSI CBPs for FLU and Candida in light of recent data. We examined (1) molecular mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance profiles, (2) wild-type (WT) MICs and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for FLU and major Candida species by both CLSI and EUCAST methods, (3) determination of essential (EA) and categorical agreement (CA) between CLSI and EUCAST methods, (4) correlation of MICs with outcomes from previously published data using CLSI and EUCAST methods, and (5) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. We applied these findings to propose new species-specific CLSI CBPs for FLU and Candida. WT distributions from large collections of Candida revealed similar ECVs by both CLSI and EUCAST methods (0.5-1 mcg/ml for C. albicans, 2 mcg/ml for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis, 32 mcg/ml for C. glabrata, and 64-128 for C. krusei). Comparison of CLSI and EUCAST MICs reveal EA and CA of 95% and 96%, respectively. Datasets correlating CLSI and EUCAST FLU MICs with outcomes revealed decreased response rates when MICs were > 4 mcg/ml for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, and > 16 mcg/ml for C. glabrata. Adjusted CLSI CBPs for FLU and C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis (S, ≤ 2 mcg/ml; SDD, 4 mcg/ml; R, ≥ 8 mcg/ml), and C. glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 mcg/ml; R, ≥ 64 mcg/ml) should be more sensitive for detecting emerging resistance among common Candida species and provide consistency with EUCAST CBPs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Variability of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers content in aerial parts of some Vaccinium species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomik, Peeter; Püssa, Tõnu; Raal, Ain

    2014-06-01

    Based on the ethnopharmacological data showing that either wild bilberry leaves or whole aerial parts of the plants have been used as antidiabetic drugs, it can be hypothesized that the controversial results of various clinical and animal investigations may be caused by different contents of the active principles in different aerial parts of the bilberry/blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) plants, as well as by their geographical and seasonal variability. The aim of this study was to compare the content of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers in different parts of wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars. Stems (60 samples) and leaves (30 samples) of wild bilberries and northern highbush blueberry cultivars 'Ama' and 'North Blue' were collected at different locations in Estonia around the year, and analyzed for the concentration of the target polyphenols by HPLC-MS/MS. The highest content of type A doubly linked trimer, a known antidiabetic substance, was established in the stems of V. myrtillus. These contained up to 100 times more of the active substance than the leaves of V. myrtillus and at least 1000 times more than the leaves of V. corymbosum, whereas the seasonal/geographical variation was nearly tenfold. We suggest using stems of V. myrtillus for future animal and clinical investigations of bilberry preparations against diabetes.

  2. AtMYB41 activates ectopic suberin synthesis and assembly in multiple plant species and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Dylan K; Murmu, Jhadeswar; Razeq, Fakhria M; Santos, Patricia; Bourgault, Richard; Molina, Isabel; Rowland, Owen

    2014-10-01

    Suberin is a lipid and phenolic cell wall heteropolymer found in the roots and other organs of all vascular plants. Suberin plays a critical role in plant water relations and in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we describe a transcription factor, AtMYB41 (At4g28110), that can activate the steps necessary for aliphatic suberin synthesis and deposition of cell wall-associated suberin-like lamellae in both Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Overexpression of AtMYB41 increased the abundance of suberin biosynthetic gene transcripts by orders of magnitude and resulted in the accumulation of up to 22 times more suberin-type than cutin-type aliphatic monomers in leaves. Overexpression of AtMYB41 also resulted in elevated amounts of monolignols in leaves and an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthetic gene transcripts. Surprisingly, ultrastructural data indicated that overexpression led to the formation of suberin-like lamellae in both epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves. We further implicate AtMYB41 in the production of aliphatic suberin under abiotic stress conditions. These results provide insight into the molecular-genetic mechanisms of the biosynthesis and deposition of a ubiquitous cell wall-associated plant structure and will serve as a basis for discovering the transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.

  3. Projected impacts of 21st century climate change on the distribution of potential habitat for vegetation, forest types and major conifer species across Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezda; Parfenova, Elena; Cantin, Alan; Shvetsov, Eugene; Soja, Amber; Conard, Susane

    2013-04-01

    Global simulations have demonstrated the potential for profound effects of GCM-projected climate change on the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems and individual species at all hierarchical levels. We modeled progressions of potential vegetation cover, forest cover and forest types in Russia in the warming climate during the 21st century. We used large-scale bioclimatic models to predict zonal vegetation (RuBCliM), and forest cover (ForCliM) and forest types. A forest type was defined as a combination of a dominant tree conifer and a ground layer. Distributions of vegetation zones (zonobiomes), conifer species and forest types were simulated based on three bioclimatic indices (1) growing degree-days above 5oC ; (2) negative degree-days below 0oC; and (3) an annual moisture index (ratio of growing degree days to annual precipitation). Additionally, the presence/absence of continuous permafrost, identified by active layer depth of 2 m, was explicitly included in the models as limiting the forests and tree species distribution in Siberia. All simulations to predict vegetation change across Russia were run by coupling our bioclimatic models with bioclimatic indices and the permafrost distribution for the baseline period 1971-2000 and for the future decades of 2011-2020, 2041-2050 and 2091-2100. To provide a range of warming we used three global climate models (CGCM3.1, HadCM3 and IPSLCM4) and three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). The CGCM model and the B1 scenario projected the smallest temperature increases, and the IPSL model and the A2 scenario projected the greatest temperature increases. We compared the modeled vegetation and the modeled tree species distributions in the contemporary climate to actual vegetation and forest maps using Kappa (K) statistics. RuBioCliM models of Russian zonal vegetation were fairly accurate (K= 0.40). Contemporary major conifer species (Pinus sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, Larix spp., Abies sibirica and Picea obovata

  4. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part I: type of active substance, contact time, microorganism species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on antimicrobial activity of polymer filter nonwovens produced by needle-punching or melt-blowing with an addition of disinfecting agents. The first part of the paper discusses how the biocidal activity of nonwovens is a function of the active agent added to the nonwovens, the duration of the contact of microorganisms with nonwovens and the type of microorganisms. The types of fibres and disinfecting agents had a considerable effect on the biocidal activity of nonwovens. The biocidal effect of nonwovens increased with the duration of their contact with microorganisms. Fibre activity differed considerably depending on the species of the microorganism. The microorganisms most sensitive to biocidal activity of the active filter nonwoven were S. aureus, M. flavus and E. coli. There were no biocidal effects on spore-forming bacterium B. subtilis.

  5. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries).

  6. Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) requires reactive oxygen species to induce skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Simon, Felipe; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration, and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle atrophy, characterised by the loss of muscle strength and mass, is one of the pathological conditions regulated by TGF-β. Atrophy also results in increased myosin heavy chain (MHC) degradation and the expression of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are modulators of muscle wasting, and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) is one of the main sources of ROS. While it was recently found that TGF-β1 induces atrophy in skeletal muscle, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the role of NOX-derived ROS in skeletal muscle atrophy induced by TGF-β was assessed. TGF-β1 induced an atrophic effect in C2C12 myotubes, as evidenced by decreased myotube diameter and MHC levels, together with increased MuRF-1 levels. Concomitantly, TGF-β increased NOX-induced ROS contents. Interestingly, NOX inhibition through apocynin and the antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreased increased ROS levels in myotubes. Additionally, both apocynin and NAC completely prevented the decreased MHC, decreased myotube diameter, and increased MuRF-1 induced by TGF-β. Injection of TGF-β1 into the tibialis anterior muscle induced atrophy, as observed by decreased fibre diameter and MHC levels, together with increased MuRF-1 levels. Likewise, TGF-β increased the ROS contents in the smaller fibres of skeletal muscle. Additionally, the administration of NAC to mice prevented all atrophic effects and the increase in ROS induced by TGF-β in the tibialis anterior. This is the first study to report that TGF-β has an atrophic effect dependent on NOX-induced ROS in skeletal muscle.

  7. Two new species of Vestrogothia (Phosphatocopina,Crustacea) of Orsten-type preservation from the Upper Cambrian in western Hunan,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuaQiao; DONG XiPing

    2009-01-01

    Although fossils of Orsten-type preservation represented by Skaracarida and Phosphatocopina were first reported from the Middle and Upper Cambrian in western Hunan,South China in 2005,diversified phosphatocopine species have never been appropriately described and elucidated in terms of their evolutionary relationships.Here,we described two new species of Phosphatocopina,Vestrogothia anterispinata sp.nov.and V.bispinata sp.nov.The evolutionary relationship among all the valid spe-cies of Phosphatocopina is discussed and the phylogeny of Phosphatocopina is reestablished using cladistic analysis.Accordingly,phosphatocopines primitively evolved along two lineages:one evolved towards the emergence of lobes; the other evolved towards the emergence of dorsal spines.Respec-tively,lobes originated independently three times,and dorsal spines originated only once.With regard to the dorsal rims,interdorsum originated first,whereas dorsal furrow originated independently twice on the basis of interdorsum.Probably Hesslandona may represent a polyphyletic group,whereas Vestrogothia a monophyletic group.

  8. Controlled interactions between anhydrous keggin-type heteropolyacids and silica support: Preparation and characterization of well-defined silica-supported polyoxometalate species

    KAUST Repository

    Grinenval, Eva

    2010-11-11

    Anhydrous Keggin-type phosphorus heteropolyacids were deposited on partially dehydroxylated silica by using the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) strategy. The resulting solids were characterized by a combination of physicochemical methods including IR, Raman, 1D and 2D 1H, and 31P MAS NMR, electron microscopy experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that the main surface species is [ - Si(OH...H+)]2[H+]1[PM 12O403-] where the polyoxometalate is linked to the support by proton interaction with two silanols. Two other minor species (10% each) are formed by coordination of the polyoxometalate to the surface via the interaction between all three protons with three silanol groups or via three covalent bonds formed by dehydroxylation of the above species. Comparison of the reactivity of these solids and of compounds prepared by a classical way shows that the samples prepared by the SOMC approach contain ca. 7 times more acid sites. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively.

  10. Inulin-type fructan fermentation by bifidobacteria depends on the strain rather than the species and region in the human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selak, Marija; Rivière, Audrey; Moens, Frédéric; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Geirnaert, Annelies; Rogelj, Irena; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known to cause a health-promoting bifidogenic effect, although the ITF degradation capacity of bifidobacteria in different intestinal regions remains unclear. The present study aims at offering new insights into this link, making use of a collection of 190 bifidobacterial strains, encompassing strains from gut biopsies (terminal ileum and proximal colon; mucosa-associated strains) and the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®; proximal and distal colon vessels; lumen-associated strains). A multivariate data analysis of all fermentation data revealed four clusters corresponding with different types of ITF degradation fingerprints, which were not correlated with the region in the intestine, suggesting that the degradation of ITF is uniform along the human intestine. Strains from cluster 1 consumed fructose, while strains from cluster 2 consumed more oligofructose than fructose. Higher fructose and oligofructose consumption was characteristic for clusters 3 and 4 strains, which degraded inulin too. In general, the mucosa-associated strains from biopsy origin seemed to be more specialized in the consumption of fructose and oligofructose, while the lumen-associated strains from SHIME origin displayed a higher degradation degree of inulin. Further, intra-species variability in ITF degradation was found, indicating strain-specific variations. The coexistence of different bifidobacterial strains with different ITF degradation fingerprints within the same intestinal region suggests cooperation for the degradation of ITF, with opportunities for cross-feeding on strain and/or species level.

  11. Research status of identification of Brucella species/types%布鲁氏菌种/型鉴别的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫飞; 郑文艳; 张专才; 曲芬

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a kind of zoonosis which is caused by members of the genus Brucella. World Organization for Ani-mal Health lists it as an important infectious disease. In recent years, the morbidity of brucellosis has been rising. Application of molecular biology techniques to the research of Brucella species/types is of important significance. This article summarizes the re-search progress of identification of Brucella species/types, which provides evidence for judging and predicting epidemic dynamics, studing epidemic characteristics and making reasonable and effective prevention and control counter-measures.%布鲁菌病是由布鲁氏菌引起的一种人畜共患病,世界动物卫生组织将其列为重要传染病,近些年发病率呈上升趋势。应用分子生物学技术进行布鲁氏菌种/型分类的研究具有重要意义。本文通过总结近年来布鲁氏菌种/型鉴定的研究进展,为今后判断预测疫情动态、研究流行特点以及制定合理有效的防治对策提供重要的理论依据。

  12. Reactive oxygen species from type-I photosensitized reactions contribute to the light-induced wilting of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Eva; Vitányi, Beáta; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Won, Sungae; Inoue, Yumi; Ridge, Robert W; Böddi, Béla

    2010-04-01

    Type-II, singlet oxygen-mediated photosensitized damage has already been shown to occur in epicotyls of dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings upon illumination, resulting in fast turgor loss and wilting. In this study we show evidence that the palette of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is more complex. Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are also formed, suggesting the occurrence of type-I reactions as well. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide injection into the epicotyls in the dark was able to provoke wilting directly. Formation of hydroxyl radicals could also be triggered by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the dark, preferentially in the mid-sections where wilting occurs, showing that potential mediators of a Fenton reaction are present in the epicotyls, but unevenly distributed. Localization of light-inducible ROS formation fully (hydrogen peroxide) or partially (superoxide radicals) overlaps with the distribution of monomer protochlorophyllide complexes, showing that these pigment forms are capable of provoking both type-I and type-II reactions.

  13. Study of types of some species of “Filaria” (Nematoda) parasites of small mammals described by von Linstow and Molin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R.; Bain, O.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB) and Vienna (NMW) Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897) n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899) Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis), Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858) Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium), Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858) as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorex vulgaris (= Sorex araneus), is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior

  14. Study of types of some species of “Filaria” (Nematoda parasites of small mammals described by von Linstow and Molin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB and Vienna (NMW Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897 n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899 Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis, Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858 Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium, Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858 as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorex vulgaris (= Sorex araneus, is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable

  15. Real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Acanthamoeba species in various types of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tsai, Hsien-Lung; She, Cheng-Yu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Wen-Chien

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR was developed to detect and quantify Acanthamoeba spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and three thermal spring recreation areas. The overall detection rate was 14.2 % (25/176) for Acanthamoeba spp. The percentages of samples containing Acanthamoeba spp. from river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water were 13 % (13/100), 25 % (7/28), and 10.4 % (5/48), respectively. Acanthamoeba spp. concentrations were determined according to SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR. A plasmid-based standard curve was constructed to determine the Acanthamoeba concentration using dilution factors for achieving 1.36 × 10(9) gene copies per PCR for 18S rRNA gene in Acanthamoeba spp. The resulting concentrations varied by the type of water, in the range of 46-2.6 × 10(2) cells/l in positive raw drinking water, 2.7 × 10(2)-1.5 × 10(4) cells/l in river water, and 54-1.7 × 10(3) cells/l in thermal spring water. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the raw drinking water samples was also found to have a significant difference with heterotrophic plate count. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in various aquatic environments may be a potential health hazard and must be further evaluated.

  16. Number, biomass, and distribution of fish species in the littoral zone of the upper St. Lawrence River-Quantitative electrofishing, Johnstown Bay, June to October 1995: an assessment by type of habitat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casselman, J.M; Grant, R.E

    1998-01-01

    ..., and distribution of littoral-zone fishes in a shallow environment (< 3m) in the upper St. Lawrence River; 2) examine the occurrence of various species in relation to locally different types of microhabitat, including the recent rock infill...

  17. Species specific behavioural patterns (digging and swimming and reaction to novel objects in wild type, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to analyse species-specific forms of behaviour (digging and swimming and response to novelty in laboratory rats and their wild type counterparts at a very early stage of laboratorization. Three behavioural phenomena were taken into account: burrowing, spontaneous swimming, and neophobic behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-type rats and three strains of laboratory rats were involved in experiments: Warsaw-Wild-Captive-Pisula-Stryjek (WWCPS, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway rats were compared in spontaneous swimming test, while WWCPS and Wistar rats were studied in burrowing and neophobia experiments. Wild rats were found to be faster at building tunnels than Wistar rats and at constructing more complex burrow systems. The experiment on neophobia showed that Wistar rats exhibited less neophobic responses and were more often trapped. WWCPS rats showed highly neophobic behaviour and were rarely trapped in this experiment. The experiment on swimming showed that WWCPS rats showed more complex water tank related activity than their laboratory counterparts. They swam and explored under surface environment. CONCLUSIONS: The three experiments showed profound behavioural differences in quasi-natural forms of behaviour between wild type rats (WWCPS and three laboratory strains frequently used in behavioural studies.

  18. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  19. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5′UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

  20. Infection of type I interferon receptor-deficient mice with various old world arenaviruses: a model for studying virulence and host species barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Rieger

    Full Text Available Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic Lassa fever in humans, while the related Old World arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala are supposedly apathogenic to humans and cause only inapparent infection in non-human primates. Here, we studied whether the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in humans and non-human primates is reflected in type I interferon receptor deficient (IFNAR(-/- mice by testing several strains of Lassa virus vs. the apathogenic viruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala. All Lassa virus strains tested-Josiah, AV, BA366, and Nig04-10-replicated to high titers in blood, lung, kidney, heart, spleen, brain, and liver and caused disease as evidenced by weight loss and elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT levels with a high AST/ALT ratio. Lassa fever-like pathology included acute hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pronounced disturbance of splenic cytoarchitecture. Infiltrations of activated monocytes/macrophages expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase and T cells were found in liver and lung. In contrast, Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala virus replicated poorly in the animals and acute inflammatory alterations were not noted. Depletion of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells strongly enhanced susceptibility of IFNAR(-/- mice to the apathogenic viruses. In conclusion, the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in IFNAR(-/- mice correlates with their virulence in humans and non-human primates. In addition to the type I interferon system, T cells seem to regulate whether or not an arenavirus can productively infect non-host rodent species. The observation that Lassa virus overcomes the species barrier without artificial depletion of T cells suggests it is able to impair T cell functionality in a way that corresponds to depletion.

  1. Infection of type I interferon receptor-deficient mice with various old world arenaviruses: a model for studying virulence and host species barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Toni; Merkler, Doron; Günther, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic Lassa fever in humans, while the related Old World arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala are supposedly apathogenic to humans and cause only inapparent infection in non-human primates. Here, we studied whether the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in humans and non-human primates is reflected in type I interferon receptor deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice by testing several strains of Lassa virus vs. the apathogenic viruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala. All Lassa virus strains tested-Josiah, AV, BA366, and Nig04-10-replicated to high titers in blood, lung, kidney, heart, spleen, brain, and liver and caused disease as evidenced by weight loss and elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) levels with a high AST/ALT ratio. Lassa fever-like pathology included acute hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pronounced disturbance of splenic cytoarchitecture. Infiltrations of activated monocytes/macrophages expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase and T cells were found in liver and lung. In contrast, Mopeia, Morogoro, and Mobala virus replicated poorly in the animals and acute inflammatory alterations were not noted. Depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells strongly enhanced susceptibility of IFNAR(-/-) mice to the apathogenic viruses. In conclusion, the virulence of Old World arenaviruses in IFNAR(-/-) mice correlates with their virulence in humans and non-human primates. In addition to the type I interferon system, T cells seem to regulate whether or not an arenavirus can productively infect non-host rodent species. The observation that Lassa virus overcomes the species barrier without artificial depletion of T cells suggests it is able to impair T cell functionality in a way that corresponds to depletion.

  2. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  3. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncaglia Enrica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2 accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are

  4. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  5. Structural basis for species specific inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1: computational study and biological validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Klein

    Full Text Available 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of estrone to estradiol, which is the most potent estrogen in humans. Inhibition of 17β-HSD1 and thereby reducing the intracellular estradiol concentration is thus a promising approach for the treatment of estrogen dependent diseases. In the past, several steroidal and non-steroidal inhibitors of 17β-HSD1 have been described but so far there is no cocrystal structure of the latter in complex with 17β-HSD1. However, a distinct knowledge of active site topologies and protein-ligand interactions is a prerequisite for structure-based drug design and optimization. An elegant strategy to enhance this knowledge is to compare inhibition values obtained for one compound toward ortholog proteins from various species, which are highly conserved in sequence and differ only in few residues. In this study the inhibitory potencies of selected members of different non-steroidal inhibitor classes toward marmoset 17β-HSD1 were determined and the data were compared with the values obtained for the human enzyme. A species specific inhibition profile was observed in the class of the (hydroxyphenylnaphthols. Using a combination of computational methods, including homology modelling, molecular docking, MD simulation, and binding energy calculation, a reasonable model of the three-dimensional structure of marmoset 17β-HSD1 was developed and inhibition data were rationalized on the structural basis. In marmoset 17β-HSD1, residues 190 to 196 form a small α-helix, which induces conformational changes compared to the human enzyme. The docking poses suggest these conformational changes as determinants for species specificity and energy decomposition analysis highlighted the outstanding role of Asn152 as interaction partner for inhibitor binding. In summary, this strategy of comparing the biological activities of inhibitors toward highly conserved ortholog proteins might be an alternative to

  6. Effect of wild-type Shigella species and attenuated Shigella vaccine candidates on small intestinal barrier function, antigen trafficking, and cytokine release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fiorentino

    Full Text Available Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa and might contribute (along with enterotoxins to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them

  7. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santatra Ravelomanantsoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening

  8. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  9. Effect of wild-type Shigella species and attenuated Shigella vaccine candidates on small intestinal barrier function, antigen trafficking, and cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Maria; Levine, Myron M; Sztein, Marcelo B; Fasano, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa) and might contribute (along with enterotoxins) to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them from the small to

  10. Effect of Wild-Type Shigella Species and Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidates on Small Intestinal Barrier Function, Antigen Trafficking, and Cytokine Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Maria; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa) and might contribute (along with enterotoxins) to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them from the small to

  11. Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants III. Wind models for M-type AGB stars: dynamic and photometric properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bladh, S; Aringer, B; Eriksson, K

    2015-01-01

    Stellar winds observed in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are usually attributed to a combination of stellar pulsations and radiation pressure on dust. Shock waves triggered by pulsations propagate through the atmosphere, compressing the gas and lifting it to cooler regions, which create favourable conditions for grain growth. If sufficient radiative acceleration is exerted on the newly formed grains through absorption or scattering of stellar photons, an outflow can be triggered. Strong candidates for wind-driving dust species in M-type AGB stars are magnesium silicates (Mg$_2$SiO$_4$ and MgSiO$_3$). Such grains can form close to the stellar surface, they consist of abundant materials and, if they grow to sizes comparable to the wavelength of the stellar flux maximum, they experience strong acceleration by photon scattering. We use a frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamics code with a detailed description for the growth of Mg$_2$SiO$_4$ grains to calculate the first extensive set of time-dependent wi...

  12. The molecular phylogeny of the type-species of Oodinium Chatton, 1912 (Dinoflagellata: Oodiniaceae), a highly divergent parasitic dinoflagellate with non-dinokaryotic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-02-01

    Oodinium pouchetii (Lemmermann, 1899) Chatton, 1912, the first described parasitic dinoflagellate, is the type of the Oodiniaceae Chatton, 1920. In the taxonomical schemes, this family of metazoan parasites includes Amyloodinium Brown & Hovasse, 1946 and Piscinoodinium Lom, 1981 that are responsible of important damages in fish aquaculture. Species of Oodinium Chatton, 1912 have unique characteristics such as the possession of both non-dinokaryotic and dinokaryotic nuclei within the life-cycle, and the absence of the transversal (cingulum) and longitudinal (sulcus) surface grooves in the parasitic stage. We provide the first molecular data for the genus Oodinium from specimens of O. pouchetii infecting the chordate Oikopleura sp. (Tunicata: Appendicularia) off the coasts of Brazil. Although O. pouchetii lacks dinokaryotic characters in the parasitic stage, the SSU rDNA phylogeny revealed that it forms a distinct fast-evolved clade that branches among the dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. However, there is no clear relationship with other dinoflagellates. Hence, the taxonomic affinity of the family Oodiniaceae is unclear at the moment.

  13. Complete sequence and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum, the type species of genus Diphyllobothrium (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae), using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Izumiyama, Shinji; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2017-10-01

    We first constructed and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum, the type species of genus Diphyllobothrium, using next generation sequencing (NGS). The mitogenome of D. stemmacephalum was 13,716bp, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 longer intergenic non-coding regions, and has features common to mitogenomes of other cestodes. Although it has been accepted that tRNA for serine (trnS2(UCN)) in Platyhelminthes lacks a D arm, the trnS2(UCN) of D. stemmacephalum was predicted to have a paired D arm as in Diplogonoporus balaenopterae. The non-coding region 2 contained eight tandem repeat units (34nucleotides/unit). This study also corroborated that D. stemmacephalum is phylogenetically more closely related to Dip. balaenopterae than to Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense. As demonstrated here, mitogenome sequence data obtained using NGS is useful for gaining a better understanding of the systematics, phylogeny and taxonomic revisions involving valuable specimens preserved in museums, universities or research institutes for which sequence data are not yet available, and also for making diagnoses based on clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Torpor in mammals: types, species and patterns%哺乳动物的蛰眠:类型、物种分布与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 王德华

    2011-01-01

    哺乳动物的蛰眠(包括冬眠、夏眠和日蛰眠等)是最具吸引力的生命现象之一,是动物应对寒冷、食物短缺、干旱等不良环境条件的适应策略之一.冬眠生理学(生态学)研究具有重要的理论和实际意义.国际学术界在该领域发展比较迅速,国内发展相对缓慢.本文从哺乳动物蛰眠的季节和持续时间、蛰眠期间所利用能量的来源和贮存方式、启动蛰眠的信号来源等方面综述了哺乳动物蛰眠的类型;介绍了蛰眠的哺乳动物物种的系统学分布;并对温带或北极动物的冬眠和冬眠阵及其各阶段的体温和代谢率变化特征、日温剧烈波动环境下的冬眠特征以及日眠和日眠阵等方面进行了概括介绍,以期能促进国内相关领域的发展.%Torpor ( including hibernation, aestivation, and daily torpor) in mammals is one of the most attractive physiological phenomena in life science.Some mammal species use torpor to survive harsh environments such as cold, food shortage and drought.Physiological and/or ecological research into torpor of mammals has potential implications in biomedicine in situations such as trauma treatment, organ transplantation and spaceflight.This review briefly introduces several aspects of torpor in mammals: 1 ) Types of torpor in mammals according to the season and duration of mammalian torpor, the source and storage form of the fuel used in torpor, and the signals initiating torpor.2) The systematic distribution of the mammal species utilized torpors.3 ) The general properties in body temperature and metabolic rate which occurr in hibernation and hibernation bouts of mammals in temperate and arctic zone, and in the tropics where the diurnal hibemacula temperatures fluctuate acutely.We also introduce the patterns of other kinds of torpor, such as daily torpor.

  15. Invasion Potential of Two Tropical Physalis Species in Arid and Semi-Arid Climates: Effect of Water-Salinity Stress and Soil Types on Growth and Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaslan, Cumali; Bukun, Bekir; Ozcan, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants are recognized for their impressive abilities to withstand adverse environmental conditions however, all invaders do not express the similar abilities. Therefore, survival, growth, nutrient uptake and fecundity of two co-occurring, invasive Physalis species were tested under water and salinity stresses, and different soil textures in the current study. Five different water stress levels (100, 75, 50, 25, and 12.5% pot water contents), four different soil salinity levels (0, 3, 6, and 12 dSm-1) and four different soil textures (67% clay, 50% clay, silt clay loam and sandy loam) were included in three different pot experiments. Both weeds survived under all levels of water stress except 12.5% water contents and on all soil types however, behaved differently under increasing salinity. The weeds responded similarly to salinity up till 3 dSm-1 whereas, P. philadelphica survived for longer time than P. angulata under remaining salinity regimes. Water and salinity stress hampered the growth and fecundity of both weeds while, soil textures had slight effect. Both weeds preferred clay textured soils for better growth and nutrient uptake however, interactive effect of weeds and soil textures was non-significant. P. angulata accumulated higher K and Na while P. philadelphica accrued more Ca and Mg as well as maintained better K/Na ratio. P. angulata accumulated more Na and P under salinity stress while, P. philadelphica accrued higher K and Mg, and maintained higher K/Na ratio. Collectively, highest nutrient accumulation was observed under stress free conditions and on clay textured soils. P. philadelphica exhibited higher reproductive output under all experimental conditions than P. angulata. It is predicted that P. philadelphica will be more problematic under optimal water supply and high salinity while P. angulata can better adapt water limited environments. The results indicate that both weeds have considerable potential to further expand their ranges in

  16. ROSMETER: a bioinformatic tool for the identification of transcriptomic imprints related to reactive oxygen species type and origin provides new insights into stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Fluhr, Robert; Joshi, Janak Raj; Leviatan, Noam; Sela, Noa; Hetzroni, Amotz; Friedman, Haya

    2013-10-01

    The chemical identity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its subcellular origin will leave a specific imprint on the transcriptome response. In order to facilitate the appreciation of ROS signaling, we developed a tool that is tuned to qualify this imprint. Transcriptome data from experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) for which the ROS type and organelle origin are known were compiled into indices and made accessible by a Web-based interface called ROSMETER. The ROSMETER algorithm uses a vector-based algorithm to portray the ROS signature for a given transcriptome. The ROSMETER platform was applied to identify the ROS signatures profiles in transcriptomes of senescing plants and of those exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses. An unexpected highly significant ROS transcriptome signature of mitochondrial stress was detected during the early presymptomatic stages of leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the specific oxidation of mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probe. The ROSMETER analysis of diverse stresses revealed both commonalties and prominent differences between various abiotic stress conditions, such as salt, cold, ultraviolet light, drought, heat, and pathogens. Interestingly, early responses to the various abiotic stresses clustered together, independent of later responses, and exhibited negative correlations to several ROS indices. In general, the ROS transcriptome signature of abiotic stresses showed limited correlation to a few indices, while biotic stresses showed broad correlation with multiple indices. The ROSMETER platform can assist in formulating hypotheses to delineate the role of ROS in plant acclimation to environmental stress conditions and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress response in plants.

  17. Dependence of the textural properties and surface species of ZnO photocatalytic materials on the type of precipitating agent used in the hydrothermal synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I STAMBOLOVA; V BLASKOV; D STOYANOVA; I AVRAMOVA; L DIMITROV; K MILENOVA; K BALASHEV; S SIMEONOVA; A TZONEV; L ALEKSANDROV; A ELIYAS

    2017-06-01

    Three different precipitating agents (NaOH, NH$_4$(H)CO$_3$ and CO(NH$_2$)$_2$) have been applied for the hydrothermalsynthesis of ZnO powder materials, aiming at obtaining various types of porosity and surface species on ZnO. The synthesis procedures were carried out in the presence and in the absence of tri-block copolymer Pluronic (P123,EO20PO70EO20). These materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), BET method and TG–differential thermal analysis (DTA) method, and their photocatalytic activities were tested in the removal azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The urea precipitant yields spongy-like surface forms and the greatest share of mesopores. It has the highest specific surface area, highest degree of crystallinity of wurtzite ZnO phase and largest content of surface OHgroups in comparison with the other two precipitants. The zinc hydroxycarbonate intermediate phase is missing in the case of NaOH as precipitating agent; therefore, it manifests poorer textural characteristics. The morphology of P123-modified sample is different and consists of needle-shaped particles. The urea-precipitated samples display superior performance inthe photocatalytic oxidation reaction, compared with the other precipitated samples. The other two precipitating agents are inferior in regard to their photocatalytic activity due to greater share of micropores (not well-illuminated inner surface) and different surface morphologies.

  18. N-种群离散Lotka-Volterra竞争系统周期解的存在性%Existence of Periodic Solutions forn-Species Lotka-Volterra Type Discrete Competitive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏米西努尔·阿布都热合曼; 滕志东

    2007-01-01

    研究了N-种离散Lotka-Volterra竞争系统,给出了系统周期解存在的充分条件.%In this paper general n-species periodic Lotka-Volterra type discrete competitive system is studied. Sufficient conditions on the existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

  19. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  20. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  1. The Evolution of Vp1 Gene in Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group That Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae,) consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes). The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes). An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21), CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95), EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific ‘signature’ amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific ‘signature’ amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent) positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared. PMID:24695547

  2. Comparative study of two types of herbal capsules with different Epimedium species for the prevention of ovariectomised-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The significance of the current preclinical experimental study was that these two Epimedium species used for formulating XLGB capsules were equally effective for the prevention of oestrogen-depletion induced osteoporosis.

  3. Taxonomic status and location of type specimens for species of Coelinidea Viereck and Sarops Nixon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) described by Garland T. Riegel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following species of Coelinidea Viereck and Sarops Nixon described by Garland T. Riegel are transferred to other genera resulting in 28 new combinations: Chorebus pallidus (Riegel), Coelinius acicula (Riegel), Coelinius acontia (Riegel), Coelinius alima (Riegel), Coelinius alrutzae (Riegel), Coe...

  4. Species Identification and Molecular Typing of Leishmania Spp. Using Targeting HSP70 Gene in Suspected Patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRAHMADI, Hadi; SALIMI KHORASHAD, Alireza; SOHRABNAHAD, Alireza; HEYDARIAN, Peyman; BIZHANI, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a sand fly-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Because of the preventing and controlling methods, clinical course, prognosis and choice of treatment are differing from species; differentiation of species is critical. The present study was aimed to detect the parasite species using the PCR-RFLP method. Methods: A total of 130 Giemsa-Stained slides from suspected Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients were examined under a light microscope at ×1000. DNA from each slide was extracted PCR method was undertaken with HSP70 genes and the PCR products were digested with a restriction enzyme HaeIII (BsuR1). The study was conducted in the laboratory of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in the Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeastern Iran in 2015. Results: From 130 suspected samples, 59 (45.3%) were positive by the microscopic examination, meanwhile 64 (49.2%) were positive by PCR-RFLP, Leishmania species were recognized, and L. tropica was introduced as predominant species in current study. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP is a valuable technique for distinguish of Leishmania species. Furthermore, anthroponotic CL is the dominant cause of CL in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. PMID:28127360

  5. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Flaudrops, Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-11-12

    Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  6. Effect of physical training on mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species release in skeletal muscle in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Højlund, K; Vind, B F;

    2010-01-01

    of obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic men (n = 13) and control (n = 14) participants matched for age, BMI and physical activity completed 10 weeks of aerobic training. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were obtained before a euglycaemic...... in type 2 diabetic participants. Mitochondrial ROS release tended to be higher in participants with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Aerobic training improves muscle respiration and intrinsic mitochondrial respiration in untrained obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes...

  7. Development and assay of RNA transcripts of enterovirus species A to D, rhinovirus species a to C, and human parechovirus: assessment of assay sensitivity and specificity of real-time screening and typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Nigel J; Witteveldt, Jeroen; Clasper, Lucy; McIntyre, Chloe; McWilliam Leitch, E Carol; Hardie, Alison; Bennett, Susan; Gunson, Rory; Carman, William F; Feeney, Susan A; Coyle, Peter V; Vipond, Barry; Muir, Peter; Benschop, Kimberley; Wolthers, Katja; Waris, Matti; Osterback, Riikka; Johannessen, Ingo; Templeton, Kate; Harvala, Heli; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification methods such as the PCR have had a major impact on the diagnosis of viral infections, often achieving greater sensitivities and shorter turnaround times than conventional assays and an ability to detect viruses refractory to conventional isolation methods. Their effectiveness is, however, significantly influenced by assay target sequence variability due to natural diversity and rapid sequence changes in viruses that prevent effective binding of primers and probes. This was investigated for a diverse range of enteroviruses (EVs; species A to D), human rhinoviruses (HRVs; species A to C), and human parechovirus (HPeV) in a multicenter assay evaluation using a series of full-length prequantified RNA transcripts. RNA concentrations were quantified by absorption (NanoDrop) and fluorescence methods (RiboGreen) prior to dilution in buffer supplemented with RNase inhibitors and carrier RNA. RNA transcripts were extremely stable, showing minimal degradation after prolonged storage at temperatures between ambient and -20°C and after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Transcript dilutions distributed to six referral laboratories were screened by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays using different primers and probes. All of the laboratories reported high assay sensitivities for EV and HPeV transcripts approaching single copies and similar amplification kinetics for all four EV species. HRV detection sensitivities were more variable, often with substantially impaired detection of HRV species C. This could be accounted for in part by the placement of primers and probes to genetically variable target regions. Transcripts developed in this study provide reagents for the ongoing development of effective diagnostics that accommodate increasing knowledge of genetic heterogeneity of diagnostic targets.

  8. Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants I. Basic criteria and dynamical models of M-type AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bladh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing effort aiming at identifying the actual wind-drivers among the dust species observed in circumstellar envelopes. In particular, we focus on the interplay between a strong stellar radiation field and the dust formation process. To identify critical properties of potential wind-driving dust species we use detailed radiation-hydrodynamical models which include a parameterized dust description, complemented by simple analytical estimates to help with the physical interpretation of the numerical results. The adopted dust description is constructed to mimic different chemical and optical dust properties in order to systematically study the effects of a realistic radiation field on the second stage of the mass loss mechanism. We see distinct trends in which combinations of optical and chemical dust properties are needed to trigger an outflow. Dust species with a low condensation temperature and a NIR absorption coefficient that decreases strongly with wavelength will not condense clos...

  9. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  10. Community Species Structure Characteristics of Four Types of Keteleeria cyclolepis Natural Forests in Fujian Province%福建江南油杉4种天然林群落物种结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国生

    2011-01-01

    Community species structure characteristics of four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests in Fu-jian Province, I. E. , K. Cyclolepis forest, K. Cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest, Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanop-sis gilva forest, and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest, were investigated and analyzed by means of typical square sampling method. The results showed that there were two sublayers in the arbor tree layer in all of the four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests, while K. Cyclolepis mainly occupied the upper part of the arbor tree layer, growing with 16 companion tree species. There were 10 tree species from the community building families of the broadleaved subtropical evergreen forests including Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae among the companion tree species, accounting for 62. 5% of the total. There were 26 species in the shrub layer of different types of the natural forests, among which 9 shrub species were from the families of Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae, accounting for 34. 6% of the total. There were 7 species respectively in the herb layer and the inter-layer of the vegetation. There were not much differences in the species composition in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests, but the dominant species in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests were quite different. The dominant species in shrub layer and herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis forest were Itea chinensis and Woodwardia japonica respectively. Asidosasa notata and Rhododendron henryi were the co-dominant species in shrub layer, whereas Dicranopteris dichotoma was the dominant species in the herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanopsis gilva forest type. Rhododendron ovatum and Eurya alata were the co-dominant species in the shrub layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest types

  11. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    >Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio floriger Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum = Curculio subglobosus Gmelin, 1790, nom. oblitum; Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio barbatus Rossi, 1794; Hylobius abietis (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio tigris Gmelin, 1790; Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio contractus Geoffroy, 1785; Phyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834 = Curculio auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Hylobius transversovittatus (Goeze, 1777 = Curculio fascialis Gmelin, 1790. New combinations are: Leucophyes occidentalis (Dieckmann, 1982 (from Leucosomus and Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 (from Curculio. The following names have been reinstated (stat. res. as valid: Trachyphloeus spinosus (Goeze, 1777 for the species known as Trachyphloeus olivieri Bedel, 1883, Lixus pulverulentus (Scopoli, 1763 for the species known as Lixus angustatus (Fabricius, 1775. Hypera melancholica (Fabricius, 1793 is confirmed as the valid name for the species hitherto named Hypera fuscocinerea (Marsham, 1802 or Hypera murina (Fabricius, 1793. The following names are considered nomina dubia, since there is no identifiable type material: Curculio pulex Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer minutus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio pulex Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer striatusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Rhinomacer fulgidusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio transversofasciatus Goeze, 1777, Curculio fasciatus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Scopoli, 1763, nec Ström, 1768, nec Degeer, 1775, nec Mu.ller, 1776, Curculio fuscatus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777: 410 (non Fabricius, 1775, nec Goeze, 1777: 381, Curculio incisus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio exaratus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio quadratus Goeze, 1777, Curculio quadrilis Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio griseosericeus Goeze, 1777,

  12. Gene selection and cancer type classification of diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma using a bivariate mixture model for two-species data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhua; Nielsen, Dahlia; Zhu, Lei; Richards, Kristy; Suter, Steven; Breen, Matthew; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Osborne, Jason

    2013-01-05

    : A bivariate mixture model utilizing information across two species was proposed to solve the fundamental problem of identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments. The model utility was illustrated using a dog and human lymphoma data set prepared by a group of scientists in the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University. A small number of genes were identified as being differentially expressed in both species and the human genes in this cluster serve as a good predictor for classifying diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients into two subgroups, the germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The number of human genes that were observed to be significantly differentially expressed (21) from the two-species analysis was very small compared to the number of human genes (190) identified with only one-species analysis (human data). The genes may be clinically relevant/important, as this small set achieved low misclassification rates of DLBCL subtypes. Additionally, the two subgroups defined by this cluster of human genes had significantly different survival functions, indicating that the stratification based on gene-expression profiling using the proposed mixture model provided improved insight into the clinical differences between the two cancer subtypes.

  13. Redescription and molecular phylogeny of the type species for two main metopid genera, Metopus es (Müller, 1776) Lauterborn, 1916 and Brachonella contorta (Levander, 1894) Jankowski, 1964 (Metopida, Ciliophora), based on broad geographic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, William; Rotterova, Johana; Čepička, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Metopid ciliates occupy terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats worldwide, playing important roles as predominant consumers of bacteria, flagellates, algae, and diatoms in hypoxic environments. Metopus and Brachonella are the most species-rich metopid genera, however most of their species have not been studied by modern methods Here, we report the morphologic, morphometric and molecular characterization, and phylogeny of Metopus es and Brachonella contorta, both types of their respective genera, collected in a broad global sampling effort. Five strains of M. es and three strains of B. contorta were studied in detail, providing the first correlation of morphology, morphometrics, and 18S rRNA gene sequencing for both. We submitted 29 new 18S rRNA gene sequences to GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses yielded trees of similar topology. A strongly supported Metopus es clade is sister to the Brachonella contorta clade. Our analysis shows genus Metopus is not monophyletic. The monophyly of Brachonella cannot yet be determined due to lack of sequences for other species of this genus in molecular databases. Both species appear to have a global distribution. Metopus es was not found in Africa, probably reflecting low sampling effort. Strains of both species showed low 18S rRNA gene sequence divergence despite wide geographic separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  15. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  16. Occurrence of Malassezia species in Persian and domestic short hair cats with and without otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah; Khosravi, Alireza; Rad, Mohammadali; Jamshidi, Shahram

    2010-03-01

    The yeasts of the Malassezia genus are opportunistic microorganisms in the skin and auricular canal of human and animals, mainly cats, and can cause otitis externa and dermatitis disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of cats with and without otitis externa. Thirty-one normal cats and 82 animals with otitis externa were clinically examined. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect specimens from the external ear canal and streaked onto the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 95.1% and 48.4% of the cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. The rate of isolation in affected animals versus normals was highly significant (Potitis, 57.7% were identified as M. pachydermatis (with significant frequency; Potitis externa can be associated with lipid-dependent Malassezia species in addition to the non lipid- dependent species M. pachydermatis.

  17. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu Kathuria

    Full Text Available Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140 from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP. Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of

  18. Molecular Typing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Species Belonging to Phlebotomus (Larroussius and Phlebotomus (Adlerius Subgenera (Diptera: Psychodidae from Two Locations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E AlaeeNovin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract"nBackground: Haematophagous females of some phlebotomine sandflies are the only natural vectors of Leishmania species, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including Iran.  We report the presence of Phlebotomus (Larroussius major and Phlebotomus (Adlerius halepensis in Tonekabon (Ma­zanderan Province and Phlebotomus (Larroussius tobbi in Pakdasht (Tehran Province. It is the first report of these species, known as potential vectors of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, are identified in these areas."nMethods: In 2006-2007 individual wild-caught sandflies were characterized by both morphological features and sequence analysis of their mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b.  The analyses were based on a fragment of  494 bp at the 3´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 3´ fragment and a fragment of  382 bp CB3 at the 5´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 5´ fragment. We also analysed the Cyt b Long fragment, which is located on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene, followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser(TCN gene."nResults: Twenty-seven P. halepensis and four P. major from Dohezar, Tonekabon, Mazanderan province and 8 P. tobbi from Packdasht, Tehran Province were identified by morphological and molecular characters. Cyt b 5´ and Cyt b 3´ fragment sequences were obtained from 15 and 9 flies, respectively. Cyt b long fragment sequences were ob­tained from 8 out of 27 P. halepensis."nConclusion: Parsimony analyses (using heuristic searches of the DNA sequences of Cyt b always showed mono­phyletic clades of subgenera and each species did form a monophyletic group. "nKeywords: Mitochondrial Cytochrome b, Phlebotomus (Larroussius major, Phlebotomus (Larroussius tobbi, Phlebotomus (Adlerius halepensis, Iran

  19. The molecular phylogeny of the type-species of Oodinium Chatton, 1912 (Dinoflagellata: Oodiniaceae), a highly divergent parasitic dinoflagellate with non-dinokaryotic characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez, Fernando; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    that are responsible of important damages in fish aquaculture. Species of Oodinium Chatton, 1912 have unique characteristics such as the possession of both non-dinokaryotic and dinokaryotic nuclei within the life-cycle, and the absence of the transversal (cingulum) and longitudinal (sulcus) surface grooves...... in the parasitic stage. We provide the first molecular data for the genus Oodinium from specimens of O. pouchetii infecting the chordate Oikopleura sp. (Tunicata: Appendicularia) off the coasts of Brazil. Although O. pouchetii lacks dinokaryotic characters in the parasitic stage, the SSU rDNA phylogeny revealed...

  20. Anopheles Maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Type Locality of Hong Kong and Two New Species of the Maculatus Complex from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    distinguish two morphotypes from single localities. For this reason we believe that the two forms represent repro- ductively isolated species which are...tergum; 9- II-IV short, blunt, peglike; 9-V-W long, pointed, spine - like; 9-11 transparent, 9-III-VII lightly to darkly pigmented; ratio of length...Pecten plate with 3-12 long and 4-9 short spines . Seta 1-X simple, long, 1.05-1.54 length of saddle; 2-X more pectinate than plumose, with 16-20

  1. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  2. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY, AND CATALYTIC BEHAVIOR OF IRON/ZINC-CONTAINING SPECIES INVOLVED IN OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS UNDER GIF-TYPE CONDITIONS. (R823377)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study explores the nature and reactivity of iron- and zinc-containing speciesgenerated in hydrocarbon-oxidizing Gif(IV)-type solutions Fe catalyst/Zn/O-2 in pyridine/acetic acid(10:1 v/v). The ultimate goal of this investigation is to unravel the role of metal...

  3. Medically Relevant Acinetobacter Species Require a Type II Secretion System and Specific Membrane-Associated Chaperones for the Export of Multiple Substrates and Full Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Christian M; Kinsella, Rachel L; Palmer, Lauren D; Skaar, Eric P; Feldman, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, A. nosocomialis, and A. pittii have recently emerged as opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing severe human disease; however, the molecular mechanisms employed by Acinetobacter to cause disease remain poorly understood. Many pathogenic members of the genus Acinetobacter contain genes predicted to encode proteins required for the biogenesis of a type II secretion system (T2SS), which have been shown to mediate virulence in many Gram-negative organisms. Here we demonstrate that Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain M2 produces a functional T2SS, which is required for full virulence in both the Galleria mellonella and murine pulmonary infection models. Importantly, this is the first bona fide secretion system shown to be required for virulence in Acinetobacter. Using bioinformatics, proteomics, and mutational analyses, we show that Acinetobacter employs its T2SS to export multiple substrates, including the lipases LipA and LipH as well as the protease CpaA. Furthermore, the Acinetobacter T2SS, which is found scattered amongst five distinct loci, does not contain a dedicated pseudopilin peptidase, but instead relies on the type IV prepilin peptidase, reinforcing the common ancestry of these two systems. Lastly, two of the three secreted proteins characterized in this study require specific chaperones for secretion. These chaperones contain an N-terminal transmembrane domain, are encoded adjacently to their cognate effector, and their disruption abolishes type II secretion of their cognate effector. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative chaperones located adjacent to multiple previously known type II effectors from several Gram-negative bacteria, which suggests that T2SS chaperones constitute a separate class of membrane-associated chaperones mediating type II secretion.

  4. Salt stress-induced production of reactive oxygen- and nitrogen species and cell death in the ethylene receptor mutant Never ripe and wild type tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Péter; Kovács, Judit; Borbély, Péter; Takács, Zoltán; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-12-01

    The salt stress triggered by sublethal, 100 mM and lethal, 250 mM NaCl induced ethylene production as well as rapid accumulation of superoxide radical and H2O2 in the root tips of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) wild type and ethylene receptor mutant, Never ripe (Nr/Nr) plants. In the wild type plants superoxide accumulation confined to lethal salt concentration while H2O2 accumulated more efficiently under sublethal salt stress. However, in Nr roots the superoxide production was higher and unexpectedly, H2O2 level was lower than in the wild type under sublethal salt stress. Nitric oxide production increased significantly under sublethal and lethal salt stress in both genotypes especially in mutant plants, while peroxynitrite accumulated significantly under lethal salt stress. Thus, the nitro-oxidative stress may be stronger in Nr roots, which leads to the programmed death of tissues, characterized by the DNA and protein degradation and loss of cell viability under moderate salt stress. In Nr mutants the cell death was induced in the absence of ethylene perception. Although wild type roots could maintain their potassium content under moderate salt stress, K(+) level significantly declined leading to small K(+)/Na(+) ratio in Nr roots. Thus Nr mutants were more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type and the viability of root cells decreased significantly under moderate salt stress. These changes can be attributed to a stronger ionic stress due to the K(+) loss from the root tissues.

  5. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic clawless eutardigrade genus Apodibius Dastych, 1983 (Tardigrada), based on 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from its type species A. confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Dastych, Hieronymus; Hohberg, Karin; Dabert, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of Eutardigrada, the largest lineage among the three classes of the phylum Tardigrada, is based mainly on the morphology of the leg claws and of the buccal apparatus. However, three members of the rarely recorded and poorly known limno-terrestrial eutardigrade genus Apodibius have no claws on their strongly reduced legs, a unique character among all tardigrades. This absence of all claws makes the systematic position of Apodibius one of the most enigmatic among the whole class. Until now all known associates of the genus Apodibius have been located in the incertae sedis species group or, quite recently, included into the Necopinatidae family. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA sequence data from 31 tardigrade species representing four parachelan superfamilies (Isohypsibioidea, Hypsibioidea, Macrobiotoidea, Eohypsibioidea), the apochelan Milnesium tardigradum, and the type species of the genus Apodibius, A. confusus, indicated close relationship of the Apodibius with tardigrade species recently included in the superfamily Isohypsibioidea. This result was well-supported and consistent across all markers (separate 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and combined 18S rRNA+28S rRNA datasets) and methods (MP, ML) applied.

  6. Revision of the types of species of Alloxysta described by Cameron and Fergusson (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Charipinae and deposited in the Natural History Museum (London, including a key to the fauna of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Pujade-Villar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Type material of the species of Alloxysta described by Cameron and Fergusson and deposited in the Natural History Museum of London has been revised. Seven species are considered valid: Alloxysta abdera Fergusson, 1986, A. basimacula (Cameron, 1886, A. crassa (Cameron, 1889, A. mullensis (Cameron, 1883, A. piceomaculata (Cameron, 1883, A. pleuralis (Cameron, 1879 and A. semiaperta Fergusson, 1986. A. basimacula, A. crassa, A. maculicollis (Cameron, 1886, A. perplexa (Cameron, 1889 and A. piceomaculata are here removed from synonymy with A. macrophadna (Hartig,1841. A. ruficeps (Cameron, 1883 is removed from synonymy with A. victrix (Westwood, 1833. A. caledonica (Cameron, 1886 and A. perplexa are here synonymized with A. basimacula. A. maculicollis, A. ruficeps and A. ruficollis (Cameron, 1883 are here synonymized with A. castanea (Hartig, 1841. A. ancylocera (Cameron, 1886 was correctly synonymized with A. fuscicornis (Hartig, 1841, A. curvicornis (Cameron, 1883 was correctly synonymized with A. victrix and A. filicornis (Cameron, 1889 was correctly synonymized with A. macrophadna. Complete redescriptions and illustrations are given for valid species. A key for all the Alloxysta species found so far in Great Britain is given.

  7. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  8. Forest Community Structure and Species Diversity of Eight Forest Types in Wenchang City%文昌8个森林群落结构与物种多样性研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪仁辉; 薛杨; 王小燕; 李敦禧; 林之盼; 宿少锋

    2015-01-01

    以文昌航天发射缓冲区不同森林群落为研究对象,选择8个不同植被类型,分别设置1 hm2固定大样地,对森林植物群落的多样性、森林植物群落的物种均匀度、森林植物群落的物种优势度进行观测。结果表明:不同森林群落乔木层物种多样性差异显著,半红树林群落树种种类最高,物种多样性最高达到2.38,其次分别是天然次生林和人工混交林;不同森林群落中不同层次植物均匀度总体表现出草本层>灌木层>乔木层的规律,但天然次生林由于郁闭度较高,林下草本较灌木少,多样性和均匀度均小于灌木层;红树林物种优势度最小,各物种优势差异不显著。%Taking Wenchang space launch buffer different forest community as the research object, select eight different vegetation types, respectively set up 1 hm2 fixed details, to the diversity of forest plant community, forest species evenness of plant community, species of forest plant community dominance. The results showed that:significant difference was found in different forest community species diversity of the tree layer, half the highest species mangrove species, species diversity to a maximum of 2.38, the natural forest and artificial mixed forests secondly;the different plants levels in different forest community evenness showed overall herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer, but because of natural secondary forest canopy density is higher, forests herbs relatively less shrubs, diversity and evenness were smaller than that of shrub layer; Mangrove species dominance to a minimum, each species advantage difference was not significant.

  9. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stackebrandt, Erko [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was es- tablished as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spi- rochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first com- plete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was established as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spirochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:23991255

  11. Investigation of Coccidia Species in ZIKA Meat-type Rabbit%齐卡肉兔球虫种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维恩

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on Coccida species in a rabbit farm of Xiningwas conducted.The eight species of Coccidia were found Eimeria.Perforans(55.5%),Eimeria. meagna(17.5%),Eimeria .medeia(11.5%),Eimeria.coecicola(8%),Eimeria.exigua,Eimeria.irresidua,Eimeria.stiedai and Eimeria.piriforms.The form,size,colour,initial components and sporogenesis time,etc of ovisac were observed and studied.%对西宁市某种兔场进行了球虫种类调查,发现兔艾美尔球虫8种:穿孔艾美尔球虫、大型艾美尔球虫、中型艾美尔球虫、小型艾美尔球虫、无残艾美尔球虫、盲肠艾美尔球虫、斯氏艾美尔球虫和梨形艾美尔球虫,其中以穿孔艾美尔球虫所占比例最高,为55.5%,其次为大型艾美尔球虫,占17.5%,中型艾美尔球虫占11.5%,盲肠艾美尔球虫占8%。观察、研究了卵囊的形态、大小、颜色、内部构造及孢子化时间等。

  12. Susceptibility Pattern and Molecular Type of Species-Specific Candida in Oropharyngeal Lesions of Indian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Lattif, Ali; Banerjee, Uma; Prasad, Rajendra; Biswas, Ashutosh; Wig, Naveet; Sharma, Neeraj; Haque, Absarul; Gupta, Nivedita; Baquer, Najma Z.; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2004-01-01

    A study of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients was conducted over a period of 15 months. This study revealed that 75% of the HIV/AIDS patients had OPC. MIC testing revealed that 5% of the Candida isolates were fluconazole resistant. A correlation between CD4+-T-cell counts and development of OPC in HIV/AIDS patients was also observed. Molecular typing of C. albicans isolates showed that all were genetically unrelated. PMID:15004088

  13. Transit peptide elements mediate selective protein targeting to two different types of chloroplasts in the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Diana; Bohnhorst, Philipp; Shekhar, Vinay; Hwang, Inhwan; Offermann, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Bienertia sinuspersici is a terrestrial plant that performs C4 photosynthesis within individual cells through operating a carbon concentrating mechanism between different subcellular domains including two types of chloroplasts. It is currently unknown how differentiation of two highly specialized chloroplasts within the same cell occurs as no similar cases have been reported. Here we show that this differentiation in photosynthetic cells of B. sinuspersici is enabled by a transit peptide (TP) mediated selective protein targeting mechanism. Mutations in the TPs cause loss of selectivity but not general loss of chloroplast import, indicating the mechanism operates by specifically blocking protein accumulation in one chloroplast type. Hybrid studies indicate that this selectivity is transferable to transit peptides of plants which perform C4 by cooperative function of chloroplasts between two photosynthetic cells. Codon swap experiments as well as introducing an artificial bait mRNA show that RNA affects are not crucial for the sorting process. In summary, our analysis shows how the mechanism of subcellular targeting to form two types of chloroplast within the same cell can be achieved. This information is not only crucial for understanding single-cell C4 photosynthesis; it provides new insights in control of subcellular protein targeting in cell biology. PMID:28112241

  14. Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA complexed with. alpha. /. beta. -type small, acid-soluble proteins from spores of Bacillus or Clostridium species makes spore photoproduct but not thymine dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, W.L.; Setlow, B.; Setlow, P. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (United States))

    1991-10-01

    UV irradiation of complexes of DNA and an {alpha}/{beta}-type small, acid-soluble protein (SASP) from Bacillus subtilis spores gave decreasing amounts of pyrimidine dimers and increasing amounts of spore photoproduct as the SASP/DNA ratio was increased. The yields of pyrimidine dimers and spore photoproduct were < 0.2% and 8% of total thymine, respectively, when DNA saturated with SASP was irradiated at 254 nm with 30 kJ/m{sup 2}; in the absence of SASP the yields were reversed - 4.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Complexes of DNA with {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, or Clostridium bifermentans spores also gave spore photoproduct upon UV irradiation. However, incubation of these SASPs with DNA under conditions preventing complex formation or use of mutant SASPs that do not form complexes did not affect the photoproducts formed in vitro. These results suggest that the UV photochemistry of bacterial spore DNA in vivo is due to the binding of {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP, a binding that is known to cause a change in DNA conformation in vitro from the B form to the A form. The yields of spore photoproduct in vitro were significantly lower than in vivo, perhaps because of the presence of substances other than SASP in spores. It is suggested that as these factors diffuse out in the first minutes of spore germination, spore photoproduct yields become similar to those observed for irradiation of SASP/DNA complexes in vitro.

  15. Characterization of Achromobacter Species in Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Comparison of blaOXA-114 PCR Amplification, Multilocus Sequence Typing, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elenice R. A.; Ferreira, Alex G.; Leão, Robson S.; Leite, Cassiana C. F.; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methodologies were used to identify 28 Achromobacter spp. from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified 17 Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates (all blaOXA-114 positive), nine Achromobacter ruhlandii isolates (all blaOXA-114 positive), one Achromobacter dolens isolate, and one Achromobacter insuavis isolate. All less common species were misidentified as A. xylosoxidans by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Chronic colonization by clonally related A. ruhlandii isolates was demonstrated. PMID:26400790

  16. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China.

  17. Coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium species and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveal a mechanistic insight into the prebiotic effect of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falony, Gwen; Calmeyn, Thomas; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-04-01

    Four bifidobacteria, each representing a cluster of strains with specific inulin-type-fructan degradation capacities, were grown in coculture fermentations with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262, a strain able to metabolize both oligofructose and inulin. In a medium for colon bacteria with inulin as the sole added energy source, the ability of the bifidobacteria to compete for this substrate reflected phenotypical variation. Bifidobacterium breve Yakult, a strain that was not able to degrade oligofructose or inulin, was outcompeted by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. Bifidobacterium adolescentis LMG 10734, a strain that could degrade oligofructose (displaying a preferential breakdown mechanism) but that did not grow on inulin, managed to become competitive when oligofructose and short fractions of inulin started to accumulate in the fermentation medium. Bifidobacterium angulatum LMG 11039(T), a strain that was previously shown to degrade all oligofructose fractions simultaneously and to be able to partially break down inulin, was competitive from the beginning of the fermentation, consuming short fractions of inulin from the moment they appeared. Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047, representing a cluster of bifidobacteria that shared both high fructose consumption and oligofructose degradation rates and were able to perform partial breakdown of inulin, was the dominating strain in a coculture with B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. These observations indicate that distinct subgroups within the large-intestinal Bifidobacterium population will be stimulated by different groups of prebiotic inulin-type fructans, a variation that could be reflected in differences concerning their health-promoting effects.

  18. Myxoma Virus dsRNA Binding Protein M029  Inhibits the Type I IFN-Induced Antiviral State in a  Highly Species-Specific Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2017-02-02

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is Leporipoxvirus that possesses a specific rabbit-restricted host tropism but exhibits a much broader  cellular host range in cultured cells. MYXV is able to efficiently  block all aspects of the type I interferon (IFN)-induced  antiviral  state  in rabbit cells, partially in  human  cells  and  very  poorly  in  mouse  cells.  The mechanism(s) of this species-specific inhibition of  type I IFN-induced antiviral state is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that MYXV encoded  protein  M029, a truncated relative of the vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)  binding  protein  that  inhibits  protein  kinase  R (PKR),  can  also  antagonize the type I IFN-induced  antiviral state in a highly species-specific manner. In cells pre-treated with type I IFN prior to  infection,  MYXV  exploits  M029  to  overcome  the  induced  antiviral  state completely in rabbit cells,  partially  in  human  cells,  but  not at all in mouse cells. However, in cells pre-infected with MYXV,  IFN-induced  signaling  is fully  inhibited  even  in the  absence  of M029 in cells from all three species,  suggesting  that  other  MYXV  protein(s)  apart  from  M029  block  IFN  signaling  in  a  speciesindependent  manner.  We  also  show  that  the  antiviral  state  induced in rabbit, human or mouse cells  by  type  I IFN  can  inhibit M029-knockout MYXV even when PKR is genetically knocked-out, suggesting  that  M029  targets  other  host  proteins  for  this  antiviral state inhibition. Thus, the MYXV  dsRNA  binding  protein  M029  not  only  antagonizes  PKR  from  multiple  species  but  also blocks the  type I IFN antiviral state independently of PKR in a highly species-specific fashion.

  19. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  20. 2型糖尿病患者与健康个体间肠道双歧杆菌的差异%Differences in fecal Bifidobacterium species between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小津; 惠宏襄; 蔡德鸿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the changes in fecal Bifidobacterium species in patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with healthy individuals.Methods The bacterial DNA were extracted from the fecal samples from 50 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy individuals.Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to determine the copy numbers of the bacteria in the fecal samples using 16S rRNA-targeted genus- and species-specific PCR primers for a selected group of fecal Bifidobacterium species including total Bifidobacterium,B.longum,B.breve,B.adolescentis,and B.infantis.Results The diabetic group had significantly lower copy numbers of total Bifidobacterium and B.adolescentis compared to the healthy individuals (P<0.05).Conclusion Type 2 diabetic patients have a lowered number of Bifidobacterium species in the gut microflora.%目的 研究2型精尿病患者与健康个体之间肠道双歧杆菌是否存在差异.方法 收集50例2型糖尿病患者和30例健康志愿者的粪便样品,提取样品中细菌总DNA,根据细菌的16SrRNA序列设计双歧杆菌总菌、长双歧杆菌、短双歧杆菌、青春双歧杆菌、婴儿双歧杆菌的属种特异性引物,并应用实时荧光定量PCR技术对两组人群粪便样品中的以上细菌进行定量检测和分析.结果 2型糖尿病患者组肠道双歧杆菌总菌和青春双歧杆菌的数量较健康对照组均显著减少(P<0.05).结论 2型糖尿病患者肠道双歧杆菌数量减少.

  1. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  2. Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna R; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Comparative genomics of the Type VI secretion systems of Pantoea and Erwinia species reveals the presence of putative effector islands that may be translocated by the VgrG and Hcp proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maayer, Pieter; Venter, Stephanus N; Kamber, Tim; Duffy, Brion; Coutinho, Teresa A; Smits, Theo H M

    2011-11-24

    The Type VI secretion apparatus is assembled by a conserved set of proteins encoded within a distinct locus. The putative effector proteins Hcp and VgrG are also encoded within these loci. We have identified numerous distinct Type VI secretion system (T6SS) loci in the genomes of several ecologically diverse Pantoea and Erwinia species and detected the presence of putative effector islands associated with the hcp and vgrG genes. Between two and four T6SS loci occur among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. While two of the loci (T6SS-1 and T6SS-2) are well conserved among the various strains, the third (T6SS-3) locus is not universally distributed. Additional orthologous loci are present in Pantoea sp. aB-valens and Erwinia billingiae Eb661. Comparative analysis of the T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 loci showed non-conserved islands associated with the vgrG and hcp, and vgrG genes, respectively. These regions had a G+C content far lower than the conserved portions of the loci. Many of the proteins encoded within the hcp and vgrG islands carry conserved domains, which suggests they may serve as effector proteins for the T6SS. A number of the proteins also show homology to the C-terminal extensions of evolved VgrG proteins. Extensive diversity was observed in the number and content of the T6SS loci among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. Genomic islands could be observed within some of T6SS loci, which are associated with the hcp and vgrG proteins and carry putative effector domain proteins. We propose new hypotheses concerning a role for these islands in the acquisition of T6SS effectors and the development of novel evolved VgrG and Hcp proteins.

  4. Comparative genomics of the type VI secretion systems of Pantoea and Erwinia species reveals the presence of putative effector islands that may be translocated by the VgrG and Hcp proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Type VI secretion apparatus is assembled by a conserved set of proteins encoded within a distinct locus. The putative effector proteins Hcp and VgrG are also encoded within these loci. We have identified numerous distinct Type VI secretion system (T6SS) loci in the genomes of several ecologically diverse Pantoea and Erwinia species and detected the presence of putative effector islands associated with the hcp and vgrG genes. Results Between two and four T6SS loci occur among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. While two of the loci (T6SS-1 and T6SS-2) are well conserved among the various strains, the third (T6SS-3) locus is not universally distributed. Additional orthologous loci are present in Pantoea sp. aB-valens and Erwinia billingiae Eb661. Comparative analysis of the T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 loci showed non-conserved islands associated with the vgrG and hcp, and vgrG genes, respectively. These regions had a G+C content far lower than the conserved portions of the loci. Many of the proteins encoded within the hcp and vgrG islands carry conserved domains, which suggests they may serve as effector proteins for the T6SS. A number of the proteins also show homology to the C-terminal extensions of evolved VgrG proteins. Conclusions Extensive diversity was observed in the number and content of the T6SS loci among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. Genomic islands could be observed within some of T6SS loci, which are associated with the hcp and vgrG proteins and carry putative effector domain proteins. We propose new hypotheses concerning a role for these islands in the acquisition of T6SS effectors and the development of novel evolved VgrG and Hcp proteins. PMID:22115407

  5. Comparative genomics of the type VI secretion systems of Pantoea and Erwinia species reveals the presence of putative effector islands that may be translocated by the VgrG and Hcp proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maayer Pieter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type VI secretion apparatus is assembled by a conserved set of proteins encoded within a distinct locus. The putative effector proteins Hcp and VgrG are also encoded within these loci. We have identified numerous distinct Type VI secretion system (T6SS loci in the genomes of several ecologically diverse Pantoea and Erwinia species and detected the presence of putative effector islands associated with the hcp and vgrG genes. Results Between two and four T6SS loci occur among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. While two of the loci (T6SS-1 and T6SS-2 are well conserved among the various strains, the third (T6SS-3 locus is not universally distributed. Additional orthologous loci are present in Pantoea sp. aB-valens and Erwinia billingiae Eb661. Comparative analysis of the T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 loci showed non-conserved islands associated with the vgrG and hcp, and vgrG genes, respectively. These regions had a G+C content far lower than the conserved portions of the loci. Many of the proteins encoded within the hcp and vgrG islands carry conserved domains, which suggests they may serve as effector proteins for the T6SS. A number of the proteins also show homology to the C-terminal extensions of evolved VgrG proteins. Conclusions Extensive diversity was observed in the number and content of the T6SS loci among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. Genomic islands could be observed within some of T6SS loci, which are associated with the hcp and vgrG proteins and carry putative effector domain proteins. We propose new hypotheses concerning a role for these islands in the acquisition of T6SS effectors and the development of novel evolved VgrG and Hcp proteins.

  6. IMP PCR primers detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for Anopheles gambiae species identification, Mopti and Savanna rDNA types, and resistance to dieldrin in Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymerase chain reactions to distinguish single-nucleotide polymorphisms are commonly used for mosquito identification and identifying insecticide resistance alleles. However, the existing methods used for primer design often result in analyses that are not robust or require additional steps. Methods Utilizing oligonucleotides that are unique in having an intentional mismatch to both templates three bases from the SNP at the 3-prime end, three new PCR assays that distinguish SNP targets using standard gel electrophoresis of undigested DNA fragments were developed and tested. These were applied to: (1 an alternative ribosomal DNA PCR assay to distinguish five members of the Anopheles gambiae complex; (2 detection of the Mopti and Savanna rDNA types; and (3 an assay to distinguish resistance to dieldrin (Rdl alleles in Anopheles arabiensis. Results Reproducible specific amplification of the target alleles was observed in all three assays. The results were consistent with existing analyses but proved simpler and the results more distinct in our hands. Conclusion The simplicity and effectiveness of the method should be utilized in these and other PCR analyses to increase their specificity and simplicity. These results have the potential to be extended not only to mosquito analyses but also to parasite and human polymorphisms.

  7. IMP PCR primers detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for Anopheles gambiae species identification, Mopti and Savanna rDNA types, and resistance to dieldrin in Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Elien E; Howell, Paul I; Benedict, Mark Q

    2006-12-19

    Polymerase chain reactions to distinguish single-nucleotide polymorphisms are commonly used for mosquito identification and identifying insecticide resistance alleles. However, the existing methods used for primer design often result in analyses that are not robust or require additional steps. Utilizing oligonucleotides that are unique in having an intentional mismatch to both templates three bases from the SNP at the 3-prime end, three new PCR assays that distinguish SNP targets using standard gel electrophoresis of undigested DNA fragments were developed and tested. These were applied to: (1) an alternative ribosomal DNA PCR assay to distinguish five members of the Anopheles gambiae complex; (2) detection of the Mopti and Savanna rDNA types; and (3) an assay to distinguish resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) alleles in Anopheles arabiensis. Reproducible specific amplification of the target alleles was observed in all three assays. The results were consistent with existing analyses but proved simpler and the results more distinct in our hands. The simplicity and effectiveness of the method should be utilized in these and other PCR analyses to increase their specificity and simplicity. These results have the potential to be extended not only to mosquito analyses but also to parasite and human polymorphisms.

  8. TtsI, a key regulator of Rhizobium species NGR234 is required for type III-dependent protein secretion and synthesis of rhamnose-rich polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Corinne; Deakin, William J; Ojanen-Reuhs, Tuula; Diallo, Ericka; Reuhs, Brad; Broughton, William J; Perret, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots by Rhizobium sp. NGR234 requires an array of bacterial factors, including nodulation outer proteins (Nops) secreted through a type III secretion system (TTSS). Secretion of Nops is abolished upon inactivation of ttsI (formerly y4xI), a protein with characteristics of two-component response regulators that was predicted to activate transcription of TTSS-related genes. During the symbiotic interaction, the phenotype of NGR omega ttsI differs from that of a mutant with a nonfunctional secretion machine, however. This indicated that TtsI regulates the synthesis of other symbiotic factors as well. Conserved sequences, called tts boxes, proposed to act as binding sites for TtsI, were identified not only within the TTSS cluster but also in the promoter regions of i) genes predicted to encode homologs of virulence factors secreted by pathogenic bacteria, ii) loci involved in the synthesis of a rhamnose-rich component (rhamnan) of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and iii) open reading frames that play roles in plasmid partitioning. Transcription studies showed that TtsI and tts boxes are required for the activation of TTSS-related genes and those involved in rhamnose synthesis. Furthermore, extraction of polysaccharides revealed that inactivation of ttsI abolishes the synthesis of the rhamnan component of the LPS. The phenotypes of mutants impaired in TTSS-dependent protein secretion, rhamnan synthesis, or in both functions were compared to assess the roles of some of the TtsI-controlled factors during symbiosis.

  9. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Heshan; Duffield, Michael D.; Fadista, Joao; Kashmir, Vinder; Genders, Amanda J.; McGee, Sean L.; Martin, Alyce M.; Saiedi, Madiha; Morton, Nicholas; Carter, Roderick; Cousin, Michael A.; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Volkov, Petr; Hough, Tertius A.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Busciglio, Jorge; Coskun, Pinar E.; Becker, Ann; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.; Ryan, Michael T.; Chan, Jeng Yie; Laybutt, D. Ross; Coates, P. Toby; Yang, Sijun; Ling, Charlotte; Groop, Leif; Pritchard, Melanie A.; Keating, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21). To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D

  10. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshan Peiris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21. To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial

  11. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Heshan; Duffield, Michael D; Fadista, Joao; Jessup, Claire F; Kashmir, Vinder; Genders, Amanda J; McGee, Sean L; Martin, Alyce M; Saiedi, Madiha; Morton, Nicholas; Carter, Roderick; Cousin, Michael A; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Volkov, Petr; Hough, Tertius A; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Busciglio, Jorge; Coskun, Pinar E; Becker, Ann; Belichenko, Pavel V; Mobley, William C; Ryan, Michael T; Chan, Jeng Yie; Laybutt, D Ross; Coates, P Toby; Yang, Sijun; Ling, Charlotte; Groop, Leif; Pritchard, Melanie A; Keating, Damien J

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21). To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D.

  12. 北京不同类型居住区树种组成结构及其三维空间配置%Tree species composition and three-dimensional configure in different types of residential areas in Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄光发; 任启文; 李伟; 杨颖; 王成

    2011-01-01

    Taking three types of residential areas in Beijing as the objects, this paper analyzed the tree species composition, relative important value, and three-dimensional configure in diameter at breast height (DBH) , height, and crown coverage. In all types of the residential areas, there existed common key tree species, and also, unique dominant species. Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica, and Platycladus orientalis were the common key species with higher important value; tall and straight species Paidewnia fortunei, Cedrus deodara, P. Canadensis, and Ginkgo biioba were the important species in enterprise-institution residential areas; traditionally native species such as Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis, and Ziziphus jujube were the essential components in Hutong residential areas; and excellent landscape tree species such as Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus tabulaeformis, Salix babylonicay and S. Japonica cv. Pendula had valuable traits in mixed residential areas. As for the tree species three-dimensional configure, the overall distribution in DBH, height, and crown coverage in the three types of residential areas all presented a great development potential, being still at a rapid growth phase. With larger green space,enterprise-institution residential areas had significantly higher tree density, crown coverage, average DBH, and height than the other two types of residential areas; due to the limited green land, Hutong residential areas were difficult to increase the green biomass to a higher level; whereas mixed residential areas had considerable potential in the increase of green space.%以北京城区3种不同类型居住区为对象,对其树种组成、相对重要程度以及在胸径、树高和树冠等级上的三维空间配置结构进行了分析.结果表明:不同类型居住区既有相同的核心树种又有各自的特色主导树种,其中,毛白杨(Populus tomentosa)、国槐(Sophora japonica)和侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)是各类居住

  13. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  14. Genome sequence of Phaeobacter inhibens type strain (T5T), a secondary metabolite producing representative of the marine Roseobacter clade, and emendation of the species description of Phaeobacter inhibens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs, Marco; Voget, Sonja; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jörn; Davenport, Karen; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Standfest, Sonja; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Simon, Meinhard; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Strain T5T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter inhibens Martens et al. 2006, a secondary metabolite producing bacterium affiliated to the Roseobacter clade. Strain T5T was isolated from a water sample taken at the German Wadden Sea, southern North Sea. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium with a special focus on the secondary metabolism and compare it with the genomes of the Phaeobacter inhibens strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10), selected because of the close phylogenetic relationship based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these three strains. The genome of strain T5T comprises 4,130,897 bp with 3.923 protein-coding genes and shows high similarities in genetic and genomic characteristics compared to P. inhibens DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Besides the chromosome, strain T5T possesses four plasmids, three of which show a high similarity to the plasmids of the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Analysis of the fourth plasmid suggested horizontal gene transfer. Most of the genes on this plasmid are not present in the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10) including a nitrous oxide reductase, which allows strain T5T a facultative anaerobic lifestyle. The G+C content was calculated from the genome sequence and differs significantly from the previously published value, thus warranting an emendation of the species description. PMID:24976890

  15. 链球菌猪主要致病种和型多重PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of pig-pathogenic species and types of Streptococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹君; 王楷宬; 田莉莉; 王旭远; 曾巧英; 范伟兴

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method to detect streptococci at genus,species and type levels simultaneously by just a single PCR.Targeting at mainly pig-pathogenic species and types including Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus and Streptococcus suis types 1,2,7,9(SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9),based on genetic sequences in GenBank,7 pairs of primers respectively targeting at Streptococcus genus-conservative gene(elongation factor,EF-TU),Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus conservative gene(glutamate dehydrogenase,GDH and M-like protein respectively),and type specific genes(capsular polysaccharide,CPS,CPS1I,CPS2J,CPS7H,CPS9H respectively for SS1,SS2,SS7 and SS9).The novel multiplex PCR assay could clearly produce the 7 expected bands with correct sizes and sequences at 61 ℃ as annealing temperature.Specificity and accuracy were confirmed by expected bands when detecting standard SS strains and Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus strain 555,and even further proven by 100% in agreement with bacteriological and PCR results when detecting 16 Streptococcus isolates.Sensitivity reached 0.08 ng/μL and stability was verified by same performance in 5 separate tests.The multiplex PCR are the only assay up to date which could detect pig-pathogenic Streptococcus at genus,species and type levels by a single PCR with high specificity,accuracy,sensitivity and stability,suiting for Streptococcus surveillance on pig farm and fast epidemiological survey.%根据GenBank中登录的链球菌属保守基因(EF-TU)、猪链球菌种保守基因(GDH)、C群马链球菌兽疫亚种保守基因(M-like)、猪链球菌型特异性基因(SS1型CPS1I、SS2型CPS2J、SS7型CPS7H和SS9型CPS9H)的序列设计合成7对引物,建立了一次性在属、种、型3个水平上检测链球菌猪主要致病种和型(C群马链球菌兽疫亚种和猪链球菌1、2、7、9型)的多重PCR方法。结

  16. 开化王山采种基地森林群落数量分类与多样性研究%Community Type, Size Distribution and Species Diversity Analysis of Kaihua Wangshan Seed Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琪; 方腾; 汪良义; 程清明; 陈声文; 唐群儿; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    在浙江开化王山阔叶林采种基地群落学调查基础上,根据每个样地内重要值大于1.0的102种木本植物的具体数据,对3 1个样地群落类型进行聚类分析,并对各样地木本植物的物种多样性和物种丰富度指数进行分析.结果表明:(1)王山采种基地木本植物群落类型主要可分为甜槠林、拟赤杨林、短尾柯林、乌楣栲林、木荷林、马银花林、红楠林、钩栲林、杉木林9个类型,总体以常绿落叶林为主,也有少量常绿落叶阔叶混交林和人工杉木林.(2)物种多样性指数(Shannon-Weiner指数)和物种丰富度整体表现出相似趋势,即乔木层>灌木层;不同群落类型中乔灌两层的多样性指数有一定差异.%Cluster method is used to classify 31 plots via analyzing the importance value of 102 tree species, while biodiversity analysis are also used to clarify the development status of these forest plots. The results showed that (1) Communities of Wangshan forest can be classified into nine groups, the most dominant species are Castanopsis eyrei, Alniphyllum fortunei, lithocarpus harlandii, Castanopsis jucunda, Schima superba, Rhododendron ovatum, Machilus thunbergii, Castanopsis tibetana and Cunninghamia lanceolate respectively, most of them are belonged to evergreen broad-leafed forest, some of them are mixed evergreen & deciduous forest or man-made forest. (2) Species diversity and species richness indexes are larger in tree layer than that in ground layer and varied between different forest community types. This study will give advanced understanding in the status of Wangshan forest and provide some reference on forest management.

  17. Research on Microbial Species Diversity of Different Soil Types in the SanJiang Plain%三江平原不同土壤类型中微生物种类多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴道秦; 王继华; 张娣; 牛佳; 李文慧

    2011-01-01

    Isolation,identification and statistical analysis were made on microbes from four different types of soil:soybean field soil tillaged successive years(DD),paddy field soil cultivated successive years(SD),uncultivated original ecology soil(XYZ) and soil of farmed grain for green land(C).The result showed that the soil of the Sanjiang Plain mainly contained dominant bacteria of eight genus.Distribution trends of these microbes in soil profiles are:surface layer(0~20 cm),sub-surface(20~30 cm),deep(30 cm or less).Composition and relative density of microbes in different types of soil are significantly different,which clarified the species diversity of soil microorganisms.%通过对三江平原连年耕作大豆田的土壤(DD)、连年耕作水稻田的土壤(SD)、未开垦过原生态的土壤(XYZ)、耕作过又被退耕还草的土壤(C)4种土壤类型中的微生物进行分离鉴定及数量统计分析,结果表明三江平原土壤中微生物主要由8种优势细菌菌属组成,微生物在土壤剖面中的分布趋势是表层(0~20cm)〉亚表面(20~30 cm)〉深层(30 cm以下),不同土壤类型中细菌类群的组成和相对密度有明显不同,从而阐明土壤微生物的种类多样性.

  18. Theoretical studies of molecular structure, electronic structure, spectroscopic properties and the ancillary ligand effect: A comparison of tris-chelate ML 3-type and ML 2X-type species for gallium(III) complexes with N, O-donor phenolic ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yi-Ping; Lin, Yan-Wen

    2011-02-01

    Two Ga(III) complexes with main ligand, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HL'), namely mixed-ligand ML 2X-type [GaL' 2X'] ( 1) (HX' = acetic acid, as ancillary ligand) and the meridianal tris-chelate [GaL' 3] ( 2) have been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) level calculations. Both 1 and 2 can be presented as a similar "mixed-ligand ML 2X-type" species. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, metal-ligand bonding property of Ga-O (N) (main ligand), Ga-O (N) (ancillary ligand) interactions, and the ancillary ligand effect on their HOMO-LUMO gap, their absorption/emission property, and their absorption/emission wavelengths/colors for them have been discussed in detail based on the orbital interactions, the partial density of states (PDOS), and so on. The current investigation also indicates that it is quite probable that by introduction of different ancillary ligands, a series of new mixed-ligand ML 2X-type complexes for group 13 metals can be designed with their absorption/emission property and the absorption/emission wavelengths and colors being tuned.

  19. Cellular identity of an 18S rRNA gene sequence clade within the class Kinetoplastea: the novel genus Actuariola gen. nov. (Neobodonida) with description of the type species Actuariola framvarensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Schwarz, M V Julian; Boenigk, Jens; Schweikert, Michael; von der Heyden, Sophie; Behnke, Anke

    2005-11-01

    Environmental molecular surveys of microbial diversity have uncovered a vast number of novel taxonomic units in the eukaryotic tree of life that are exclusively known by their small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene signatures. In this study, we reveal the cellular and taxonomic identity of a novel eukaryote SSU rRNA gene sequence clade within the Kinetoplastea. Kinetoplastea are ubiquitously distributed flagellated protists of high ecological and medical importance. We isolated an organism from the oxic-anoxic interface of the anoxic Framvaren Fjord (Norway), which branches within an unidentified kinetoplastean sequence clade. Ultrastructural studies revealed a typical cellular organization that characterized the flagellated isolate as a member of the order Neobodonida Vickerman 2004, which contains five genera. The isolate differed in several distinctive characters from Dimastigella, Cruzella, Rhynchobodo and Rhynchomonas. The arrangement of the microtubular rod that supports the apical cytostome and the cytopharynx differed from the diagnosis of the fifth described genus (Neobodo Vickerman 2004) within the order Neobodonida. On the basis of both molecular and microscopical data, a novel genus within the order Neobodonida, Actuariola gen. nov., is proposed. Here, we characterize its type species, Actuariola framvarensis sp. nov., and provide an in situ tool to access the organism in nature and study its ecology.

  20. Evaluation of Type-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays Using the LightCycler and J.B.A.I.D.S. for Detection of Adenoviruses in Species HAdV-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    react with other adenoviruses outside of species HAdV-C, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, or respiratory disease causing bacteria . These assays... gastroenteritis , keratoconjunctivitis, and genitourinary infections [1,2]. Viruses in species HAdV-C are weakly pathogenic in adult populations [8]. In contrast...disease causing bacteria . These assays have the potential to be useful as diagnostic tools for species HAdV-C infection. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16

  1. ROSMETER: A Bioinformatic Tool for the Identification of Transcriptomic Imprints Related to Reactive Oxygen Species Type and Origin Provides New Insights into Stress Responses1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Fluhr, Robert; Joshi, Janak Raj; Leviatan, Noam; Sela, Noa; Hetzroni, Amotz; Friedman, Haya

    2013-01-01

    The chemical identity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its subcellular origin will leave a specific imprint on the transcriptome response. In order to facilitate the appreciation of ROS signaling, we developed a tool that is tuned to qualify this imprint. Transcriptome data from experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) for which the ROS type and organelle origin are known were compiled into indices and made accessible by a Web-based interface called ROSMETER. The ROSMETER algorithm uses a vector-based algorithm to portray the ROS signature for a given transcriptome. The ROSMETER platform was applied to identify the ROS signatures profiles in transcriptomes of senescing plants and of those exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses. An unexpected highly significant ROS transcriptome signature of mitochondrial stress was detected during the early presymptomatic stages of leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the specific oxidation of mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probe. The ROSMETER analysis of diverse stresses revealed both commonalties and prominent differences between various abiotic stress conditions, such as salt, cold, ultraviolet light, drought, heat, and pathogens. Interestingly, early responses to the various abiotic stresses clustered together, independent of later responses, and exhibited negative correlations to several ROS indices. In general, the ROS transcriptome signature of abiotic stresses showed limited correlation to a few indices, while biotic stresses showed broad correlation with multiple indices. The ROSMETER platform can assist in formulating hypotheses to delineate the role of ROS in plant acclimation to environmental stress conditions and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress response in plants. PMID:23922270

  2. Novel multilocus sequence typing scheme reveals high genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes within the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, K.; Sutton, D.A.; Rinaldi, M.G.; Gueidan, C.; Crous, P.W.; Geiser, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Species limits within the clinically important Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes (FIESC and FCSC, respectively) were investigated using multilocus DNA sequence data. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of aligned DNA sequences from four loci resolv

  3. Caracterização anestésica da nanoemulsão não lipídica de propofol Caracterización anestésica de la nanoemulsión no lipídica de propofol Anesthetic profile of a non-lipid propofol nanoemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Takashi Sudo

    2010-10-01

    ón alérgica y crecimiento microbiano. El propofol ha sido reformulado en diferentes presentaciones no lipídicas para reducir los efectos adversos, pero esos cambios pueden modificar su farmacocinética y farmacodinámica. En este trabajo, investigamos la farmacología y la toxicología del propofol lipídico (CLP y de la nanoemulsión no lipídica (NLP. MÉTODO: El CLP y el NLP fueron infundidos en la vena yugular de ratones midiendo la presión arterial (PA, frecuencia cardíaca (FC y frecuencia respiratoria (FR. Las dos formulaciones (1% fueron infundidas (40 µL.min-1 durante 1 hora. Dosis hipnóticas y anestésicas y recuperaciones, fueron determinadas. El dolor inducido por el vehículo del CLP y NLP se comparó por medio del conteo del número de contorciones abdominales ("writhing test" después de la inyección intraperitoneal en ratones. El ácido acético (0,6% fue usado como control positivo. RESULTADOS: Las dosis hipnóticas y anestésicas con 1% CLP (6,0 ± 1,3 y 17,8 ± 2,6 mg.kg-1, respectivamente y 1% NLP (5,4 ± 1,0 y 16,0 ± 1,4 mg.kg-1, respectivamente, no fueron significativamente diferentes. La recuperación de la hipnosis y de la anestesia fue más rápida con NLP que con CLP. Las alteraciones de FC, PA y FR causadas por el NLP no fueron significativamente diferentes de las del CLP. El ácido acético y el vehículo del CLP provocaron 46,0 ± 2,0 y 12,5 ± 0,6 contorciones en 20 minutos después de la inyección i.p., respectivamente. No se observaron contorciones abdominales con vehículo de NLP. Ninguna respuesta inflamatoria abdominal fue notada con la inyección i.p. de los dos vehículos de propofol. CONCLUSIONES: El NLP puede representar una mejor alternativa que el CLP para la anestesia venosa, con menores efectos adversosBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical use of a lipid propofol formulation causes pain during injection, allergic reactions, and bacterial growth. Propofol has been reformulated in different non-lipid presentations to

  4. Collective behaviour across animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  5. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  6. Effect of inoculum size, bacterial species, type of surfaces and contact time to the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated to non-inoculated beef fillets via food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkana, E; Chorianopoulos, N; Grounta, A; Koutsoumanis, K; Nychas, G-J E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the transfer of foodborne pathogens from inoculated beef fillets to non-inoculated ones, through food processing surfaces. Three different levels of inoculation of beef fillets surface were prepared: a high one of approximately 10(7) CFU/cm(2), a medium one of 10(5) CFU/cm(2) and a low one of 10(3) CFU/cm(2), using mixed-strains of Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fillets were then placed on 3 different types of surfaces (stainless steel-SS, polyethylene-PE and wood-WD), for 1 or 15 min. Subsequently, these fillets were removed from the cutting boards and six sequential non-inoculated fillets were placed on the same surfaces for the same period of time. All non-inoculated fillets were contaminated with a progressive reduction trend of each pathogen's population level from the inoculated fillets to the sixth non-inoculated ones that got in contact with the surfaces, and regardless the initial inoculum, a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g between inoculated and 1st non-inoculated fillet was observed. S. Typhimurium was transferred at lower mean population (2.39 log CFU/g) to contaminated fillets than E. coli O157:H7 (2.93 log CFU/g), followed by L. monocytogenes (3.12 log CFU/g; P CFU/g) enhanced the transfer of bacteria to subsequent fillets compared to other materials (2.66 log CFU/g for SS and PE; P < 0.05). Cross-contamination between meat and surfaces is a multifactorial process strongly depended on the species, initial contamination level, kind of surface, contact time and the number of subsequent fillet, according to analysis of variance. Thus, quantifying the cross-contamination risk associated with various steps of meat processing and food establishments or households can provide a scientific basis for risk management of such products.

  7. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  8. Molecular characterisation of Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H C; Vergnaud, G

    2013-04-01

    The genus Brucella (Mayer and Shaw, 1920) currently consists often species with validly published names. Within most species further differentiation into biovars exists. Genetically, all Brucella species are highly related to each other, exhibiting sequence similarity values of 98% to 100% in aligned regions (core genome). The population structure is clonal. Despite this close genetic relatedness, the various species can be clearly distinguished from each other by application of high-resolution molecular typing tools, in addition to assessment of phenotype and host preference. Accurate species delineation can be achieved by conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The last is also suitable for phylogenetic reconstructions, owing to the highly clonal evolution of the different species. Highly discriminatory multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) allows both species delineation and differentiation of individual isolates and thus represents a perfect first-line toolfor molecular epidemiological studies within outbreak investigations. More recently,whole genome sequencing (WGS)and the resulting global genome-wide SNP analysis have become available. These novel approaches should help in further understanding the evolution, host specificity and pathogenicity of the genus Brucella.

  9. New species of Cystolepiota from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Lin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new species, Cystolepiota pseudofumosifolia, is introduced. C. pseudofumosifolia is characterized by granulose or powdery pileus with an anatomic structure that is loosely globose, as well as ellipsoid cells in chains in the pileus covering the cheilocystidia. This new species is compared to the related and similar Cystolepiota species in morphology and molecular phylogeny based on Internal transcribed spacer sequences. Both types of data support our specimens as a new species in the genus Cystolepiota.

  10. Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M

    2016-02-01

    Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.

  11. Sobre o material-tipo de Andanus bimaculatus Linnavuori e descrição de um novo gênero e nova espécie (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae On the type material of Andanus bimaculatus Linnavuori and description of a new genus and species (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keti Maria Rocha Zanol

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Linnavuori, 1959 described the genus and species Andanus bimaculatus based on four specimens collected in Peru, Madre de Díos. In examining the type-material, we found that it was formed by two species belonging to a different genus. The female specimen (alotype and one of the two males paratypes, that Linnavuori used to dissect the genitalia, is here described as Perundanus raunoi, gen.n., sp.n. Fora better characterization of the genus Andanus Linnavuori and A. bimaculatus Linnavuori , both are redescribed.

  12. Petal anatomy of four Justicia (Acanthaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2013-11-01

    Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.

  13. 乌冈栎群落木本植物果实类型及种子大小分析%Analysis on fruit type and seed size of woody species in Quercus phillyreaoides community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春平; 方彦; 方炎明

    2011-01-01

    研究了将石自然保护区乌冈栎群落内的41种木本被子植物的果实类型和种子大小.结果表明:①干果占果实类型的43.08%,肉质果占果实类型的56.92%,两种类型果实比例接近1:1;②与其他地区果实类型的比较发现,果实类型分布格局受水热环境影响显著,西北部干果比例高,而东南部内质果比例高;③用种子三维(长、宽、高)的方差衡量种子形状,植物种子的形状差异很大,最小值为0.0031,而最大的值有0.5371,大部分种子的三维方差小于0.4;④从种子的重量来看,种子百粒重为1~10 g和10~100 g的物种占有较大比例,分别为39.02%和21.95%;⑤大种子和小种子不仅在科的分布上有差异,在植物的生活型上亦有差异;⑥乌冈栎群落木本植物多样性低的因为之一可能与该群落种子传播单一性有关.探讨了果实和种子对群落的生态适应性.%The morphological features of fruit and seed size of 41 woody plants in the Quercus phillyraeoides community of Jiangshi Nature Reserve are measured. The results show: (1) All of the fruits in the community, sarcocarp and dry fruit occupy 56.92% and 43.08% respectively, and the ratio of both is close to 1∶1. (2) Compared to the others', the distribution pattern of fruit type is effected by the water and temperature, which means the dry fruit is more in the western and less in eastern, or vice versa to sarcocarp. (3) Variance considering three dimensions(length,width and depth) is used to describe diaspore shape,which shows there is wide range of the seed size with maximum value 0. 537 1 and minimum value 0.003 1,and most of the them are less than 0.4. (4) Things considered from seed weight, 1~10 g and 10 ~100 g of hundred seed weight occupy the ratio about 39.02% and 21.95% respectively. (5) The difference of seed size is not only existence in families, but also in life form, which is consistent with previously published studies. (6) The lower

  14. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy: Generation of Free Radical Species in the Glycation Reaction and Gene Polymorphisms Encoding Antioxidant Enzymes to Genetic Susceptibility to Diabetic Neuropathy in Population of Type I Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Strokov, Igor A; Nosikov, Valery V; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Sitnikov, Vladimir F; Yegorov, Yegor E; Lankin, Vadim Z

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) represents the main cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. Clinical data support the conclusion that the severity of DN is related to the frequency and duration of hyperglycemic periods. The presented experimental and clinical evidences propose that changes in cellular function resulting in oxidative stress act as a leading factor in the development and progression of DN. Hyperglycemia- and dyslipidemia-driven oxidative stress is a major contributor, enhanced by advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and polyol pathway activation. There are several polymorphous pathways that lead to oxidative stress in the peripheral nervous system in chronic hyperglycemia. This article demonstrates the origin of oxidative stress derived from glycation reactions and genetic variations within the antioxidant genes which could be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In the diabetic state, unchecked superoxide accumulation and resultant increases in polyol pathway activity, AGEs accumulation, protein kinase C activity, and hexosamine flux trigger a feed-forward system of progressive cellular dysfunction. In nerve, this confluence of metabolic and vascular disturbances leads to impaired neural function and loss of neurotrophic support, and over the long term, can mediate apoptosis of neurons and Schwann cells, the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. In this article, we consider AGE-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as a pathogenesis factor in the development of DN. It is likely that oxidative modification of proteins and other biomolecules might be the consequence of local generation of superoxide on the interaction of the residues of L-lysine (and probably other amino acids) with α-ketoaldehydes. This phenomenon of non-enzymatic superoxide generation might be an element of autocatalytic intensification of pathophysiological action of carbonyl stress. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal formed during metabolic

  15. Iridium Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts made from [(1,5-COD)Ir(mu-O2C8H15)](2) and AlEt3: spectroscopic and kinetic evidence for the Ir(n) species present and for nanoparticles as the fastest catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Hamdemir, Isil K; Wang, Qi; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Li, Long; Yang, Judith C; Menard, Laurent D; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Ozkar, Saim; Johnson, Kimberly A; Finke, Richard G

    2010-09-06

    Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts, those made from a group 8-10 transition metal precatalyst and an AlR(3) cocatalyst, are often used for large scale industrial polymer hydrogenation; note that Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are not the same as Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts. A review of prior studies of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts (Alley et al. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2010, 315, 1-27) reveals that a approximately 50 year old problem is identifying the metal species present before, during, and after Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysis, and which species are the kinetically best, fastest catalysts--that is, which species are the true hydrogenation catalysts. Also of significant interest is whether what we have termed "Ziegler nanoclusters" are present and what their relative catalytic activity is. Reported herein is the characterization of an Ir Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst, a valuable model (vide infra) for the Co-based industrial Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst, made from the crystallographically characterized [(1,5-COD)Ir(mu-O(2)C(8)H(15))](2) precatalyst plus AlEt(3). Characterization of this Ir model system is accomplished before and after catalysis using a battery of physical methods including Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high resolution (HR)TEM, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Kinetic studies plus Hg(0) poisoning experiments are then employed to probe which species are the fastest catalysts. The main findings herein are that (i) a combination of the catalyst precursors [(1,5-COD)Ir(mu-O(2)C(8)H(15))](2) and AlEt(3) gives catalytically active solutions containing a broad distribution of Ir(n) species ranging from monometallic Ir complexes to nanometer scale, noncrystalline Ir(n) nanoclusters (up to Ir(approximately 100) by Z-contrast STEM) with the estimated mean Ir species being 0.5-0.7 nm, Ir(approximately 4-15) clusters considering the similar, but not identical

  16. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  17. A new species of Zygogynum (Winteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A new species, Zygogynum vinkii, is described within the woody Ranalean family Winteraceae. It differs from other species of the endemic New Caledonian genus in having 302-371 stamens per flower. Unspecialized cells of the lower leaf surface are covered with cuticular papillae of a type hitherto unr

  18. Types of quantum information

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of ``classical information.'' Various examples (some updating...

  19. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  20. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  1. Application of the Ceditest FMDV type O and FMDV-NS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against Foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock and wildlife species in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Balinda, Sheila Nina

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis and control of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests. Two antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, Ceditest FMDV-NS for the detection of antibodies against the nonstructural proteins of all FMDV serotypes and Ceditest FMDV type...

  2. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Species-Specific PCR for Detection of Nine Acinetobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue Min; Choi, Ji Ae; Choi, In Sun; Kook, Joong Ki; Chang, Young-Hyo; Park, Geon; Jang, Sook Jin; Kang, Seong Ho; Moon, Dae Soo

    2016-05-01

    Molecular methods have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of Acinetobacter species identification in clinical settings. The goal of this study is to develop species-specific PCR assays based on differences in the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) to detect nine commonly isolated Acinetobacter species including Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter ursingii, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter schindleri. The sensitivity and specificity of these nine assays were measured using genomic DNA templates from 55 reference strains and from 474 Acinetobacter clinical isolates. The sensitivity of A. baumannii-specific PCR assay was 98.9%, and the sensitivity of species-specific PCR assays for all other species was 100%. The specificities of A. lwoffii- and A. schindleri-specific PCR were 97.8 and 98.9%, respectively. The specificity of species-specific PCR for all other tested Acinetobacter species was 100%. The lower limit of detection for the nine species-specific PCR assays developed in this study was 20 or 200 pg of genomic DNA from type strains of each species. The Acinetobacter species-specific PCR assay would be useful to determine the correct species among suggested candidate Acinetobacter species when conventional methods including MALDI-TOF MS identify Acinetobacter only to the genus level. The species-specific assay can be used to screen large numbers of clinical and environmental samples obtained for epidemiologic study of Acinetobacter for the presence of target species.

  4. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  5. Selectivity of hook type on hooking species for the tuna longline fishery in the Southern and Central Indian Ocean%印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓钓钩钩型对钓获对象的选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 陈锦淘; 许柳雄; 李攀

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data collected from the fishing ground of tuna longliners in the Southern-central Indian Ocean during September 2008 to April 2009, the present study compares and analyzes the catchability and selectivity to hooking species for 3 hook types(traditional tuna hook, "J"-type hook and circle hook).The results show that (1) for traditional tuna hook, the proportion of bigeye tuna( Thunnus obesus, BET)and blue shark( Prionace glauca,BLS)is higher than other species in the catch composition and "J"-type hook and circle hook have a similar hooking proportion for the above two species, however, for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga, ALB), the traditional tuna hook has the highest hooking proportion and followed by "J"-type hook and circle hook.(2) the traditional tuna hook has the highest survival rate and the "J"-type is lowest for BET, the survival rate of "J"-type hook is slightly higher than that of circle hook and the traditional tuna hook is the lowest for ALB, the survival rate of circle hook is highest and followed by traditional tuna hook and "J"-type hook for BLS.(3) the average fork length(FL) of ALB for "J"-type hook is slightly larger than that of traditional tuna hook and circle hook, traditional tuna hook is larger than circle hook and "J"-type hook for BET and "J"-type is larger than circle hook and traditional tuna hook for BLS.(4) significant difference has not been found for the FL distribution of ALB, BET and BLS for 3 hook types.%基于2008年9月至2009年4月在印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓渔场收集的数据,研究分析和比较了3种钓钩钩型(传统金枪鱼钩、"J"形钩和圆形钩)的渔获效益及对钓捕对象的选择性.结果表明:(1)从渔获种类上看,大眼金枪鱼和大青鲨金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,"J"形钩和圆形钩的钓获比例相当;而长鳍金枪鱼则为金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,其次为"J"形钩和圆形钩.(2)大眼金枪鱼存活率以金枪鱼钩最高,"J"形钩最低;长鳍

  6. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  7. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  8. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  9. Promoter interference mediated by the U3 region in early-generation HIV-1-derived lentivirus vectors can influence detection of transgene expression in a cell-type and species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Samantha L; Fleming, Jane; Rowe, Peter B; Alexander, Ian E

    2003-08-10

    In a previous study using an early-generation VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter, we examined transduction efficiency in dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures. In cultures of murine origin, transgene expression was observed solely in the sensory neurons with the stromal cell population failing to show evidence of transduction. In contrast, efficient and sustained transduction of both sensory neurons and the stromal cell population was observed in cultures of human origin. Given the widespread use of murine models in preclinical gene therapy studies, in the current study we investigated the basis of this apparent neuron specificity of lentivirus-mediated transduction in murine DRG cultures. The interspecies differences persisted at high multiplicities of infection, and irrespective of whether lentiviral vector stocks were packaged in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins. Cell-type specificity of CMV promoter expression, tropism of the VSV-G envelope, and blocks to molecular transduction were also precluded as possible mechanisms, thereby implicating transcriptional repression of the internal heterologous promoter. This promoter interference effect was found to be mediated by cis-acting sequences upstream of the core promoter elements located in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). Deletion of this region, as in late-generation self-inactivating (SIN) lentivirus vectors, relieves this effect. This provides a basis for reevaluating data produced using early-generation U3-bearing lentivirus vectors and for reconciling these with results obtained using more contemporary SIN lentivirus vectors carrying a U3 deletion.

  10. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  11. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Rong; Dai, Cong-Chao; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Lobrathium fuscoguttatum sp. n. (type locality: Guangxi) is described and illustrated. The latest key to the Lobrathium species of mainland China is modified to include the new species. Additional data are provided for six previously described species.

  12. A new species and additional records of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Rong Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lobrathium fuscoguttatum sp. n. (type locality: Guangxi is described and illustrated. The latest key to the Lobrathium species of mainland China is modified to include the new species. Additional data are provided for six previously described species.

  13. Coexistence and succession of copepod species in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    correlated or associated either over space or time. The pattern of copepod succession based on species dominance revealed three main types with successional sequence of high saline species (greater than 30 ppt), low saline species (greater than 5 ppt...

  14. 天宝岩不同类型泥炭沼泽物种多样性与地上生物量关系%Relationship between Species Diversity and Aboveground Biomass of Plant Community among Different Types of Peat Swamp in Tianbaoyan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈花丹; 何东进; 游巍斌; 张中瑞; 蔡昌棠; 刘进山; 肖石红; 邓滨

    2014-01-01

    Biomass of plant community,species diversity characteristics of each community and the relationship between aboveground biomass and species diversity among four different types of peat swamps were studied in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve. The results reveal that:the aboveground biomass of Sphagnum in community and biomass Sphagnum magellanicum were significantly higher than those of others ( P0. 05),while aboveground biomass of community Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum was the lowest. Species diversity order among different types of peat swamp was as follows:community Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum >community Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum >commu-nity Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum>community Sphagnum magellanicum. Correlation analysis showed that:relationship between species diversity and aboveground biomass of community among different types of Sphagnum mire in Tianbaoyan is not obvious,almost no correlation (r≈0),aboveground biomass of Sphagnum mire in subtropical zone were mainly determined by the dominant species, the species diversity was mainly decided by the non-dominant species, long-term flooding and cold weather caused spatial heterogeneity of resources and environment reduce,“Niche complementary” effect is not obvious.%以天宝岩国家级自然保护区为研究对象,研究4种不同类型泥炭沼泽群落生物量、物种多样性分布特征以及地上生物量与物种多样性间的关系.结果表明:泥炭藓群落( Comm. Sphagnum magellanicum)地上生物量和泥炭藓生物量均显著高于其他3类群落(P0.05),其中水竹-泥炭藓群落(Comm. Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)的地上生物量最低.不同泥炭沼泽类型群落物种多样性排序为垂穗石松+水竹-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Palhinhaea cernua+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Sphagnum magellanicum)>灯芯草-泥炭藓群落( Comm. Juncus effusu-Sphagnum magellanicum

  15. 不同种型布鲁菌间的基因获得与缺失研究%Gene Lost and Found Among Different Brucella Species and Bio- types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅; 陈泽良; 黄留玉; 颜焱峰; 陈燕芬; 周晓燕; 王玉飞; 周冬生; 杨瑞馥; 姜海; 崔步云

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解不同种型布鲁菌间的基因差异及基因的获得与缺失情况.方法:采用生物信息学方法比较分析已测序的10株布鲁菌基因水平的差异,分析它们的核心基因组与泛基因组,对得到的差异基因用PCR验证其在19株不同生物型标准菌株中的分布情况.结果:不同种型布鲁菌在基因水平上存在较大差异,差异基因主要位于Ⅱ号染色体上;根据差异基因,鉴定了42个差异区段,这些差异区段在19株不同生物型标准菌株中存在差异分布.结论:布鲁菌在进化过程中分别获得或失去了不同的基因区段,从而适应不同的宿主环境.%Objective: To probe into the genetic differences and gene lost and found as well among different Brucella species and biotypes.Methods: The whole genome sequence of the 10 sequenced Brucella strains were compared, and the core-genome and pan-genome of Brucella were putatively analyzed.The different genes were analyzed by PCR to identify their distribution among the 19 Brucella biotypes.Results: Great differences in gene composition were found among these strains, and these differences were mainly located on chromosome Ⅱ.Of these differently distributed genes, 42 different regions were identified and distributed among the 19 biotypes.Conclusion: The results implied that during Brucella evolution, gene found and lost have been occurred for Brucella adaptation to various host environments.

  16. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two types...

  17. Type-indexed data types

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2004-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a type-indexed data type: a data type that is con...

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  19. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  20. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  1. 50 CFR 679.21 - Prohibited species bycatch management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... apportionment of a bycatch allowance on the following types of information: (A) Seasonal distribution of prohibited species; (B) Seasonal distribution of target groundfish species relative to prohibited species... section. (3) Allocations of the BS Chinook salmon PSC limits—(i) Seasonal apportionment. NMFS...

  2. Desiccation tolerance of dormant buds from selected Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormant buds of woody plant species present a convenient material for backing-up of germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Routinely, this type of material is used in long-term preservation of only a few species (e.g. apple and sour cherry). Cryopreservation procedures of dormant buds are species dependent, ...

  3. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  4. 秦始皇帝陵及汉阳陵遗址成盐元素及类型研究%Study on the Salt Species and Types in the Emperor Qin's Mausoleum and Hanyangling Mausoleum Earthen Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红岩; 李岗; 夏寅; 靳治良; 张尚欣; 容波; 王亮; 周铁; 吕功煊; 李库

    2012-01-01

    The elements, salt type, and crystal structure of salts in the soil samples of the Terracotta Warriors and Hor- ses of Qin Shihuang Mausoleum were analyzed by XRF, XPS, XRD in this paper, The results show that the soil samples contain Na+, K+, NH4, Mg2+, Ca2+, C1 , SO^-, NO3^-, HCO3^- ions. The soluble salts and slightly soluble salts in the samples are mainly NaC1, NaNO3, CaSO4 ·2H20 2CaSO4· H20 CaSO4, Na2Ca5 (SO4)6. 3H20. The structures of salt samples were found to be dependent on the locations and environmental parameters of the Terraeotta War- riors and Horses of Qin Shibuang Mausoleum. Those results are provided with the important guiding significance to study the formation mechanism of salt damages of the earthen heritage sites and to create system of availably protecting, preven- ting and eureing those heritages.%综合运用x射线荧光光谱、x射线光电子能谱、x射线粉末衍射等技术对取自秦始皇帝陵、汉阳陵土遗址土样中的成盐元素、成盐类型、盐的晶体结构和类型进行了分析。结果表明,虽然各样品之间存在着显著差异,但样品中多含有Na^+、K^+、NH4^+、Mg^2+、Ca^2+、Cl^-、SO24^-;NO3^-;、HCO3^-等离子,可溶盐或微溶盐主要为NaCl、Na2S04、NaN03、NH4N03、CaS04*2H20、2CaS04·H20、CaS04、Na2Ca5(s04)6·3H20。结构分析表明,样品中盐的结晶形态取决于样品的存赋地点和环境。这些结果对研究秦始皇帝陵和汉阳陵土遗址中盐害的形成机理以及建立有效保护和防治体系具有重要指导意义。

  5. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed-Point (A...

  6. Phylogeny and species delimitation of the C-genome diploid species in Oryza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li ZANG; Xin-Hui ZOU; Fu-Min ZHANG; Ziheng YANG; Song GE

    2011-01-01

    The diploid Oryza species with C-genome type possesses abundant genes useful for rice improvement and provides parental donors of many tetraploid species with the C-genome (BBCC,CCDD).Despite extensive studies,the phylogenetic relationship among the C-genome species and the taxonomic status of some taxa remain controversial.In this study,we reconstructed the phylogeny of three diploid species with C-genome (Oryza officinalis,O.rhizomatis,and O.eichingeri) based on sequences of 68 nuclear single-copy genes.We obtained a fully resolved phylogenetic tree,clearly indicating the sister relationship of O.officinalis and O.rhizomatis,with O.eichingeri being the more divergent lineage.Incongruent phylogenies of the C-genome species found in previous studies might result from lineage sorting,introgression/hybridization and limited number of genetic markers used.We further applied a recently developed Bayesian species delimitation method to investigate the species status of the Sri Lankan and African O.eichingeri.Analyses of two datasets (68 genes with a single sample,and 10 genes with multiple samples) support the distinct species status of the Sri Lankan and African O.eichingeri.In addition,we evaluated the impact of the number of sampled individuals and loci on species delimitation.Our simulation suggests that sampling multiple individuals is critically important for species delimitation,particularly for closely related species.

  7. Evaluation of seedoil containing wild species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondelmann, W.; Radatz, W.

    1984-01-01

    Six herbaceous seedoil containing wild species were evaluated with respect to agronomic traits and chemical characteristics of their seeds. Furthermore, the inherent wild-type characters were defined and possibilities for their improvement discussed. It could be demonstrated that the vegetation cycle of the annual species was comparable to that of summer rape; biennials had a naturally exceptional position. Because of the very common seed-fall no exact data on yield were possible. Nevertheless, the starting point for grain yield can be considered encouraging. Also seed size (1000-kernel-weight) is favourable. Moreover, the species in question generally are adapted to modern cultivation techniques. With respect to oil content and fatty acid composition most of these species exhibited means and ranges, which are considered favourable. But, some species need a broader genetic base. From oleic acid (C18:1) to nervonic acid (24:1) all characteristic unsaturated long-chained fatty acids at least once show an order, that seems interesting for exploitation. Thus, besides seed oil quantity there is a qualitative aspect. The various wild-type characteristics are of more or less importance depending on the species in question. Using suitable selection methods, which succeeded in two cases, and for some species also a larger variability it seems to be possible to achieve an improved character expression in the long run, which finally would provide base material for breeder's use.

  8. Support your local species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stärk, Johanna

    Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...

  9. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  10. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  11. Biofilms of Clostridium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Tipulidae) from China, with a key to the world species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Huang, Min-Yi

    2014-07-29

    One new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803, C. fumosa Men, sp. nov. (southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to known species along with a checklist of known species of the genus Ctenophora are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the animal specimen room, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China. 

  13. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    an expert as a typography professor, Sofie Beier knows exactly what the students need to know and how they can improve their skills. ‘Type Tricks’ is not only perfect for students, it also comes in handy for every type designer. It gives them the opportunity to reread information they were thaught at during...

  14. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, J

    2015-01-01

    The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolussororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species.

  16. Predicting fish species distribution in estuaries: Influence of species' ecology in model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2016-10-01

    Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species

  17. Extragastric Helicobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...

  18. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  19. Echolocation Call Structure of Fourteen Bat Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukui, Dai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The echolocation calls of bats can provide useful information about species that are generally difficult to observe in the field. In many cases characteristics of call structure can be used to identify species and also to obtain information about aspects of the bat's ecology. We describe and compare the echolocation call structure of 14 of the 21 bat species found in Korea, for most of which the ecology and behavior are poorly understood. In total, 1,129 pulses were analyzed from 93 echolocation call sequences of 14 species. Analyzed pulses could be classified into three types according to the pulse shape: FM/CF/FM type, FM type and FM/QCF type. Pulse structures of all species were consistent with previous studies, although geographic variation may be indicated in some species. Overall classification rate provided by the canonical discriminant analysis was relatively low. Especially in the genera Myotis and Murina, there are large overlaps in spectral and temporal parameters between species. On the other hand, classification rates for the FM/QCF type species were relatively high. The results show that acoustic monitoring could be a powerful tool for assessing bat activity and distribution in Korea, at least for FM/QCF and FM/CF/FM species.

  20. Mapping spatial variation in demersal fish species diversity and composition in the North Sea: accounting for species- and size-related catchability in survey trawls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, H.M.; Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Fryer, R.J.; Piet, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper maps spatial patterns of groundfish species diversity. It considers how the catchability of different fish species in two different types of bottom trawls, the IBTS GOV and the 8-m beam trawl, influences the estimates of species diversity. Maps of groundfish species diversity derived from

  1. Type-indexed data types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2002-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, patter

  2. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  3. DENTURE WEARER: ALCALIGENES SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with Alcaligenes species infection in a patient using an upper single ... patient was HIV negative and VDRL screening for syphilis was also negative. ... status of denture and the underlying oral mucosal, to prevent opportunistic.

  4. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... Zackenberg Basic, a newly initiated project is focusing on how the changes and variability in the physical environment affects the species phenology and composition, population dynamics and how species specific responses at different trophic levels are carried on to the inter-trophic dynamics of consumers...

  5. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  6. Sub specie aeternitatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».

  7. Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  8. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  9. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  10. A revision of the Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) schah Abeille de Perrin, 1904 species-group, with description of two new species from Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Anthaxiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Daniele

    2015-01-10

    Two new species of Anthaxia Eschscholtz, 1829 endemic to Iran, Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) cadusiana sp. nov. and A. (H.) elamita sp. nov., are described and compared to their most similar species. The A. (H.) schah Abeille de Perrin, 1904 species-group is proposed and revised, and lectotypes for A. (H.) schah Abeille de Perrin, 1904 and A. (H.) wethloi Obenberger, 1940 are designated. All species of the new species-group are illustrated, including type specimens. A short definition of the new species-group and a key to its species are given, together with data on the distribution, bionomy and taxonomic position for each of the species that compose it.

  11. Morphological Research on Indigenous Sambucus Species Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea TAMAS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen grains have a definite shape, size, colour, structure for each species, genus and family and these characters are useful for systematical botany. The pollen has nutritive properties due to its content: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones and minerals. In the Romanian flora vegetate three species of Sambucus, but only S. nigra L. (elder or black elder supplies a vegetal medical product, Sambuci flos or elder flowers, whereas the others species S. ebulus L. (dwarf elder and S. racemosa L. (mountain elder or red elder are considered adulterations. The pollen of Sambucus species were already studied using optical microscopy (Tarnavschi et al., but the images are in one single layout, therefore the structure details cannot be easily notice. In this context the pollen grains of the three species already mentioned above were studied by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results demonstrated that this pollen have a small-middle size, oblat-sphaeroidal-prolat shape, threecolpat and the exine adornments are of reticulate type, haemitectate with sticks in the meshs of polygonale net. The flavonoids content is lower than in others species (0.146-0.564 %. The SEM analyse of Sambucus pollen allow a reliable identification of the genus but less for the species.

  12. Species concepts and the evolutionary paradigm in modem nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B J

    1998-03-01

    Given the task of recovering and representing evolutionary history, nematode taxonomists can choose from among several species concepts. All species concepts have theoretical and (or) operational inconsistencies that can result in failure to accurately recover and represent species. This failure not only obfuscates nematode taxonomy but hinders other research programs in hematology that are dependent upon a phylogenetically correct taxonomy, such as biodiversity, biogeography, cospeciation, coevolution, and adaptation. Three types of systematic errors inherent in different species concepts and their potential effects on these research programs are presented. These errors include overestimating and underestimating the number of species (type I and II error, respectively) and misrepresenting their phylogenetic relationships (type III error). For research programs in hematology that utilize recovered evolutionary history, type II and III errors are the most serious. Linnean, biological, evolutionary, and phylogenefic species concepts are evaluated based on their sensitivity to systematic error. Linnean and biological species concepts are more prone to serious systematic error than evolutionary or phylogenetic concepts. As an alternative to the current paradigm, an amalgamation of evolutionary and phylogenetic species concepts is advocated, along with a set of discovery operations designed to minimize the risk of making systematic errors. Examples of these operations are applied to species and isolates of Heterorhabditis.

  13. Concepts of keystone species and species importance in ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discussed the keystone species concept and introduced the typical characteristics of keystone species and their identification in communities or ecosystems. Based on the research of the keystone species, the concept of species importance (SI) was first advanced in this paper. The species importance can be simply understood as the important value of species in the ecosystem, which consists of three indexes: species structural important value (SIV), functional important value (FIV) and dynamical important value (DIV). With the indexes, the evaluation was also made on species importance of arbor trees in the Three-Hardwood forests (Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense) ecosystem.

  14. Conservation tillage affects species composition but not species diversity: a comparative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  15. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  16. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...

  17. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  18. 陕西黑河上游主要天然林类型及物种多样性特征研究%Study on the main forest community and species diversity of the natural forest types in upstream Heihe river,Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇超; 王得祥; 胡有宁; 柴宗政

    2012-01-01

    【目的】通过对陕西黑河上游植物群落的系统调查及物种多样性的定量分析,揭示该区森林群落的分布类型及物种多样性特征,为今后该区植物群落特征及结构研究奠定基础。【方法】采用双向聚类法中的TWINS-PAN软件包对陕西黑河上游森林群落进行分类,以Margalef物种丰富度指数、Shannon-Weiner指数、Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数为指标,对群落不同层次及群落之间的物种多样性进行分析。【结果】将研究区24个样地划分为10个群落类型;各群落结构中不同层次间的物种多样性有明显差异,草本层物种多样性大于乔木层和灌木层;各个群落类型的物种多样性大小顺序为白桦+太白杨混交林〉油松+锐齿槲栎混交林〉华山松林〉华榛+青杨混交林〉油松+山杨混交林〉山榆林〉八角枫林〉锐齿槲栎林〉山杨林〉油松林;24个样地内共有植物237种,分别隶属于65科、150属。【结论】人为干扰、林下环境的异质性以及物种的生物学特性,都可能造成植物群落内部各层次以及各群落类型间物种多样性的差异;干扰、环境异质性以及物种生物学特性均是复杂的科学问题,是较多因子综合作用的表现。%【Objective】 Through the systematic investigation of plant communities and species diversity quantitative analysis in the study area,the study revealed the distribution of forest community types and species diversity characteristics,which provided theoretical basis to study plant community character and structure.【Method】 The forest community was classfied by two-way TWINSPAN,and the Shannon-Weiner index,Simpson,Pielou index and evenness index were applied to analyze the community diversity.【Result】 The 24 plots in the research area can be divided into 10 community types;the species diversity is distinctly different between the different layers of community structure,the species

  19. A new species of Curvularia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der H.A.

    1967-01-01

    Curvularia papendorfii, isolated from South African soil, is described as a new species. This species is characterized by greater overall dimensions than in any of the known species, and a hilum to the spore that is not protuberant at all.

  20. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  1. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  2. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  3. Species-Recognition Program: A Computer-Assisted Approach to Recognizing Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Species recognition is a crucial component for many types of biological studies. To that end, broadly trained students must be able to accurately identify many different types of organisms. Courses that focus on learning the names of different species traditionally rely on preserved specimens viewed during class or laboratory time. Unfortunately, reliance on preserved specimens comes with many challenges in providing students with an optimal learning experience. The curriculum activity described here uses a modified PowerPoint file (species-recognition program—SRP as a means of helping students learn to recognize and identify fishes based on subtle visual cues. Our results indicate that students were better able to identify fish species when using the SRP as a learning approach than when using preserved specimens. We suggest that the SRP approach to species recognition is an effective, viable alternative or supplement to preserved specimens that can be easily implemented in any course that emphasizes species identification. Information and materials are provided to enable instructors to create their own species-recognition programs.

  4. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  5. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction.

  6. A new genus and species of Cicadellini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ze-Hong; Yang, Mao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Atkinsoniella was originally established by Distant (1908) for two species with A. decisa as type species. So far, 75 valid species are known worldwide and of these, 63 are from China (Yang et al. 2011). Because Atkinsoniella is a very large and morphologically heterogeneous genus it is desirable to recognize smaller groups of species with distinctive characteristics.

  7. Species associations in a species-rich subtropical forest were not well-explained by stochastic geometry of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggang Wang

    Full Text Available The stochastic dilution hypothesis has been proposed to explain species coexistence in species-rich communities. The relative importance of the stochastic dilution effects with respect to other effects such as competition and habitat filtering required to be tested. In this study, using data from a 25-ha species-rich subtropical forest plot with a strong topographic structure at Badagongshan in central China, we analyzed overall species associations and fine-scale species interactions between 2,550 species pairs. The result showed that: (1 the proportion of segregation in overall species association analysis at 2 m neighborhood in this plot followed the prediction of the stochastic dilution hypothesis that segregations should decrease with species richness but that at 10 m neighborhood was higher than the prediction. (2 The proportion of no association type was lower than the expectation of stochastic dilution hypothesis. (3 Fine-scale species interaction analyses using Heterogeneous Poisson processes as null models revealed a high proportion (47% of significant species effects. However, the assumption of separation of scale of this method was not fully met in this plot with a strong fine-scale topographic structure. We also found that for species within the same families, fine-scale positive species interactions occurred more frequently and negative ones occurred less frequently than expected by chance. These results suggested effects of environmental filtering other than species interaction in this forest. (4 We also found that arbor species showed a much higher proportion of significant fine-scale species interactions (66% than shrub species (18%. We concluded that the stochastic dilution hypothesis only be partly supported and environmental filtering left discernible spatial signals in the spatial associations between species in this species-rich subtropical forest with a strong topographic structure.

  8. Species associations in a species-rich subtropical forest were not well-explained by stochastic geometry of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinggang; Bao, Dachuan; Guo, Yili; Lu, Junmeng; Lu, Zhijun; Xu, Yaozhan; Zhang, Kuihan; Liu, Haibo; Meng, Hongjie; Jiang, Mingxi; Qiao, Xiujuan; Huang, Handong

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic dilution hypothesis has been proposed to explain species coexistence in species-rich communities. The relative importance of the stochastic dilution effects with respect to other effects such as competition and habitat filtering required to be tested. In this study, using data from a 25-ha species-rich subtropical forest plot with a strong topographic structure at Badagongshan in central China, we analyzed overall species associations and fine-scale species interactions between 2,550 species pairs. The result showed that: (1) the proportion of segregation in overall species association analysis at 2 m neighborhood in this plot followed the prediction of the stochastic dilution hypothesis that segregations should decrease with species richness but that at 10 m neighborhood was higher than the prediction. (2) The proportion of no association type was lower than the expectation of stochastic dilution hypothesis. (3) Fine-scale species interaction analyses using Heterogeneous Poisson processes as null models revealed a high proportion (47%) of significant species effects. However, the assumption of separation of scale of this method was not fully met in this plot with a strong fine-scale topographic structure. We also found that for species within the same families, fine-scale positive species interactions occurred more frequently and negative ones occurred less frequently than expected by chance. These results suggested effects of environmental filtering other than species interaction in this forest. (4) We also found that arbor species showed a much higher proportion of significant fine-scale species interactions (66%) than shrub species (18%). We concluded that the stochastic dilution hypothesis only be partly supported and environmental filtering left discernible spatial signals in the spatial associations between species in this species-rich subtropical forest with a strong topographic structure.

  9. Three new Macropsini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) leafhopper species from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2017-06-02

    Three new species, Macropsella recta, Toropsis minuspina and Varicopsella apecurvata spp. nov. are described and illustrated from Australia.       Leafhoppers of the subfamily Macropsinae are found abundantly in the Holarctic, Oriental and Australian regions (Linnavuori, 1978) and have been collected from around the world, except for Antarctica, Oceania and South America (Hamilton, 1980). Both Hamilton (1980) and Evans (1966) suggested that there were likely a myriad of uncollected and undescribed species in Australia alone and Evans (1971) commented that the Macropsinae are possibly more abundant in Australia than anywhere else in the world. Day and Fletcher (1994) listed 45 macropsine species in eight genera and mentioned that the Australian fauna needs "a thorough examination to establish the generic affinities of the species…". In her unpublished doctoral dissertation, Semeraro (2014) recently completed a revision and phylogeny of the Australian fauna, documenting an additional 50 undescribed species and proposing changes to the generic classification, but this work has not yet been published. The new Australian species described herein, representing three genera, one not previously recorded in Australia, were not included in Semeraro's (2014) dissertation.Study of samples recently collected from Australia revealed the presence of 3 new species, representing the genera Macropsella Hamilton, Toropsis Hamilton and Varicopsella Hamilton.Macropsella was established by Hamilton (1980) with Macropsis saidora Evans, 1971 as the type species. Five Macropsis species describeded by Evans (1971), one Macropsis species described by Kirkaldy (1907) and new species Macropsella complicata Hamilton (1980) were previously included in this genus. The seven species of this genus are known only from New Guinea and Northern Australia. Members of this genus can be distinguished by their usually white spotted tegminal veins, tapered male pygofer and laterally directed short

  10. Trophically Unique Species Are Vulnerable to Cascading Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Petchey, Owen L.; Eklöf, Anna; Borrvall, Charlotte; Ebenman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Understanding which species might become extinct and the consequences of such loss is critical. One consequence is a cascade of further, secondary extinctions. While a significant amount is known about the types of communities and species that suffer secondary extinctions, little is known about the consequences of secondary extinctions for biodiversity. Here we examine the effect of these secondary extinctions on trophic diversity, the range of trophic roles played by the species in a communi...

  11. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  12. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C

    2012-01-01

    Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailandis described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to Camchaya gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ in having ovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  13. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhonthip Bunwong; Pranom Chantaranothai; Stirling Keeley

    2012-01-01

    Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  14. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus of ... as primitive/ancestral types of chromosomes into either subtelocentric or small metacentrics leads to speciation or simply new ..... The features are quite common in the.

  15. Begonia siccacaudata (Begoniaceae). A new species from Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenbos, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new species Begonia siccacaudata is described. It belongs to the sect. Petermannia but is distinguished from other species by being stemless with a short fleshy rhizome. The female flowers are solitary, the male flowers are borne on a many-flowered thyrsoid inflorescence of a type not yet describe

  16. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered.

  17. Two new Asiatic species of the Celeopterous genus Helota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1907-01-01

    Strongly resembling Helota Lesnei Rits. from Kouy- Tcheou (China), of which the type-specimen (♂) is in the Natural History Museum at Paris 1). The new species differs however from it by the sculpture of the elytra (the rows of raised warts or tubercles are less numerous in the new species: 5 in ste

  18. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, A.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}) and unstable neutral species ([IHI] and [FH{sub 2}]). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  19. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, A.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}) and unstable neutral species ((IHI) and (FH{sub 2})). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  20. Two new Asiatic species of the Celeopterous genus Helota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1907-01-01

    Strongly resembling Helota Lesnei Rits. from Kouy- Tcheou (China), of which the type-specimen (♂) is in the Natural History Museum at Paris 1). The new species differs however from it by the sculpture of the elytra (the rows of raised warts or tubercles are less numerous in the new species: 5 in

  1. Type Inference for Guarded Recursive Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Peter J.; Sulzmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We consider type inference for guarded recursive data types (GRDTs) -- a recent generalization of algebraic data types. We reduce type inference for GRDTs to unification under a mixed prefix. Thus, we obtain efficient type inference. Inference is incomplete because the set of type constraints allowed to appear in the type system is only a subset of those type constraints generated by type inference. Hence, inference only succeeds if the program is sufficiently type annotated. We present refin...

  2. Characteristics of amino acid sequences of envelop protein V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasi-species in long-term non-progressors infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1%长期不进展人类免疫缺陷病毒-1感染者准种膜蛋白V3环氨基酸特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟烈; 唐小平; 唐漾波; 魏绍静

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解长期不进展HIV-1感染者HIV-1准种膜蛋白V3环氨基酸序列特征及变异特点.方法 应用终点有限稀释套式PCR方法,对5例长期不进展HIV-1感染者不同时间点单个HIV-1前病毒env基因c2-v3-c3区域进行扩增和序列测定,用序列确证分析技术分析env基因区V3环氨基酸序列特征.结果 5例患者不同随访时间点获得的准种序列中,V3环35个氨基酸中出现多样性的位点分别有1~10个不等,同一患者不同随访时间点准种优势株序列完全一致或仅有1~2个位点不同;4例患者V3环顶端四肽为GPGR,1例患者为GPGK,同一患者不同随访时间点V3环顶端四肽一致;根据V3环11和25位氨基酸及V3环的电荷推测HIV-1辅助受体均为趋化因子受体(CCR)5.结论 长期不进展HIV-1感染者V3环序列存在不同程度变异,顶端四肽稳定性高,感染的HIV-1毒株可能为非合胞体诱导型毒株.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of V3 loop amino acid sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) quasi-species in long-term non-progressors (LTNP)infected with HIV. Methods End-point limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction (EPLD PCR) was used to amplify the env gene c2-v3-c3 region of single HIV-1 provirus from five LTNPs at sequential time points. The PCR products were then sequenced and the amino acid sequences of V3 loop were analyzed by sequence confirm analysis technology. Results The results showed that there were one to ten kinds of polymorphisms in the V3 region of HIV-1 quasi-species which were found from the serial samples of the five LTNP. However, the sequences of the predominant strains were either completely consistent or at most changed at one or two residues in the serial samples of individual patient. The tetramer compositions of the tip of V3 loop were consistent in each patient. It was GPGR in four patients and GPGK in one patient. It was speculated the co-receptor of HIV-1 was CC chemokine

  3. A review of Aleurodaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) with the description of one new species and keys to species

    OpenAIRE

    Ge-Xia Qiao; Li-Yun Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aleurodaphis van der Goot is reviewed. One new species Aleurodaphis sinojackiae Qiao & Jiang, sp. n. on Sinojackia xylocarpa from Jiangsu and Zhejiang, China is described. Aleurodaphis sinisalicis Zhang, 1982 is synonymised with Aleurodaphis blumeae van der Goot, 1917. Keys to species, morphological description and features of the new species, host plants, and distribution are provided. The specimens including types are deposited in British Natural History Museum, London (B...

  4. Phylogenomic Analyses and Reclassification of Species within the Genus Tsukamurella: Insights to Species Definition in the Post-genomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Jade L. L.; Tang, Ying; Huang,Yi; Guo, Feng-Biao; Wei, Wen; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the highly similar phenotypic profiles, protein spectra and 16S rRNA gene sequences observed between three pairs of Tsukamurella species (Tsukamurella pulmonis/Tsukamurella spongiae, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens/Tsukamurella carboxy-divorans, and Tsukamurella pseudospumae/Tsukamurella sunchonensis), we hypothesize that and the six Tsukamurella species may have been misclassified and that there may only be three Tsukamurella species. In this study, we characterized the type strains of...

  5. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states (

  6. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    between species traits and large-scale species distribution patterns in archipelagos, we use a network approach to classify birds as one of four biogeographical species roles: peripherals, connectors, module hubs, and network hubs. These roles are based upon the position of species within the modular...

  7. Diversity of Xiphinema americanum-group Species and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Ciancio, A

    1993-09-01

    Of the 39 species composing the Xiphinema americanum group, 14 were described originally from North America and two others have been reported from this region. Many species are very similar morphologically and can be distinguished only by a difficult comparison of various combinations of some morphometric characters. Study of morphometrics of 49 populations, including the type populations of the 39 species attributed to this group, by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis placed the populations into five subgroups, proposed here as the X. brevicolle subgroup (seven species), the X. americanum subgroup (17 species), the X. taylori subgroup (two species), the X. pachtaicum subgroup (eight species), and the X. lambertii subgroup (five species).

  8. Identification of Malassezia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, A J; Sophia, S K C; Kalyani, J; Anandan, S

    2004-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH), were cultured onto modified Dixon's agar (mDixon's agar) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and incubated at 32 degrees C. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75%) showed growth on mDixon's agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58%) followed by M. globosa (19, 40%) and one isolate was (2%) of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  9. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking......The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...

  10. type-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Srinivasa Rao

    2006-01-01

    modular right ideal in a near-ring are initiated. Based on these J0r(R, the right Jacobson radical of type-0 of a near-ring R is introduced. It is obtained that J0r is a radical map and N(R⊆J0r(R, where N(R is the nil radical of a near-ring R. Some characterizations of J0r(R are given and its relation with some of the radicals is also discussed.

  11. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  12. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons. The data are species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  13. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  14. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Koorem; Price, Jodi N; Mari Moora

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest--evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two specie...

  15. Description of a second species of Angucephala DeLong & Freytag (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae: Gyponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Corrêa Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A second species of Angucephala DeLong & Freytag, 1975 is described and illustrated from Ecuador, A. freytagi sp. nov. (Napo Province. This species can be distinguished from the type species (A. mellana DeLong & Freytag, 1975 mainly by features of the male pygofer and styles. A redescription of the genus and illustrations of the type species are also provided.

  16. ESUSA: U. S. endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J; Calef, C E

    1978-05-01

    A file containing distribution data on federally listed or proposed endangered species of the United States is described. Included are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the taxonomic family, (d) the OES/FWS/USDI group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) the status, (f) the geographic distribution by counties, and (g) Federal Register references. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, under review, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range. The file is currently being used in conjunction with similar data on projected future energy facilities to anticipate possible conflicts. However, the file would be useful to any project correlating endangered species with location information expressed by county. An example is as an aid in evaluating Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management proposed wilderness areas.

  17. Functional Extinctions of Species in Ecological Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Säterberg, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Current rates of extinctions are estimated to be around 1000 times higher than background rates that would occur without anthropogenic impacts. These extinction rates refer to the traditional view of extinctions, i.e. numerical extinctions. This thesis is about another type of extinctions: functional extinctions. Those occur when the abundance of a species is too small to uphold the species’ ecologically interactive role. I have taken a theoretical approach and used dynamical models to invest...

  18. The application of species criteria in avian taxonomy and its implications for the debate over species concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, George

    2014-02-01

    The debate over species concepts has produced a huge body of literature on how species can, may or should be delimited. By contrast, very few studies have documented how species taxa are delimited in practice. The aims of the present study were to (i) quantify the use of species criteria in taxonomy, (ii) discuss its implications for the debate over species concepts and (iii) assess recent claims about the impact of different species concepts on taxonomic stability and the 'nature' of species. The application of six species criteria was examined in taxonomic studies of birds published between 1950 and 2009. Three types of taxonomic studies were included: descriptions of new species (N = 329), proposals to change the taxonomic rank of species and subspecies (N = 808) and the taxonomic recommendations of the American Ornithologists' Union Committee on Classification and Nomenclature (N = 176). In all three datasets, diagnosability was the most frequently applied criterion, followed by reproductive isolation and degree of difference. This result is inconsistent with the popular notion that the Biological Species Concept is the dominant species concept in avian taxonomy. Since the 1950s, avian species-level taxonomy has become increasingly pluralistic and eclectic. This suggests that taxonomists consider different criteria as complementary rather than as rival approaches to species delimitation. Application of diagnosability more frequently led to the elevation of subspecies to species rank than application of reproductive isolation, although the difference was small. Hypotheses based on diagnosability and reproductive isolation were equally likely to be accepted in a mainstream checklist. These findings contradict recent claims that application of the Phylogenetic Species Concept causes instability and that broader application of the Biological Species Concept can stabilise taxonomy. The criteria diagnosability and monophyly, which are commonly associated

  19. A new species of Amblyodus Westwood, 1878 (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal Grossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A second species of Amblyodus Westwood, 1878, A. castroi sp. n., is described from the northern South America based on 12 specimens from Brazil and Peru (Amazonian subregion. The new species is here compared with the type species of the genus, A. taurus Westwood, 1878 and both species and their male genitalia are illustrated. Diagnostic characters for the genus are discussed, especially the metatibial teeth. A distribution map including the type species and the new species is provided. The genus Amblyodus is recorded for the first time from Peru and from Brazil states of Pará and Rondônia.

  20. A new species of Amblyodus Westwood, 1878 (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paschoal Coelho; Grossi, Everardo José

    2011-01-12

    A second species of Amblyodus Westwood, 1878, Amblyodus castroisp. n., is described from the northern South America based on 12 specimens from Brazil and Peru (Amazonian subregion). The new species is here compared with the type species of the genus, Amblyodus taurus Westwood, 1878 and both species and their male genitalia are illustrated. Diagnostic characters for the genus are discussed, especially the metatibial teeth. A distribution map including the type species and the new species is provided. The genus Amblyodus is recorded for the first time from Peru and from Brazil states of Pará and Rondônia.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LEAF EPIDERMIS OF TWO SESLERIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMANESCU PETRONELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf epidermis has been used as character in taxonomy of Poaceae family since the 1930s. The purpose of present study was to determine leaf epidermal features helpful in distinguishing two species of Sesleria genus – Sesleria heufleriana Schur and Sesleria uliginosa Opiz.Both the abaxial and the adaxial epidermis have been examinated for each species.So both examined species have Festucoid type of epidermis, but differences of some epidermal features exist at the species level. This include variation in number and size of epidermal cells and distribution patterns of stomata.

  2. On species preservation and Non-Cooperative Exploiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    Game-theoretic fisheries models typically consider cases where some players harvest a single common fish stock. It is, however, the case that these types of models do not capture many real world mixed fisheries, where species are biological independent or dependent. The present paper considers......-species model without biological dependency and is then modified to include also biological dependency. We contribute to the literature by analytically finding the limits on the number of players preserving both species including the conditions to be satisfied. For visual purposes we simulate a two species...

  3. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Reconciliation of Gene and Species Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree.

  5. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  6. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  7. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pennati

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  8. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  9. Identification of malassezia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH, were cultured onto modified Dixon′s agar (mDixon′s agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA and incubated at 32ºC. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75% showed growth on mDixon′s agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58% followed by M. globosa (19, 40% and one isolate was (2% of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  10. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  11. Notes on the typification of some species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    A number of so far not correctly typified species of the genus Penicillium were re-examined. The profiles of secondary metabolites in old type strains and fresh isolates were compared. The type culture of P. implicatum Biourge was found to be identical with P. citrinum Thom. The first available name

  12. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  13. New species of Malaysian ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    The present paper includes descriptions of several new species of ferns found among recent collections from various parts of Malaysia; also two new combinations of names of species which are of interest on account of their taxonomic history.

  14. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Biogeographical systems can be analyzed as networks of species and geographical units. Within such a biogeographical network, individual species may differ fundamentally in their linkage pattern, and therefore hold different topological roles. To advance our understanding of the relationship betw...

  15. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  16. Comparative Study of Alkaloid Pattern of Four Bulgarian Fumaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Tsvetelina; Yordanova, Gabriela; Vutov, Vassil; Kostova, Nadezhda; Philipov, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The alkaloid pattern of four Fumaria species (Fumaria kralikii, Fumaria rostellata, Fumaria schleicherii, Fumaria thureii) growing in Bulgaria was investigated by GC-MS and twenty isoquinoline alkaloids were determined. Phytochemical investigation of the alkaloid composition on Fumaria thuretii Boiss was made for the first time. The alkaloid profile of the species was compared at two levels, between different species and within two species from different habitats. Two chemotypical groups, based on the types of isoquinoline alkaloids were suggested. To group A belong species F. kralikii, F. rostellata (F. r. 1) and F. thuretii containing more than 50% spirobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of the crude alkaloid mixtures. To group B belong species F. rostellata (F. r. 2) and F. schleicherii containing more than 40% protopine alkaloids and relatively high percentage phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids (11-19%). In group A phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids were not detected.

  17. Timeless standards for species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Dalton S; Santos, Charles Morphy D; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dubois, Alain; Nihei, Silvio S; Oliveira, Otto M P; Pont, Adrian; Song, Hojun; Verdade, Vanessa K; Fachin, Diego A; Klassa, Bruna; Lamas, Carlos José E; Oliveira, Sarah S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De; Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Couri, Márcia S; Silva, Vera C; Capellari, Renato S; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pombal, José P Jr; Fernández, Fernando; Rocha, Rosana M; Lattke, John E; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Duarte, Marcelo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Reis, Roberto E; Kurina, Olavi; Takiya, Daniela M; Tavares, Marcos; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Franco, Francisco Luís; Cuezzo, Fabiana; Paulson, Dennis; Guénard, Benoit; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Steiner, Florian M; Fisher, Brian L; Johnson, Robert A; Delsinne, Thibaut Dominique; Donoso, David A; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Carpenter, James M; Herman, Lee; Grimaldi, David

    2016-07-08

    Recently a new species of bombyliid fly, Marleyimyia xylocopae, was described by Marshall & Evenhuis (2015) based on two photographs taken during fieldwork in the Republic of South Africa. This species has no preserved holotype. The paper generated some buzz, especially among dipterists, because in most cases photographs taken in the field provide insufficient information for properly diagnosing and documenting species of Diptera.

  18. Electrosmog and species conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmori, Alfonso, E-mail: abalmorimartinez@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species. - Highlights: • Studies have shown effects in both animals and plants. • Two thirds of the studies reported ecological effects. • There is little research in this area and further research is needed. • The technology must be safe. • Controls should be introduced to mitigate the possible effects.

  19. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Eleni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.

  20. Two new species of Platypona DeLong (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae: Gyponini) from Peru and key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Clayton Corrêa; Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the previously monotypic genus Platypona DeLong, 1982 from Peru are described and illustrated: P. furcata sp. nov. (Cusco Department) and P. inca sp. nov. (Pasco Department). These two species can be distinguished from each other, as well as from the type-species, P. sinverda DeLong, 1982, mainly by features of the style and aedeagus. A key to the three known species of Platypona is provided.