WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-linear dynamic problems

  1. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    -numerical techniques suitable for Markov response problems such as moments equation, Petrov-Galerkin and cell-to-cell mapping techniques are briefly discussed. Usefulness of these techniques is limited by the fact that effectiveness of each of them depends on the mean rate of impulses. Another limitation is the size...... of the problem, i.e. the number of state variables of the dynamical systems. In contrast, the application of the simulation techniques is not limited to Markov problems, nor is it dependent on the mean rate of impulses. Moreover their use is straightforward for a large class of point processes, at least......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

  2. The Expansion of Dynamic Solving Process About a Class of Non-linear Programming Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Zhen-chun

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we research non-linear programming problems which have a given specialstructure, some simple forms of this kind structure have been solved in some papers, here we focus on othercomplex ones.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  4. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  5. Chaotic Discrimination and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a particular form of price discrimination, known as chaotic discrimination, which has the following features: sellers quote a common price but, in reality, they engage in secret and apparently unsystematic price discounts. It is widely held that such forms of price discrimination are seriously inconsistent with profit maximization by sellers.. However, there is no theoretical salience to support this kind of price discrimination. By straining the logic of non-linear dynamics this study explains why such secret discounts are chaotic in the sense that sellers fail to adopt profit-maximising price discounts. A model is developed to argue that such forms of discrimination may derive from the regions of instability of a dynamic model of price discounts.

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  7. Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Banerji

    2001-02-01

    We have compared the non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states of various symmetry groups and found that certain generic features of non-linear evolution are present in each case. Thus the initial coherent structures are quickly destroyed but are followed by Schrödinger cat formation and revival. We also report important differences in their evolution.

  8. Non-linear dynamics of a spur gear pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1990-10-01

    Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a spur gear pair with backlash are examined in this paper for both external and internal excitations. The internal excitation is of importance from the high frequency noise and vibration control viewpoint and it represents the overall kinematic or static transmission error. Such problems may be significantly different from the rattle problems associated with external, low frequency torque excitation. Two solution methods, namely the digital simulation technique and the method of harmonic balance, have been used to develop the steady state solutions for the internal sinusoidal excitation. Difficulties associated with the determination of the multiple solutions at a given frequency in the digital simulation technique have been resolved, as one must search the entire initial conditions map. Such solutions and the transition frequencies for various impact situations are easily found by the method of harmonic balance. Further, the principle of superposition can be employed to analyze the periodic transmission error excitation and/or combined excitation problems provided that the excitation frequencies are sufficiently apart from each other. Our analytical predictions match satisfactorily with the limited experimental data available in the literature. Using the digital simulation, we have also observed that the chaotic and subharmonic resonances may exist in a gear pair depending upon the mean or design load, mean to alternating force ratio, damping and backlash. Specifically, the mean load determines the conditions for no impacts, single-sided impacts and double-sided impacts. Our results are different from the frequency response characteristics of the conventional, single-degree-of-freedom, clearance type non-linear system. Our formulation should form the basis of further analytical and experimental work in the geared rotor dynamics area.

  9. Non-linear dynamics in pulse combustor: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sirshendu Mondal; Achintya Kukhopadhyay; Swarnendu Sen

    2015-03-01

    The state of the art of non-linear dynamics applied to pulse combustor theoretically and experimentally is reviewed. Pulse combustors are a class of air-breathing engines in which pulsations in combustion are utilized to improve the performance. As no analytical solution can be obtained for most of the nonlinear systems, the whole set of solutions can be investigated with the help of dynamical system theory. Many studies have been carried out on pulse combustors whose dynamics include limit cycle behaviour, Hopf bifurcation and period-doubling bifurcation. The dynamic signature has also been used for early prediction of extinction.

  10. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  11. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  12. Left-Right Non-Linear Dynamical Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jing; Yepes, Juan

    2016-12-01

    All the possible CP-conserving non-linear operators up to the p4-order in the Lagrangian expansion are analysed here for the left-right symmetric model in the non-linear electroweak chiral context coupled to a light dynamical Higgs. The low energy effects will be triggered by an emerging new physics field content in the nature, more specifically, from spin-1 resonances sourced by the straightforward extension of the SM local gauge symmetry to the larger local group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)B-L. Low energy phenomenology will be altered by integrating out the resonances from the physical spectrum, being manifested through induced corrections onto the left handed operators. Such modifications are weighted by powers of the scales ratio implied by the symmetries of the model and will determine the size of the effective operator basis to be used. The recently observed diboson excess around the invariant mass 1.8 TeV-2 TeV entails a scale suppression that suggests to encode the low energy effects via a much smaller set of effective operators. J. Y. also acknowledges KITPC financial support during the completion of this work

  13. Analytical Solutions to Non-linear Mechanical Oscillation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaliji, H. D.; Ghadimi, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Max-Min Method is utilized for solving the nonlinear oscillation problems. The proposed approach is applied to three systems with complex nonlinear terms in their motion equations. By means of this method, the dynamic behavior of oscillation systems can be easily approximated u...

  14. Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    by the rotation of the aerodynamic load and the curvature, as well as inertial induced non-linearities caused by the support point motion. The non-linear partial differential equations of motion in the moving frame of reference have been discretized, using the fixed base eigenmodes as a functional basis......The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced....... Important non-linear couplings between the fundamental blade mode and edgewise modes have been identified based on a resonance excitation of the wing, caused by a harmonically varying support point motion with the circular frequency omega. Assuming that the fundamental blade and edgewise eigenfrequencies...

  15. Are oil markets chaotic? A non-linear dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, E.; Ninni, V. [Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens (Greece)

    2000-10-01

    The analysis of products' price behaviour continues to be an important empirical issue. This study contributes to the current literature on price dynamics of products by examining for the presence of chaos and non-linear dynamics in daily oil products for the Rotterdam and Mediterranean petroleum markets. Previous studies using only one invariant, such as the correlation dimension may not effectively determine the chaotic structure of the underlying time series. To obtain better information on the time series structure, a framework is developed, where both invariant and non-invariant quantities were also examined. In this paper various invariants for detecting a chaotic time series were analysed along with the associated Brock's theorem and Eckman-Ruelle condition, to return series for the prices of oil products. An additional non-invariant quantity, the BDS statistic, was also examined. The correlation dimension, entropies and Lyapunov exponents show strong evidence of chaos in a number of oil products considered. 30 refs.

  16. Non-linear dynamics of a geared rotor-bearing system with multiple clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1991-02-01

    Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a geared rotor-bearing system are examined in this paper. A three-degree-of-freedom dynamic model is developed which includes non-linearities associated with radial clearances in the radial rolling element bearings and backlash between a spur gear pair; linear time-invariant gear meshing stiffness is assumed. The corresponding linear system problem is also solved, and predicted natural frequencies and modes match with finite element method results. The bearing non-linear stiffness function is approximated for the sake of convenience by a simple model which is identical to that used for the gear mesh. This approximate bearing model has been verified by comparing steady state frequency spectra. Applicability of both analytical and numerical solution techniques to the multi-degree-of-freedom non-linear problem is investigated. Satisfactory agreement has been found between our theory and available experimental data. Several key issues such as non-linear modal interactions and differences between internal static transmission error excitation and external torque excitation are discussed. Additionally, parametric studies are performed to understand the effect of system parameters such as bearing stiffness to gear mesh stiffness ratio, alternating to mean force ratio and radial bearing preload to mean force ratio on the non-linear dynamic behavior. A criterion used to classify the steady state solutions is presented, and the conditions for chaotic, quasi-periodic and subharmonic steady state solutions are determined. Two typical routes to chaos observed in this geared system are also identified.

  17. Non-linear Dynamics of Speech in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Simonsen, Arndis; Weed, Ethan

    Background The speech of patients with schizophrenia is often described as monotonous, flat and without emotion. Distinctive speech patterns are qualitatively assessed in the diagnostic process and deeply impact the quality of everyday social interactions. In this project, we investigate and mode...... to the symptoms. Automated analysis of voice dynamics reveals potential for the assessment and monitoring of the disorder. Future work includes further validation of the approach, as well as more detailed investigation of the relation between speech patterns and other symptoms.......Background The speech of patients with schizophrenia is often described as monotonous, flat and without emotion. Distinctive speech patterns are qualitatively assessed in the diagnostic process and deeply impact the quality of everyday social interactions. In this project, we investigate and model...... speech patterns of people with schizophrenia contrasting them with matched controls and in relation to positive and negative symptoms. We employ both traditional measures (pitch mean and range, pause number and duration, speech rate, etc.) and 2) non-linear techniques measuring the temporal structure...

  18. Measurements of dynamical response of non-linear systems. How hard can it be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of a dynamical response of linear system are widely used in praxis, they are standardized and well known. On the other hand, for the non-linear systems the principle of superposition can’t be applied and also the non-linear systems can excite the harmonics or undergo jump phenomena...

  19. A process fault estimation strategy for non-linear dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazera, Marcin; Korbicz, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of simultaneous state and process fault estimation for non-linear dynamic systems. Instead of estimating the fault directly, its product with state and the state itself are estimated. To derive the fault from the product, a simple algebraic approach is proposed. The estimation strategy is based on the quadratic boundedness approach. The final part of the paper presents an illustrative example concerning a laboratory multi-tank system. The real data experiments clearly exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Non-linear BFKL dynamics: color screening vs. gluon fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, R; Zoller, V R

    2012-01-01

    A feasible mechanism of unitarization of amplitudes of deep inelastic scattering at small values of Bjorken $x$ is the gluon fusion. However, its efficiency depends crucially on the vacuum color screening effect which accompanies the multiplication and the diffusion of BFKL gluons from small to large distances. From the fits to lattice data on field strength correlators the propagation length of perturbative gluons is $R_c\\simeq 0.2-0.3$ fermi. The probability to find a perturbative gluon with short propagation length at large distances is suppressed exponentially. It changes the pattern of (dif)fusion dramatically. The magnitude of the fusion effect appears to be controlled by the new dimensionless parameter $\\sim R_c^2/8B$, with the diffraction cone slope $B$ standing for the characteristic size of the interaction region. It should slowly $\\propto 1/\\ln Q^2$ decrease at large $Q^2$. Smallness of the ratio $R_c^2/8B$ makes the non-linear effects rather weak even at lowest Bjorken $x$ available at HERA. We re...

  1. Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... variability. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were investigated by 3-h ambulatory ECG recordings repeated on 3 separate days. Correlation dimension, non-linear predictability, mean heart rate, and heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains were measured and compared with the results from...... corresponding surrogate time series. RESULTS: A small significant amount of non-linear dynamics exists in heart rate variability. Correlation dimensions and non-linear predictability are relatively specific parameters for each individual examined. The correlation dimension is inversely correlated to the heart...

  2. Non-linear Flight Dynamics at High Angles of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granasy, P.; Sørensen, C.B.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The methods of nonlinear dynamics are applied to the longitudinal motion of a vectored thrust aircraft, in particular the behavior at high angles of attack. Our model contains analytic nonlinear aerodynamical coefficients based on NASA windtunnel experiments on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle...... (HARV). When the aircraft is forced with small thrust deflections whilst in poststall equilibrium, chaotic motion is observed at certain frequencies. At other frequencies, several limiting states coexist....

  3. Solutions of Multi Objective Fuzzy Transportation Problems with Non-Linear Membership Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. S. Annie Christi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective transportation problem with fuzzy interval numbers are considered. The solution of linear MOTP is obtained by using non-linear membership functions. The optimal compromise solution obtained is compared with the solution got by using a linear membership function. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate this.

  4. Scenarios for solving a non-linear transportation problem in multi-agent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce and provide an evaluation on two scenarios and related algorithms for implementation of a multi-agent system to solve a type of non-linear transportation problem using distributed optimization algorithms based on dual decomposition and consensus. The underlying fundamental optimization...

  5. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhal Abdul Halin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region.

  6. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  7. Non-linear dynamic response of a wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the nonlinear dynamic analysis of an isolated three-degree flap-lag-feather wind turbine blade under a gravity field and with shear flow. Lagrangian equations are used to derive the nonlinear equations of motion of blade for arbitrarily large angular deflections. The limit cycle analysis for forced oscillations and the determination of the principal parametric resonance of the blade due to periodic forces from the gravity field and wind shear are performed using the harmonic balance method. Results are obtained first for a two-degree flap-lag blade, then the effect of the third degree of freedom (feather) is studied. The self-excited flutter solutions are obtained for a uniform wind and with gravity forces neglected. The effects of several parameters on the blade stability are examined, including coning angle, structural damping, Lock number, and feather frequency. The limit cycle flutter solution of a typical configuration shows a substantial nonlinear softening spring behavior.

  8. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  9. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed.

  10. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    , for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical......Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  11. Mathematical modeling suggests that periodontitis behaves as a non-linear chaotic dynamical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Takahashi, K.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aims to expand on a previously presented cellular automata model and further explore the non-linear dynamics of periodontitis. Additionally the authors investigated whether their mathematical model could predict the two known types of periodontitis, aggressive (AgP) and

  12. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  13. Mathematical modeling suggests that periodontitis behaves as a non-linear chaotic dynamical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Takahashi, K.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aims to expand on a previously presented cellular automata model and further explore the non-linear dynamics of periodontitis. Additionally the authors investigated whether their mathematical model could predict the two known types of periodontitis, aggressive (AgP) and chroni

  14. Non-linear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-linear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the non-linear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These result provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  15. Improved simple optimization (SOPT algorithm for unconstrained non-linear optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, population based meta-heuristic are developed to solve non-linear optimization problems. These problems are difficult to solve using traditional methods. Simple optimization (SOPT algorithm is one of the simple and efficient meta-heuristic techniques to solve the non-linear optimization problems. In this paper, SOPT is compared with some of the well-known meta-heuristic techniques viz. Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Differential Evolutions (DE. For comparison, SOPT algorithm is coded in MATLAB and 25 standard test functions for unconstrained optimization having different characteristics are run for 30 times each. The results of experiments are compared with previously reported results of other algorithms. Promising and comparable results are obtained for most of the test problems. To improve the performance of SOPT, an improvement in the algorithm is proposed which helps it to come out of local optima when algorithm gets trapped in it. In almost all the test problems, improved SOPT is able to get the actual solution at least once in 30 runs.

  16. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  17. Solving Directly Two Point Non Linear Boundary Value Problems Using Direct Adams Moulton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah A. Majid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a direct method of Adams Moulton type was developed for solving non linear two point Boundary Value Problems (BVPs directly. Most of the existence researches involving BVPs will reduced the problem to a system of first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. This approach is very well established but it obviously will enlarge the systems of first order equations. However, the direct method in this research will solved the second order BVPs directly without reducing it to first order ODEs. Approach: Lagrange interpolation polynomial was applied in the derivation of the proposed method. The method was implemented using constant step size via shooting technique in order to determine the approximated solutions. The shooting technique will employ the Newton’s method for checking the convergent of the guessing values for the next iteration. Results: Numerical results confirmed that the direct method gave better accuracy and converged faster compared to the existing method. Conclusion: The proposed direct method is suitable for solving two point non linear boundary value problems.

  18. A Reduced Basis Framework: Application to large scale non-linear multi-physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daversin C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present applications of the reduced basis method (RBM to large-scale non-linear multi-physics problems. We first describe the mathematical framework in place and in particular the Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM to recover an affine decomposition and then we propose an implementation using the open-source library Feel++ which provides both the reduced basis and finite element layers. Large scale numerical examples are shown and are connected to real industrial applications arising from the High Field Resistive Magnets development at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses.

  19. Characteristics of the Main Journal Bearings of an Engine Based on Non-linear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Guangjian; ZHANG Junhong; CHENG Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Many simple nonlinear main journal bearing models have been studied theoretically, but the connection to existing engineering system has not been equally investigated. The consideration of the characteristics of engine main journal bearings may provide a prediction of the bearing load and lubrication. Due to the strong non-linear features in bearing lubrication procedure, it is difficult to predict those characteristics. A non-linear dynamic model is described for analyzing the characteristics of engine main journal bearings. Components such as crankshaft, main journals and con rods are found by applying the finite element method. Non-linear spring/dampers are introduced to imitate the constraint and supporting functions provided by the main bearing and oil film. The engine gas pressure is imposed as excitation on the model via the engine piston, con rod, etc. The bearing reaction force is calculated over one engine cycle, and meanwhile, the oil film thickness and pressure distribution are obtained based on Reynolds differential equation. It can be found that the maximum bearing reaction force always occurs when the maximum cylinder pressure arises in the cylinder adjacent to that bearing. The simulated minimum oil film thickness, which is 3 μm, demonstrates the reliability of the main journal bearings. This non-linear dynamic analysis may save computing efforts of engine main bearing design and also is of good precision and close connection to actual engine main journal bearing conditions.

  20. Experiment design through dynamical characterisation of non-linear systems biology models utilising sparse grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, M M; Buzzard, G T; Rundell, A E

    2010-07-01

    The sparse grid-based experiment design algorithm sequentially selects an experimental design point to discriminate between hypotheses for given experimental conditions. Sparse grids efficiently screen the global uncertain parameter space to identify acceptable parameter subspaces. Clustering the located acceptable parameter vectors by the similarity of the simulated model trajectories characterises the data-compatible model dynamics. The experiment design algorithm capitalizes on the diversity of the experimentally distinguishable system output dynamics to select the design point that best discerns between competing model-structure and parameter-encoded hypotheses. As opposed to designing the experiments to explicitly reduce uncertainty in the model parameters, this approach selects design points to differentiate between dynamical behaviours. This approach further differs from other experimental design methods in that it simultaneously addresses both parameter- and structural-based uncertainty that is applicable to some ill-posed problems where the number of uncertain parameters exceeds the amount of data, places very few requirements on the model type, available data and a priori parameter estimates, and is performed over the global uncertain parameter space. The experiment design algorithm is demonstrated on a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade model. The results show that system dynamics are highly uncertain with limited experimental data. Nevertheless, the algorithm requires only three additional experimental data points to simultaneously discriminate between possible model structures and acceptable parameter values. This sparse grid-based experiment design process provides a systematic and computationally efficient exploration over the entire uncertain parameter space of potential model structures to resolve the uncertainty in the non-linear systems biology model dynamics.

  1. NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF THERMOELASTIC CIRCULAR PLATE WITH VARYING THICKNESS SUBJECTED TO NON- CONSERVATIVE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongmin; GAO Jingbo; LI Huixia; LIU Hongzhao

    2008-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic behaviors of thermoelastic circular plate with varying thickness subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are considered. Two coupled non-linear differential equations of motion for this problem are derived in terms of the transverse deflection and radial displacement component of the mid-plane of the plate. Using the Kantorovich averaging method, the differential equation of mode shape of the plate is derived, and the eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting method. The eigencurves for frequencies and critical loads of the circular plate with unmovable simply supported edge and clamped edge are obtained. The effects of the variation of thickness and temperature on the frequencies and critical loads of the thermoelastic circular plate subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are then discussed.

  2. Non-linear classical dynamics in a superconducting circuit containing a cavity and a Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, Selina; Kubala, Bjoern; Gramich, Vera; Mecklenburg, Michael; Stockburger, Juergen T.; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments a superconducting hybrid circuit consisting of a voltage biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator is studied. For strong driving the dynamics of the system can be very complex, even in the classical regime. Studying the dissipative dynamics within a Langevin-type description, we obtain well-defined dynamical steady states. In contrast to the well-known case of anharmonic potentials, like the Duffing or parametric oscillator, in our case the non-linearity stems from the peculiar way the external drive couples to the system [2]. We investigate the resonance behaviour of this non-linear hybrid system, in particular when driving at higher- or subharmonics. The resulting down- and up-conversions can be observed both, as resonances in the I-V curve, and in the emitted microwave radiation, which yields additional spectral information.

  3. Non-linear structural dynamics characterization using a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal velocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second, third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass, gravity, mass centers of mode shapes, and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances, energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode, and amplitude- and phase-modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  4. Anticipation and the Non-linear Dynamics of Meaning-Processing in Social Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Social order does not exist as a stable phenomenon, but can be considered as "an order of reproduced expectations." When anticipations operate upon one another, they can generate a non-linear dynamics which processes meaning. Although specific meanings can be stabilized, for example in social institutions, all meaning arises from a global horizon of possible meanings. Using Luhmann's (1984) social systems theory and Rosen's (1985) theory of anticipatory systems, I submit algorithms for modeling the non-linear dynamics of meaning in social systems. First, a self-referential system can use a model of itself for the anticipation. Under the condition of functional differentiation, the social system can be expected to entertain a set of models; each model can also contain a model of the other models. Two anticipatory mechanisms are then possible: a transversal one between the models, and a longitudinal one providing the system with a variety of meanings. A system containing two anticipatory mechanisms can become h...

  5. Non linear field correction effects on the dynamic aperture of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00361058; Seryi, Andrei; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Martin, Roman; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study aims to develop the designs of possible circular colliders in the post LHC era. In particular the FCC-hh will aim to produce proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 100 TeV. Given the large beta functions and integrated length of the quadrupoles of the final focus triplet the effect of systematic and random non linear errors in the magnets are expected to have a severe impact on the stability of the beam. Following the experience on the HL-LHC this work explores the implementation of non-linear correctors to minimize the resonance driving terms arising from the errors of the triplet. Dynamic aperture studies are then performed to study the impact of this correction.

  6. Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Belgroune, Mahdia; Henry Rowland, James; Jones, James; Martin, Ian; Singh, Beni

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.

  7. Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, R

    1999-01-01

    A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...

  8. Soil non-linearity and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of offshore platform foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madshus, Christian

    1997-07-01

    in the laboratory tests. It was also found that models where the hysteretic non-linearity is approximated by any type of viscous or complex stiffness effect will severely overpredict the soil damping of the superimposed load component. The resonant response of dynamic systems with cyclically time-varying stiffness has been studied through numerical simulations and analytical derivations. The responses of these systems have been compared to numerically simulated responses of systems with real hysteretic non-linearity and comparable loading. It has been concluded that the time-varying systems reasonably well reproduce the resonant response of the non-linear systems for most situations. The time-varying system approach is proposed as a candidate method for linearization of dynamic platform foundation response analyses. The thesis recommends investigations for further validation of the findings made in the thesis before the approach may be utilized in platform design. Recommendations are also given on improved methods for platform foundation monitoring systems and for improving elasto-plastic constitutive soil models.

  9. Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: non-linear cumulant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailer, Alastair G; Clegg, Paul S; Pusey, Peter N

    2015-04-15

    We revisit the method of cumulants for analysing dynamic light scattering data in particle sizing applications. Here the data, in the form of the time correlation function of scattered light, is written as a series involving the first few cumulants (or moments) of the distribution of particle diffusion constants. Frisken (2001 Appl. Opt. 40 4087) has pointed out that, despite greater computational complexity, a non-linear, iterative, analysis of the data has advantages over the linear least-squares analysis used originally. In order to explore further the potential and limitations of cumulant methods we analyse, by both linear and non-linear methods, computer-generated data with realistic 'noise', where the parameters of the distribution can be set explicitly. We find that, with modern computers, non-linear analysis is straightforward and robust. The mean and variance of the distribution of diffusion constants can be obtained quite accurately for distributions of width (standard deviation/mean) up to about 0.6, but there appears to be little prospect of obtaining meaningful higher moments.

  10. HPLC monitoring of spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of selected amino acids in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godziek, Agnieszka; Maciejowska, Anna; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Kowalska, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    This is our new study in a series of publications devoted to exploration of applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to providing answers to difficult questions from the area of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms with non-linear reactions. Although an excellent analytical performance of HPLC is an indisputable fact, so far its performance as a tool in the kinetic and mechanistic studies has been tested to a lesser extent. In our earlier studies, spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids in solution was demonstrated by means of HPLC upon a few amino acid examples, and on that basis a theoretical model has been developed, anticipating an interdependence of dynamics on chemical structures of amino acids involved. In order to expand the spectrum of experimentally investigated amino acid cases, in this study we present the results valid for three novel amino acids of significant life sciences importance, which differ in terms of peptidization dynamics. Experimental evidence originates from the achiral HPLC with the evaporative light scattering detection and MS detection. A conclusion is drawn that different spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids may significantly influence chemical composition of proteins encountered in living organisms. Hence, a need emerges for systematic physicochemical studies on spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of proteinogenic amino acids in liquid abiotic (but also in the biotic) systems.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Inter-Word Time Intervals in Psychotic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todder, Doron; Avissar, Sofia; Schreiber, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    "Language is a form and not a substance" - Ferdinand de Saussure Objective: Analyses of speech processes in schizophrenia are invariably focused on words as vocal signals. The results of such analyses are, however, strongly related to content, and may be language- and culture-dependent. Little attention has been paid to a pure measure of the form of speech, unrelated to its content: inter-words time intervals. 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers are recorded spontaneously speaking for 10-15 min. Recordings are analyzed for inter-words time intervals using the following non-linear dynamical methods: unstable periodic orbits, correlation dimension, bi-spectral analysis, and symbolic dynamics. The series of inter-word time intervals in normal speech have the characteristics of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor with a correlation dimension of [Formula: see text]. Deconstruction of the attractor appears in psychosis with re-establishment after anti-psychotic treatment. Shannon entropy, a measure of the complexity in the time series, calculated from symbolic dynamics, is higher for psychotic speech, which is also characterized by higher levels of phase coupling: higher bicoherence, obtained using bi-spectral analysis. Non-linear dynamical methods applied to ITIs thus enable a content-independent, pure measure of the form of normal thought, its distortion in psychosis, and its restoration under treatment.

  12. Non-Linear Dynamic Response of a Spur Gear Pair: Modelling and Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARKER, R. G.; VIJAYAKAR, S. M.; IMAJO, T.

    2000-10-01

    The dynamic response of a spur gear pair is investigated using a finite element/contact mechanics model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear pair is analyzed across a wide range of operating speeds and torques. Comparisons are made to other researchers' published experiments that reveal complex non-linear phenomena. The non-linearity source is contact loss of the meshing teeth, which, in contrast to the prevailing understanding, occurs even for large torques despite the use of high-precision gears. A primary feature of the modelling is that dynamic mesh forces are calculated using a detailed contact analysis at each time step as the gears roll through the mesh; there is no need to externally specify the excitation in the form of time-varying mesh stiffness, static transmission error input, or the like. A semi-analytical model near the tooth surface is matched to a finite element solution away from the tooth surface, and the computational efficiency that results permits dynamic analysis. Two-single-degree-of-freedom models are also studied. While one gives encouragingly good results, the other, which appears to have better mesh stiffness modelling, gives poor comparisons with experiments. The results indicate the sensitivity of such models to the Fourier spectrum of the changing mesh stiffness.

  13. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Garrot, D.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ˜100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (energy.

  14. Integral Invariance and Non-linearity Reduction for Proliferating Vorticity Scales in Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, F

    2013-01-01

    A vorticity theory for incompressible fluid flows in the absence of solid boundaries is proposed. Some apriori bounds are established. They are used in an interpolation theory to show the well-posedness of the vorticity Cauchy problem. A non-linear integral equation for vorticity is derived and its solution is expressed in an expansion. Interpretations of flow evolutions starting from given initial data are given and elaborated. The kinetic theory for Maxwellian molecules with cut-off is revisited in order to link microscopic properties to flow characters on the continuum.

  15. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  16. SOME PROBLEMS CONCERNING FREE NON-LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF BEAM STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bosakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes an influence of physical non-linearity material account on vibrations of single beams with various support fixing. The authors also analyze power criteria for existing stable periodic vibrations and dependence of vibration period on initial power is determined in the paper. Accurate values of an amplitude and non-linear bending vibration period of beams have been also determined as a conservative system with due account of initial conditions. A number of examples are given that clearly illustrate the obtained solutions and show an influence rate of the mentioned effects on amplitude-frequency characteristics of non-linear systems. 

  17. Energy dependence of non-linear dynamical features in e+e- collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Di-Kai; CHEN Gang; WEI Hui-Ling

    2008-01-01

    A study of the dynamical fluctuation properties at various c.m. Energies in e+e- collisions is performed using the Monte Carlo method. The results suggest that, after the normalized factorial moments of 3-dimensional phase space are analyzed using an isotropical phase space partition, the NFM describing non-linear dynamical properties show a power-law scaling, I.e., the dynamical fluctuations in higher dimensional phase space are isotropic. For c.m. Energies √s≤80 GeV,the scaling exponents φq increase rapidly with the c.m. Energy and for c.m. Energies √s>80 GeV,the φq gradually saturate.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of HSDB System and Evaluation of Boundary Non-linearity through Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mechanical design and development of high speed digital board (HSDB system which consists of printed circuit board (PCB with all electronic components packaged inside the cavity for military application. The military environment poses a variety of extreme dynamic loading conditions, namely, quasi static, vibration, shock and acoustic loads that can seriously degrade or even cause failure of electronics. The vibrational requirement for the HSDB system is that the natural frequency should be more than 200 Hz and sustain power spectrum density of 14.8 Grms in the overall spectrum. Structural integrity of HSDB is studied in detail using finite element analysis (FEA tool against the dynamic loads and configured the system. Experimental vibration tests are conducted on HSDB with the help of vibration shaker and validated the FE results. The natural frequency and maximum acceleration response computed from vibration tests for the configured design were found. The finite element results show a good correlation with the experiment results for the same boundary conditions. In case of fitment scenario of HSDB system, it is observed that the influence of boundary non-linearity during experiments. This influence of boundary non-linearity is evaluated to obtain the closeout of random vibration simulation results.

  19. Non-linear Dynamics in $QED_{3}$ and Non-trivial Infrared Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E

    1999-01-01

    In this work we consider a coupled system of Schwinger-Dyson equations for self-energy and vertex functions in QED_3. Using the concept of a semi-amputated vertex function, we manage to decouple the vertex equation and transform it in the infrared into a non-linear differential equation of Emden-Fowler type. Its solution suggests the following picture: in the absence of infrared cut-offs there is only a trivial infrared fixed-point structure in the theory. However, the presence of masses, for either fermions or photons, changes the situation drastically, leading to a mass-dependent non-trivial infrared fixed point. In this picture a dynamical mass for the fermions is found to be generated consistently. The non-linearity of the equations gives rise to highly non-trivial constraints among the mass and effective (`running') gauge coupling, which impose lower and upper bounds on the latter for dynamical mass generation to occur. Possible implications of this to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity are...

  20. Structure dynamics with regard to non-linear support behavior; Dynamische Strukturberechnung unter Beruecksichtigung nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Because of modifications to a feed-water line of a power plant structural calculations of the pipework were performed. As a result of a linear (modal) analysis very high restraint forces on the supports were calculated. In order to reduce conservatisms in the calculation the model was optimized with regard to the support stiffnesses and nonlinear behavior of slide bearings, guides and shock absorbers were taken into account. The main result of the non-linear analysis, which was performed by methods of direct-integration, was that nonlinearity yields evident differences in structural frequencies and in energy dissipation (damping) in comparison to the linear analysis. The high restraint forces on the supports became smaller for most of the supports but at some points the forces of the non-linear analysis were even higher. So the conservatism of the linear analysis is not fully valid for the whole structure. The relevance of the non-linear effects in dynamic piping calculations is shown by comparing the calculation result with measurements which were performed on structures in the plant. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Aenderung der Speisewasserleitung einer Kraftwerksanlage wurde die Struktur neu berechnet. Die Analysen mit einem linearen Modell (modal), das ueblicherweise verwendet wird, ergaben hohe Lasten an Halterungen. Zum Abbau von Konservativitaeten wurde eine realistischere Modellierung durch die Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Verhaltens der in der Anlage befindlichen Gleitlager, Fuehrungen und Stossbremsen in der Berechnung vorgenommen. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass durch die Nichtlinearitaet das Frequenzverhalten der Struktur und die Dissipation von Energie durch Reibvorgaenge wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Des Weiteren ist festzustellen, dass aus linearen Analysen nicht uneingeschraenkt konservative Ergebnisse gewonnen werden. Die Relevanz der Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens bei einer dynamischen Strukturberechnung wird

  1. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection.

  2. A Non-Hermitian Approach to Non-Linear Switching Dynamics in Coupled Cavity-Waveguide Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  3. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  4. [Cells in the system of multicelular organisms from positions of non-linear dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotolupov, V A; Isaeva, V V

    2012-01-01

    The organism physiological systems forming a hierarchic network with mutual dependence and subordination can be considered as systems with non-linear dynamics including positive and negative feedbacks. In the course of evolution there occurred selection of robust, flexible, modular systems capable for adaptive self-organization by non-linear interaction of components, which leads to formation of the ordered in space and time robust and plastic organization of the whole. Cells of multicellular organisms are capable for coordinated "social" behavior with formation of ordered cell assemblies, which provides a possibility of morphological and functional variability correlating with manifestations of the large spectrum of adaptive reactions. The multicellular organism is the multilevel system with hierarchy of numerous subsystems capable for adaptive self-organization; disturbance of their homeostasis can lead to pathological changes. The healthy organism regulates homeostasis, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells serving its parts and construction blocks by preserving its integrity and controlling behavior of cells. The systemic approach taking into account biological regularities of the appearance and development of functions in evolution of multicellular organisms opens new possibilities for diagnostics and treatment of many diseases.

  5. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S., E-mail: jean-sebastien.lauret@lac.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, ENS Cachan, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Garrot, D. [GEMAC, CNRS, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 avenue des États Unis 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2016-02-14

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ∼100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (<150 fs) is also reported. Finally, the transient modification of the excitonic line is analyzed through the moment analysis and described in terms of reduction of the oscillator strength and linewidth broadening. We show that excitonic non-linearities in 2D hybrid organic perovskites share some behaviours of inorganic semiconductors despite their high exciton binding energy.

  6. The late Universe with non-linear interaction in the dark sector: The coincidence problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We study the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such a scale the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and filled with discretely distributed inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and groups of galaxies. As a matter source, we consider dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) with a non-linear interaction Q = 3 HγεbarDEεbarDM /(εbarDE +εbarDM) , where γ is a constant. We assume that DM is pressureless and DE has a constant equation of state parameter w. In the considered model, the energy densities of the dark sector components present a scaling behaviour with εbarDM /εbarDE ∼(a0 / a) - 3(w + γ). We investigate the possibility that the perturbations of DM and DE, which are interacting among themselves, could be coupled to the galaxies with the former being concentrated around them. To carry our analysis, we consider the theory of scalar perturbations (within the mechanical approach), and obtain the sets of parameters (w , γ) which do not contradict it. We conclude that two sets: (w = - 2 / 3 , γ = 1 / 3) and (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) are of special interest. First, the energy densities of DM and DE on these cases are concentrated around galaxies confirming that they are coupled fluids. Second, we show that for both of them, the coincidence problem is less severe than in the standard ΛCDM. Third, the set (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) is within the observational constraints. Finally, we also obtain an expression for the gravitational potential in the considered model.

  7. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  8. Efficient Estimation of Non-Linear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Application to Smooth Transition Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørgens, Tue; Skeels, Christopher L.; Wurtz, Allan

    This paper explores estimation of a class of non-linear dynamic panel data models with additive unobserved individual-specific effects. The models are specified by moment restrictions. The class includes the panel data AR(p) model and panel smooth transition models. We derive an efficient set of ...... Carlo experiment. We find that estimation of the parameters in the transition function can be problematic but that there may be significant benefits in terms of forecast performance....... of moment restrictions for estimation and apply the results to estimation of panel smooth transition models with fixed effects, where the transition may be determined endogenously. The performance of the GMM estimator, both in terms of estimation precision and forecasting performance, is examined in a Monte...

  9. Non-linear dynamics of the passivity breakdown of iron in acidic solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sazou, D

    2003-01-01

    Breakdown of the iron passivity in acid solutions accompanied by current oscillations was investigated by using electrochemical techniques, which reveal the non-linear dynamical response of the system in the current-potential (I-E) and current-time (I-t) planes. Current oscillations of the Fe-electrolyte electrochemical system were studied in the (a) absence and (b) presence of chlorides. In case (a) two oscillatory regions were distinguished; one at low potentials associated with the formation-dissolution of a ferrous salt and another at higher potentials associated with the formation-breakdown of the oxide film. Chaotic oscillations appear in the former region whereas periodic oscillations of a relaxation type appear in the latter region. In case (b), complex periodic and aperiodic oscillations are induced by small amounts of chlorides due to pitting corrosion. Pitting corrosion is a multistage localized process of a great technological importance. It consists of a local breakdown of the passive oxide film ...

  10. Does the cerebral cortex exploit high dimensional, non-linear dynamics for information processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Singer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of stimulus induced synchronisation in the visual cortex suggested the possibility that the relations among low-level stimulus features are encoded by the temporal relationship between neuronal discharges. In this framework, temporal coherence is considered a signature of perceptual grouping. This insight triggered a large number of experimental studies which sought to investigate the relationship between temporal coordination and cognitive functions. While some core predictions derived from the initial hypothesis were confirmed, these studies, also revealed a rich dynamical landscape beyond simple coherence whose role in signal processing is still poorly understood. In this paper a framework is presented which establishes links between the various manifestations of cortical dynamics by assigning specific coding functions to low dimensional dynamic features such as synchronized oscillations and phase shifts on the one hand and high dimensional non-linear, non-stationary dynamics on the other. The data serving as basis for this synthetic approach have been obtained with chronic multisite recordings from the visual cortex of anesthetized cats and from monkeys trained to solve cognitive tasks. It is proposed that the low dimensional dynamics characterized by synchronized oscillations and large-scale correlations are sub-states that represent the results of computations performed in the high dimensional state space provided by recurrently coupled networks.

  11. Comparative Study of Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms for a Non-linear Greenhouse Climate Control Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    compare the performance of state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to solve a non-linear multi-objective multi-issue optimisation problem found in Greenhouse climate control. The chosen algorithms in the study includes NSGAII, eNSGAII, eMOEA, PAES, PESAII and SPEAII. The performance...

  12. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüven, H. N.

    1991-03-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom non-linear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the non-linear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the "static transmission error method" developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  13. Ghosts in high dimensional non-linear dynamical systems: The example of the hypercycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardanyes, Josep [Complex Systems Laboratory (ICREA-UPF), Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB-GRIB), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: josep.sardanes@upf.edu

    2009-01-15

    Ghost-induced delayed transitions are analyzed in high dimensional non-linear dynamical systems by means of the hypercycle model. The hypercycle is a network of catalytically-coupled self-replicating RNA-like macromolecules, and has been suggested to be involved in the transition from non-living to living matter in the context of earlier prebiotic evolution. It is demonstrated that, in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for symmetric hypercycles, the persistence time before extinction, T{sub {epsilon}}, tends to infinity as n{yields}{infinity} (being n the number of units of the hypercycle), thus suggesting that the increase in the number of hypercycle units involves a longer resilient time before extinction because of the ghost. Furthermore, by means of numerical analysis the dynamics of three large hypercycle networks is also studied, focusing in their extinction dynamics associated to the ghosts. Such networks allow to explore the properties of the ghosts living in high dimensional phase space with n = 5, n = 10 and n = 15 dimensions. These hypercyclic networks, in agreement with other works, are shown to exhibit self-maintained oscillations governed by stable limit cycles. The bifurcation scenarios for these hypercycles are analyzed, as well as the effect of the phase space dimensionality in the delayed transition phenomena and in the scaling properties of the ghosts near bifurcation threshold.

  14. Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Hesthaven

    2012-02-06

    Final report for DOE Contract DE-FG02-98ER25346 entitled Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences. Principal Investigator Jan S. Hesthaven Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University, Box F Providence, RI 02912 Jan.Hesthaven@Brown.edu February 6, 2012 Note: This grant was originally awarded to Professor David Gottlieb and the majority of the work envisioned reflects his original ideas. However, when Prof Gottlieb passed away in December 2008, Professor Hesthaven took over as PI to ensure proper mentoring of students and postdoctoral researchers already involved in the project. This unusual circumstance has naturally impacted the project and its timeline. However, as the report reflects, the planned work has been accomplished and some activities beyond the original scope have been pursued with success. Project overview and main results The effort in this project focuses on the development of high order accurate computational methods for the solution of hyperbolic equations with application to problems with strong shocks. While the methods are general, emphasis is on applications to gas dynamics with strong shocks.

  15. A numerical modelling of non linear 2D-frictional multicontact problems: application to post-buckling in cellular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alart, P.; Barboteu, M.; Gril, J.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper a numerical modelling of non linear problems involving large deformations and frictional contact conditions is proposed. The motivation of this work comes from the study of the cellular materials (such as wood or foams) undergoing strong deformations. We restrict our study to a regular cellular network of hexagonal cells with thin walls. Strong loadings can generate at first buckling phenomena, then self-contact in the cell. Renouncing homogenization procedures, not always pertinent in this case, we have developed direct simulations. After giving the mechanical and mathematical formulations of the problem, we present two advanced numerical tools to solve large non linear frictional multicontact problems. This numerical modelling is based on an arc-length continuation method which permits to snap through singular points due to buckling phenomena and on an optimal domain decomposition method adapted to frictional contact problems. Finally, mechanical investigations of the contactless buckling and the post-buckling provide some pertinent parameters controlling the deformation process.

  16. State estimation of stochastic non-linear hybrid dynamic system using an interacting multiple model algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenchezhiyan, M; Prakash, J

    2015-09-01

    In this work, state estimation schemes for non-linear hybrid dynamic systems subjected to stochastic state disturbances and random errors in measurements using interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithms are formulated. In order to compute both discrete modes and continuous state estimates of a hybrid dynamic system either an IMM extended Kalman filter (IMM-EKF) or an IMM based derivative-free Kalman filters is proposed in this study. The efficacy of the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes is demonstrated by conducting Monte-Carlo simulation studies on the two-tank hybrid system and switched non-isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor system. Extensive simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes are able to generate fairly accurate continuous state estimates and discrete modes. In the presence and absence of sensor bias, the simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM unscented Kalman filter (IMM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme outperforms multiple-model UKF (MM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme.

  17. Analyticity of solutions of analytic non-linear general elliptic boundary value problems,and some results about linear problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rouhuai

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to discuss the problem concerning the analyticity of the solutions of analytic non-linear elliptic boundary value problems.It is proved that if the corresponding first variation is regular in Lopatinski(i) sense,then the solution is analytic up to the boundary.The method of proof really covers the case that the corresponding first variation is regularly elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg-Volevich,and hence completely generalize the previous result of C.B.Morrey.The author also discusses linear elliptic boundary value problems for systems of ellip tic partial differential equations where the boundary operators are allowed to have singular integral operators as their coefficients.Combining the standard Fourier transform technique with analytic continuation argument,the author constructs the Poisson and Green's kernel matrices related to the problems discussed and hence obtain some representation formulae to the solutions.Some a priori estimates of Schauder type and Lp type are obtained.

  18. Application of non-linear discretetime feedback regulators with assignable closed-loop dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljević Stevan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the application of a new approach is demonstrated to a discrete-time state feedback regulator synthesis with feedback linearization and pole-placement for non-linear discrete-time systems. Under the simultaneous implementation of a non-linear coordinate transformation and a non-linear state feedback law computed through the solution of a system of non-linear functional equations, both the feedback linearization and pole-placement design objectives were accomplished. The non-linear state feedback regulator synthesis method was applied to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR under non-isothermal operating conditions that exhibits steady-state multiplicity. The control objective was to regulate the reactor at the middle unstable steady state by manipulating the rate of input heat in the reactor. Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed non-linear state feedback regulator, as it was shown a non-linear state feedback regulator clearly outperformed a standard linear one, especially in the presence of adverse disturbance under which linear regulation at the unstable steady state was not feasible.

  19. Extraction and restoration of hippocampal spatial memories with non-linear dynamical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Harway, Madhuri; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    To build a cognitive prosthesis that can replace the memory function of the hippocampus, it is essential to model the input-output function of the damaged hippocampal region, so the prosthetic device can stimulate the downstream hippocampal region, e.g., CA1, with the output signal, e.g., CA1 spike trains, predicted from the ongoing input signal, e.g., CA3 spike trains, and the identified input-output function, e.g., CA3-CA1 model. In order for the downstream region to form appropriate long-term memories based on the restored output signal, furthermore, the output signal should contain sufficient information about the memories that the animal has formed. In this study, we verify this premise by applying regression and classification modelings of the spatio-temporal patterns of spike trains to the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 data recorded from rats performing a memory-dependent delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task. The regression model is essentially the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) non-linear dynamical model of spike train transformation. It predicts the output spike trains based on the input spike trains and thus restores the output signal. In addition, the classification model interprets the signal by relating the spatio-temporal patterns to the memory events. We have found that: (1) both hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spike trains contain sufficient information for predicting the locations of the sample responses (i.e., left and right memories) during the DNMS task; and more importantly (2) the CA1 spike trains predicted from the CA3 spike trains by the MIMO model also are sufficient for predicting the locations on a single-trial basis. These results show quantitatively that, with a moderate number of unitary recordings from the hippocampus, the MIMO non-linear dynamical model is able to extract and restore spatial memory information for the formation of long-term memories and thus can serve as the computational basis of the hippocampal memory prosthesis.

  20. The SR Approach: a new Estimation Method for Non-Linear and Non-Gaussian Dynamic Term Structure Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    This paper suggests a new and easy approach to estimate linear and non-linear dynamic term structure models with latent factors. We impose no distributional assumptions on the factors and they may therefore be non-Gaussian. The novelty of our approach is to use many observables (yields or bonds p...

  1. The method of varying amplitudes for solving (non)linear problems involving strong parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...

  2. Non-Linear Dynamics of Macroeconomic Variables: The Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Kassapi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an ongoing doctoral dissertation. It examines the long run relationship between government spending on education, GDP growth and educational enrollments in all levels, for Greece in the years 1960-2012, leveling up to capture more complex dependent dynamics in time series. OECD Indicator A11 shows that, life satisfaction, civic engagement and health. are at the same level for adults with tertiary education and adults with upper secondary education for Greece. Having conducted Linear Granger tests, this study goes beyond, following the methodology of both non-parametric testing for asymptotic Granger causality in C, and non-parametric bootstrapped bidirectional Granger causality, an MS Dos application in C. We apply a new nonparametric test for Granger non-causality by Diks and Panchenko (2005, 2006 as well as the conventional linear Granger test on the time series.   The secondary data used in this present study, have been processed through MATLAB interpolation function. There is a strong symmetric nonlinear causal relationship detected between government spending on education and enrollments in higher education, and vice versa, .An even stronger, both symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear relationship between higher education enrollments and Gdp growth is validated confirming a spectacular case of “adverse causality”. Government spending in education is causally related with Gdp growth in a symmetric as much as an asymmetric nonlinear relationship. Also, lagged values of secondary enrollments are a major predictor of Gdp growth. Keywords: Economic growth, Greek economy, Granger Causality, Non-linearity.

  3. Neural Network for Combining Linear and Non-Linear Modelling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information.......The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information....

  4. The late Universe with non-linear interaction in the dark sector: the coincidence problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We study the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such a scale the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and filled with discretely distributed inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and groups of galaxies. As a matter source, we consider dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) with a non-linear interaction $Q = 3\\mathcal{H}\\gamma \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}} / (\\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} + \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}})$, where $\\gamma$ is a constant. We assume that DM is pressureless and DE has a constant equation of state parameter $w$. In the considered model, the energy densities of the dark sector components present a scaling behaviour with $\\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}} / \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} \\sim \\left({a_0} / {a} \\right)^{-3(w+\\gamma)}$. We investigate the possibility that the perturbations of DM and DE, which are interacting among themselves, could be coupled to the galaxies with the ...

  5. Classical non-linear wave dynamics and gluon spin operator in SU(2) QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P M

    2016-01-01

    We study various types of classical non-linear wave solutions with mass scale parameters in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics. It has been shown that there are two gauge non-equivalent solutions for non-linear plane waves with a mass parameter. One of them corresponds to embedding \\lambda \\phi^4 theory into the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, another represents essentially Yang-Mills type solution. We describe a wide class of stationary and non-stationary wave solutions among which kink like solitons and non-linear wave packet solutions have been found. A regular stationary monopole like solution with a finite energy density is proposed. The solution can be treated as a Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluons. All non-linear wave solutions have common features: presence of a mass scale parameter, non-vanishing projection of the color magnetic field along the propagation direction and a total spin zero. Gauge invariant and Lorentz frame independent definitions of the gluon spin operator are considered.

  6. Automatic versus manual model differentiation to compute sensitivities and solve non-linear inverse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, D.; Cappelaere, B.; Faure, Ch.

    2002-04-01

    Emerging tools for automatic differentiation (AD) of computer programs should be of great benefit for the implementation of many derivative-based numerical methods such as those used for inverse modeling. The Odyssée software, one such tool for Fortran 77 codes, has been tested on a sample model that solves a 2D non-linear diffusion-type equation. Odyssée offers both the forward and the reverse differentiation modes, that produce the tangent and the cotangent models, respectively. The two modes have been implemented on the sample application. A comparison is made with a manually-produced differentiated code for this model (MD), obtained by solving the adjoint equations associated with the model's discrete state equations. Following a presentation of the methods and tools and of their relative advantages and drawbacks, the performances of the codes produced by the manual and automatic methods are compared, in terms of accuracy and of computing efficiency (CPU and memory needs). The perturbation method (finite-difference approximation of derivatives) is also used as a reference. Based on the test of Taylor, the accuracy of the two AD modes proves to be excellent and as high as machine precision permits, a good indication of Odyssée's capability to produce error-free codes. In comparison, the manually-produced derivatives (MD) sometimes appear to be slightly biased, which is likely due to the fact that a theoretical model (state equations) and a practical model (computer program) do not exactly coincide, while the accuracy of the perturbation method is very uncertain. The MD code largely outperforms all other methods in computing efficiency, a subject of current research for the improvement of AD tools. Yet these tools can already be of considerable help for the computer implementation of many numerical methods, avoiding the tedious task of hand-coding the differentiation of complex algorithms.

  7. Model reduction and parameter estimation of non-linear dynamical biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodian; Medvedovic, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Parameter estimation for high dimension complex dynamic system is a hot topic. However, the current statistical model and inference approach is known as a large p small n problem. How to reduce the dimension of the dynamic model and improve the accuracy of estimation is more important. To address this question, the authors take some known parameters and structure of system as priori knowledge and incorporate it into dynamic model. At the same time, they decompose the whole dynamic model into subset network modules, based on different modules, and then they apply different estimation approaches. This technique is called Rao-Blackwellised particle filters decomposition methods. To evaluate the performance of this method, the authors apply it to synthetic data generated from repressilator model and experimental data of the JAK-STAT pathway, but this method can be easily extended to large-scale cases.

  8. Non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of giant magnetostrictive film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z. W., E-mail: zhuzhiwen@tju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 300072, Tianjin (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Non-linear Dynamics and Chaos Control, 300072, Tianjin (China); Zhang, W. D., E-mail: zhangwenditju@126.com; Xu, J., E-mail: xujia-ld@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 300072, Tianjin (China)

    2014-03-15

    The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.

  9. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  10. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Goal Programming Technique for Solving Non-Linear Multi-objective Structural Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multi-objective intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach to solve a multi-objective nonlinear programming problem in context of a structural design. Here we describe some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy optimization. We have considered a multi-objective structural optimization problem with several mutually conflicting objectives. The design objective is to minimize weight of the structure and minimize the vertical deflection at loading point of a statistically loaded three-bar planar truss subjected to stress constraints on each of the truss members. This approach is used to solve the above structural optimization model based on arithmetic mean and compare with the solution by intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach. A numerical solution is given to illustrate our approach.

  11. Sensitivity problems related to certain bifurcations in non-linear recurrence relations

    CERN Document Server

    Gumowski, I.

    1969-01-01

    This paper is concerned with certain qualitative aspects of the sensitivity problem in relation to small variations of a parameter of a system, the behaviour of which can be described by an autonomous recurrence relation: V$_{n+1}$ = F(V$_{n}, \\lambda$) (1) V being a vector, $\\lambda$ the parameter. The problem consists in the determination of the bifurcation values $\\lambda_{0}$ of $\\lambda$, i.e. values such that the qualitative behaviour of a solution of (1) should be different for $\\lambda = \\lambda \\pm \\epsilon$ where $\\epsilon$ is a small quantity. Bifurcations that correspond to a critical case in the Liapunov sense, and the crossing through this critical case, are considered. Examples of bifurcations, not connected with the presence of a critical case, and which correspond to a large deformation of the stability domain boundary of an equilibrium point, a fixed point of (1), under the effect of a parameter variation, are given where V is a two dimensional vector.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  13. Non-Linear Dynamical Classification of Short Time Series of the Rössler System in High Noise Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson’s disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to −30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A′ under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data. PMID

  14. Applying Differential Transforms and ADER to Multi-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential Transforms (DTs), a core component of so-called "automatic" or "algorithmic" differentiation, offer significant flexibility and efficiency to any numerical method. The i-th and j-th DT, U(i,j), of a function, u(x,y), is simply U(i,j)=1/(i!j!)*∂(i+j)u/∂xi∂yj. Being a term in the Taylor series of u(x,y) makes the reverse transform trivial. This relation also computes initial DTs from known spatial derivatives. What is novel about DTs is how they simplify a complex PDE system, transforming most arithmetic, trigonometric, and other operators into simple recurrence relations in derivative space. This allows one to simply and quickly compute analytical derivatives of highly complex and non-linear functions. Consider a pseudo-conservation law system, u(x)t+f(u,x)x=s(u,x), for instance. The fluxes and source terms could be (and often are) highly complex, non-linear functions of the state vector and independent variables. Regardless of the spatial discretization (variational / finite-element, weak / finite-volume, or strong / finite-difference), one nearly always must resort to tensored quadrature to evaluate face fluxes and body source terms, and this treatment is expensive. However, if one uses DTs to analytically compute spatial derivatives of the flux and source terms, given spatial derivatives of u, then the fluxes and source terms are directly expanded as polynomials, allowing for significantly cheaper, quadrature-free integration, sampling, and differentiation with a single dot product. Besides being simpler, this also allows flexibility for Galerkin methods in particular to analytically and cheaply compute body integrals, which are often approximated inexactly with quadrature. Computing Nth-order DTs in D dimensions is of O(D2*N) complexity, and whether for transport or non-linear compressible Euler equations, they are cheaper to compute and integrate analytically than quadrature. Further, because time-dependent PDE systems relate spatial

  15. Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of Steel Hollow I-core Sandwich Panel under Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Vatani Oskouei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the non-linear dynamic response of novel steel sandwich panel with hollow I-core subjected to blast loading was studied. Special emphasis is placed on the evaluation of midpoint displacements and energy dissipation of the models. Several parameters such as boundary conditions, strain rate, mesh dependency and asymmetrical loading are considered in this study. The material and geometric non-linearities are also considered in the numerical simulation. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data to verify the developed FE model. Modeling techniques are described in detail. According to the results, sandwich panels with hollow I-core allowed more plastic deformation and energy dissipation and less midpoint displacement than conventional I-core sandwich panels and also equivalent solid plate with the same weight and material.

  16. The electric vehicle routing problem with non-linear charging functions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The use of electric vehicles (EVs) in freight and passenger transportation gives birth to a new family of vehicle routing problems (VRPs), the so-called electric VRPs (e-VRPs). As their name suggests, e-VRPs extend classical VRPs to account (mainly) for two constraining EV features: the short driving range and the long battery charging time. As a matter of fact, routes performed by EVs usually need to include time-consuming detours to charging stations. Most of the exi...

  17. Efficient Non-Linear Finite Element Implementation of Elasto-Plasticity for Geotechnical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    of foundations, mainly due to its simplicity which allows simple solutions with simple geometries. But for complex geometries a numerical solution is needed. It turns out that the apparently simple Mohr-Coulomb model is non-trivial to implement in the finite-element method. This is due to the fact that the Mohr...... with the safety factors obtained with a linear Mohr envelope, with which they are directly comparable, when the presented method is used. The classical problem of yield surfaces with corners and apexes is elaborated upon. A small modification to the formulation of the constitutive matrices on corners and apexes...

  18. NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC MODEL RETRIEVAL OF SUBTROPICAL HIGH BASED ON EMPIRICAL ORTHOGONAL FUNCTION AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren; HONG Mei; SUN Zhao-bo; NIU Sheng-jie; ZHU Wei-jun; MIN Jin-zhong; WAN Qi-lin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty of accurately constructing the dynamic model of subtropical high, based on the potential height field time series over 500 hPa layer of T106 numerical forecast products, by using EOF(empirical orthogonal function) temporal-spatial separation technique, the disassembled EOF time coefficients series were regarded as dynamical model variables, and dynamic system retrieval idea as well as genetic algorithm were introduced to make dynamical model parameters optimization search, then, a reasonable non-linear dynamic model of EOF time-coefficients was established. By dynamic model integral and EOF temporal-spatial components assembly, a mid-/long-term forecast of subtropical high was carried out. The experimental results show that the forecast results of dynamic model are superior to that of general numerical model forecast results.A new modeling idea and forecast technique is presented for diagnosing and forecasting such complicated weathers as subtropical high.

  19. Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.

  20. Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Modulators with Enhanced Dynamic Range using Non-Linear DAC for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custòdio, José; Paulino, Nuno; Goes, João

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of employing non-linear low-resolution DACs in the feedback paths of multi-bit second-order Sigma-Delta modulators. The proposed technique is particularly attractive in applications such as hearing aids, requiring a very large dynamic range and medium signal......-to-noise-plus-distortion-ratio. As demonstrated through simulated results in which noise and mismatch effects are included, for the same over-sampling ratio, improvements in the order of 6-to-9 dB in the dynamic range can be achieved when comparing with the same topology employing linear-DACs....

  1. Data-driven non-linear elasticity: constitutive manifold construction and problem discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Ruben; Borzacchiello, Domenico; Aguado, Jose Vicente; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Cueto, Elias; Ladeveze, Pierre; Chinesta, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    The use of constitutive equations calibrated from data has been implemented into standard numerical solvers for successfully addressing a variety problems encountered in simulation-based engineering sciences (SBES). However, the complexity remains constantly increasing due to the need of increasingly detailed models as well as the use of engineered materials. Data-Driven simulation constitutes a potential change of paradigm in SBES. Standard simulation in computational mechanics is based on the use of two very different types of equations. The first one, of axiomatic character, is related to balance laws (momentum, mass, energy,\\ldots ), whereas the second one consists of models that scientists have extracted from collected, either natural or synthetic, data. Data-driven (or data-intensive) simulation consists of directly linking experimental data to computers in order to perform numerical simulations. These simulations will employ laws, universally recognized as epistemic, while minimizing the need of explicit, often phenomenological, models. The main drawback of such an approach is the large amount of required data, some of them inaccessible from the nowadays testing facilities. Such difficulty can be circumvented in many cases, and in any case alleviated, by considering complex tests, collecting as many data as possible and then using a data-driven inverse approach in order to generate the whole constitutive manifold from few complex experimental tests, as discussed in the present work.

  2. Non-linear quantum dynamics in strong and short electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In our contribution we give a brief overview of two widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.m.) (e.g.\\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that at small and moderate laser field intensities the shape and duration of the pulse are very important for the probability of considered processes. However, at high intensities the multi-photon interactions of the fermions with laser field are decisive and completely determined all aspects of subthreshold electron-positron pairs and photon production

  3. Wavelet analysis of the slow non-linear dynamics of wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Benjamin; Mordant, Nicolas, E-mail: benjamin.miquel@lps.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure (France)

    2011-12-22

    In wave turbulence, the derivation of solutions in the frame of the Weak Turbulence Theory relies on the existence of a double time-scale separation: first, between the period of the waves and characteristic nonlinear time t{sub NL} corresponding to energy exchange among waves; and secondly, between t{sub NL} and the characteristic dissipation time t{sub d}. Due to the lack of space and time resolved measurement, this hypothesis have remained unverified so far. We study the turbulence of flexion waves in thin elastic plates. t{sub d} is measured using the decline stage of the turbulence whereas a wavelet analysis is performed to measure the characteristic non-linear time t{sub NL}.

  4. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schewe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic–thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  5. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period.

  6. A natural neighbour method based on Fraeijs de Veubeke variational principle for materially non-linear problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Li; Serge Cescotto; Barbara Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The natural neighbour method can be considered as one of many variants of the meshless methods. In the present paper, a new approach based on the Fraeijs de Veubeke (FdV) functional, which is initially developed for linear elasticity, is extended to the case of geometrically linear but materially non-linear solids. The new approach provides an original treatment to two classical problems: the numerical evaluation of the integrals over the domain A and the enforcement of boundary conditions of the type ui = uion Su. In the absence of body forces (Fi = 0), it will be shown that the calculation of integrals of the type fA .dA can be avoided and that boundary conditions of the type ui = ui on Su can be imposed in the average sense in general and exactly if ui is linear between two contour nodes, which is obviously the case for ui = 0.

  7. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XX. Third harmonic experiments of non-linear dielectric effects versus a phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyeongeun; Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Richert, Ranko

    2016-08-01

    We have re-measured the third harmonic non-linear dielectric response of supercooled glycerol using zero-bias sinusoidal electric fields, with the aim of comparing the resulting susceptibilities with a phenomenological model of non-linear dielectric responses. In the absence of known chemical effects in this liquid, the present model accounts for three sources of non-linear behavior: dielectric saturation, field induced entropy reduction, and energy absorption from the time dependent field. Using parameters obtained from static high field results, the present model reproduces the characteristic features observed in the third harmonic susceptibility spectra: a low frequency plateau originating from dielectric saturation and a peak positioned below the loss peak frequency whose amplitude increases with decreasing temperature. Semi-quantitative agreement is achieved between experiment and the present model, which does not involve spatial scales or dynamical correlations explicitly. By calculating the three contributions separately, the model reveals that the entropy effect is the main source of the "hump" feature of this third harmonic response.

  8. The Wholistic Ethical Litmus of Leadership: A Practical Non-Linear Dynamics and Chaos Based Leadership Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Management is generally easy to define and measure. And, good managers tend to have many of the same characteristics and skill sets. Great leaders, on the other hand, have fewer shared characteristics. Some great leaders are great orators, for example, and yet many other great leaders are terrible public speakers. Great leaders tend to be very intuitive, but other characteristics consistent with great leadership are few indeed. So, the authors of this study had a conversation over several years that led to the reduction of variables to two variables that immediately showed a pattern in individual leadership. Approach: This study presents a practical leadership matrix model based on non-linear dynamics and chaos theory. Specifically, the authors searched for two or more leadership variables (characteristics that would create a definite pattern. The researchers intuitively believed that some combination of variables would set up a pattern just as attractors (strange or otherwise create patterns in data and show some of the characteristics of the system being studied. Over time a set of two main variables, loosely labeled as ethics and energy at first, were identified that created a leadership pattern for individuals. This study describes the process that led to the identification of the two main variables and then to the matrix herein presented. Results: This model, called “The WELL” by the authors, was created at first to explain political leadership, yet is showing applicability to all kinds of leadership. The WELL as presented is a theoretical construct, with only experiential and qualitative evidence at present to support the patterns inferred from the model. Conclusion: In addition to the extensive political experience of the authors the experience of public safety, mental health, military and academic professionals has been sought to validate the main conclusions shown in this study and to improve the

  9. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  10. Non-linear dynamics of inlet film thickness during unsteady rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kuo; Zang, Yong; Gao, Zhiying; Qin, Qin; Wu, Diping

    2016-05-01

    The inlet film thickness directly affects film and stress distribution of rolling interfaces. Unsteady factors, such as unsteady back tension, may disturb the inlet film thickness. However, the current models of unsteady inlet film thickness lack unsteady disturbance factors and do not take surface topography into consideration. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamic analysis of inlet zone an unsteady rolling film model which concerns the direction of surface topography is built up. Considering the small fluctuation of inlet angle, absolute reduction, reduction ratio, inlet strip thickness and roll radius as the input variables and the fluctuation of inlet film thickness as the output variable, the non-linear relationship between the input and output is discussed. The discussion results show that there is 180° phase difference between the inlet film thickness and the input variables, such as the fluctuant absolute reduction, the fluctuant reduction ratio and non-uniform inlet strip thickness, but there is no phase difference between unsteady roll radius and the output. The inlet angle, the steady roll radius and the direction of surface topography have significant influence on the fluctuant amplitude of unsteady inlet film thickness. This study proposes an analysis method for unsteady inlet film thickness which takes surface topography and new disturbance factors into consideration.

  11. Problem of probabilistic calculation of the design on linearly and non-linearly deformable basis with casual parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of calculation of a construction basis system in case of earthquake is considered taking into account casual properties of basis soil in various points of the soil body. As a stochastic function in the calculation of linearly deformable basis, the deformation module, which accepts different values in the direction x, y, z, was chosen. In the calculation of the system on non-linearly deformable basis as incidentally distributed sizes the following parameters were accepted: deformation module, shear modulus, specific adhesion, angle of internal friction. The authors of the article offer to consider initial seismic influence in the form of casual stationary process. In order to solve such problems modern software systems are proposed that solve differential equations of motion via direct integration with explicit schemes. The calculation in this case will be held on the synthesized accelerograms. A short review of the task solution of the beam lying on elastic basis, which was received by D.N. Sobolev at casual distribution of pastel coefficient in the direction x, is provided in article. In order to define the objective, D.N. Sobolev gives expressions for a population mean and correlation function of stochastic function. As a result of the task solution population means and dispersions of function of movements and its derivatives were received. The problem formulation considered in the article is more complicated, but at the same time important from a practical standpoint.

  12. Non-linear analysis indicates chaotic dynamics and reduced resilience in model-based Daphnia populations exposed to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ottermanns

    Full Text Available In this study we present evidence that anthropogenic stressors can reduce the resilience of age-structured populations. Enhancement of disturbance in a model-based Daphnia population lead to a repression of chaotic population dynamics at the same time increasing the degree of synchrony between the population's age classes. Based on the theory of chaos-mediated survival an increased risk of extinction was revealed for this population exposed to high concentrations of a chemical stressor. The Lyapunov coefficient was supposed to be a useful indicator to detect disturbance thresholds leading to alterations in population dynamics. One possible explanation could be a discrete change in attractor orientation due to external disturbance. The statistical analysis of Lyapunov coefficient distribution is proposed as a methodology to test for significant non-linear effects of general disturbance on populations. Although many new questions arose, this study forms a theoretical basis for a dynamical definition of population recovery.

  13. Non-linear dynamical signal characterization for prediction of defibrillation success through machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandilya Sharad

    2012-10-01

    .6% and 60.9%, respectively. Conclusion We report the development and first-use of a nontraditional non-linear method of analyzing the VF ECG signal, yielding high predictive accuracies of defibrillation success. Furthermore, incorporation of features from the PetCO2 signal noticeably increased model robustness. These predictive capabilities should further improve with the availability of a larger database.

  14. Explaining Macroeconomic and Term Structure Dynamics Jointly in a Non-linear DSGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper shows how a standard DSGE model can be extended to reproduce the dynamics in the 10 year yield curve for the post-war US economy with a similar degree of precision as in reduced form term structure models. At the same time, we are able to reproduce the dynamics of four key macro...

  15. Explaining Macroeconomic and Term Structure Dynamics Jointly in a Non-linear DSGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper shows how a standard DSGE model can be extended to reproduce the dynamics in the 10 year yield curve for the post-war US economy with a similar degree of precision as in reduced form term structure models. At the same time, we are able to reproduce the dynamics of four key macro...... variables almost perfectly. Our extension of a standard DSGE model is to introduce three non-stationary shocks which allow us to explain interest rates with medium and long maturities without distorting the dynamics of the macroeconomy....

  16. Continuation Methods and Non-Linear/Non-Gaussian Estimation for Flight Dynamics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose herein to augment current NASA spaceflight dynamics programs with algorithms and software from three domains. First, we use parameter continuation methods...

  17. Continuation Methods and Non-Linear/Non-Gaussian Estimation for Flight Dynamics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose herein to augment current NASA spaceflight dynamics programs with algorithms and software from two domains. First, we propose to use numerical parameter...

  18. A Comparison of Closed-Loop Performance of Multirotor Configurations Using Non-Linear Dynamic Inversion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray L. Ireland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multirotor is the umbrella term for the family of unmanned aircraft, which include the quadrotor, hexarotor and other vertical take-off and landing (VTOL aircraft that employ multiple main rotors for lift and control. Development and testing of novel multirotor designs has been aided by the proliferation of 3D printing and inexpensive flight controllers and components. Different multirotor configurations exhibit specific strengths, while presenting unique challenges with regards to design and control. This article highlights the primary differences between three multirotor platforms: a quadrotor; a fully-actuated hexarotor; and an octorotor. Each platform is modelled and then controlled using non-linear dynamic inversion. The differences in dynamics, control and performance are then discussed.

  19. Explicit mixed strain-displacement finite element for dynamic geometrically non-linear solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, N. M.; Rossi, R.; Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    Low-order finite elements face inherent limitations related to their poor convergence properties. Such difficulties typically manifest as mesh-dependent or excessively stiff behaviour when dealing with complex problems. A recent proposal to address such limitations is the adoption of mixed displacement-strain technologies which were shown to satisfactorily address both problems. Unfortunately, although appealing, the use of such element technology puts a large burden on the linear algebra, as the solution of larger linear systems is needed. In this paper, the use of an explicit time integration scheme for the solution of the mixed strain-displacement problem is explored as an alternative. An algorithm is devised to allow the effective time integration of the mixed problem. The developed method retains second order accuracy in time and is competitive in terms of computational cost with the standard irreducible formulation.

  20. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  1. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bagarello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the \\emph{interest} of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call \\emph{the decision functions} is deduced by introducing a suitable hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their \\emph{environments}, {which are }generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear {idea }for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  2. Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.

  3. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  4. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman [Pusat Pengajian Matematik, Fakulti Sains Komputer & Matematik Universiti Teknologi MARA Kampus Seremban, 70300 Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd [Pengajian Matematik, Fakulti Sains Komputer & Matematik Universiti Teknologi MARA Kampus Jasin, 77000 Melaka (Malaysia); Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md. [Pusat Pengajian Sains Matematik, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  5. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics of Macroeconomic Variables: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Kassapi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing doctoral dissertation. It examines the long run relationship between government spending on education, GDP growth and educational enrollments in all levels, for Greece in the years 1960-2012, leveling up to capture more complex dependent dynamics in time series. OECD Indicator A11 shows that, life satisfaction, civic engagement and health. are at the same level for adults with tertiary education and adults with upper secondary education for Greece. Having cond...

  7. Non-Linear Dynamic Deformation of a Piezothermoelastic Laminate with Feedback Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Ishihara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the control of free vibration with large amplitude in a piezothermoelastic laminated beam subjected to a uniform temperature with a feedback control system. The analytical model is the symmetrically cross-ply laminated beam composed of the elastic and piezoelectric layers. On the basis of the von Kármán strain and the classical laminate theory, the governing equations for the dynamic behavior are derived. The dynamic behavior is detected by the electric current in the sensor layer through the direct piezoelectric effect. The electric voltage with the magnitude of the current multiplied by the gain is applied to the actuator layer to constitute a feedback control system. The governing equations are reduced by the Galerkin method to a Liénard equation with respect to the representative deflection, and the equation is found to be dependent on the gain and the configuration of the actuator. By introducing the Liénard's phase plane, the equation is analyzed geometrically, and the essential characteristics of the beam and stabilization of the dynamic deformation are demonstrated.

  8. Neural networks for modelling and control of a non-linear dynamic system

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Smith, R.; Neumerkel, D.; Sbarbaro-Hofer, D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the use of neural nets to model and control a nonlinear second-order electromechanical model of a drive system with varying time constants and saturation effects. A model predictive control structure is used. This is compared with a proportional-integral (PI) controller with regard to performance and robustness against disturbances. Two feedforward network types, the multilayer perceptron and radial-basis-function nets, are used to model the system. The problems involved ...

  9. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating the re...... integration of oscillatory systems with only a few integration points per period. Three numerical examples demonstrate the high accuracy of the algorithm. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  10. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating the re...... integration of oscillatory systems with only a few integration points per period. Three numerical examples demonstrate the high accuracy of the algorithm. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...

  11. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-14

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  12. Real-time Detection of Precursors to Epileptic Seizures: Non-Linear Analysis of System Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesaei, Sahar; Sharafat, Ahmad R

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel approach for detecting precursors to epileptic seizures in intracranial electroencephalograms (iEEG), which is based on the analysis of system dynamics. In the proposed scheme, the largest Lyapunov exponent of the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) of the segmented EEG signals is considered as the discriminating features. Such features are processed by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify whether the corresponding segment of the EEG signal contains a precursor to an epileptic seizure. When consecutive EEG segments contain such precursors, a decision is made that a precursor is in fact detected. The proposed scheme is applied to the Freiburg dataset, and the results show that seizure precursors are detected in a time frame that unlike other existing schemes is very much convenient to patients, with sensitivity of 100% and negligible false positive detection rates.

  13. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production in $ep$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, V P; Meneses, A R

    2010-01-01

    The exclusive processes in electron-proton ($ep$) interactions are an important tool to investigate the QCD dynamics at high energies as they are in general driven by the gluon content of proton which is strongly subject to parton saturation effects. In this paper we compute the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. We show that the small-$x$ evolution given by this evolution equation is able to describe the DESY-HERA data and is relevant for the physics of the exclusive observables in future electron-proton colliders and in photoproduction processes to be measured in coherent interactions at the LHC.

  14. Non linear dynamics of memristor based 3rd order oscillatory system

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, we report for the first time the nonlinear dynamics of three memristor based phase shift oscillators, and consider them as a plausible solution for the realization of parametric oscillation as an autonomous linear time variant system. Sustained oscillation is reported through oscillating resistance while time dependent poles are present. The memristor based phase shift oscillator is explored further by varying the parameters so as to present the resistance of the memristor as a time varying parameter, thus potentially eliminating the need of external periodic forces in order for it to oscillate. Multi memristors, used simultaneously with similar and different parameters, are investigated in this paper. Mathematical formulas for analyzing such oscillators are verified with simulation results and are found to be in good agreement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chaotic dynamics of the size-dependent non-linear micro-beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, A. V.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent model of a Sheremetev-Pelekh-Reddy-Levinson micro-beam is proposed and validated using the couple stress theory, taking into account large deformations. The applied Hamilton's principle yields the governing PDEs and boundary conditions. A comparison of statics and dynamics of beams with and without size-dependent components is carried out. It is shown that the proposed model results in significant, both qualitative and quantitative, changes in the nature of beam deformations, in comparison to the so far employed standard models. A novel scenario of transition from regular to chaotic vibrations of the size-dependent Sheremetev-Pelekh model, following the Pomeau-Manneville route to chaos, is also detected and illustrated, among others.

  16. A Fluid Dynamics Approach for the Computation of Non-linear Force-Free Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Qun Li; Jing-Xiu Wang; Feng-Si Wei

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the analogy between the magnetic field and velocity fieldof incompressible fluid flow, we propose a fluid dynamics approach for comput-ing nonlinear force-free magnetic fields. This method has the advantage that thedivergence-free condition is automatically satisfied, which is a sticky issue for manyother algorithms, and we can take advantage of modern high resolution algorithmsto process the force-free magnetic field. Several tests have been made based on thewell-known analytic solution proposed by Low & Lou. The numerical results arein satisfactory agreement with the analytic ones. It is suggested that the newlyproposed method is promising in extrapolating the active region or the whole sunmagnetic fields in the solar atmosphere based on the observed vector magnetic fieldon the photosphere.

  17. Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haj, Tahar M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-02

    In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.

  18. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, C.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  19. How to include the nonlinear Cox-Voinov law into sloshing dynamics? A weakly non linear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Gallaire, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Fluid sloshing in a glass is a common example of damped oscillator, with the frequency derived in the potential flow limit. The damping rate is then evaluated considering the viscous dissipation at the wall, in the bulk and at the free surface, respectively. This classical theoretical result however differs from what is often seen in the laboratory when the attenuation of gravity waves happens in a small basin. In particular, the damping rate is found to increase as the sloshing amplitude decreases. Here we show that this enhanced damping is due to capillary forces at the contact line between the liquid and the container. The angle θd made by the liquid interface with the container walls (contact angle) is modeled as a non-linear function of the interface speed U, (Cox-Voinov law θd3 α U). We propose a multiple scale expansion scheme to consistently derive an amplitude equation using the Cox-Voinov law as boundary condition at the moving interface. The zero order problem reduces to the classical static meniscus problem, while the first order problem yields an eigenvalue problem defining the viscous sloshing modes. At an higher order, a compatibility condition has to be enforced, yielding an amplitude equation. Solving the later, we recover the expected increase of the damping rate as the sloshing amplitude decreases, an effect thus attributed to capillary effects.

  20. Non-linear Dynamical Classification of Short Time Series of the Rössler System in High Noise Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLainscsek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs reveals nonlinear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG data recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10dB to -30dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of nonlinearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A' under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data.

  1. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  2. Recent seismic activity at Cephalonia (Greece): a study through candidate electromagnetic precursors in terms of non-linear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Balasis, Georgios; Kontoes, Charalampos; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    The preparation process of two recent earthquakes (EQs) that occurred in Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Greece, ((38.22° N, 20.53° E), 26 January 2014, Mw = 6.0, depth ˜ 20 km) and ((38.25° N, 20.39° E), 3 February 2014, Mw = 5.9, depth ˜ 10 km), respectively, is studied in terms of the critical dynamics revealed in observables of the involved non-linear processes. Specifically, we show, by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF), that signatures of critical, as well as tricritical, dynamics were embedded in the fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EMEs) recorded by two stations in locations near the epicentres of these two EQs. It is worth noting that both the MHz EMEs recorded by the telemetric stations on the island of Cephalonia and the neighbouring island of Zante (Zakynthos) reached a simultaneously critical condition a few days before the occurrence of each earthquake. The critical characteristics embedded in the EME signals were further verified using the natural time (NT) method. Moreover, we show, in terms of the NT method, that the foreshock seismic activity also presented critical characteristics before each event. Importantly, the revealed critical process seems to be focused on the area corresponding to the western Cephalonia zone, following the seismotectonic and hazard zoning of the Ionian Islands area near Cephalonia.

  3. Use Residual Correction Method and Monotone Iterative Technique to Calculate the Upper and Lower Approximate Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Non-linear Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to use the proposed residual correction method in coordination with the monotone iterative technique to obtain upper and lower approximate solutions of singularly perturbed non-linear boundary value problems. First, the monotonicity of a non-linear differential equation is reinforced using the monotone iterative technique, then the cubic-spline method is applied to discretize and convert the differential equation into the mathematical programming problems of an inequation, and finally based on the residual correction concept, complex constraint solution problems are transformed into simpler questions of equational iteration. As verified by the four examples given in this paper, the method proposed hereof can be utilized to fast obtain the upper and lower solutions of questions of this kind, and to easily identify the error range between mean approximate solutions and exact solutions.

  4. Non-linear beam dynamics tests in the LHC: LHC dynamic aperture MD on Beam 2 (24th of June 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, E H; Persson, T H B; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R; Uythoven, J

    2013-01-01

    This MD note summarizes measurements performed on LHC Beam 2 during the non-linear machine development (MD) of 24 June 2012. The aim of the measurement was to observe the dynamic aperture of LHC Beam 2, and obtain turn-by-turn (TbT) betatron oscillation data, enabling the study of amplitude detuning and resonance driving terms (RDTs). The regular injections required by the MD also represented an opportunity to test a new coupling feedback routine based on the analysis of injection oscillation data. Initial measurements were performed on the nominal state of the LHC at injection. On completion of this study the Landau octupoles were turned off and corrections for higher-order chromaticities were implemented to reduce the non-linearity of the machine as far as possible. A second set of measurements were then performed. All studies were performed using the LHC aperture kicker (MKA).

  5. Investigation and optimization of transverse non-linear beam dynamics in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Dominic Markus

    2010-03-10

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a

  6. Non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG time series distinguishes patients with Parkinson's disease from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Hernandez, Manuel E; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to involve altered patterns of neuronal firing and synchronization in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. One window into the nature of the aberrant temporal dynamics in the cerebral cortex of PD patients can come from analysis of the patients electroencephalography (EEG). Rather than using spectral-based methods, we used data models based on delay differential equations (DDE) as non-linear time-domain classification tools to analyze EEG recordings from PD patients on and off dopaminergic therapy and healthy individuals. Two sets of 50 1-s segments of 64-channel EEG activity were recorded from nine PD patients on and off medication and nine age-matched controls. The 64 EEG channels were grouped into 10 clusters covering frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions for analysis. DDE models were fitted to individual trials, and model coefficients and error were used as features for classification. The best models were selected using repeated random sub-sampling validation and classification performance was measured using the area under the ROC curve A'. In a companion paper, we show that DDEs can uncover hidden dynamical structure from short segments of simulated time series of known dynamical systems in high noise regimes. Using the same method for finding the best models, we found here that even short segments of EEG data in PD patients and controls contained dynamical structure, and moreover, that PD patients exhibited a greater dynamic range than controls. DDE model output on the means from one set of 50 trials provided nearly complete separation of PD patients off medication from controls: across brain regions, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves, A', varied from 0.95 to 1.0. For distinguishing PD patients on vs. off medication, classification performance A' ranged from 0.86 to 1.0 across brain regions. Moreover, the generalizability of the model to the second set of 50

  7. Some contributions to non-linear physic: Mathematical problems; Contribuciones a problemas matematicos en fisica no-lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The main results contained in this report are the following: i ) Lagrangian universality holds in a precisely defined weak sense. II ) Isolation of 5th order polynomial evolution equations having high order conservation laws. III ) Hamiltonian formulation of a wide class of non-linear evolution equations. IV) Some properties of the symmetries of Gardner-like systems. v) Characterization of the range and Kernel of {zeta}/{zeta} u{sub {alpha}}, |{alpha} | - 1. vi) A generalized variational approach and application to the anharmonic oscillator. v II ) Relativistic correction and quasi-classical approximation to the anechoic oscillator. VII ) Properties of a special class of 6th-order anharmonic oscillators. ix) A new method for constructing conserved densities In PDE. (Author) 97 refs.

  8. Direct Forecasting of Subsurface Flow Response from Non-Linear Dynamic Data By Linear Least-Squares in Canonical Functional Principal Component Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, A.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeological forecasting problems, like many subsurface forecasting problems, often suffer from the scarcity of reliable data yet complex prior information about the underlying earth system. Assimilating and integrating this information into an earth model requires using iterative parameter space exploration techniques or Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques. Since such an earth model needs to account for many large and small scale features of the underlying system, as the system gets larger, iterative modeling can become computationally prohibitive, in particular when the forward model would allow for only a few hundred model evaluations. In addition, most modeling methods do not include the purpose for which inverse method are built, namely, the actual forecast and usually focus only on data and model. In this study, we present a technique to extract features of the earth system informed by time-varying dynamic data (data features) and those that inform a time-varying forecasting variable (forecast features) using Functional Principal Component Analysis. Canonical Coefficient Analysis is then used to examine the relationship between these features using a linear model. When this relationship suggests that the available data informs the required forecast, a simple linear regression can be used on the linear model to directly estimate the posterior of the forecasting problem, without any iterative inversion of model parameters. This idea and method is illustrated using an example of contaminant flow in an aquifer with complex prior, large dimension and non-linear flow & transport model.

  9. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R(2) = 0 .99396.

  10. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguven, H. Nevzat

    1991-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the nonlinear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the 'static transmission error method' developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  11. Non-linear microscopy and its applications for the study of the structure and dynamics of biological systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ). Similarly SHG and THG have been used to investigate mitosis in zebrafish embryo (Chu et al. 2003). The microscope system. The laser Picosecond and femtosecond lasers are used for non-linear microscopy as these ultra-short pulses have a high...

  12. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    (MAP) estimation is presented along with a software implementation. As a case study, the modelling of the thermal characteristics of a building integrated PV component is considered. The EC-JRC Ispra has made experimental data available. Both linear and non-linear models are identified. It is shown...

  13. On the Use of Multipole Expansion in Time Evolution of Non-linear Dynamical Systems and Some Surprises Related to Superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    A new numerical method is introduced to study the problem of time evolution of generic non-linear dynamical systems in four-dimensional spacetimes. It is assumed that the time level surfaces are foliated by a one-parameter family of codimension two compact surfaces with no boundary and which are conformal to a Riemannian manifold C. The method is based on the use of a multipole expansion determined uniquely by the induced metric structure on C. The approach is fully spectral in the angular directions. The dynamics in the complementary 1+1 Lorentzian spacetime is followed by making use of a fourth order finite differencing scheme with adaptive mesh refinement. In checking the reliability of the introduced new method the evolution of a massless scalar field on a fixed Kerr spacetime is investigated. In particular, the angular distribution of the evolving field in to be superradiant scattering is studied. The primary aim was to check the validity of some of the recent arguments claiming that the Penrose process,...

  14. Non-linear dynamic analyses of 3D masonry structures by means of a homogenized rigid body and spring model (HRBSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele; Casolo, Siro

    2016-12-01

    A simple homogenized rigid body and spring model (HRBSM) is presented and applied for the non-linear dynamic analysis of 3D masonry structures. The approach, previously developed by the authors for the modeling of in-plane loaded walls is herein extended to real 3D buildings subjected to in- and out-of-plane deformation modes. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. All the simulations here presented are performed using the commercial software Abaqus. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.

  15. Contribution to Experimental Validation of Linear and Non-Linear Dynamic Models for Representing Rotor-Blade Parametric Coupled Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Saracho, C.M.; Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    This work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of rotor-blades dynamic interaction. A validation procedure of mathematical models is carried out with help of a simple test rig, built by a mass-spring system attached to four flexible rotating blades. With this test rig,...

  16. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1B: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: A non-linear inverse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation (SV) indicated by models of the observed geomagnetic field is examined in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core (SFI/VFFC) approximation. This inverse problem is non-linear because solutions of the forward problem are deterministically chaotic. The SFM/FFC approximation is inexact, and neither the models nor the observations they represent are either complete or perfect. A method is developed for solving the non-linear inverse motional induction problem posed by the hypothesis of (piecewise, statistically) steady core surface flow and the supposition of a complete initial geomagnetic condition. The method features iterative solution of the weighted, linearized least-squares problem and admits optional biases favoring surficially geostrophic flow and/or spatially simple flow. Two types of weights are advanced radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial field component near Earth's surface implied by the models, and generalized weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by the models.

  17. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  18. Einstein observations and the internal dynamics of compact stars: further evidence against non-linear regimes of vortex creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.E. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico); Benvenuto, O.G. (La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina))

    1991-08-15

    We present structural constraints on the Crab and Vela pulsars imposed by the simultaneous assumptions of (a) surface temperatures close to those observed by the Einstein Observatory satellite, and (b) validity of the vortex creep theory in the non-linear regime for interpreting glitch observations and internal features predicted by it. The disagreement between both studies is quantified, thus pointing strongly to the need for linear regimes of creep, as recently suggested, or some alternative picture. (author).

  19. Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed

    Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...

  20. 交通流流体力学模型与非线性波%Fluid Dynamics Traffic Flow Models and Their Related Non-Linear Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 王卓; 黄仕进

    2013-01-01

    Fluid dynamics methods were used in modeling traffic flow problems, which demonstrated many interesting non-linear propagation phenomena. It was summarized that the propagation was related to traffic pressures and self-driven forces, which generated shock and rarefaction waves in the LWR model, stop-and-go waves in the higher-order model, overtaking waves (shock or rarefaction waves) in the multi-class LWR model, and a contact discontinuity in problems with discontinuous fluxes. The Riemann problem arising from extension of the LWR model to traffic networks was also introduced in detail. And a system based on the Navi-er-Stokes equations was proposed to model the 2-dimensional pedestrian flow problem with application of the Eikon equation for determination of a pedestrian' s desired motion direction.%介绍了交通流问题中的流体力学描述方法,分析了交通流在受压力和自驱动力等因素作用下所产生的非线性波动现象.这些描述包括LWR运动学模型,考虑动力学效应的高阶模型,考虑超车效应的多车种LWR(Lighthill-Whitham-Richards)模型,以及考虑流通量间断的模型方程.此外,还介绍了LWR网络推广模型在交叉口的Riemann问题求解;提出了描述二维行人流问题的Navier-Stokes-Eikon方程模型并描述了确定行人流运动期盼方向的基本思想.

  1. Stability analysis and non-linear behaviour of structural systems using the complex non-linear modal analysis (CNLMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Thouverez, Fabrice; Jezequel, Louis

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Herein, a novel non-linear procedure for producing non-linear behaviour and stable limit cycle amplitudes of non-linear systems subjected to super-critical Hopf bifurcation point is presented. This approach, called Complex Non-Linear Modal Analysis (CNLMA), makes use of the non-linear unstable mode which governs the non-linear dynamic of structural systems in unstable areas. In this study, the computational methodology of CNLMA is presented for the systematic estimatio...

  2. Determining Stochasticity and Causality of Vegetation Dynamics in the Southwestern Amazon: Non-linear Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis of EVI2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure projects such as road paving have proven to bring a variety of (mainly) socio-economic advantages to countries and populations. However, many studies have also highlighted the negative socio-economic and biophysical effects that these developments have at local, regional and even larger scales. The "MAP" area (Madre de Dios in Peru, Acre in Brazil, and Pando in Bolivia) is a biodiversity hotspot in the southwestern Amazon where sections of South America's Inter-Oceanic Highway were paved between 2006 and 2010. We are interested in vegetation dynamics in the area since it plays an important role in ecosystem functions and ecosystem services in socio-ecological systems: it provides information on productivity and structure of the forest. In preparation of more complex and mechanistic simulation of vegetation, non-linear time series analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) was conducted on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series - which is a remote sensing product and provides information on vegetation dynamics as it detects chlorophyll (productivity) and structural change. Time series of 30 years for EVI2 (from MODIS and AVHRR) were obtained for 100 communities in the area. Through specific time series cluster analysis of the vegetation data, communities were clustered to facilitate data analysis and pattern recognition. The clustering is spatially consistent, and appears to be driven by median road paving progress - which is different for each cluster. Non-linear time series analysis (multivariate singular spectrum analysis, MSSA) separates common signals (or low-dimensional attractors) across clusters. Despite the presence of this deterministic structure though, time series behavior is mostly stochastic. Granger causality analysis between EVI2 and possible response variables indicates which variables (and with what lags) are to be included in DFA, resulting in unique Dynamic Factor Models for each cluster.

  3. Constrained non-linear optimization in 3D reflexion tomography; Problemes d'optimisation non-lineaire avec contraintes en tomographie de reflexion 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbos, F.

    2004-11-01

    Reflexion tomography allows the determination of a subsurface velocity model from the travel times of seismic waves. The introduction of a priori information in this inverse problem can lead to the resolution of a constrained non-linear least-squares problem. The goal of the thesis is to improve the resolution techniques of this optimization problem, whose main difficulties are its ill-conditioning, its large scale and an expensive cost function in terms of CPU time. Thanks to a detailed study of the problem and to numerous numerical experiments, we justify the use of a sequential quadratic programming method, in which the tangential quadratic programs are solved by an original augmented Lagrangian method. We show the global linear convergence of the latter. The efficiency and robustness of the approach are demonstrated on several synthetic examples and on two real data cases. (author)

  4. Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Salahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of fossil resources, increasing the production of greenhouse gas emissions and demand growth lead to greater use of distributed energy resources in power system especially in distribution networks. Integrating these resources in order to supply local loads creates a new concept called micro-grid. Optimal operation of micro-grid in the specific time period is one of the most important problems of them. In this paper, the operation problem of micro-grids is modeled considering the economical, technical and environmental issues, as well as uncertainties related to loads, wind speed and solar radiation. The resulting model is a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, Bisheh village in Iran is considered as a case study. The results showed that considering load curtailment costs, the power losses of the main grid, the penalties of pollutant gasses emissions and the elimination of energy subsides will tremendous impacts on the operation of microgrids. Article History: Received March 12, 2016; Received in revised form June 20, 2016; Accepted July 2nd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Salahi, S., and Bahramara, S. (2016 Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 139-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.139-149 

  5. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  6. Investigating the fracture non-linear dynamics through multi-spectral time series analysis of fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeris, Anastasios; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, George; Kopanas, John; Nomicos, Constantinos

    2013-04-01

    -series excerpts. Then, each of them is studied through the aforementioned spectral decomposition methods. Following standard methodology we attempt to decompose each of the partial time-series into statistically significant non-linear trends, oscillatory modes and noise, by testing each spectral component against red noise and alternatively against locally white noise background. Monte Carlo simulations of AR(1)-process red noise simulations are also utilized in this analysis phase and finally the significant temporal empirical orthogonal functions (T-EOFs) and the associated temporal principal components (T-PCs) are specified. In this way, a non-parametric (and non-empirical) signal to noise resolution is achieved and the reconstruction of the statistically significant signal can be realized by adding the associated Reconstructed Components (RCs). By applying the aforementioned technique we reveal the significant signal characteristics for each period and try to interpret the underlying dynamics. Given the statistically significant reconstructed signal for each partial time-series we further attempt a comparison between their morphology (also using a spectral cross-correlation study) in order to detect similarities and differences mostly between the quiet and the active periods that could be signify the pre-seismic activity.

  7. Practical use of SPRINT and a moving grid interface for a class of 1D non-linear transport problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Zegeling PA; Hassanizadeh SM

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems tend to become of still greater complexity. The mathematical formulation of these problems often results in a set of differential equations, which urges the need for robust differential equation solvers. Moreover, these solvers should be implemented within a user-friendly an

  8. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption.......Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...

  9. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  10. Size-dependent dynamic pull-in analysis of geometric non-linear micro-plates based on the modified couple stress theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Amir R.; Tahani, Masoud

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the size-dependent dynamic pull-in instability in rectangular micro-plates actuated by step-input DC voltage. The present model accounts for the effects of in-plane displacements and their non-classical higher-order boundary conditions, von Kármán geometric non-linearity, non-classical couple stress components and the inherent non-linearity of distributed electrostatic pressure on the micro-plate motion. The governing equations of motion, which are clearly derived using Hamilton's principle, are solved through a novel computationally very efficient Galerkin-based reduced order model (ROM) in which all higher-order non-classical boundary conditions are completely satisfied. The present findings are compared and successfully validated by available results in the literature as well as those obtained by three-dimensional finite element simulations carried out using COMSOL Multyphysics. A detailed parametric study is also conducted to illustrate the effects of in-plane displacements, plate aspect ratio, couple stress components and geometric non-linearity on the dynamic instability threshold of the system.

  11. A geometrically non-linear formulation of a three-dimensional beam element for solving large deflection multibody system problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.B.; Meijaard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A beam finite element formulation for large deflection problems in the analysis of flexible multibody systems has been proposed. In this formulation, a set of independent discrete deformation modes are defined for each element which are related to conventional small deflection beam theory in a co-ro

  12. booc.io: An Education System with Hierarchical Concept Maps and Dynamic Non-linear Learning Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michail; Strobelt, Hendrik; Tompkin, James; Fredericks, Colin; Huff, Connor; Higgins, Dana; Strezhnev, Anton; Komisarchik, Mayya; King, Gary; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Information hierarchies are difficult to express when real-world space or time constraints force traversing the hierarchy in linear presentations, such as in educational books and classroom courses. We present booc.io, which allows linear and non-linear presentation and navigation of educational concepts and material. To support a breadth of material for each concept, booc.io is Web based, which allows adding material such as lecture slides, book chapters, videos, and LTIs. A visual interface assists the creation of the needed hierarchical structures. The goals of our system were formed in expert interviews, and we explain how our design meets these goals. We adapt a real-world course into booc.io, and perform introductory qualitative evaluation with students.

  13. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  14. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Zhiwen; Duncan, Emily W.; Lv, Ligang; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui

    2017-02-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (θ) is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time θ monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of θ dynamics. In this study, we integrated the manual and real-time monitored data to depict the hillslope θ dynamics with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear (support vector machines-SVM) models were used to predict θ at 39 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with θ collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each depth and manual site, an optimal prediction model was then determined at this depth of this site. Results showed that θ at the 39 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errors model. The subsurface flow dynamics was an important factor that determined whether the relationship was linear or non-linear. Depth to bedrock, elevation, topographic wetness index, profile curvature, and θ temporal stability influenced the selection of prediction model since they were related to the subsurface soil water distribution and movement. Using this approach, hillslope θ spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates can be predicted. Missing information of hillslope θ dynamics can be acquired successfully.

  15. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  16. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  17. Negative feedback regulation is responsible for the non-linear modulation of photosynthetic activity in plants and cyanobacteria exposed to a dynamic light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Brezina, Vítezslav; Adamec, Frantisek; Stys, Dalibor; Oja, Vello; Laisk, Agu; Govindjee

    2003-10-17

    Photosynthetic organisms exposed to a dynamic light environment exhibit complex transients of photosynthetic activities that are strongly dependent on the temporal pattern of the incident irradiance. In a harmonically modulated light of intensity I approximately const.+sin(omegat), chlorophyll fluorescence response consists of a steady-state component, a component modulated with the angular frequency of the irradiance omega and several upper harmonic components (2omega, 3omega and higher). Our earlier reverse engineering analysis suggests that the non-linear response can be caused by a negative feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we present experimental evidence that the negative feedback regulation of the energetic coupling between phycobilisome and Photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 indeed results in the appearance of upper harmonic modes in the chlorophyll fluorescence emission. Dynamic changes in the coupling of the phycobilisome to PSII are not accompanied by corresponding antiparallel changes in the Photosystem I (PSI) excitation, suggesting a regulation limited to PSII. Strong upper harmonic modes were also found in the kinetics of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence, of the P700 redox state and of the CO(2) assimilation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) exposed to harmonically modulated light. They are ascribed to negative feedback regulation of the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle limiting the photosynthetic electron transport. We propose that the observed non-linear response of photosynthesis may also be relevant in a natural light environment that is modulated, e.g., by ocean waves, moving canopy or by varying cloud cover. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the non-linear photosynthetic response provides a new insight into dynamics of the regulatory processes.

  18. Assessing the performance of linear and non-linear soil carbon dynamics models using the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, A. M.; Kemanian, A.; Richard, T.

    2013-12-01

    The largest terrestrial carbon pool is soil, storing more carbon than present in above ground biomass (Jobbagy and Jackson, 2000). In this context, soil organic carbon has gained attention as a managed sink for atmospheric CO2 emissions. The variety of models that describe soil carbon cycling reflects the relentless effort to characterize the complex nature of soil and the carbon within it. Previous works have laid out the range of mathematical approaches to soil carbon cycling but few have compared model structure performance in diverse agricultural scenarios. As interest in increasing the temporal and spatial scale of models grows, assessing the performance of different model structures is essential to drawing reasonable conclusions from model outputs. This research will address this challenge using the Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA to optimize the functionality of carbon models in a multi-objective approach to parameter estimation. Model structure performance will be assessed through analysis of multi-objective trade-offs using experimental data from twenty long-term carbon experiments across the globe. Preliminary results show a successful test of this proof of concept using a non-linear soil carbon model structure. Soil carbon dynamics were based on the amount of carbon inputs to the soil and the degree of organic matter saturation of the soil. The degree of organic matter saturation of the soil was correlated with the soil clay content. Six parameters of the non-linear soil organic carbon model were successfully optimized to steady-state conditions using Borg-MOEA and datasets from five agricultural locations in the United States. Given that more than 50% of models rely on linear soil carbon decomposition dynamics, a linear model structure was also optimized and compared to the non-linear case. Results indicate linear dynamics had a significantly lower optimization performance. Results show promise in using the Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA to assess

  19. Poor glycemic control impacts linear and non-linear dynamics of heart rate in DM type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bassi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is well known that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM produces cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN, which may affect the cardiac autonomic modulation. However, it is unclear whether the lack of glycemic control in T2DM without CAN could impact negatively on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and cardiac autonomic modulation in individuals with T2DM without CAN. Descriptive, prospective and cross sectional study.METHODS: Forty-nine patients with T2DM (51±7 years were divided into two groups according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: G1≤7% and G2>7.0%. Resting heart rate (HR and RR interval (RRi were obtained and calculated by linear (Mean iRR; Mean HR; rMSSD; STD RR; LF; HF; LF/HF, TINN and RR Tri, and non-linear (SD1; SD2; DFα1; DFα2, Shannon entropy; ApEn; SampEn and CD methods of heart rate variability (HRV. Insulin, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and HbA1c were obtained by blood tests.RESULTS: G2 (HbA1c≤7% showed lower values for the mean of iRR; STD RR; RR Tri, TINN, SD2, CD and higher mean HR when compared with G1 (HbA1c > 7%. Additionally, HbA1c correlated negatively with mean RRi (r=0.28, p=0.044; STD RR (r=0.33, p=0.017; RR Tri (r=-0.35, p=0.013, SD2 (r=-0.39, p=0.004 and positively with mean HR (r=0.28, p=0.045. Finally, fasting glucose correlated negatively with STD RR (r=-0.36, p=0.010; RR Tri (r=-0.36, p=0.010; TINN (r=-0.33, p=0.019 and SD2 (r=-0.42, p=0.002.CONCLUSION: We concluded that poor glycemic control is related to cardiac autonomic modulation indices in individuals with T2DM even if they do not present cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  20. Development of a Probabilistic Technique for On-line Parameter and State Estimation in Non-linear Dynamic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunc Aldemir; Don W. Miller; Brian k. Hajek; Peng Wang

    2002-04-01

    The DSD (Dynamic System Doctor) is a system-independent, interactive software under development for on-line state/parameter estimation in dynamic systems (1), partially supported through a Nuclear Engineering Education (NEER) grant during 1998-2001. This paper summarizes the recent accomplishments in improving the user-friendliness and computational capability of DSD

  1. Non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures based on a biological kinetic model of aerobic enzymatic methane oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V; Shim, Natalia; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures during methane oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus sporium strain 5 (NCIMB 11126) and Methylocaldum gracile strain 14 L (NCIMB 11912) under copper-rich (8.9 µM Cu(2+)), copper-limited (0.3 µM Cu(2+)) or copper-regular (1.1 µM Cu(2+)) conditions has been described mathematically. The model was calibrated by experimental data of methane quantities and carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane measured previously in laboratory microcosms reported by Feisthauer et al. [ 1 ] M. gracile initially oxidizes methane by a particulate methane monooxygenase and assimilates formaldehyde via the ribulose monophosphate pathway, whereas M. sporium expresses a soluble methane monooxygenase under copper-limited conditions and uses the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. The model shows that during methane solubilization dominant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation occurs. An increase of biomass due to growth of methanotrophs causes an increase of particulate or soluble monooxygenase that, in turn, decreases soluble methane concentration intensifying methane solubilization. The specific maximum rate of methane oxidation υm was proved to be equal to 4.0 and 1.3 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. sporium under copper-rich and copper-limited conditions, respectively, and 0.5 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. gracile. The model shows that methane oxidation cannot be described by traditional first-order kinetics. The kinetic isotope fractionation ceases when methane concentrations decrease close to the threshold value. Applicability of the non-linear model was confirmed by dynamics of carbon isotope signature for carbon dioxide that was depleted and later enriched in (13)C. Contrasting to the common Rayleigh linear graph, the dynamic curves allow identifying inappropriate isotope data due to inaccurate substrate concentration analyses. The non-linear model pretty adequately described experimental

  2. The non-linear dynamics of vortices subjected to correlated and random pinning disorders in a quasi-2D superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leena K Sahoo; R C Budhani; D Kanjilal; G K Mehta

    2002-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of vortex matter subjected to random and correlated pinning disorders in layered superconductors remains a topic of considerable interest. The dynamical behavior of vortices in these systems shows a rich variety of effects due to many competing interactions. Here, we study the ac response of as-grown as well as heavy-ion-irradiated Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (Tl-2212) thin films by using a micro Hall-probe susceptometer. We find that the dynamics of vortices in the high-temperature, low-field regime of the - phase diagram investigated here depends on the nature of pinning defects. While the decay of screening currents () indicates a glassy behavior in both types of samples, the nature of the glassy phase is different in the two cases. Samples with columnar defects show distinct signature of a Bose glass in the measurement of () and the angular dependence of the irreversibility field (irr).

  3. The Wholistic Ethical Litmus of Leadership: A Practical Non-Linear Dynamics and Chaos Based Leadership Model

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Management is generally easy to define and measure. And, good managers tend to have many of the same characteristics and skill sets. Great leaders, on the other hand, have fewer shared characteristics. Some great leaders are great orators, for example, and yet many other great leaders are terrible public speakers. Great leaders tend to be very intuitive, but other characteristics consistent with great leadership are few indeed. So, the authors of this st...

  4. [Non-linear System Dynamics Simulation Modeling of Adolescent Obesity: Using Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Eun Suk; Yu, Jae Kook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for adolescent obesity in Korea that could be used for obesity policy analysis. On the basis of the casual loop diagram, a model was developed by converting to stock and flow diagram. The Vensim DSS 5.0 program was used in the model development. We simulated method of moments to the calibration of this model with data from The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2005 to 2013. We ran the scenario simulation. This model can be used to understand the current adolescent obesity rate, predict the future obesity rate, and be utilized as a tool for controlling the risk factors. The results of the model simulation match well with the data. It was identified that a proper model, able to predict obesity probability, was established. These results of stock and flow diagram modeling in adolescent obesity can be helpful in development of obesity by policy planners and other stakeholders to better anticipate the multiple effects of interventions in both the short and the long term. In the future we suggest the development of an expanded model based on this adolescent obesity model.

  5. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  6. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  7. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a multi-mesh gear train using multi-term harmonic balance method: period-one motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-shyyab, A.; Kahraman, A.

    2005-06-01

    A non-linear time-varying dynamic model of a typical multi-mesh gear train is proposed in this study. The physical system includes three rigid shafts coupled by two gear pairs. The lumped parameter dynamic model includes the gear backlash in the form of clearance-type displacement functions and parametric variation of gear mesh stiffness values dictated by the gear contact ratios. The system is reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom definite model by using the relative gear mesh displacements as the coordinates. Dimensionless equations of motion are solved for the steady-state period-1 response by using a multi-term Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) in conjunction with discrete Fourier Transforms and a Parametric Continuation scheme. The accuracy of the HBM solutions is demonstrated by comparing them to direct numerical integration solutions. Floquet theory is applied to determine the stability of the steady-state harmonic balance solutions. An example gear train is used to investigate the influence of key system parameters including alternating mesh stiffness amplitudes, gear mesh damping, static torque transmitted, and the gear mesh frequency ratio.

  8. Non-linear (loop) quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Dantas, Christine C; Jaffe, Matthew; Simpson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inhomogeneous quantum cosmology is modeled as a dynamical system of discrete patches, whose interacting many-body equations can be mapped to a non-linear minisuperspace equation by methods analogous to Bose-Einstein condensation. Complicated gravitational dynamics can therefore be described by more-manageable equations for finitely many degrees of freedom, for which powerful solution procedures are available, including effective equations. The specific form of non-linear and non-local equations suggests new questions for mathematical and computational investigations, and general properties of non-linear wave equations lead to several new options for physical effects and tests of the consistency of loop quantum gravity. In particular, our quantum cosmological methods show how sizeable quantum corrections in a low-curvature universe can arise from tiny local contributions adding up coherently in large regions.

  9. Non-Equilibrium Real-Time Dynamics of Quantum Fields Linear and Non-Linear Relaxation in Scalar and Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Salgado, J; Pisarski, Rob D.

    1998-01-01

    The real time evolution of field condensates is solved for small and large field amplitudes in scalar theories.For small amplitudes,the quantum equations of motion for the condensate can be linearized and solved by Laplace transform. The late time evolution turns to be determined by the singularities in the complex plane (one-particle poles, two- and multi- particle cuts, Landau cuts for non-zero initial temperature). In hot scalar electrodynamics, we solve the real time evolution of field condensates with soft length scales \\sim k^{-1}>(eT)^{-1}. Transverse gauge invariant condensates relax as 1/t^2 to amplitudes determined by the quasiparticle poles. We rederive the HTL action using the non-equilibrium field theory techniques.In the nonlinear regime (for large initial energy densities) we analyze the dynamics of dissipation and relaxation in scalar theory after linear unstabilities are shut-off by the quantum back-reaction. A new time scale emerges that separates the linear from the non-linear regimes. This...

  10. 双曲壳的非线性动力分析%Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Doubly-Curved Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文蛟; P.A.弗里兹

    1986-01-01

    本文用实时动力松弛法分析了具有材料和几何非线性的双曲壳的动力响应.采用Mises屈服准则和结合应变强化理论的Prandtl-Reuss流动规律导得适宜的弹塑性本构关系.在介绍求解运动方程方法时特别论述了估算时间步长大小问题.对不同网格尺寸和沿厚度弹塑性层数对结果精度的影响也作了讨论.最后,以受突加均匀外压的浅球壳为例进行了分析,其结果与文献中解相当吻合.%The application of real-time dynamic relaxation to the dynamic analysis of doubly-curved shells including material and geometric non-linearities is considered. Using the von Mises yield criterion and the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule in coniuction with the theory of strain-hardening, a suitable elasto-plastic constitutive relation is derived. A method for solution of the equations of motion is assessed with special emphsis on evaluation of the time-step size. The effects of various mesh sizes and the number of through-thickness elastoplastic layers on the accuracy of the results are discussed.Results for a shallow spherical cap subiected to a sudden uniform external pressure are presented and found to be in substantial agreement with those of previous investigations.

  11. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  12. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rust, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  13. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations betwee...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models.......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under...

  14. A wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) dynamic neural network model for real-time flood forecasting using satellite-based rainfall products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Beria, Harsh; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2016-08-01

    Although flood forecasting and warning system is a very important non-structural measure in flood-prone river basins, poor raingauge network as well as unavailability of rainfall data in real-time could hinder its accuracy at different lead times. Conversely, since the real-time satellite-based rainfall products are now becoming available for the data-scarce regions, their integration with the data-driven models could be effectively used for real-time flood forecasting. To address these issues in operational streamflow forecasting, a new data-driven model, namely, the wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) is proposed and evaluated in comparison with four other data-driven models, viz., the linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), static artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet-based ANN (WANN), and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) models. First, the quality of input rainfall products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), viz., TRMM and TRMM-real-time (RT) rainfall products is assessed through statistical evaluation. The results reveal that the satellite rainfall products moderately correlate with the observed rainfall, with the gauge-adjusted TRMM product outperforming the real-time TRMM-RT product. The TRMM rainfall product better captures the ground observations up to 95 percentile range (30.11 mm/day), although the hit rate decreases for high rainfall intensity. The effect of antecedent rainfall (AR) and climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) temperature product on the catchment response is tested in all the developed models. The results reveal that, during real-time flow simulation, the satellite-based rainfall products generally perform worse than the gauge-based rainfall. Moreover, as compared to the existing models, the flow forecasting by the WNARX model is way better than the other four models studied herein with the

  15. Dynamical inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gladwell, Graham ML

    2011-01-01

    The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.

  16. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  17. Non-linear canonical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan

    1983-01-01

    Non-linear canonical correlation analysis is a method for canonical correlation analysis with optimal scaling features. The method fits many kinds of discrete data. The different parameters are solved for in an alternating least squares way and the corresponding program is called CANALS. An

  18. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa

    2012-01-01

    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discountin...

  19. Non-linear dendrites can tune neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Daniel Cazé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.

  20. Magneto-Hydro Dynamic Flow and Heat Transfer of Nonnewtonian Power-Law Fluid Over a Non-Linear Stretching Surface with Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of an electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid flowing over a non-linear stretching surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field taking into consideration viscous dissipation effects is investigated. The stretching velocity, the temperature and the transverse magnetic field are assumed to vary in a power-law with the distance from the origin. The flow is induced due to an infinite elastic sheet which is stretched in its own plane. The governing equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformations. By using quasi-linearization techniques first linearize the non linear momentum equation is linearized and then the coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme. The numerical solution is found to be dependent on several governing parameters, including the magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Eckert number, velocity exponent parameter, temperature exponent parameter, modified Prandtl number and heat source/sink parameter. A systematic study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these parameters on the fluid velocity and the temperature distribution in the boundary layer. The results for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are tabulated and discussed.

  1. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    in this domain. This is set within the context of a generic industrial process and the requirements of UK and US aeroelastic qualification. A range of test cases, from simple small DOF cases to full aircraft, have been used to evaluate and validate the non-linear methods developed and to make comparison with the linear methods in everyday use. These have focused mainly on aerodynamic non-linearity, although some results for structural non-linearity are also presented. The challenges associated with time domain (coupled computational fluid dynamics-computational structural model (CFD-CSM)) methods have been addressed through the development of grid movement, fluid-structure coupling, and control surface movement technologies. Conclusions regarding the accuracy and computational cost of these are presented. The computational cost of time-domain methods, despite substantial improvements in efficiency, remains high. However, significant advances have been made in reduced order methods, that allow non-linear behaviour to be modelled, but at a cost comparable with that of the regular linear methods. Of particular note is a method based on Hopf bifurcation that has reached an appropriate maturity for deployment on real aircraft configurations, though only limited results are presented herein. Results are also presented for dynamically linearised CFD approaches that hold out the possibility of non-linear results at a fraction of the cost of time coupled CFD-CSM methods. Local linearisation approaches (higher order harmonic balance and continuation method) are also presented; these have the advantage that no prior assumption of the nature of the aeroelastic instability is required, but currently these methods are limited to low DOF problems and it is thought that these will not reach a level of maturity appropriate to real aircraft problems for some years to come. Nevertheless, guidance on the most likely approaches has been derived and this forms the basis for ongoing

  2. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  3. Dynamically coupling the non-linear Stokes equations with the Shallow Ice Approximation in glaciology: Description and first applications of the ISCAL method

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlkrona, Josefin; Kirchner, Nina; Zwinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a new method, called the Ice Sheet Coupled Approximation Levels (ISCAL) method, for simulation of ice sheet flow in large domains under long time-intervals. The method couples the exact, full Stokes (FS) equations with the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA). The part of the domain where SIA is applied is determined automatically and dynamically based on estimates of the modeling error. For a three dimensional model problem where the number of degrees of freedom is comparable to a real world application, ISCAL performs almost an order of magnitude faster with a low reduction in accuracy compared to a monolithic FS. Furthermore, ISCAL is shown to be able to detect rapid dynamic changes in the flow. Three different error estimations are applied and compared. Finally, ISCAL is applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet, proving ISCAL to be a potential valuable tool for the ice sheet modeling community.

  4. Dynamically coupling the non-linear Stokes equations with the shallow ice approximation in glaciology: Description and first applications of the ISCAL method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlkrona, Josefin; Lötstedt, Per; Kirchner, Nina; Zwinger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We propose and implement a new method, called the Ice Sheet Coupled Approximation Levels (ISCAL) method, for simulation of ice sheet flow in large domains during long time-intervals. The method couples the full Stokes (FS) equations with the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA). The part of the domain where SIA is applied is determined automatically and dynamically based on estimates of the modeling error. For a three dimensional model problem, ISCAL computes the solution substantially faster with a low reduction in accuracy compared to a monolithic FS. Furthermore, ISCAL is shown to be able to detect rapid dynamic changes in the flow. Three different error estimations are applied and compared. Finally, ISCAL is applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet on a quasi-uniform grid, proving ISCAL to be a potential valuable tool for the ice sheet modeling community.

  5. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2013-05-01

    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  6. Modelling Loudspeaker Non-Linearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates different techniques for modelling the non-linear parameters of the electrodynamic loudspeaker. The methods are tested not only for their accuracy within the range of original data, but also for the ability to work reasonable outside that range, and it is demonstrated...... that polynomial expansions are rather poor at this, whereas an inverse polynomial expansion or localized fitting functions such as the gaussian are better suited for modelling the Bl-factor and compliance. For the inductance the sigmoid function is shown to give very good results. Finally the time varying...

  7. On non-linear dynamics of coupled 1+1DOF versus 1+1/2DOF Electro-Mechanical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The electro-mechanical systems (EMS) are used from nano-/micro-scale (NEMS/MEMS) up to macro-scale applications. From mathematical view point, they are modelled with the second order differential equation (or a set of equations) for mechanical system, which is nonlinearly coupled with the second...... or the first order differential equation (or a set of equations) for electrical system, depending on properties of the electrical circuit. For the sake of brevity, we assume a 1DOF mechanical system, coupled to 1 or 1/2DOF electrical system (depending whether the capacitance is, or is not considered......). In the paper, authors perform a parametric study to identify operation regimes, where the capacitance term contributes to the non-linear behaviour of the coupled system. To accomplish this task, the classical method of multiple scales is used. The parametric study allows us to assess for which applications...

  8. 输送机非线性动力学的研究及其对动态性能的影响%Study on conveyor non-linear dynamics and its effect on dynamic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光布

    2004-01-01

    A conveyor linear system assumption is based on an approximate description of belt mechanics behavior and constant elastic module. It produces analysis errors and improper dynamics simulation in large conveyors. The belt non-linear characteristics based on sag are described and the belt equivalent elastic module expression is deduced. The relationship between belt-equivalent elastic module and elastic module is studied, and their ratio varies from 0. 1 to 1. 0. The non-linear motion equation with a lumped element model is put forward. Its increment equation and numerical solution are built. A dynamics simulation on a conveyor is carried out, mainly to calculate and compare belt speed, acceleration, tension, displacement of gravity take-up and wave period with linear and non-linear models. It shows that the simulation errors between two models vary from 6% to 50%.%输送机线性系统的假设是在胶带力学特性和弹性模量不变的情况下近似提出的. 这种假设会使大型输送机产生理论误差和不正确的动力学仿真结果. 本文分析了基于胶带悬垂度的非线性特性, 推导了等效弹性模量的表达式, 研究了胶带等效弹性模量和弹性模量之间的关系, 并发现两者的比值在0. 1~1. 0之间变化. 提出了输送机有限单元模型的非线性运动方程及其增量方程和数值解法. 通过对一输送机动态特性的仿真分析, 发现用线性和非线性2种模型, 它们动态参数(如带速, 胶带加速度, 张力以及重锤位移和张力波速)的计算误差介于6%~50% 之间.

  9. Non Linear Behaviour in Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Paolo; Manfredi, Vicenzo Rosario

    2003-01-01

    This article is mainly based on R. E. Kahn's contribution to the book Non Linear Dynamics in Human Behavior. As stressed by Bronowski, both in art and in science, a person becomes creative by finding "a new unity" that is a link between things which were not thought alike before. Indeed the creative mind is a mind that looks for unexpected likeness finding a more profound unity, a pattern behind chaotic phenomena. In the context of scientific discovery, it can also be argued that creativi...

  10. Análisis dinámico no lineal para pilotes de cimentación fundidos " in situ " // Non-linear dynamical analysis for foundation piles molten " in situ "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraga Guerra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existen diversas técnicas para controlar el estado técnico de los pilotes de cimentación, una de las másutilizadas es mediante el estudio de sus vibraciones mecánicas, ya que este método resulta muy eficaz pues permite obteneróptimos resultados sin detener el proceso productivo.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la no linealidad en el sistema pilote-terreno, para lo cual se hace necesarioobtener las soluciones de modelos físico-matemáticos expresados a través de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias no linealesnecesarias a tales efectos. Por otra parte, debido a la presencia de un gran número de parámetros que intervienen en el modelose implementa la técnica de elementos finitos, considerando un modelo lineal, para determinar las características estáticas ydinámicas del sistema para las condiciones planteadas en el problema._________________________________________________________________AbstractThere are several techniques nowadays to control the technical state of the foundation piles. One of the most used techniques isthe study of mechanical vibrations of the piles since this method turns out very efficient because it allows obtaining optimumresults without stopping the productive process.Throughout this work, the influence of non-linearity in the ground-pile system is studied, such influence appears because of thedifferent characteristics and great variety of the soils, then, for this study, it is made necessary to obtain the solutions ofmathematics and physical models expressed through non-lineal ordinary-differential equations needed as well. On the otherhand, due to the presence of a great number of parameters acting in the model, the technique of finite element is implemented,taking into account a lineal model to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the system according for the conditionsstated in the mathematical problem.

  11. Investigation of Non-Linear Dynamics of the Rock Massive,Using Seismological Catalogue data and Induction Electromagnetic Monitoring Data in a Rock Burst Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Y.; Klimko, V. K.; Shipeev, O. V.

    2012-04-01

    real time for estimation of the disaster degree changing in mine massive. The work was supported by the grant RFBR 10-05-00013. 1. Panin,V.E. et all. 1995. Physical mesomechanics and computer construction of materials . Novosibirsk.: Nauka, SIFR. V.1 pp. 350. 2. Hachay, O.A. 2006. "The problem of the research of redistribution of stress and phase states of massive between high man-made influences," Mining information and analytic bulletin, 5:109-115. 3. Hachay, O.A. and Khachay, O.Yu. 2008. "Theoretical approaches for system of geophysical state control validation of geological medium by man-made influence," Mining information and analytic bulletin 1:161-169. 4. Hachay, O.A., and Khachay, O.Yu. 2009. "Results of electromagnetic and seismic monitoring of the state of rock massive by use the approach of the open dynamical systems,"presented at the EGU2009 - EGU General Assembly 2009, session: Thermo- hydro- mechanical coupling in stressed rock, 19 April 19 - 24 April 2009. 5. Hachay, O.A. "Synergetic events in geological medium and nonlinear features of wave propagation," presented at the EGU2009 - EGU General Assembly 2009, session: Solid Earth geocomplexity: surface processes, morphology and natural resources over wide ranges of scale, 19 April 19 - 24 April 2009.

  12. Non-Linearly Interacting Ghost Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the form of interaction term into the non-linear regime in the ghost dark energy model. A general form of non-linear interaction term is presented and cosmic dynamic equations are obtained. Next, the model is detailed for two special choice of the non-linear interaction term. According to this the universe transits at suitable time ($z\\sim 0.8$) from deceleration to acceleration phase which alleviate the coincidence problem. Squared sound speed analysis revealed that for one class of non-linear interaction term $v_s^2$ can gets positive. This point is an impact of the non-linear interaction term and we never find such behavior in non interacting and linearly interacting ghost dark energy models. Also statefinder parameters are introduced for this model and we found that for one class the model meets the $\\Lambda CDM$ while in the second choice although the model approaches the $\\Lambda CDM$ but never touch that.

  13. NICMOS non-linearity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Roelof

    2005-07-01

    This program incorporates a number of tests to analyse the count rate dependent non-linearity seen in NICMOS spectro-photometric observations. In visit 1 we will observe a few fields with stars of a range in luminosity in NGC1850 with NICMOS in NIC1 in F090M, F110W and F160W and NIC2 F110W, F160W, and F180W. We will repeat the observations with flatfield lamp on, creating artificially high count-rates, allowing tests of NICMOS linearity as function of count rate. To access the effect of charge trapping and persistence, we first take darks {so there is not too much charge already trapped}, than take exposures with the lamp off, exposures with the lamp on, and repeat at the end with lamp off. Finally, we continue with taking darks during occultation. In visit 2 we will observe spectro-photometric standard P041C using the G096 and G141 grisms in NIC3, and repeat the lamp off/on/off test to artificially create a high background. In visits 3&4 we repeat photometry measurements of faint standard stars SNAP-2 and WD1657+343, on which the NICMOS non-linearity was originally discovered using grism observations. These measurements are repeated, because previous photometry was obtained with too short exposure times, hence substantially affected by charge trapping non-linearity. Measurements will be made with NIC1: Visit 5 forms the persistence test of the program. The bright star GL-390 {used in a previous persistence test} will iluminate the 3 NICMOS detectors in turn for a fixed time, saturating the center many times, after which a series of darks will be taken to measure the persistence {i.e. trapped electrons and the decay time of the traps}. To determine the wavelength dependence of the trap chance, exposures of the bright star in different filters will be taken, as well as one in the G096 grism with NIC3. Most exposures will be 128s long, but two exposures in the 3rd orbit will be 3x longer, to seperate the effects of count rate versus total counts of the trap

  14. On non-linear dynamics and an optimal control synthesis of the action potential of membranes (ideal and non-ideal cases) of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarette, Fabio Roberto [Department of Mechanical Design, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); State University of Sao Paulo at Rio Claro, C.P. 178, 13500-230 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Balthazar, Jose Manoel [Department of Mechanical Design, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); State University of Sao Paulo at Rio Claro, C.P. 178, 13500-230 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br; Rafikov, Marat [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul 98700-000, C.P. 560, Ijui, RS (Brazil); Hermini, Helder Anibal [Department of Mechanical Design, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-02-28

    In this paper, we have studied the plasmatic membrane behavior using an electric circuit developed by Hodgkin and Huxley in 1952 and have dealt with the variation of the amount of time related to the potassium and sodium conductances in the squid axon. They developed differential equations for the propagation of electric signals; the dynamics of the Hodgkin-Huxley model have been extensively studied both from the view point of its their biological implications and as a test bed for numerical methods, which can be applied to more complex models. Recently, an irregular chaotic movement of the action potential of the membrane was observed for a number of techniques of control with the objective to stabilize the variation of this potential. This paper analyzes the non-linear dynamics of the Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model, and we present some modifications in the governing equations of the system in order to make it a non-ideal one (taking into account that the energy source has a limited power supply). We also developed an optimal linear control design for the action potential of membranes. Here, we discuss the conditions that allow the use of control linear feedback for this kind of non-linear system.

  15. NON-LINEAR FORCED VIBRATION OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Li-Qun

    2006-01-01

    The non-linear forced vibration of axially moving viscoelastic beams excited by the vibration of the supporting foundation is investigated. A non-linear partial-differential equation governing the transverse motion is derived from the dynamical, constitutive equations and geometrical relations. By referring to the quasi-static stretch assumption, the partial-differential non-linearity is reduced to an integro-partial-differential one. The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations with the two types of non-linearity, respectively. The amplitude of near- and exact-resonant steady state is analyzed by use of the solvability condition of eliminating secular terms. Numerical results are presented to show the contributions of foundation vibration amplitude, viscoelastic damping, and nonlinearity to the response amplitude for the first and the second mode.

  16. Algorithms for non-linear M-estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Edlund, O; Ekblom, H

    1997-01-01

    a sequence of estimation problems for linearized models is solved. In the testing we apply four estimators to ten non-linear data fitting problems. The test problems are also solved by the Generalized Levenberg-Marquardt method and standard optimization BFGS method. It turns out that the new method...

  17. New holographic dark energy model with non-linear interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveros, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the cosmological evolution of a holographic dark energy model with a non-linear interaction between the dark energy and dark matter components in a FRW type flat universe is analysed. In this context, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the equation state $w_{\\Lambda}$ are obtained. We found that, as the square of the speed of sound remains positive, the model is stable under perturbations since early times; it also shows that the evolution of the matter and dark energy densities are of the same order for a long period of time, avoiding the so--called coincidence problem. We have also made the correspondence of the model with the dark energy densities and pressures for the quintessence and tachyon fields. From this correspondence we have reconstructed the potential of scalar fields and their dynamics.

  18. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  19. Optimal non-linear health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A

    1997-06-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.

  20. Simulation of non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Fox, Paul D.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach for simulating non-linear ultrasound imaging using Field II has been implemented using the operator splitting approach, where diffraction, attenuation, and non-linear propagation can be handled individually. The method uses the Earnshaw/Poisson solution to Burgcrs' equation for the non......-linear ultrasound imaging in 3D using filters or pulse inversion for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, pulse emission and scattering phantom. This is done by first simulating the non-linear emitted field and assuming that the scattered field is weak and linear. The received signal is then the spatial...

  1. Theoretical studies on nuclear spin selective quantum dynamics of non-linear molecules; Theoretische Untersuchung zur Quantendynamik der Kernspinisomere nicht-linearer Molekuele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohmann, Thomas

    2012-05-31

    In this thesis the wave packet dynamics of nuclear spin isomers of polyatomic molecules after interaction with static and time-dependent magnetic fields and moderate intense nonresonant laser pulses is investigated. In particular, the process of inducing (internal) molecular rotation as well as alignment of molecules by manipulating their rotational or rotational-torsional degrees of freedom is studied. In the first part of the thesis all theoretical concepts for identifying nuclear spin isomers and for describing their quantum dynamics will be discussed. Especially the symmetrization postulate and themolecular symmetry group will be introduced and illustrated for some examples of molecules. These concepts will be extended to the case of identifying nuclear spin isomers in the presence of an external field. In the second part it is shown for nitromethane that magnetic fields are able to induce unidirectional rotations in opposite directions for different nuclear spin isomers of molecules containing methyl groups if the dipolar interaction is included. Additionally, it is demonstrated that different nuclear spin isomers of a chemical compound may show different alignment after the interaction with a moderate intense laser pulse. As shown for the rigid symmetric top propadien and the rigid asymmetric tops ethene and analogues, distinct pairs of nuclear spin isomers show at certain points in time a complementary behavior: while one isomer is showing alignment the partner isomer is showing anti-alignment. Moreover, it is illustrated that not every nuclear spin isomer can be aligned equally efficient. The alignment of non-rigid molecules is considered as well. As an example for a molecule with feasible torsion in the electronic ground state, the alignment of diboron tetrafluoride is investigated. It becomes apparent that not only rotational but also the torsional dynamics of the molecules is nuclear spin selective; different nuclear spin isomers have at distinct points

  2. Processing Approach of Non-linear Adjustment Models in the Space of Non-linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaokui; ZHU Qing; SONG Chengfang

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the mathematic features of non-linear models and discusses the processing way of non-linear factors which contributes to the non-linearity of a nonlinear model. On the basis of the error definition, this paper puts forward a new adjustment criterion, SGPE.Last, this paper investigates the solution of a non-linear regression model in the non-linear model space and makes the comparison between the estimated values in non-linear model space and those in linear model space.

  3. Risks of non-linear climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ham, J.; Van Beers, R.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Koennen, G.P.; Oerlemans, J.; Roemer, M.G.M. [TNO-SCMO, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Climate forcing as a result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases has been primarily addressed as a problem of a possibly warmer climate. So far, such change has been obscured in observations, possibly as a result of natural climate variability and masking by aerosols. Consequently, projections of the effect of climate forcing have to be based on modelling, more specifically by applying Global Circulation Models GCMs. These GCMs do not cover all possible feedbacks; neither do they address all specific possible effects of climate forcing. The investigation reviews possible non-linear climate change which does not fall within the coverage of present GCMs. The review includes the potential relevance of changes in biogeochemical cycles, aerosol and cloud feedback, albedo instability, ice-flow instability, changes in the thermohaline circulation and changes resulting from stratospheric cooling. It is noted that these changes may have different time horizons. Three from the investigated issues provide indications for a possible non-linear change. On the decadal scale stratospheric cooling, which is the result of the enhanced greenhouse effect, in combination with a depleted ozone layer, could provide a positive feedback to further ozone depletion, in particular in the Arctic. Decreasing albedo on the Greenland ice sheet may enhance the runoff from this ice sheet significantly in case of warming on a timescale of a few centuries. Changes in ocean circulation in the North Atlantic could seasonally more than compensate a global warming of 3C in North-West Europe on a timescale of centuries to a millennium. 263 refs.

  4. Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-06-23

    We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.

  5. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  6. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  7. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  8. Hybrid fusion of linear, non-linear and spectral models for the dynamic modeling of sEMG and skeletal muscle force: an application to upper extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Schoen, Marco P; Subbaram Naidu, D; Urfer, Alex; Chiu, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Estimating skeletal muscle (finger) forces using surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals poses many challenges. In general, the sEMG measurements are based on single sensor data. In this paper, two novel hybrid fusion techniques for estimating the skeletal muscle force from the sEMG array sensors are proposed. The sEMG signals are pre-processed using five different filters: Butterworth, Chebychev Type II, Exponential, Half-Gaussian and Wavelet transforms. Dynamic models are extracted from the acquired data using Nonlinear Wiener Hammerstein (NLWH) models and Spectral Analysis Frequency Dependent Resolution (SPAFDR) models based system identification techniques. A detailed comparison is provided for the proposed filters and models using 18 healthy subjects. Wavelet transforms give higher mean correlation of 72.6 ± 1.7 (mean ± SD) and 70.4 ± 1.5 (mean ± SD) for NLWH and SPAFDR models, respectively, when compared to the other filters used in this work. Experimental verification of the fusion based hybrid models with wavelet transform shows a 96% mean correlation and 3.9% mean relative error with a standard deviation of ± 1.3 and ± 0.9 respectively between the overall hybrid fusion algorithm estimated and the actual force for 18 test subjects' k-fold cross validation data.

  9. 非线性结构动力学系统的首次穿越%An important sampling procedure for estimating failure probabilities of non-linear dynamic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽梅; 徐伟; 李战国

    2013-01-01

    The failure probability is one of the most important reliability measures in structural reliability assessment of dynamical systems. Here, a procedure for estimating failure probabilities of non-linear systems based on the important sampling technique was presented. Firstly ,by using Rice formula,the equivalent linear version of the non-linear systems was derived. Using the equivalent linear equation, the design point of the equivalent linear systems was used to construct control function. Secondly, an important sampling technique was used to estimate the first excursion probabilities for the non-linear system. Finally, a Duffing oscillator was taken for example. The simulation results showed that the proposed method is correct and effective; the number of samples and the computational time are reduced significantly compared with those of direct Monte Carlo simulations.%在结构动力学系统的可靠性分析中,动力学系统的首次穿越失效一直是研究重点问题之一.基于重要抽样法基础上研究了非线性结构动力学系统的首次穿越.首先根据Rice公式,得到与非线性系统方程具有相同平均上穿率的等效线性化系统方程,利用此等效方程得到设计点的解析表达式,并用此解析式来构造控制函数,最后将此控制函数运用到非线性系统中,利用重要抽样法估计非线性系统的首穿失效概率.以Duffing振子为例,模拟结果显示了方法的正确性与有效性,与原始蒙特卡罗模拟方法相比较,样本数量、计算所需时间都有明显减小.

  10. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  11. Analyses of non-linear systems and their application to biology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S

    1994-01-01

    In this review article, Wiener's analyses of non-linear systems and other topics on non-linear noise and non-stationary signals are introduced. Firstly, application and limitation of linear aspects on a biological system and a background of introduction of the Wiener's theory to non-linear analysis are briefly mentioned. The practical applications, however, were not so successful for several reasons. We shall see how these problems are solved under collaboration between biologists and engineers who have a knowledge of the subject and utilizing computational facility. Several aspects of the methodology involving non-linear systems, non-linear noise and non-stationary signals are also reviewed.

  12. Non-Linear Langmuir Wave Modulation in Collisionless Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A non-linear Schrodinger equation for Langmuir waves is presented. The equation is derived by using a fluid model for the electrons, while both a fluid and a Vlasov formulation are considered for the ion dynamics. The two formulations lead to significant differences in the final results, especially...

  13. Foundations of the non-linear mechanics of continua

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, L I

    1966-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Foundations of the Non-Linear Mechanics of Continua deals with the theoretical apparatus, principal concepts, and principles used in the construction of models of material bodies that fill space continuously. This book consists of three chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to the theory of tensors and kinematic applications, focusing on the little-known theory of non-linear tensor functions. The laws of dynamics and thermodynamics are covered in Chapter 3.This volume is suitable

  14. Model for flow of Casson nanofluid past a non-linearly stretching sheet considering magnetic field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-linearly stretching sheet. Non-linear temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter.

  15. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    phenomena of highly complex origin, by their nature, implies using problem oriented methods, which design breaks the limits of classical statistical or econometric applications. The unambiguously designed forecast/prediction algorithms of the "yes or no" variety, analyze the observable quantitative integrals and indicators available to a given date, then provides unambiguous answer to the question whether a critical transition should be expected or not in the next time interval. Since the predictability of an originating non-linear dynamical system is limited in principle, the probabilistic component of forecast/prediction algorithms is represented by the empirical probabilities of alarms, on one side, and failures-to-predict, on the other, estimated on control sets achieved in the retro- and prospective experiments. Predicting in advance is the only decisive test of forecast/predictions and the relevant on-going experiments are conducted in the case seismic extremes, recessions, and increases of unemployment rate. The results achieved in real-time testing keep being encouraging and confirm predictability of the extremes.

  16. Dinâmica não-linear e exercício físico: conceitos e aplicações Non-linear dynamics and physical exercise: concepts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pakenas

    2007-10-01

    , biochemists, psychologists and even professionals involved with physical exercise have been recently increasing their interests for the non-linear dynamics, a scientific theory developed mainly by mathematicians, which is generically known as the Complexity Theory. Although few investigations on Physical Education and Sports make use of this paradigm to solve their problems, a growing interest for this very approach has been noticed, mainly concerning the effects of physical exercise on changes in the variability and complexity of physiological temporal series. Usually, such changes appear as the decrease in its temporal behavior, denoting in decrease in the body complexity or in the components specifically involved in its regulation. According to the Complexity Theory, since non-linear interactions existing in biological systems are emphasized, it is observed that not only the increase (overcompensation of the body components with the practice of physical exercises but also those which cause atrophy (decompensation in parallel, once they can compromise the functionality of these systems. Thus, contrary to the emphasis that is given in the physical training to the monotonous repetition of intense physical activity and with emphasis on positive specific effects, that invariably promote the simplification of the body, larger qualitative and quantitative variation is recommended in the exercise practice. The objective is to preserve its natural complexity or neutralize its rapid decrease with aging. The present review has the objective, besides describing the possible complexity loss with physical training, to discuss some concepts of the Complexity Theory in an introductory way, with particular emphasis on issues involving health and physical training.

  17. Change-Of-Bases Abstractions for Non-Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    We present abstraction techniques that transform a given non-linear dynamical system into a linear system or an algebraic system described by polynomials of bounded degree, such that, invariant properties of the resulting abstraction can be used to infer invariants for the original system. The abstraction techniques rely on a change-of-basis transformation that associates each state variable of the abstract system with a function involving the state variables of the original system. We present conditions under which a given change of basis transformation for a non-linear system can define an abstraction. Furthermore, the techniques developed here apply to continuous systems defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), discrete systems defined by transition systems and hybrid systems that combine continuous as well as discrete subsystems. The techniques presented here allow us to discover, given a non-linear system, if a change of bases transformation involving degree-bounded polynomials yielding an alge...

  18. Non-linear dynamics in photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, V.; Lévy, G.; Lavabre, D.; Laplante, J. P.; Micheau, J. C.

    1992-09-01

    The rate law of an elementary photochemical reaction: A → B ( hv), contains 4 independent factors: the quantum yield, the photon flux, the concentration of the photosensitive substrate and the photokinetic factor. This type of reaction will always slow down. However, by increasing one of these 4 factors artificially, the reaction can be made to speed up. Using kinetic models comprising one or more photochemical reactions, we show that appropriate coupling between two or more elementary processes gives rise to a cooperative effect. This effect increases one or more of these 4 factors, and makes the coupled photochemical model bistable in a CSTR. The values of the parameters for which one observes bistability are experimentally realistic. One of these models provides a simplified simulation of the stages underlying the bistable photochemical behavior of the TPID/CHCl 3, system.

  19. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  20. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  1. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle.

  2. The Dynamic Frequency Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Audrey; Linhares, Andréa,; Artigues, Christian; Feillet, Dominique; Michelon, Philippe; Vasquez, Michel

    2008-01-01

    21 pages; International audience; In this paper, we consider a frequency assignment problem occurring in a military context. The main originality of the problem pertains to its dynamic dimension: new communications requiring frequency assignments need to be established throughout a deployment. The problem decomposes in three phases: assignment of an initial kernel of communications, dynamic assignment of new communication links and reparation when no assignment is possible. Different solution...

  3. Non-linear modal analysis of structural components subjected to unilateral constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, M.; Karrech, A.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the non-linear dynamics in structural components under unilateral contact constraints. Here, the unilateral term characterises the constitutive law of the restoring force in the constraints as they only sustain elastic reactions in one direction, either compressive or tensile. Thus, the non-differentiability of the contact law at the discontinuity point is the only source of non-linearity. In our approach, the discrete lattice method (DLM) is used to treat the continuous system as a piecewise linear model. Thus, the trajectory of each node in the discrete model would be a sequence of smooth solutions with the switching times between them. The application of the one-step integration scheme allows us to detect the occurrence of contact (i.e. the instants that the lattice nodes cross the discontinuity boundary) and consequently update the active constraints. We also consider embedding the bisection algorithm into the time integration procedure to localise the instants at which the nodes cross the boundary and minimise the accumulative error. Subsequently, the resulting unconditionally stable integration scheme is utilised as the modelling tool in combination with the shooting technique to perform a novel non-smooth modal analysis. In analogy with the smooth non-linear systems, the evolution of non-smooth periodic motions is presented in the frequency-stiffness plots. We apply our method to obtain non-linear normal modes (NNMs) for a number of representative problems, including a bar-obstacle system, a beam-substrate system and a granular chain with tensionless interactions. These numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the solution procedure to trace the family of energy-independent non-linear modes across the range of contact stiffnesses. Moreover, the stability analysis of the modes on the plot backbone reveal that they may become unstable due to the interaction with the higher modes or bifurcation of

  4. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  5. Non-Linear Relativity in Position Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kimberly, D; Medeiros-Neto, J F; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, João; Medeiros, João

    2003-01-01

    We propose two methods for obtaining the dual of non-linear relativity as previously formulated in momentum space. In the first we allow for the (dual) position space to acquire a non-linear representation of the Lorentz group independently of the chosen representation in momentum space. This requires a non-linear definition for the invariant contraction between momentum and position spaces. The second approach, instead, respects the linearity of the invariant contraction. This fully fixes the dual of momentum space and dictates a set of energy-dependent space-time Lorentz transformations. We discuss a variety of physical implications that would distinguish these two strategies. We also show how they point to two rather distinct formulations of theories of gravity with an invariant energy and/or length scale.

  6. Efficient non-linear model reduction via a least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection and compressive tensor approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-10-28

    A Petrov-Galerkin projection method is proposed for reducing the dimension of a discrete non-linear static or dynamic computational model in view of enabling its processing in real time. The right reduced-order basis is chosen to be invariant and is constructed using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. The left reduced-order basis is selected to minimize the two-norm of the residual arising at each Newton iteration. Thus, this basis is iteration-dependent, enables capturing of non-linearities, and leads to the globally convergent Gauss-Newton method. To avoid the significant computational cost of assembling the reduced-order operators, the residual and action of the Jacobian on the right reduced-order basis are each approximated by the product of an invariant, large-scale matrix, and an iteration-dependent, smaller one. The invariant matrix is computed using a data compression procedure that meets proposed consistency requirements. The iteration-dependent matrix is computed to enable the least-squares reconstruction of some entries of the approximated quantities. The results obtained for the solution of a turbulent flow problem and several non-linear structural dynamics problems highlight the merit of the proposed consistency requirements. They also demonstrate the potential of this method to significantly reduce the computational cost associated with high-dimensional non-linear models while retaining their accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Inverse problem of HIV cell dynamics using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2017-01-01

    In order to describe the cell dynamics of T-cells in a patient infected with HIV, we use a flavour of Perelson's model. This is a non-linear system of Ordinary Differential Equations that describes the evolution of healthy, latently infected, infected T-cell concentrations and the free viral cells. Different parameters in the equations give different dynamics. Considering the concentration of these types of cells is known for a particular patient, the inverse problem consists in estimating the parameters in the model. We solve this inverse problem using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that minimizes the error between the solutions of the model and the data from the patient. These errors depend on the parameters of the GA, like mutation rate and population, although a detailed analysis of this dependence will be described elsewhere.

  8. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  9. Non-Linear Aeroelastic Stability of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Li, Jie;

    2013-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in magnitude without a proportional increase in stiffness, the risk of dynamic instability is believed to increase. Wind turbines are time dependent systems due to the coupling between degrees of freedom defined in the fixed and moving frames of reference, which may...... trigger off internal resonances. Further, the rotational speed of the rotor is not constant due to the stochastic turbulence, which may also influence the stability. In this paper, a robust measure of the dynamic stability of wind turbines is suggested, which takes the collective blade pitch control...... and non-linear aero-elasticity into consideration. The stability of the wind turbine is determined by the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the system, which is operated directly on the non-linear state vector differential equations. Numerical examples show that this approach is promising for stability...

  10. Non-linear dark matter collapse under diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano E S

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is one of the physical processes allowed for describing the large scale dark matter dynamics. At the same time, it can be seen as a possible mechanism behind the interacting cosmologies. We study the non-linear spherical "top-hat" collapse of dark matter which undergoes velocity diffusion into a solvent dark energy field. We show constraints on the maximum magnitude allowed for the dark matter diffusion. Our results reinforce previous analysis concerning the linear perturbation theory.

  11. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  12. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  13. Oscillatons formed by non linear gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Obregón, O; Schunck, F E; Obregon, Octavio; Schunck, Franz E.

    2004-01-01

    Oscillatons are solutions of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon (EKG) equations that are globally regular and asymptotically flat. By means of a Legendre transformation we are able to visualize the behaviour of the corresponding objects in non-linear gravity where the scalar field has been absorbed by means of the conformal mapping.

  14. Controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting m

  15. Defects in the discrete non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr [University of Patras, Department of Engineering Sciences, Physics Division, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2012-01-01

    The discrete non-linear Schroedinger (NLS) model in the presence of an integrable defect is examined. The problem is viewed from a purely algebraic point of view, starting from the fundamental algebraic relations that rule the model. The first charges in involution are explicitly constructed, as well as the corresponding Lax pairs. These lead to sets of difference equations, which include particular terms corresponding to the impurity point. A first glimpse regarding the corresponding continuum limit is also provided.

  16. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found for no...... for nonlinear problems. Comparison of VIM and PPM with Runge-Kutta 4th leads to highly accurate solutions....

  17. Imitation learning of Non-Linear Point-to-Point Robot Motions using Dirichlet Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Tikhanoff, Vadim; Natale, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of the infinite Gaussian mixture model and Dirichlet processes for learning robot movements from demonstrations. Starting point of this work is an earlier paper where the authors learn a non-linear dynamic robot movement model from a small number of observations....... The model in that work is learned using a classical finite Gaussian mixture model (FGMM) where the Gaussian mixtures are appropriately constrained. The problem with this approach is that one needs to make a good guess for how many mixtures the FGMM should use. In this work, we generalize this approach...

  18. Simplified non-linear time-history analysis based on the Theory of Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues

    2005-01-01

    is based on the Theory of Plasticity. Firstly, the formulation and the computational procedure to perform time-history analysis of a rigid-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF) system are presented. The necessary conditions for the method to incorporate pinching as well as strength degradation......This paper aims at giving a contribution to the problem of developing simplified non-linear time-history (NLTH) analysis of structures which dynamical response is mainly governed by plastic deformations, able to provide designers with sufficiently accurate results. The method to be presented...

  19. Simplified non-linear time-history analysis based on the Theory of Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues

    2005-01-01

    is based on the Theory of Plasticity. Firstly, the formulation and the computational procedure to perform time-history analysis of a rigid-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF) system are presented. The necessary conditions for the method to incorporate pinching as well as strength degradation......This paper aims at giving a contribution to the problem of developing simplified non-linear time-history (NLTH) analysis of structures which dynamical response is mainly governed by plastic deformations, able to provide designers with sufficiently accurate results. The method to be presented...

  20. Dynamics of Universe in Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotin, Yu L; Ivashkevych, G I; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A

    2009-01-01

    We do not know books of problems on cosmology including its recent achievements. However we believe that such a book would be extremely useful for the youth poured in the last decade into that one of the most actively developing field of science. We suggest to cosmological community to create a joint collaboration "Dynamics of Universe in Problems". Now we propose first 500 problems as our contribution into that beginning. If our project will make an interest then it is needed to think how to organize technically the international collaboration in that direction. In any case we plan to update our "database" monthly, including 30-50 new problems every time.

  1. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Machado, P A N; Saa, S

    2016-01-01

    The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic compl...

  2. Integration of non-linear cellular mechanisms regulating microvascular perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, T M; Edwards, D H

    1999-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that interactions between the different cell types present in the vessel wall and the physical forces that result from blood flow are highly complex. This short article will review evidence that irregular fluctuations in vascular resistance are generated by non-linearity in the control mechanisms intrinsic to the smooth muscle cell and can be classified as chaotic. Non-linear systems theory has provided insights into the mechanisms involved at the cellular level by allowing the identification of dominant control variables and the construction of one-dimensional iterative maps to model vascular dynamics. Experiments with novel peptide inhibitors of gap junctions have shown that the coordination of aggregate responses depends on direct intercellular communication. The sensitivity of chaotic trajectories to perturbation may nevertheless generate a high degree of variability in the response to pharmacological interventions and altered perfusion conditions.

  3. Non-linear Young's double-slit experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Roman, Julio; Ruiz, Camilo; Perez, Jose Antonio; Delgado, Diego; Mendez, Cruz; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

    2006-04-01

    The Young's double slit experiment is recreated using intense and short laser pulses. Our experiment evidences the role of the non-linear Kerr effect in the formation of interference patterns. In particular, our results evidence a mixed mechanism in which the zeroth diffraction order of each slit are mainly affected by self-focusing and self-phase modulation, while the higher orders propagate linearly. Despite of the complexity of the general problem of non-linear propagation, we demonstrate that this experiment retains its simplicity and allows for a geometrical interpretation in terms of simple optical paths. In consequence, our results may provide key ideas on experiments on the formation of interference patterns with intense laser fields in Kerr media.

  4. Non-linear estimation is easy

    OpenAIRE

    Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Non-linear state estimation and some related topics, like parametric estimation, fault diagnosis, and perturbation attenuation, are tackled here via a new methodology in numerical differentiation. The corresponding basic system theoretic definitions and properties are presented within the framework of differential algebra, which permits to handle system variables and their derivatives of any order. Several academic examples and their computer simulations, with on-line ...

  5. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of three...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  6. Non-linear estimation is easy

    CERN Document Server

    Fliess, Michel; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    2007-01-01

    Non-linear state estimation and some related topics, like parametric estimation, fault diagnosis, and perturbation attenuation, are tackled here via a new methodology in numerical differentiation. The corresponding basic system theoretic definitions and properties are presented within the framework of differential algebra, which permits to handle system variables and their derivatives of any order. Several academic examples and their computer simulations, with on-line estimations, are illustrating our viewpoint.

  7. Variational iteration method for solving non-linear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemeda, A.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)], E-mail: aahemeda@yahoo.com

    2009-02-15

    In this paper, we shall use the variational iteration method to solve some problems of non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs) such as the combined KdV-MKdV equation and Camassa-Holm equation. The variational iteration method is superior than the other non-linear methods, such as the perturbation methods where this method does not depend on small parameters, such that it can fined wide application in non-linear problems without linearization or small perturbation. In this method, the problems are initially approximated with possible unknowns, then a correction functional is constructed by a general Lagrange multiplier, which can be identified optimally via the variational theory.

  8. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri

    2010-01-01

    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  9. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  10. Application of AN Asymptotic Method to Transient Dynamic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, M.; Henchi, K.; Gendron, G.; Ammar, S.

    1997-11-01

    A new method to solve linear dynamics problems using an asymptotic method is presented. Asymptotic methods have been efficiently used for many decades to solve non-linear quasistatic structural problems. Generally, structural dynamics problems are solved using finite elements for the discretization of the space domain of the differential equations, and explicit or implicit schemes for the time domain. With the asymptotic method, time schemes are not necessary to solve the discretized (space) equations. Using the analytical solution of a single degree of freedom (DOF) problem, it is demonstrated, that the Dynamic Asymptotic Method (DAM) converges to the exact solution when an infinite series expansion is used. The stability of the method has been studied. DAM is conditionally stable for a finite series expansion and unconditionally stable for an infinite series expansion. This method is similar to the analytical method of undetermined coefficients or to power series method being used to solve ordinary differential equations. For a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) problem with a lumped mass matrix, no factorization or explicit inversion of global matrices is necessary. It is shown that this conditionally stable method is more efficient than other conditionally stable explicit central difference integration techniques. The solution is continuous irrespective of the time segment (step) and the derivatives are continuous up to orderN-1 whereNis the order of the series expansion.

  11. Non-linear Model Predictive Control for cooling strings of superconducting magnets using superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)673023; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    In each of eight arcs of the 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 2.5 km long strings of super-conducting magnets are cooled with superfluid Helium II at 1.9 K. The temperature stabilisation is a challenging control problem due to complex non-linear dynamics of the magnets temperature and presence of multiple operational constraints. Strong nonlinearities and variable dead-times of the dynamics originate at strongly heat-flux dependent effective heat conductivity of superfluid that varies three orders of magnitude over the range of possible operational conditions. In order to improve the temperature stabilisation, a proof of concept on-line economic output-feedback Non-linear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC) is presented in this thesis. The controller is based on a novel complex first-principles distributed parameters numerical model of the temperature dynamics over a 214 m long sub-sector of the LHC that is characterized by very low computational cost of simulation needed in real-time optimizat...

  12. BRST structure of non-linear superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, M; Radchenko, O V; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the structure of the BRST structure of nonlinear superalgebras. We consider quadratic non-linear superalgebras where a commutator (in terms of (super) Poisson brackets) of the generators is a quadratic polynomial of the generators. We find the explicit form of the BRST charge up to cubic order in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields for arbitrary quadratic nonlinear superalgebras. We point out the existence of constraints on structure constants of the superalgebra when the nilpotent BRST charge is quadratic in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields. The general results are illustrated by simple examples of superalgebras.

  13. Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fouché, M; Rizzo, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.

  14. H∞ Synthesis Method for Control of Non-linear Flexible Joint Models

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Patrik; Pipeleers, Goele; Helmersson, Anders; Norrlöf, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    An H∞ synthesis method for control of a flexible joint, with non-linear spring characteristic, is proposed. The first step of the synthesis method is to extend the joint model with an uncertainty description of the stiffness parameter. In the second step, a non-linear optimisation problem, based on nominal performance and robust stability requirements, has to be solved. Using the Lyapunov shaping paradigm and a change of variables, the non-linear optimisation problem can be rewritten as a con...

  15. Predictions by the proper orthogonal decomposition reduced order methodology regarding non-linear BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prill, Dennis; Class, Andreas G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). AREVA Nuclear Professional School (ANPS)

    2013-07-01

    Unexpected non-linear boiling water reactor (BWR) instability events in various plants, e.g. LaSalle II in 1988 and Oskarshamn II in 1990 amongst others, emphasize the major safety relevance and the existence of parameter regions with unstable behavior. A detailed description of the complete dynamical non-linear behavior is of paramount importance for BWR operation. An extension of state-of-the-art methodology towards a more general stability description, also applicable in the non-linear region, could lead to a deeper understanding of non-linear BWR stability phenomena. With the intention of a full non-linear stability analysis of the two-phase BWR system, the present paper aims at a general non-linear methodology capable to achieve reliable and numerical stable reduced order models (ROMs), representing the dynamical behavior of an original system based on a small number of transients. Model-specific options and aspects of the proposed methodology are focused on and illustrated by means of a strongly non-linear dynamical system showing complex oscillating behavior. Prediction capability of the proposed methodology is also addressed. (orig.)

  16. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kumar; Suman Choudhary

    2001-09-01

    The dynamic problem in micropolar viscoelastic medium has been investigated by employing eigen value approach after applying Laplace and Fourier transformations. An example of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the application of the approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the displacement components, force stresses, couple stress and microrotation in the physical domain. The results for these quantities are given and illustrated graphically.

  17. Linear and non-linear perturbations in dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Fabris, Julio C; Alcaniz, Jailson S

    2016-01-01

    In this work we discuss observational aspects of three time-dependent parameterisations of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$. In order to determine the dynamics associated with these models, we calculate their background evolution and perturbations in a scalar field representation. After performing a complete treatment of linear perturbations, we also show that the non-linear contribution of the selected $w(z)$ parameterisations to the matter power spectra is almost the same for all scales, with no significant difference from the predictions of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  18. Non-linear time series analysis: methods and applications to atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, B P; Diks, C G; Allessie, M A; Degoede, J

    2001-01-01

    We apply methods from non-linear statistical time series analysis to characterize electrograms of atrial fibrillation. These are based on concepts originating from the theory of non-linear dynamical systems and use the empirical reconstruction density in reconstructed phase space. Application of these methods is not restricted to deterministic chaos but is valid in a general time series context. We illustrate this by applying three recently proposed non-linear time series methods to fibrillation electrograms: 1) a test for time reversibility in atrial electrograms during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients; 2) a test to detect differences in the dynamical behaviour during the pharmacological conversion of sustained atrial fibrillation in instrumented conscious goats; 3) a test for general Granger causality to identify couplings and information transport in the atria during fibrillation. We conclude that a characterization of the dynamics via the reconstruction density offers a useful framework for the non-linear analysis of electrograms of atrial fibrillation.

  19. Non-linear feedback neural networks VLSI implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Mohd Samar

    2014-01-01

    This book aims to present a viable alternative to the Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) model for analog computation. It is well known that the standard HNN suffers from problems of convergence to local minima, and requirement of a large number of neurons and synaptic weights. Therefore, improved solutions are needed. The non-linear synapse neural network (NoSyNN) is one such possibility and is discussed in detail in this book. This book also discusses the applications in computationally intensive tasks like graph coloring, ranking, and linear as well as quadratic programming. The material in the book is useful to students, researchers and academician working in the area of analog computation.

  20. A study of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mount systems with emphasis on non-linear characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G.; Singh, R.

    1995-01-01

    Passive hydraulic mounts exhibit excitation frequency variant and deflection amplitude sensitive stiffness and damping properties. Such non-linear dynamic characteristics are examined by using analytical and experimental methods, both at the device level and within the context of a simplified vehicle model. A new lumped parameter non-linear mathematical model of the hydraulic mount is developed by simulating its decoupler switching mechanism and inertia track dynamics. The low frequency performance features and limitations of several passive mounts are made clear through the non-linear vehicle model simulation and comparable laboratory vibration tests. The high frequency performance problems of the passive hydraulic mount are identified by applying the quasi-linear analysis method. Based on these results, a new adaptive mount system is developed which exhibits broad bandwidth performance features up to 250 Hz. It implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake manifold vacuum and a microprocessor based solenoid valve controller. A laboratory bench set-up has already demonstrated its operational feasibility. Through analytical methods, it is observed that our adaptive mount provides superior dynamic performance to passive engine mounts and comparable performance to a small scale active mount over a wide frequency range, given the engine mounting resonance control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, the in situperformance needs to be evaluated.

  1. An integer optimization algorithm for robust identification of non-linear gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemmangattuvalappil Nishanth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse engineering gene networks and identifying regulatory interactions are integral to understanding cellular decision making processes. Advancement in high throughput experimental techniques has initiated innovative data driven analysis of gene regulatory networks. However, inherent noise associated with biological systems requires numerous experimental replicates for reliable conclusions. Furthermore, evidence of robust algorithms directly exploiting basic biological traits are few. Such algorithms are expected to be efficient in their performance and robust in their prediction. Results We have developed a network identification algorithm to accurately infer both the topology and strength of regulatory interactions from time series gene expression data in the presence of significant experimental noise and non-linear behavior. In this novel formulism, we have addressed data variability in biological systems by integrating network identification with the bootstrap resampling technique, hence predicting robust interactions from limited experimental replicates subjected to noise. Furthermore, we have incorporated non-linearity in gene dynamics using the S-system formulation. The basic network identification formulation exploits the trait of sparsity of biological interactions. Towards that, the identification algorithm is formulated as an integer-programming problem by introducing binary variables for each network component. The objective function is targeted to minimize the network connections subjected to the constraint of maximal agreement between the experimental and predicted gene dynamics. The developed algorithm is validated using both in silico and experimental data-sets. These studies show that the algorithm can accurately predict the topology and connection strength of the in silico networks, as quantified by high precision and recall, and small discrepancy between the actual and predicted kinetic parameters

  2. Non-linear scalable TFETI domain decomposition based contact algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiáš, J.; Pták, S.; Dostál, Z.; Vondrák, V.; Kozubek, T.

    2010-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the application of our original variant of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) domain decomposition method, called the Total FETI (TFETI), to solve solid mechanics problems exhibiting geometric, material, and contact non-linearities. The TFETI enforces the prescribed displacements by the Lagrange multipliers, so that all the subdomains are 'floating', the kernels of their stiffness matrices are known a priori, and the projector to the natural coarse grid is more effective. The basic theory and relationships of both FETI and TFETI are briefly reviewed and a new version of solution algorithm is presented. It is shown that application of TFETI methodology to the contact problems converts the original problem to the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bound and equality constraints, so that the effective, in a sense optimal algorithms is to be applied. Numerical experiments show that the method exhibits both numerical and parallel scalabilities.

  3. Parameter Scaling in Non-Linear Microwave Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Talcoth, Oskar;

    2012-01-01

    Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when the imag......Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when...... the imaging problem is formulated. Under such conditions, microwave imaging systems will most often be considerably more sensitive to changes in the electromagnetic properties in certain regions of the breast. The result is that the parameters might not be reconstructed correctly in the less sensitive regions...... introduced as a measure of the sensitivity. The scaling of the parameters is shown to improve performance of the microwave imaging system when applied to reconstruction of images from 2-D simulated data and measurement data....

  4. Parameter Scaling in Non-Linear Microwave Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Talcoth, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when the imag......Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when...... the imaging problem is formulated. Under such conditions, microwave imaging systems will most often be considerably more sensitive to changes in the electromagnetic properties in certain regions of the breast. The result is that the parameters might not be reconstructed correctly in the less sensitive regions...... introduced as a measure of the sensitivity. The scaling of the parameters is shown to improve performance of the microwave imaging system when applied to reconstruction of images from 2-D simulated data and measurement data....

  5. Modeling and Non-Linear Self-Tuning Robust Trajectory Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Inge Fossen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear self-tuning algorithm is demonstrated for an autonomous underwater vehicle. Tighter control is achieved by a non-linear parameter identification algorithm which reduces the parameter uncertainty bounds. Expensive hydrodynamic tests for parameter determination can thus be avoided. Excellent tracking performance and robustness to parameter uncertainty are guaranteed through a robust control strategy based on the estimated parameters. The nonlinear control law is highly robust for imprecise models and the neglected dynamics. The non-linear self-tuning control strategy is simulated for the horizontal positioning of an underwater vehicle.

  6. Symmetries in Non-Linear Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, Victor; López-Ruiz, Francisco F; Cossío, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the use of symmetries of a physical system so as to characterize the corresponding solution manifold by means of Noether invariants. This constitutes a necessary preliminary step towards the correct quantisation in non-linear cases, where the success of Canonical Quantisation is not guaranteed in general. To achieve this task "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and the notion of contact transformations is in order. The use of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form permits finding both the symplectic structure on the solution manifold, through the Hamilton-Jacobi transformation, and the required symmetries, realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with functions on the solution manifold (thus constituting an inverse of the Noether Theorem), lifted back to the evolution space through the inverse of this Hamilton-Jacobi mapping. In this framework, solutions and symmetries are somehow identified and this correspondence is also kept at a perturbative level. We prese...

  7. Long-term cavity closure in non-linear rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel Walter

    2017-08-01

    The time dependent closure of pressurized cavities in viscous rocks due to far-field loads is a problem encountered in many applications like drilling, cavity abandonment and porosity closure. The non-linear nature of the flow of rocks prevents the use of simple solutions for hole closure and calls for the development of appropriate expressions reproducing all the dependencies observed in nature. An approximate solution is presented for the closure velocity of a pressurized cylindrical cavity in a non-linear viscous medium subjected to a combined pressure and shear stress load in the far field. The embedding medium is treated as homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible and follows a Carreau viscosity model. We derive analytical solutions for the end-member cases of the pressure and shear loads. The exact analytical solution for pressure loads shows that the closure velocity vR is given by the implicit expression {Δ p}/{2{μ _0D_{II}^*}} = - 1/2B( {{v_R^2}/{RD_{II^* + v_R^2}};1/2, - 1/{2n}} ), where Δp is the pressure load, R is the hole radius, B is the incomplete beta function, and μ0, D_{II}^*, n are, respectively, the threshold viscosity, transition rate and stress exponent of the Carreau model. The closure velocity is dominated by the linear mechanism under pressure loads smaller than 1.8{μ _0}D_{II}^* and by the non-linear one under large pressure loads. In the non-linear regime, pressure variations support an increasing part of the load with increasing degree of non-linearity. The decay of the stress perturbation in the non-linear zone varies as r- 2/n where r is the radial distance to the hole. A solution for the maximum closure velocity at the cavity rim vRmax under far-field shear is given: v_{R\\max} = ( 1 + {\\overline {M_s}} ^{-1/2})R\\overline D_{II}, where \\overline {M_s} = (1 + {\\overline {D_{II}} }^2 \\big/ {nD{_{II}^*}^2}) \\big/ ( 1 + {\\overline {D_{II}}^2} \\big/ D{_{II}^*}^2) and \\overline {D_{II}} is the second invariant of the far

  8. Non-linear backstepping control of five-phase IM drive at low speed conditions-experimental implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeikh, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Ramzi; Iqbal, Atif; Bianchi, Nicola; Mimouni, Mohamed Fouizi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper non-linear backstepping control (BSC) is employed for high performance five-phase induction motor drive for low speed operation. The traditional control approaches such as direct torque control and indirect rotor field oriented control introduces stability problem at low speed. The proposed BSC is shown to offer stable operation in the sense of Lyapunov and high dynamics at low speed. Experimental results are provided to present the proprieties of the proposed approach at low speed in terms of stability, torque ripple, desired control performance, achievable dynamics and complexity of implementation etc. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G. L. (Gian L.); Lapenta, G. M. (Giovanni M.); Finn, J. M. (John M.)

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  10. Non-linear rotation-free shell finite-element models for aortic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Stolarski, Henryk; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-01-04

    Hyperelastic material models have been incorporated in the rotation-free, large deformation, shell finite element (FE) formulation of (Stolarski et al., 2013) and applied to dynamic simulations of aortic heart valve. Two models used in the past in analysis of such problem i.e. the Saint-Venant and May-Newmann-Yin (MNY) material models have been considered and compared. Uniaxial tests for those constitutive equations were performed to verify the formulation and implementation of the models. The issue of leaflets interactions during the closing of the heart valve at the end of systole is considered. The critical role of using non-linear anisotropic model for proper dynamic response of the heart valve especially during the closing phase is demonstrated quantitatively. This work contributes an efficient FE framework for simulating biological tissues and paves the way for high-fidelity flow structure interaction simulations of native and bioprosthetic aortic heart valves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Neural network-based robust actuator fault diagnosis for a non-linear multi-tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugalski, Marcin; Luzar, Marcel; Pazera, Marcin; Witczak, Marcin; Aubrun, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of the robust actuator fault diagnosis of the dynamic non-linear systems. In the proposed method, it is assumed that the diagnosed system can be modelled by the recurrent neural network, which can be transformed into the linear parameter varying form. Such a system description allows developing the designing scheme of the robust unknown input observer within H∞ framework for a class of non-linear systems. The proposed approach is designed in such a way that a prescribed disturbance attenuation level is achieved with respect to the actuator fault estimation error, while guaranteeing the convergence of the observer. The application of the robust unknown input observer enables actuator fault estimation, which allows applying the developed approach to the fault tolerant control tasks.

  12. Inverse scattering solution of non-linear evolution equations in one space dimension: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly.

  13. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model param...... heat load reduction during peak load hours, control of indoor air temperature and for generating forecasts of power consumption from space heating....

  14. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  15. MCMC for non-linear state space models using ensembles of latent sequences

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear state space models are a widely-used class of models for biological, economic, and physical processes. Fitting these models to observed data is a difficult inference problem that has no straightforward solution. We take a Bayesian approach to the inference of unknown parameters of a non-linear state model; this, in turn, requires the availability of efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods for the latent (hidden) variables and model parameters. Using the ensemble ...

  16. Freely generated vertex algebras and non-linear Lie conformal algebras

    OpenAIRE

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a non--linear Lie conformal superalgebra and prove a PBW theorem for its universal enveloping vertex algebra. We also show that conversely any graded freely generated vertex algebra is the universal enveloping algebra of a non--linear Lie conformal superalgebra. This correspondence will be applied in the subsequent work to the problem of classification of finitely generated simple graded vertex algebras.

  17. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION BASED FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING FOR STRAIN-RATE-DEPENDENCE NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qintao; ZHANG Lingmi; TAO Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Thin wall component is utilized to absorb impact energy of a structure. However, the dynamic behavior of such thin-walled structure is highly non-linear with material, geometry and boundary non-linearity. A model updating and validation procedure is proposed to build accurate finite element model of a frame structure with a non-linear thin-walled component for dynamic analysis. Design of experiments (DOE) and principal component decomposition (PCD) approach are applied to extract dynamic feature from nonlinear impact response for correlation of impact test result and FE model of the non-linear structure. A strain-rate-dependent non-linear model updating method is then developed to build accurate FE model of the structure. Computer simulation and a real frame structure with a highly non-linear thin-walled component are employed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Non-Linear Sigma Model on Conifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, R

    2002-01-01

    Explicit solutions to the conifold equations with complex dimension $n=3,4$ in terms of {\\it{complex coordinates (fields)}} are employed to construct the Ricci-flat K\\"{a}hler metrics on these manifolds. The K\\"{a}hler 2-forms are found to be closed. The complex realization of these conifold metrics are used in the construction of 2-dimensional non-linear sigma model with the conifolds as target spaces. The action for the sigma model is shown to be bounded from below. By a suitable choice of the 'integration constants', arising in the solution of Ricci flatness requirement, the metric and the equations of motion are found to be {\\it{non-singular}}. As the target space is Ricci flat, the perturbative 1-loop counter terms being absent, the model becomes topological. The inherent U(1) fibre over the base of the conifolds is shown to correspond to a gauge connection in the sigma model. The same procedure is employed to construct the metric for the resolved conifold, in terms of complex coordinates and the action ...

  19. Non-Linear Electrohydrodynamics in Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zeng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications.

  20. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Using the concept of apparent horizon for dynamical black holes, we revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBH) in the early universe for both linear and non-linear regimes. First, we develop the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric spacetimes to study the formation of spherical PBHs in linear regime and we fix two gauges. We also introduce a well defined gauge invariant quantity for the expansion. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime. Finally, we study the non-linear regime. We adopt the spherical collapse picture by taking a closed FRW model in the radiation dominated era to investigate PBH formation. Taking the initial condition of the spherical collapse from the linear theory of perturbations, we allow for both density and velocity perturbations. Our model gives a constraint on the velocity perturbation. This model also predicts that the apparent horizon of PBHs forms when $\\delta > 3$. Applying the sound horizon constraint, we have shown the threshol...

  1. A non-linear model of information seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen E. Foster

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.

  2. The Linear-Non-Linear Frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, M. B. [Madrid, IFT; Kanshin, K. [Padua U.; Machado, P. A.N. [Madrid, IFT; Saa, S. [Madrid, IFT

    2016-10-25

    The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.

  3. Non Linear Analysis of MPPT for Power Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the conventional inverter interfacing renewable energy sources with the grid, without any additional hardware cost. Here, the main idea is the maximum utilization of inverter rating which is most of the time underutilized due to intermittent nature of RES. Based on the non-linear characteristics of PV, these thesis designs a VSS controller to realize the maximum power output of PV arrays. The output power from renewable energy sources fluctuates because of weather variations. This study proposes an effective power quality control strategy of renewable energy sources connected to power system using Photovoltaic (PV array. If the main controller used is a PR controller, any dc offset in a control loop will propagate through the system and the inverter terminal voltage will have a nonzero average value. In this strategy both load and inverter current sensing is required to compensate the load current harmonics. The non-linear load current harmonics may result in voltage harmonics and can create a serious PQ problem in the power system network.

  4. Non-linear analysis of EEG signals at various sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya U, Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Kannathal, N; Chua, TjiLeng; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2005-10-01

    Application of non-linear dynamics methods to the physiological sciences demonstrated that non-linear models are useful for understanding complex physiological phenomena such as abrupt transitions and chaotic behavior. Sleep stages and sustained fluctuations of autonomic functions such as temperature, blood pressure, electroencephalogram (EEG), etc., can be described as a chaotic process. The EEG signals are highly subjective and the information about the various states may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. The sleep data analysis is carried out using non-linear parameters: correlation dimension, fractal dimension, largest Lyapunov entropy, approximate entropy, Hurst exponent, phase space plot and recurrence plots. These non-linear parameters quantify the cortical function at different sleep stages and the results are tabulated.

  5. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  6. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  7. Non-linear Kalman filters for calibration in radio interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tasse, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    We present a new calibration scheme based on a non-linear version of Kalman filter that aims at estimating the physical terms appearing in the Radio Interferometry Measurement Equation (RIME). We enrich the filter's structure with a tunable data representation model, together with an augmented measurement model for regularization. We show using simulations that it can properly estimate the physical effects appearing in the RIME. We found that this approach is particularly useful in the most extreme cases such as when ionospheric and clock effects are simultaneously present. Combined with the ability to provide prior knowledge on the expected structure of the physical instrumental effects (expected physical state and dynamics), we obtain a fairly cheap algorithm that we believe to be robust, especially in low signal-to-noise regime. Potentially the use of filters and other similar methods can represent an improvement for calibration in radio interferometry, under the condition that the effects corrupting visib...

  8. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N.Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample and by creating a physical spoof.Susceptibility of the database can have a disastrous impact on the whole authentication system. The potential disclosure of digitally stored biometric data raises serious concerns about privacy and data protection. Therefore, we propose a method which would integrate conventional cryptography techniques with biometrics. In this work, we present a biometric crypto system which encrypts the biometric template and the encryption is done by generating pseudo random numbers, based on non-linear dynamics.

  9. Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72–78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths. PMID:28101065

  10. Non-linear Oscillations of Compact Stars and Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Passamonti, A

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates in the time domain a particular class of second order perturbations of a perfect fluid non-rotating compact star: those arising from the coupling between first order radial and non-radial perturbations. This problem has been treated by developing a gauge invariant formalism based on the 2-parameter perturbation theory (Sopuerta, Bruni and Gualtieri, 2004) where the radial and non-radial perturbations have been separately parameterized. The non-linear perturbations obey inhomogeneous partial differential equations, where the structure of the differential operator is given by the previous perturbative orders and the source terms are quadratic in the first order perturbations. In the exterior spacetime the sources vanish, thus the gravitational wave properties are completely described by the second order Zerilli and Regge-Wheeler functions. As main initial configuration we have considered a first order differentially rotating and radially pulsating star. Although at first perturbative or...

  11. Robust C subroutines for non-linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have standardized calls, and the user does not have...... by changing 1 to 0. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-03 with the same title, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some...... of the C subroutines have been replaced by more effective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modi ed to some extent. For a description of the original Fortran subroutines see the report [17]. The software...

  12. Considering Complexity: Toward A Strategy for Non-linear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores complexity and a strategy for non-linear analysis with a consistent ontological, epistemological and methodological orientation. Complexity is defined and approaches in the natural sciences, ecosystems research, discursive studies and the social sciences are reviewed. In social science, theoretical efforts associated with problems of social order (Luhmann, critical sociology (Byrne and post-structuralism (Cilliers as well as representative studies are examined. The review concludes that there is need for an approach that will address morphogenesis and facilitate analysis of multilateral mutual causal relations. The remainder of the paper approaches these matters by outlining Archer’s approach to morphogenesis, Maruyama’s morphogenetic casual-loop model of epistemology and illustrating Maruyama’s method for analysis which employs both positive and negative feedback loops. The result is a strategy based on morphogenetic causal loop models that can be used to analyze structuring and the connections through which structures may be reproduced or transformed.

  13. On infinite horizon active fault diagnosis for a class of non-linear non-Gaussian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punčochár Ivo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of active fault diagnosis for discrete-time stochastic systems over an infinite time horizon. It is assumed that the switching between a fault-free and finitely many faulty conditions can be modelled by a finite-state Markov chain and the continuous dynamics of the observed system can be described for the fault-free and each faulty condition by non-linear non-Gaussian models with a fully observed continuous state. The design of an optimal active fault detector that generates decisions and inputs improving the quality of detection is formulated as a dynamic optimization problem. As the optimal solution obtained by dynamic programming requires solving the Bellman functional equation, approximate techniques are employed to obtain a suboptimal active fault detector.

  14. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  15. RESEARCH ON NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on nonlinear problems structural dynamics is briefly summarized. Panel flutter was investigated to make a critical comparison between theory...panel flutter in aerospace vehicles, plausible simplifying assumptions are examined in the light of experimental results. Structural dynamics research

  16. Evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a compilation on the state-of-the-art and recent advances of evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems. The motivation for this book arises from the fact that many real-world optimization problems and engineering systems are subject to dynamic environments, where changes occur over time. Key issues for addressing dynamic optimization problems in evolutionary computation, including fundamentals, algorithm design, theoretical analysis, and real-world applications, are presented. "Evolutionary Computation for Dynamic Optimization Problems" is a valuable reference to scientists, researchers, professionals and students in the field of engineering and science, particularly in the areas of computational intelligence, nature- and bio-inspired computing, and evolutionary computation.

  17. An Assessment of Linear Versus Non-linear Multigrid Methods for Unstructured Mesh Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    problems is investigated. The first case consists of a transient radiation-diffusion problem for which an exact linearization is available, while the...to the Jacobian of a second-order accurate discretization. When an exact linearization is employed, the linear and non-linear multigrid methods

  18. 辅助墩对混合梁斜拉桥非线性静动力特性的影响%Impacts of auxiliary pier upon non-linear static and dynamic characteristics of single staved-cable bridge with composite beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟加峰

    2012-01-01

    利用有限元分析软件建立了混合梁独塔斜拉桥的空间模型,分析了混合梁独塔斜拉桥在有、无辅助墩情况下的非线性静动力特性的异同,讨论了在有、无辅助墩情况下对混合梁独塔斜拉桥非线性静动力特性的影响,得出了有指导意义的结论。%The paper establishes spatial model of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam by using finite element analysis software, ana- lyzes similarities and differences of non-linear static and dynamic characteristics of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam under the con- dition of with and without auxiliary pier, and discusses the impacts of within and without auxiliary pier upon non-linear dynamic and static char- acteristics of single stayed-cable bridge with composite beam, and finally draws some guiding conclusions.

  19. Correction of non-linearity effects in detectors for electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mannella, N; Kay, A W; Nambu, A; Gresch, T; Yang, S H; Mun, B S; Bussat, J M; Rosenhahn, A; Fadley, C S

    2004-01-01

    Using photoemission intensities and a detection system employed by many groups in the electron spectroscopy community as an example, we have quantitatively characterized and corrected detector non-linearity effects over the full dynamic range of the system. Non-linearity effects are found to be important whenever measuring relative peak intensities accurately is important, even in the low-countrate regime. This includes, for example, performing quantitative analyses for surface contaminants or sample bulk stoichiometries, where the peak intensities involved can differ by one or two orders of magnitude, and thus could occupy a significant portion of the detector dynamic range. Two successful procedures for correcting non-linearity effects are presented. The first one yields directly the detector efficiency by measuring a flat-background reference intensity as a function of incident x-ray flux, while the second one determines the detector response from a least-squares analysis of broad-scan survey spectra at di...

  20. Graphical and Analytical Analysis of the Non-Linear PLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bjorn; Radovanovic, S.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    The fixed width control pulses from the Bang-Bang Phase Detector in non-linear PLLs allow for operation at higher data rates than the linear PLL. The high non-linearity of the Bang- Bang Phase Detector gives rise to unwanted effects, such as limit-cycles, not yet fully described. This paper

  1. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two-degrees-of-freedom...

  2. Non-linear Frequency Scaling Algorithm for FMCW SAR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for processing data acquired with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) dechirp-on-receive systems by using a non-linear frequency scaling algorithm. The range frequency non-linearity correction, the Doppler shift induced by the continuous motion and the ran

  3. Non Linear Gauge Fixing for FeynArts

    CERN Document Server

    Gajdosik, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We review the non-linear gauge-fixing for the Standard Model, proposed by F. Boudjema and E. Chopin, and present our implementation of this non-linear gauge-fixing to the Standard Model and to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model in FeynArts.

  4. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    1995-01-01

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  5. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  6. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    1995-01-01

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  7. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treo, E F; Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. CC327, CP4000, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response.

  8. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  9. 冠心病与糖尿病患者的心率变异性非线性动力学研究%Non-linear dynamics study on heart rate variability in the patients of coronary artery disease and diabetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋萍; 徐征; 张辉; 葛霁光

    2001-01-01

    目的 研究正常人及冠心病单支病变、多支病变、糖尿病伴植物神经性病变患者心率变异在非线性动力学上的表现。方法 选用的指标是散点图几项量化指标、测度熵和关联维数。结果 正常人非线性参数中存在明显的昼夜变化,冠心病患者昼夜变化程度减低,而糖尿病伴植物神经性病变患者昼夜变化规律消失; 根据冠心病患者和糖尿病伴植物神经性病变患者的病理生理上都具有植物神经功能紊乱的现象,提示植物神经调节是影响心脏非线性运动的一个重要因素。一些非线性参数可显示正常人、冠心病患者冠脉病变程度及糖尿病伴植物神经病变患者之间的差异。结论 通过特征值提取,心率变异的一些非线性参数,有望为临床医师提供一种有效的预测冠心病患者预后及检测糖尿病患者植物神经病变程度的指标。%Objective Thirty healthy controls and three terms of patients that includes 18 patients had single coronary artery disease, 12 patients with multi coronary disease and 18 diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) were used to study the non-linear dynamics between them. Methods The indices selected were six quantity indices of dispersed-dot plot that includes the area of plot (SQ), long-axis (LA), short-axis (SA), the angle of long-axis and short-axis (ALS), vector length index (VLI), and vector angle index (VAI), kolmogorov entropy and fractal dimension. Results The non-linear indices in healthy control had obvious day-to-night change, while the change in coronary artery disease patients was deceased and disappeared in diabetics. By the truth that both coronary artery disease patients and diabetic patients had the turbulence of vegetal nerve system. It can be concluded that the vegetal nerve activity was an important factor in heart non-linear dynamics. The non-linear indices among normal, single

  10. Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories

    CERN Document Server

    McQueen, Kelvin J

    2015-01-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

  11. Non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media: from long-range correlated percolation to fracture and materials breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Muhammad

    1998-12-01

    We review and discuss recent progress in modelling non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media. The non-locality that we consider is caused by long-range correlations that either exist in the morphology of the media, or are caused by the transport processes themselves. The interplay between the non-linearity and non-locality is discussed in depth with the aim of establishing that, often non-linearity and non-locality are “two sides of the same coin”, such that one may have no meaning without the presence of the other one. First, we discuss linear and scalar, but non-local transport processes and, in particular, consider those in percolation systems with long-range correlations. It appears that there are significant differences between percolative transport processes in which the long-range correlations (or the covariance function) decrease with the distance r between two points, and those in which they increase as r does. Application of this problem to flow and transport in geological formations is discussed. We then consider linear vector percolation, one type of which, the rigidity percolation, provides an example of a non-local vector transport in heterogeneous media. Applications of vector percolation to modelling elastic properties of glasses, composite solids and rock, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of polymers, and vibrations and dynamical properties of heterogeneous materials are discussed. Non-linear and non-local scalar transport processes are discussed next, including various breakdown phenomena in disordered composites, power-law transport, piecewise linear transport characterized by a threshold, and non-linear processes that arise as a result of imposing a large external potential gradient on a heterogeneous medium. Their relevance to flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media, to electrical currents and dielectric breakdown in composite solids and doped polycrystalline semiconductors, and several other problems is

  12. Non-linear conductivity in Coulomb glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voje, A.; Bergli, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Ortuno, M.; Somoza, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica - CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30.071 (Spain); Caravaca, M.

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the nonlinear conductivity of two-dimensional Coulomb glasses. We have used a Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the dynamic of the system under an applied electric field E. We have compared results for two different models: a regular square lattice with only diagonal disorder and a random array of sites with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. We have found that for moderate fields the logarithm of the conductivity is proportional to {radical}(E)/T{sup 2}, reproducing experimental results. We have also found that in the nonlinear regime the site occupancy in the Coulomb gap follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature T{sub eff} higher than the phonon bath temperature T. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Experimental evidence of non-linear behaviour in YBCO superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palenque, E.R.; Appleyard, N.J.; Jackson, T.J.; Palmer, S.B. [Dept. of Phys., Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Preliminary measurements of the non-linear dynamics of a thin (two dimensional) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconducting film in a small AC magnetic field are presented, a peak in third harmonic generation which may provide evidence of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition is found just below the superconducting transition temperature. (author)

  14. A Non-linear Eulerian Approach for Assessment of Health-cost Externalities of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    Integrated assessment models which are used in Europe to account for the external costs of air pollution as a support for policy-making and cost-benefit analysis have in order to cope with complexity resorted to simplifications of the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric sciences. In this paper we...... explore the possible significance of such simplifications by reviewing the improvements that result from applying a state-of-the-art atmospheric model for regional transport and non-linear chemical transformations of air pollutants to the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-method. The more rigorous...

  15. Non-local investigation of bifurcations of solutions of non-linear elliptic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' yasov, Ya Sh

    2002-12-31

    We justify the projective fibration procedure for functionals defined on Banach spaces. Using this procedure and a dynamical approach to the study with respect to parameters, we prove that there are branches of positive solutions of non-linear elliptic equations with indefinite non-linearities. We investigate the asymptotic behaviour of these branches at bifurcation points. In the general case of equations with p-Laplacian we prove that there are upper bounds of branches of positive solutions with respect to the parameter.

  16. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...... parameters are estimated using a maximum likelihood technique. Based on the maximum likelihood value, the different models are statistically compared to each other using Wilk's likelihood ratio test. The model showing the best performance is finally verified in both the time domain and the frequency domain...

  17. Dynamical Systems Some Computational Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Guckenheimer, J; Guckenheimer, John; Worfolk, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    We present several topics involving the computation of dynamical systems. The emphasis is on work in progress and the presentation is informal -- there are many technical details which are not fully discussed. The topics are chosen to demonstrate the various interactions between numerical computation and mathematical theory in the area of dynamical systems. We present an algorithm for the computation of stable manifolds of equilibrium points, describe the computation of Hopf bifurcations for equilibria in parametrized families of vector fields, survey the results of studies of codimension two global bifurcations, discuss a numerical analysis of the Hodgkin and Huxley equations, and describe some of the effects of symmetry on local bifurcation.

  18. Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for Non-Linear Fracture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhongqing; Zhou Benkuan; Chen Dapeng

    2006-01-01

    To study the non-linear fracture, a non-linear constitutive model for piezoelectric ceramics was proposed, in which the polarization switching and saturation were taken into account. Based on the model, the non-linear fracture analysis was implemented using reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). Using local J-integral as a fracture criterion, a relation curve of fracture loads against electric fields was obtained. Qualitatively, the curve is in agreement with the experimental observations reported in literature. The reproducing equation, the shape function of RKPM, and the transformation method to impose essential boundary conditions for meshless methods were also introduced. The computation was implemented using object-oriented programming method.

  19. Free Convective Nonaligned Non-Newtonian Flow with Non-linear Thermal Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S.; Mehmood, R.; Narayana, PV S.; Akbar, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the free convective oblique Casson fluid over a stretching surface with non-linear thermal radiation effects. The governing physical problem is modelled and transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformation, which are solved numerically with the help of shooting method keeping the convergence control of 10-5 in computations. Influence of pertinent physical parameters on normal, tangential velocity profiles and temperature are expressed through graphs. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction coefficients and local heat flux are investigated numerically.

  20. Differential transform method for solving linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kanth, A.S.V. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: asvravikanth@yahoo.com; Aruna, K. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-17

    In this Letter, we propose a reliable algorithm to develop exact and approximate solutions for the linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations. The approach rest mainly on two-dimensional differential transform method which is one of the approximate methods. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Exact solutions can also be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.

  1. Inverse problems in stochastic computational dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Capiez-Lernout, Evangéline; Soize, Christian

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with robust updating of dynamical systems using stochastic computational models for which model and parameter uncertainties are taken into account by the nonparametric probabilistic approach. Such a problem is formulated as an inverse problem consisting in identifying the parameters of the mean computational model and the parameters of the probabilistic model of uncertainties. This inverse problem leads us to solve an optimization problem for which the...

  2. Optimal experimental design for non-linear models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsos, Christos P

    2013-01-01

    This book tackles the Optimal Non-Linear Experimental Design problem from an applications perspective. At the same time it offers extensive mathematical background material that avoids technicalities, making it accessible to non-mathematicians: Biologists, Medical Statisticians, Sociologists, Engineers, Chemists and Physicists will find new approaches to conducting their experiments. The book is recommended for Graduate Students and Researchers.

  3. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  4. THE APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHM IN NON-LINEAR INVERSION OF ROCK MECHANICS PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓东

    1998-01-01

    The non-linear inversion of rock mechanics parameters based on genetic algorithm ispresented. The principle and step of genetic algorithm is also given. A brief discussion of thismethod and an application example is presented at the end of this paper. From the satisfied re-sult, quick, convenient and practical new approach is developed to solve this kind of problems.

  5. Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galanis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.

  6. Series solutions of non-linear Riccati differential equations with fractional order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Jie; Tan Yue; Xu Hang [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liao Shijun [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sjliao@sjtu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM), a new analytic technique is proposed to solve non-linear Riccati differential equation with fractional order. Different from all other analytic methods, it provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series by introducing an auxiliary parameter h. Besides, it is proved that well-known Adomian's decomposition method is a special case of the homotopy analysis method when h = -1. This work illustrates the validity and great potential of the homotopy analysis method for the non-linear differential equations with fractional order. The basic ideas of this approach can be widely employed to solve other strongly non-linear problems in fractional calculus.

  7. Inverse Eigenvalue Problem in Structural Dynamics Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqing Xie; Hua Dai

    2006-01-01

    A kind of inverse eigenvalue problem in structural dynamics design is considered. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The properties of this problem are analyzed, and the existence of the optimum solution is proved. The directional derivative of the objective function is obtained and a necessary condition for a point to be a local minimum point is given. Then a numerical algorithm for solving the problem is presented and a plane-truss problem is discussed to show the applications of the theories and the algorithm.

  8. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  9. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    CERN Document Server

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Peña-Garay, Carlos; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference $\\Lambda$CDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass $10^{11}-10^{15}$ $h^{-1}$M$_{\\odot}$, over a redshift range $z=0-2$. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified ...

  10. Solved problems in dynamical systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.

  11. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste (Italy); Bird, Simeon [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Peña-Garay, Carlos, E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: spb@ias.edu, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-UVEG, E-46071, Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  12. NLHB : A Non-Linear Hopper Blum Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Madhavan, Mukundan; Sankarasubramaniam, Yogesh; Viswanathan, Kapali

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a light-weight provably-secure authentication protocol called the NLHB protocol, which is a variant of the HB protocol. The HB protocol uses the complexity of decoding linear codes for security against passive attacks. In contrast, security for the NLHB protocol is proved by reducing passive attacks to the problem of decoding a class of non-linear codes\\footnote that are provably hard. We demonstrate that the existing passive attacks on the HB protocol family, which have contributed to considerable reduction in its effective key-size, are ineffective against the NLHB protocol. From the evidence, we conclude that smaller-key sizes are sufficient for the NLHB protocol to achieve the same level of passive attack security as the HB Protocol. Further, for this choice of parameters, we provide an implementation instance for the NLHB protocol for which the Prover/Verifier complexity is lower than the HB protocol, enabling authentication on very low-cost devices like RFID tags. Finally, in t...

  13. Non-linear and signal energy optimal asymptotic filter design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hrusak

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies some connections between the main results of the well known Wiener-Kalman-Bucy stochastic approach to filtering problems based mainly on the linear stochastic estimation theory and emphasizing the optimality aspects of the achieved results and the classical deterministic frequency domain linear filters such as Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel, etc. A new non-stochastic but not necessarily deterministic (possibly non-linear alternative approach called asymptotic filtering based mainly on the concepts of signal power, signal energy and a system equivalence relation plays an important role in the presentation. Filtering error invariance and convergence aspects are emphasized in the approach. It is shown that introducing the signal power as the quantitative measure of energy dissipation makes it possible to achieve reasonable results from the optimality point of view as well. The property of structural energy dissipativeness is one of the most important and fundamental features of resulting filters. Therefore, it is natural to call them asymptotic filters. The notion of the asymptotic filter is carried in the paper as a proper tool in order to unify stochastic and non-stochastic, linear and nonlinear approaches to signal filtering.

  14. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-02-27

    Different calibration techniques are available for spectroscopic applications that show nonlinear behavior. This comprehensive comparative study presents a comparison of different nonlinear calibration techniques: kernel PLS (KPLS), support vector machines (SVM), least-squares SVM (LS-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS-SVM is also attractive due to its good predictive performance for both linear and nonlinear calibrations.

  15. Non-linear static and dynamic mechanical properties and constitutive relation of sponge rubber%海绵橡胶非线性静动态力学特性和本构关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      针对海绵橡胶的物理特性展开了准静态单轴压缩实验和分离式Hopkinson压杆动态压缩实验,得到海绵橡胶材料的应力-应变曲线,并对材料的应变率效应及材料的变形和破坏特性进行深入分析,在此基础上给出材料的动静态本构关系。结果表明:海绵橡胶材料在准静态加载下,应变大于0.3时,应力-应变曲线才开始偏离坐标轴,表现出非线性特征;在冲击载荷下,海绵橡胶的应变率效应并不明显。%Quasi⁃static uniaxial compression test and SHPB dynamic compression experiments were carried out on the physical properties of sponge rubber. Basic mechanical parameters and stress ⁃ strain curve of the rubber were obtained through experiments. The static and dynamic constitutive model was presented based on necessary analysis of deformation behavior of materials,strain rate effects and destruction properties. The results show that under quasi⁃static loading with strain more than 0.3,stress⁃strain curve begins to be off the coordinate axis and appears the nonlinear property;strain rate effect is not obvious under shock loading with the increase of strain rate.

  16. The Dynamics of Schelling-Type Segregation Models and a Nonlinear Graph Laplacian Variational Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a variant of the famous Schelling segregation model in economics as a dynamical system. This model exhibits, what appears to be, a new clustering mechanism. In particular, we explain why the limiting behavior of the non-locally determined lattice system exhibits a number of pronounced geometric characteristics. Part of our analysis uses a geometrically defined Lyapunov function which we show is essentially the total Laplacian for the associated graph Laplacian. The limit states are minimizers of a natural non-linear, non-homogeneous variational problem for the Laplacian, which can also be interpreted as ground state configurations for the lattice gas whose Hamiltonian essentially coincides with our Lyapunov function. Thus we use dynamics to explicitly solve this problem for which there is no known analytic solution. We prove an isoperimetric characterization of the global minimizers on the torus which enables us to explicitly obtain the global minimizers for the graph variational prob...

  17. Dynamic Restructuring Of Problems In Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1992-01-01

    "Dynamic tradeoff evaluation" (DTE) denotes proposed method and procedure for restructuring problem-solving strategies in artificial intelligence to satisfy need for timely responses to changing conditions. Detects situations in which optimal problem-solving strategies cannot be pursued because of real-time constraints, and effects tradeoffs among nonoptimal strategies in such way to minimize adverse effects upon performance of system.

  18. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  19. Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.

    1999-02-01

    A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.

  20. A Method on Non-Linear Correction of Broadband LFMCW Signal Utilizing Its Relative Sweep Non-Linear Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method on non-linear correction of broadband LFMCW signal utilizing its relativenonlinear error. The deriving procedure and the results simulated by a computer and tested by a practical system arealso introduced. The method has two obvious advantages compared with the previous methods: (1) Correction has norelation with delay time td and sweep bandwidth B; (2) The inherent non-linear error of VCO has no influence on thecorrection and its last results.

  1. A general non-linear optimization algorithm for lower bound limit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The non-linear programming problem associated with the discrete lower bound limit analysis problem is treated by means of an algorithm where the need to linearize the yield criteria is avoided. The algorithm is an interior point method and is completely general in the sense that no particular...... finite element discretization or yield criterion is required. As with interior point methods for linear programming the number of iterations is affected only little by the problem size. Some practical implementation issues are discussed with reference to the special structure of the common lower bound...... load optimization problem. and finally the efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated by means of examples of plate and slab structures obeying different non-linear yield criteria. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons. Ltd....

  2. Darboux Transformation for Coupled Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation and Its Breather Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Yu, Fajun; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a 3×3 spectral problem, a Darboux transformation (DT) method for coupled Schrödinger (CNLS) equation is constructed, which is more complex than 2×2 spectral problems. A scheme of soliton solutions of an integrable CNLS system is realised by using DT. Then, we obtain the breather solutions for the integrable CNLS system. The method is also appropriate for more non-linear soliton equations in physics and mathematics.

  3. Non-Linear System Identification for Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    Representation and identification of a non-linear aeroelastic pitch-plunge system as a model of the NARMAX class is considered. A non-linear difference equation describing this aircraft model is derived theoretically and shown to be of the NARMAX form. Identification methods for NARMAX models are applied to aeroelastic dynamics and its properties demonstrated via continuous-time simulations of experimental conditions. Simulation results show that (i) the outputs of the NARMAX model match closely those generated using continuous-time methods and (ii) NARMAX identification methods applied to aeroelastic dynamics provide accurate discrete-time parameter estimates. Application of NARMAX identification to experimental pitch-plunge dynamics data gives a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  4. Massive Neutrinos and the Non-linear Matter Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G

    2011-01-01

    We perform an extensive suite of N-body simulations of the matter power spectrum, incorporating massive neutrinos in the range M = 0.15-0.6 eV, probing the non-linear regime at scales k < 10 hMpc-1 at z < 3. We extend the widely used HALOFIT approximation (Smith et al. 2003) to account for the effect of massive neutrinos on the power spectrum. In the strongly non-linear regime HALOFIT systematically over-predicts the suppression due to the free-streaming of the neutrinos. The maximal discrepancy occurs at k \\sim 1hMpc-1, and is at the level of 10% of the total suppression. Most published constraints on neutrino masses based on HALOFIT are not affected, as they rely on data probing the matter power spectrum in the linear or mildly non-linear regime. However, predictions for future galaxy, Lyman-alpha forest and weak lensing surveys extending to more non-linear scales will benefit from the improved approximation to the non-linear matter power spectrum we provide. Our approximation reproduces the induced n...

  5. Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fisica e Matematica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)

  6. The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2007-01-01

    Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...

  7. Selected Aspects Of Modelling Of Non-Linear Behaviour Of Concrete During Tensile Test Using Multiplas Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokeš Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to describe some of the aspects manifesting in the use of the elastoplastic material model library multiPlas, which was developed to support non-linear computations in the ANSYS system. The text focuses on the analysis of numerical simulations of a virtual tension test in several case studies, thereby the text endeavours to describe the problems connected with modelling non-linear behaviour of concrete in a tensile area.

  8. Some Modern Problems in Structural Engineering Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elishakoff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with two problems in structural engineering dynamics; one is deterministic, the other is of stochastic nature. One problem is linear, the other is nonlinear. Authors have a biased preferential view on these problems because of their active involvement in the discussed research topics. Still, these two problems reflect, at least in a small manner, some developments in this vast and fascinating field. The first part deals with deterministic linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes either in classical or refined setting; the second part is devoted to the nonlinear random vibrations of structures.

  9. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  10. Non-Linear Second-Order Periodic Systems with Non-Smooth Potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evgenia H Papageorgiou; Nikolaos S, Papageorgiou

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector -Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth conditions on the potential function. Then we establish the existence of non-trivial homoclinic (to zero) solutions. Our theorem appears to be the first such result (even for smooth problems) for systems monitored by the -Laplacian. In the last section of the paper we examine the scalar non-linear and semilinear problem. Our approach uses a generalized Landesman–Lazer type condition which generalizes previous ones used in the literature. Also for the semilinear case the problem is at resonance at any eigenvalue.

  11. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  12. Use of non-linear models for the seismic assessment of existing buildings; Utilisation de modeles de calcul non lineaires pour la reevaluation sismique des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combescure, D.; Sollogoub, P.; Jeanvoine, E.; Politopoulos, I

    2000-07-01

    Models for the sizing of new structures are more and more reliable. Meanwhile the seismic prediction of an old building is a more complex problem. The non-linear displacements have to be take into account in the sizing codes. The CEA developed assessment methods of these non-linear deformations. This paper presents the different non-linear models, their particularities and two examples of structure analysis. (A.L.B.)

  13. Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yangping; LU Dechun; ZHOU Annan; ZOU Bo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the test data of frictional materials and previous research achievements in this field, a generalized non-linear strength theory (GNST) is proposed. It describes non-linear strength properties on the π-plane and the meridian plane using a unified formula, and it includes almost all the present non-linear strength theories, which can be used in just one material. The shape of failure function of the GNST is a smooth curve between the SMP criterion and the Mises criterion on the π-plane, and an exponential curve on the meridian plane. Through the transformed stress space based on the GNST, the combination of the GNST and various constitutive models using p and q as stress parameters can be realized simply and rationally in three-dimensional stress state.

  14. Controlling ultrafast currents by the non-linear photogalvanic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femto-second optical laser pulses. Ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast DC currents that can be viewed as a non-linear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity I_c ~ 3.8*10^13 W/cm2. We trace this switching to the transition from non-linear polarization currents to the tunneling excitation regime. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. We find the ultrafast current control by the non-linear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to laser-pulse shape and carrier-envelope phase.

  15. An algorithm for earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-chao; LIU Jin-fei

    2008-01-01

    For solving the optimization model of earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors, a hybrid al-gorithm combined with the ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this pa-per. Then the proposed method and the LP method are used respectively in solving a linear allocation model of a high rockfill dam project. Results obtained by these two methods are compared each other. It can be conclu-ded that the solution got by the proposed method is extremely approximate to the analytic solution of LP method. The superiority of the proposed method over the LP method in solving a non-linear allocation model is illustrated by a non-linear case. Moreover, further researches on improvement of the algorithm and the allocation model are addressed.

  16. Non-linear behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M; Morgado, R E

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of photodiodes used as photosensors requires a determination of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by scintillation light. One method involves comparing signals produced by X-ray absorptions occurring directly in the avalanche photodiode with the light signals. When the light is derived from light-emitting diodes in the 400-600 nm range, significant non-linear behaviour is reported. In the present work, we extend the study of the linear behaviour to large-area avalanche photodiodes, of Advanced Photonix, used as photosensors of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced by argon (128 nm) and xenon (173 nm). We observed greater non-linearities in the avalanche photodiodes for the VUV scintillation light than reported previously for visible light, but considerably less than the non-linearities observed in other commercially available avalanche photodiodes.

  17. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  18. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J; Ram, Nilam

    2009-10-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included.

  19. Dynamical symmetries of the Kepler problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This work originates from a first year undergraduate research project on hidden symmetries of the dynamics for classical Hamiltonian systems, under the program 'Jovens talentos para a Ciencia' of Brazilian funding agency Capes. For pedagogical reasons the main subject chosen was Kepler's problem of motion under a central potential, since it is a completely solved system. It is well known that for this problem the group of dynamical symmetries is strictly larger than the isometry group O(3), the extra symmetries corresponding to hidden symmetries of the dynamics. By taking the point of view of examining the group action of the dynamical symmetries on the allowed trajectories, it is possible to teach in the same project basic elements of as many important subjects in physics as: Hamiltonian formalism, hidden symmetries, integrable systems, group theory, and the use of manifolds.

  20. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  1. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  2. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  3. Dynamic Multi-class Network Loading Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic network loading problem (DNLP) consists in determining on a congested network, timedependent arc volumes, together with arc and path travel times, given the time varying path flow departure rates over a finite time horizon. The objective of this paper is to present the formulation of an analytical dynamic multiclass network loading model. The model does not require the assumption of the FIFO condition. The existence of a solution to the model is shown.

  4. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, M V T; Meneses, A R

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. Comparisons to DESY-HERA data on exclusive processes and predictions to the Large Hadron Electron Collider, LHeC, are presented.

  5. The Dynamics Of Non-Linear Effects In Optical Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Amujuri, M S

    1998-01-01

    A universal theory of chaos is presented which postulates the self-organized ordered growth of self-similar, scale invariant, eddy energy structures by space-time integration of inherent microscale energy generation mechanisms in the medium of propagation. Such a self consistent mechanism is shown to generate as a natural consequence, a scale invariant, hierarchical eddy continuum energy structure with dominant eddies at successive decadic scale ranges, with inherent quantum mechanical laws for energy manifestation, with fractal geometry and is similar to a 10 dimensional super symmetric, super gravity model for a Theory of Everything (TOE). The apparent wave-particle duality of quantum mechanical phenomena is attributed to the inherent bidirectional eddy energy flow structure with associated bimodal (formation and dissipation respectively) phenomenological form of energy display.

  6. The Non-linear Dynamics of Sociological Reflections

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Actors are embedded in networks of communication: the relations of the actors can be represented as the rows of a matrix, while the column vectors represent their communications. The two systems are structurally coupled in the co-variation: each action can be considered as a communication with reference to the network. Co-variation among systems if repeated over time, may lead to co-evolution. Conditions for stabilization of higher-order systems are specifiable: segmentation, stratification, reflection, differentiation, and self-organization can be distinguished in terms of developmental stages of increasingly complex networks. The sociological theory of communication occupies a central position for the clarification of the possibility of a general theory of communication, since it confronts us with the limits of reflexivity in human understanding and reflexive discourse. The implications for modelling the relations among incommensurable discourses (e.g., paradigms) are elaborated.

  7. Non-Linear Dynamics In Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris

    CERN Document Server

    Krstacic, G; Vargovic, E; Knezevic, A; Krstacic, A

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of fractal dimension and detrended fluctuation analysis by comparing the group of patients with stable angina pectoris without previous myocardial infarction with the group of age-matched healthy controls. The fractal dimension of the R-R series was determined using the rescaled range (R/S) analysis technique. To quantify fractal longe-range-correlation properties of heart rate variability, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique was used. The heart rate variability was characterized by a scaling exponent $\\alpha$, separately for short-term ($$ 11 beats) time scales. The results of data sets show the existence of crossover phenomena between short-time scales. The short-term fractal scaling exponent was significantly lower in patients with stable angina pectoris.

  8. Non-linear Dynamics of Speech in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Simonsen, Arndis; Weed, Ethan

    Background The speech of patients with schizophrenia is often described as monotonous, flat and without emotion. Distinctive speech patterns are qualitatively assessed in the diagnostic process and deeply impact the quality of everyday social interactions. In this project, we investigate and mode...

  9. Non-linear growth and condensation in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Different types of interactions coexist and coevolve to shape the structure and function of a multiplex network. We propose here a general class of growth models in which the various layers of a multiplex network coevolve through a set of non-linear preferential attachment rules. We show, both numerically and analytically, that by tuning the level of non-linearity these models allow to reproduce either homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distributions, together with positive or negative degree correlations across layers. In particular, we derive the condition for the appearance of a condensed state in which a single node connects to nearly all other nodes of a layer.

  10. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Dehdashti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2 and su(1, 1 coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  11. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...

  12. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  13. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, Shahram, E-mail: shdehdashti@zju.edu.cn; Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng, E-mail: hansomchen@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentations, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Electromagnetics Academy at Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jiarui, E-mail: jrliu@zju.edu.cn; Yu, Faxin [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  14. An inverse problem in analytical dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guang-Cheng; Mei-Feng-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an inverse problem in analytical dynamics.The inverse problem is to construct the Lagrangian when the integrals of a system are given.Firstly,the differential equations are obtained by using the time derivative of the integrals.Secondly,the differential equations can be written in the Lagrange equations under certain conditions and the Lagrangian can be obtained.Finally,two examples are given to illustrate the application of the result.

  15. Non-Linear Stability of an Electrified Plane Interface in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Yusry O.; Moatimid, Galal M.

    2004-03-01

    The non-linear electrohydrodynamic stability of capillary-gravity waves on the interface between two semi-infinite dielectric fluids is investigated. The system is stressed by a vertical electric field in the presence of surface charges. The work examines a few representative porous media configurations. The analysis includes Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The boundary - value problem leads to a non-linear equation governing the surface evolution. Taylor theory is adopted to expand this equation, in the light of multiple scales, in order to obtain a non-linear Schr¨odinger equation describing the behavior of the perturbed interface. The latter equation, representing the amplitude of the quasi-monochromatic traveling wave, is used to describe the stability criteria. These criteria are discussed both analytically and numerically. In order to identifiy regions of stability and instability, the electric field intensity is plotted versus the wave number. Through a linear stability approach it is found that Darcy's coefficients have a destabilizing influence, while in the non-linear scope these coefficients as well as the electric field intensity play a dual role on the stability.

  16. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  17. Weighted Ensemble Square Root Filters for Non-linear, Non-Gaussian, Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livings, D. M.; van Leeuwen, P.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) has become widely-used in both operational and research data assimilation systems. The particle filter is an alternative ensemble-based algorithm that offers the possibility of improved performance in non-linear and non-Gaussian problems. Papadakis et al (2010) introduced the Weighted Ensemble Kalman Filter (WEnKF) as a combination of the best features of the EnKF and the particle filter. Published work on the WEnKF has so far concentrated on the formulation of the EnKF in which observations are perturbed; no satisfactory general framework has been given for particle filters based on the alternative formulation of the EnKF known as the ensemble square root filter. This presentation will provide such a framework and show how several popular ensemble square root filters fit into it. No linear or Gaussian assumptions about the dynamical or observational models will be necessary. By examining the algorithms closely, shortcuts will be identified that increase both the simplicity and the efficiency of the resulting particle filter in comparison with a naive implementation. A procedure will be given for simply converting an existing ensemble square root filter into a particle filter. The procedure will not be limited to basic ensemble square root filters, but will be able to incorporate common variations such as covariance inflation without making any approximations.

  18. Non-linear MHD modeling of edge localized mode cycles and mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, François; Bécoulet, M.; Morales, J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Garbet, X.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Fil, A.; Cahyna, P.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of a multi-edge localized mode (ELM) cycle as well as the ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are modeled in realistic tokamak X-point geometry with the non-linear reduced MHD code JOREK. The diamagnetic rotation is found to be a key parameter enabling us to reproduce the cyclical dynamics of the plasma relaxations and to model the near-symmetric ELM power deposition on the inner and outer divertor target plates consistently with experimental measurements. Moreover, the non-linear coupling of the RMPs with unstable modes are found to modify the edge magnetic topology and induce a continuous MHD activity in place of a large ELM crash, resulting in the mitigation of the ELMs. At larger diamagnetic rotation, a bifurcation from unmitigated ELMs—at low RMP current—towards fully suppressed ELMs—at large RMP current—is obtained.

  19. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data.

  20. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back-propagatio......-propagation algorithms in the framework of recurrent back-propagation and present some numerical simulations of feed-forward networks on the NetTalk problem. A discussion of implementation in analog VLSI electronics concludes the paper.......The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  1. A Non-linear Scaling Algorithm Based on chirp-z Transform for Squint Mode FMCW-SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bin-bin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear scaling chirp-z imaging algorithm for squint mode Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar (FMCW-SAR is presented to solve the problem of the focus accuracy decline. Based on the non-linear characteristics in range direction for the echo signal in Doppler domain, a non-linear modulated signal is introduced to perform a non-linear scaling based on chirp-z transform. Then the error due to range compression and range migration correction can be reduced, therefore the range resolution of radar image is improved. By using the imaging algorithm proposed, the imaging performances for point targets, compared with that from the original chirp-z algorithm, are demonstrated to be improved in range resolution and image contrast, and to be maintained the same in azimuth resolution.

  2. Onset and non-linear regimes of Soret-induced convection in binary mixtures heated from above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, T; Zubova, N; Shevtsova, V

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of the onset and non-linear regimes of convection of liquid binary mixtures with negative Soret effect heated from above. The linear stability of a convectionless state in a horizontal layer is studied by the numerical solution of the linearized problem on the temporal evolution of small perturbations of the unsteady base state. Non-linear regimes of convection are investigated by the numerical solution of the non-linear unsteady equations for a horizontally elongated rectangular cavity. The calculations are performed for water-ethanol and water-isopropanol liquid mixtures and for colloidal suspensions. The dependences of the instability onset time and wave number of the most dangerous perturbations on the solutal Rayleigh number (gravity level) obtained by a linear stability analysis and non-linear calculations are found to be in a very good agreement. A favorable comparison with the existing experimental and numerical data is presented.

  3. Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.

  4. Effects of non-linear rheology on the electrospinning process: a model study

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Coluzza, Ivan; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2014-01-01

    We develop an analytical bead-spring model to investigate the role of non-linear rheology on the dynamics of electrified jets in the early stage of the electrospinning process. Qualitative arguments, parameter studies as well as numerical simulations, show that the elongation of the charged jet filament is significantly reduced in the presence of a non-zero yield stress. This may have beneficial implications for the optimal design of future electrospinning experiments.

  5. A New UKF Based Fault Detection Method in Non-linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Zhe-xue; YANG Yong-min; HU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    To detect the bias fault in stochastic non-linear dynamic systems, a new Unscented Kalman Filtering(UKF) based real-time recursion detection method is brought forward with the consideration of the flaws of traditional Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF). It uses the UKF as the residual generation method and the Weighted-Sum Squared Residual (WSSR) as the fault detection strategy. The simulation results are provided which demonstrate better effectiveness and a higher detection ratio of the developed methods.

  6. Fast heuristics for a dynamic paratransit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, M.L.A.G.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; van der Vlerk, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper we developed a non-standard two-stage recourse model for the dynamic day-ahead paratransit planning problem. Two heuristics, which are frequently applied in the recourse model, contain many details which leads to large CPU times to solve instances of relatively small size. In thi

  7. Experimental verification of the linear and non-linear versions of a panel code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, G. J.; Katsikis, C.; Chalkias, D. S.

    2011-03-01

    In the proposed paper numerical calculations are carried out using two versions of a three-dimensional, timedomain panel method developed by the group of Prof. P. Sclavounos at MIT, i.e. the linear code SWAN2, enabling optionally the use of the instantaneous non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces and the fully non-linear SWAN4. The analytical results are compared with experimental results for three hull forms with increasing geometrical complexity, the Series 60, a reefer vessel with stern bulb and a modern fast ROPAX hull form with hollow bottom in the stern region. The details of the geometrical modeling of the hull forms are discussed. In addition, since SWAN4 does not support transom sterns, only the two versions of SWAN2 were evaluated over experimental results for the parent hull form of the NTUA double-chine, wide-transom, high-speed monohull series. The effect of speed on the numerical predictions was investigated. It is concluded that both versions of SWAN2 the linear and the one with the non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces provide a more robust tool for prediction of the dynamic response of the vessels than the non-linear SWAN4 code. In general, their results are close to what was expected on the basis of experience. Furthermore, the use of the option of non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces is beneficial for the accuracy of the predictions. The content of the paper is based on the Diploma thesis of the second author, supervised by the first one and further refined by the third one.

  8. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  9. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found...

  10. Range non-linearities correction in FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    The limiting factor to the use of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques to produce lightweight, cost effective, low power consuming imaging sensors with high resolution, is the well known presence of non-linearities in the transmitted si

  11. Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...

  12. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter is gra...

  13. Note About Hamiltonian Structure of Non-Linear Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2011-01-01

    We perform the Hamiltonian analysis of non-linear massive gravity action studied recently in arXiv:1106.3344 [hep-th]. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint is the second class constraint. As a result the theory possesses an odd number of the second class constraints and hence all non physical degrees of freedom cannot be eliminated.

  14. Locally supersymmetric D=3 non-linear sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, B. de; Tollsten, A. K.; Nicolai, H.

    1992-01-01

    We study non-linear sigma models with N local supersymmetries in three space-time dimensions. For N=1 and 2 the target space of these models is Riemannian or Kahler, respectively. All N>2 theories are associated with Einstein spaces. For N=3 the target space is quaternionic, while for N=4 it general

  15. Non-linear magnetorheological behaviour of an inverse ferrofluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, B.J.; Hoekstra, Hans; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    The non-linear magnetorheological behaviour is studied of a model system consisting of monodisperse silica particles suspended in a ferrofluid. The stress/strain curve as well as the flow curve was measured as a function of volume fraction silica particles and field strength, using a home-made

  16. On the non-linearity of the subsidiary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, H

    2005-01-01

    In hyperbolic reductions of the Einstein equations the evolution of gauge conditions or constraint quantities is controlled by subsidiary systems. We point out a class of non-linearities in these systems which may have the potential of generating catastrophic growth of gauge resp. constraint violations in numerical calculations.

  17. Development and Control of a Non Linear Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanjeevi Gandhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, studies to develop and control non linear systems is of great significance. Magnetic Levitation System has gained considerable interests due to its great practical importance in different engineering fields In this paper an electromagnetic levitation system was developed and mathematical model for the system was derived. The developed system was controlled manually.

  18. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...... is studied. Both the Lebesgue and Hausdorff measures of this set are obtained....

  19. S-AMP for non-linear observation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...

  20. Applications of non-linear methods in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this review I discuss catastrophes, bifurcations and strange attractors in a non-mathematical manner by giving very simple examples that st ill contain the essence of the phenomenon. The salientresults of the applications of these non-linear methods in astrophysics are reviewed and include such d

  1. Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    qualities. The controller is a non-linear version of the well-known generalized predictive controller developed in linear control theory. It involves minimization of a cost function which in the present case has to be done numerically. Therefore, we develop the numerical algorithms necessary in substantial...

  2. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aert, S; Chen, J H; Van Dyck, D

    2010-10-01

    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  3. A Perturbation Result for Dynamical Contact Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corinna Klapproth; Peter Deuflhard; Anton Schiela

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a first step towards the continuous dependence of dynamical contact problems on the initial data as well as the uniqueness of a solution. Moreover, it provides the basis for a proof of the convergence of popular time integration schemes as the Newmark method. We study a frictionless dynamical contact problem between both linearly elastic and viscoelastic bodies which is formulated via the Signorini contact conditions. For viscoelastic materials fulfilling the Kelvin-Voigt constitutive law, we find a characterization of the class of problems which satisfy a perturbation result in a non-trivial mix of norms in function space. This characterization is given in the form of a stability condition on the contact stresses at the contact boundaries. Furthermore, we present perturbation results for two well-established approximations of the classical Signorini condition: The Signorini condition formulated in velocities and the model of normal compliance, both satisfying even a sharper version of our stability condition.

  4. Dynamic bi-product bundle pricing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses bundle pricing problem of two products in a stochastic environment so as to maximize net profit of a retailer. In the considered problem, it is assumed that customers are received upon a Poisson distribution and their demands follow a bi-variant distribution function. Also, it is assumed that products are sold individually or in the form of a bundle, which are offered from an initial stock of the products. To tackle the problem, a stochastic dynamic program is developed in which optimum values of the initial stock and order quantities of every planning period are determined. Moreover, prices of the individual products and their bundle are optimized. Also, the proposed dynamic program tackles bundling/ unbundling decisions taken in every planning period. A numerical example of a two planning period horizon is considered to validate the proposed model.

  5. Non-linear Elasticity and Monitoring of Stress in the Focus of an Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, V.; Bakulin, A.

    2001-05-01

    Non-linear elasticity proved to give comprehensive framework for relating seismic velocities in rocks to stress. This powerful theory allows attacking the problem of estimating stress state at the focus of earthquakes. Such idea has been proposed long time ago [Kostrov and Nikitin, 1968] however its implementation requires a-priori knowledge of non-linear rock properties. Three non-linear constants needed to describe variation of any velocity with stress are typically estimated from core measurements [Bakulin et al., 2000]. More reliable estimates can be obtained from multi-mode inversions of borehole acoustic data [Sinha, 1996]. Nevertheless database of non-linear formation constants is still very limited. More measurements are required to estimate non-linear rock properties on larger scale and with independent stress constraints. Such measurements can be done in mines [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999] or in hydrocarbon reservoirs where time-dependent pressure measurements are available. Without knowledge of non-linear rock properties seismic waves can still bring information about directions of tectonic stresses. In particular, shear wave polarizations can deliver directions of principal stresses in the focus of an earthquake, provided the overburden effects were removed. If rock non-linear properties are independently derived then estimation of stress magnitudes becomes feasible. Such techniques were applied in mining environment [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999]. They may become routine for monitoring stress state in the focus of earthquakes and therefore can be used for forecasting the seismic activity. Bakulin, A. V., Troyan, V. N., and Bakulin, V. N., 2000, Acoustoelasticity of rocks, St. Petersburg (in Russian). Bakulin, V. and Bakulin, A., 1999, Acoustopolarizational method of measuring stress in rock mass and determination of Murnaghan constants: 69th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., 1971-1974. Kostrov, B.V., and Nikitin, L.V., 1968, Influence of initial

  6. Superdiffusions and positive solutions of non-linear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynkin, E B [Cornell University, New York (United States)

    2004-02-28

    By using super-Brownian motion, all positive solutions of the non-linear differential equation {delta}u=u{sup {alpha}} with 1<{alpha}{<=}2 in a bounded smooth domain E are characterized by their (fine) traces on the boundary. This solves a problem posed by the author a few years ago. The special case {alpha}=2 was treated by B. Mselati in 2002.

  7. Tracking control of a class of non-linear systems with applications to cruise control of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfei; Yang, Zhiling; Meng, Bin

    2015-05-01

    A new tracking-control method for general non-linear systems is proposed. A virtual controller and some command references are introduced to asymptotically stabilise the system of the tracking error dynamics. Then, the actual controller and command references are derived by solving a system of linear algebraic equations. Compared with other tracking-control methods in the literature, the tracking-controller design in this paper is simple because it needs only to solve a system of linear algebraic equations. The boundedness of the tracking controller and command references is guaranteed by the solvability of the terminal value problem (TVP) of an ordinary differential equation. For non-linear systems with minimum-phase properties, the TVP is automatically solvable. A numerical example shows that the tracking-control method is still available for some systems with non-minimum-phase properties. To enhance the robustness of the tracking controller, a non-linear disturbance observer (NDO) is introduced to estimate the disturbance. The combination of the tracking controller and the NDO is applied to the tracking control of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

  8. Understanding climate impacts on vegetation using a spatiotemporal non-linear Granger causality framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulou, Christina; Decubber, Stijn; Miralles, Diego; Demuzere, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Waegeman, Willem

    2017-04-01

    Satellite data provide an abundance of information about crucial climatic and environmental variables. These data - consisting of global records, spanning up to 35 years and having the form of multivariate time series with different spatial and temporal resolutions - enable the study of key climate-vegetation interactions. Although methods which are based on correlations and linear models are typically used for this purpose, their assumptions for linearity about the climate-vegetation relationships are too simplistic. Therefore, we adopt a recently proposed non-linear Granger causality analysis [1], in which we incorporate spatial information, concatenating data from neighboring pixels and training a joint model on the combined data. Experimental results based on global data sets show that considering non-linear relationships leads to a higher explained variance of past vegetation dynamics, compared to simple linear models. Our approach consists of several steps. First, we compile an extensive database [1], which includes multiple data sets for land surface temperature, near-surface air temperature, surface radiation, precipitation, snow water equivalents and surface soil moisture. Based on this database, high-level features are constructed and considered as predictors in our machine-learning framework. These high-level features include (de-trended) seasonal anomalies, lagged variables, past cumulative variables, and extreme indices, all calculated based on the raw climatic data. Second, we apply a spatiotemporal non-linear Granger causality framework - in which the linear predictive model is substituted for a non-linear machine learning algorithm - in order to assess which of these predictor variables Granger-cause vegetation dynamics at each 1° pixel. We use the de-trended anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to characterize vegetation, being the target variable of our framework. Experimental results indicate that climate strongly (Granger

  9. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  10. Dynamics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 190 completely solved problems from Kinetics and Hydrodynamics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Kinematics of a Point - Kinetics of a Point Mass- Dynamics of a System of Point Masses - Kinematics of Rigid Bodies - Kinetics of Rigid Bodies - Impact - Vibrations - Non-Inertial Reference Frames - Hydrodynamics .

  11. A Projected Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Inverse Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    Inverse kinematics is the problem of posing an articulated figure to obtain a wanted goal, without regarding inertia and forces. Joint limits are modeled as bounds on individual degrees of freedom, leading to a box-constrained optimization problem. We present A projected Non-linear Conjugate...... Gradient optimization method suitable for box-constrained optimization problems for inverse kinematics. We show application on inverse kinematics positioning of a human figure. Performance is measured and compared to a traditional Jacobian Transpose method. Visual quality of the developed method...

  12. Multicriteria Dynamic Optimization Problems and Cooperative Dynamic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    We survey some recent research results in the field of dynamic cooperative differential games with non-transferable utilities. Problems which fit into this framework occur for instance if a person has more than one objective he likes to optimize or if several persons decide to combine efforts in

  13. Non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device coupled to a radio frequency oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, J K J

    2001-01-01

    previously unexplored regions of parameter space. We show that these calculations predict a range of previously unreported dynamical I-V characterises for SQUID rings in the strongly hysteretic regime. Finally, we present the successful realisation of a novel experimental technique that permits the weak link of a SQUID to be probed independently of the associated ring structure by mechanically opening and closing the ring. We demonstrate that this process can be completed during the same experimental run without the need for warming and re-cooling of the sample. This thesis is concerned with the investigation of the non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) coupled to a RF tank circuit. We consider two regimes, one where the underlying SQUID behaviour is non-hysteretic with respect to an externally applied magnetic flux, and the other where hysteretic (dissipative) behaviour is observed. We show that, by following non-linearities induced in the tank circuit response, the un...

  14. A Detailed Analytical Study of Non-Linear Semiconductor Device Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    1995-01-01

    junction diode have been developed. The results of computer simulated examples have been presented in each case. The non-linear lumped model for Gunn is a unified model as it describes the diffusion effects as the-domain traves from cathode to anode. An additional feature of this model is that it describes the domain extinction and nucleation phenomena in Gunn dioder with the help of a simple timing circuit. The non-linear lumped model for SCR is general and is valid under any mode of operation in any circuit environment. The memristive circuit model for p-n junction diodes is capable of simulating realistically the diode’s dynamic behavior under reverse, forward and sinusiodal operating modes. The model uses memristor, the charge-controlled resistor to mimic various second-order effects due to conductivity modulation. It is found that both storage time and fall time of the diode can be accurately predicted.

  15. [Radiation dose reduction using a non-linear image filter in MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Junya; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Imai, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Yotaro; Kato, Kyoichi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-05-20

    The development of MDCT enabled various high-quality 3D imaging and optimized scan timing with contrast injection in a multi-phase dynamic study. Since radiation dose tends to increase to yield such high-quality images, we have to make an effort to reduce radiation dose. A non-linear image filter (Neuro 3D filter: N3D filter) has been developed in order to improve image noise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical performance and effectiveness of this non-linear image filter using phantoms, and show how we can reduce radiation dose in clinical use of this filter. This N3D filter reduced radiation dose by about 50%, with minimum deterioration of spatial reduction in phantom and clinical studies. This filter shows great potential for clinical application.

  16. Non-Linear High Amplitude Oscillations in Wave-shaped Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2011-11-01

    A numerical and experimental study of non-linear, high amplitude standing waves in ``wave-shaped'' resonators is reported here. These waves are shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that can exceed the ambient pressure by three/four times its nominal value. A high fidelity compressible axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the phenomena in cylindrical and arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric resonators. Working fluids (Helium, Nitrogen and R-134a) at various operating pressures are studied. The experiments are performed in a constant cross-section cylindrical resonator in atmospheric pressure nitrogen and helium to provide model validation. The high amplitude non-linear oscillations demonstrated can be used as a prime mover in a variety of applications including thermoacoustic cryocooling. The work reported is supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant CBET-0853959.

  17. Global search of non-linear systems periodic solutions: A rotordynamics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouy, E.; Thouverez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Introducing non-linearities into models contributes towards a better reality description but leads to systems having multiple solutions. It is then legitimate to look for all the solutions of such systems, that is to have a global analysis approach. However no effective method can be found in literature for systems described by more than two or three degrees of freedom. We propose in this paper a way to find all T-periodic solutions—where T is known—of a non-linear dynamical system. This method is compared to three other approaches and is shown to be the most efficient on a Duffing oscillator. As a more complex example, a rotor model including a squeeze-film damper is studied and a second branch of solutions is exhibited.

  18. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  19. Non-linear effects for cylindrical gravitational two-soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Using a cylindrical soliton solution to the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation, we study non-linear effects of gravitational waves such as Faraday rotation and time shift phenomenon. In the previous work, we analyzed the single-soliton solution constructed by the Pomeransky's improved inverse scattering method. In this work, we construct a new two-soliton solution with complex conjugate poles, by which we can avoid light-cone singularities unavoidable in a single soliton case. In particular, we compute amplitudes of such non-linear gravitational waves and time-dependence of the polarizations. Furthermore, we consider the time shift phenomenon for soliton waves, which means that a wave packet can propagate at slower velocity than light.

  20. NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF DEEP DRAWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YILDIZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.

  1. Non-linear irreversible thermodynamics of single-molecule experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Santamaria-Holek, I; Hidalgo-Soria, M; Perez-Madrid, A

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics of single-molecule experiments subject to external constraining forces of a mechanical nature is presented. Extending Onsager's formalism to the non-linear case of systems under non-equilibrium external constraints, we are able to calculate the entropy production and the general non-linear kinetic equations for the variables involved. In particular, we analyze the case of RNA stretching protocols obtaining critical oscillations between di?erent con?gurational states when forced by external means to remain in the unstable region of its free-energy landscape, as observed in experiments. We also calculate the entropy produced during these hopping events, and show how resonant phenomena in stretching experiments of single RNA macromolecules may arise. We also calculate the hopping rates using Kramer's approach obtaining a good comparison with experiments.

  2. SSNN toolbox for non-linear system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Marcel; Czajkowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and design a State Space Neural Network toolbox for a non-linear system identification with an artificial state-space neural networks, which can be used in a model-based robust fault diagnosis and control. Such toolbox is implemented in the MATLAB environment and it uses some of its predefined functions. It is designed in the way that any non-linear multi-input multi-output system is identified and represented in the classical state-space form. The novelty of the proposed approach is that the final result of the identification process is the state, input and output matrices, not only the neural network parameters. Moreover, the toolbox is equipped with the graphical user interface, which makes it useful for the users not familiar with the neural networks theory.

  3. Parametric Analysis of Fiber Non-Linearity in Optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM is always an area of interest in the field of optical communication. When combined with Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA, it provides high data transmission rate and low attenuation. But due to fiber non-linearity such as Self Phase Modulation (SPM and Cross Phase Modulation (XPM the system performance has degraded. This non-linearity depends on different parameters of an optical system such as channel spacing, power of the channel and length of the fiber section. The degradation can be seen in terms of phase deviation and Bit Error Rate (BER performance. Even after dispersion compensation at the fiber end, residual pulse broadening still exists due to cross talk penalty.

  4. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.;

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure load...... and results are compared to test data. A novel test arrangement utilizing a water filled cushion to create the uniform pressure load on curved panel specimen is used to obtain the experimental data. The panel is modeled with three different commercial finite element codes. Two implicit and one explicit code...... are used with various element types, modeling approaches and material models. The results show that the theoretical and experimental methods generally show fair agreement in panel non-linear behavior before collapse. It is also shown that special attention to detail has to be taken, because the predicted...

  5. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de, E-mail: Thomas.Konstandin@desy.de [DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  6. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  7. Robust non-gradient C subroutines for non-linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems, where gradient information is not required. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have...... subroutines are obtained by changing 0 to 1. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-04 with the title Non-gradient c Subroutines for Non- Linear Optimization, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated...... from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some of the C subroutines have been replaced by more e ective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modified to some extent...

  8. Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability...... detail and discuss the implementation difficulties. The neural generalized predictive controller is tested on a pneumatic servo sys-tem....

  9. Measuring the Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Matthes; Regis Barnichon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify the non-linear effects of structural shocks by using Gaussian basis functions to parametrize impulse response functions. We apply our approach to monetary policy and find that the effect of a monetary intervention depends strongly on (i) the sign of the intervention, (ii) the size of the intervention, and (iii) the state of the business cycle at the time of the intervention. A contractionary policy has a strong adverse effect on output, much stronger t...

  10. The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R - λ){sup 2} = 0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories. (orig.)

  11. The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios, E-mail: antoniad@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlestrasse 5, 3012, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula, E-mail: chrysoula@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France)

    2015-12-09

    We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R-λ){sup 2}=0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories.

  12. Non-linear high-frequency waves in the magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Moolla; R Bharuthram; S V Singh; G S Lakhina

    2003-12-01

    Using fluid theory, a set of equations is derived for non-linear high-frequency waves propagating oblique to an external magnetic field in a three-component plasma consisting of hot electrons, cold electrons and cold ions. For parameters typical of the Earth’s magnetosphere, numerical solutions of the governing equations yield sinusoidal, sawtooth or bipolar wave-forms for the electric field.

  13. Adaptive spectral identification techniques in presence of undetected non linearities

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Guidi, G M

    2002-01-01

    The standard procedure for detection of gravitational wave coalescing binaries signals is based on Wiener filtering with an appropriate bank of template filters. This is the optimal procedure in the hypothesis of addictive Gaussian and stationary noise. We study the possibility of improving the detection efficiency with a class of adaptive spectral identification techniques, analyzing their effect in presence of non stationarities and undetected non linearities in the noise

  14. Likelihood inference for discretely observed non-linear diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the Bayesian estimation of non-linear stochastic differential equations when observations are discretely sampled. The estimation framework relies on the introduction of latent auxiliary data to complete the missing diffusion between each pair of measurements. Tuned Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, in conjunction with the Euler-Maruyama discretization scheme, are used to sample the posterior distribution of the lat...

  15. On the non-linear stability of scalar field cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alho, Artur; Mena, Filipe C [Centro de Matematica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kroon, Juan A Valiente, E-mail: aalho@math.uminho.pt, E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt, E-mail: jav@maths.qmul.ac.uk [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-22

    We review recent work on the stability of flat spatially homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds with a self-interacting scalar field. We derive a first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic system for the Einstein-nonlinear-scalar field system. Then, using the linearized system, we show how to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions which ensure the exponential decay to zero of small non-linear perturbations.

  16. Non-linear Higgs portal to Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajo, Rocío del Rey

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs portal to scalar Dark Matter is considered in the context of non-linearly realised electroweak symmetry breaking. We determine the interactions of gauge bosons and the physical Higgs particle $h$ to a scalar singlet Dark Matter candidate $S$ in an effective description. The main phenomenological differences with respect to the standard scenario can be seen in the Dark Matter relic abundance, in direct/indirect searches and in signals at colliders.

  17. The problem of time and the problem of quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Tejinder P

    2012-01-01

    Quantum theory depends on an external classical time, and there ought to exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not depend on such a time. The demand for the existence of such a reformulation suggests that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic non-linear theory. The stochastic non-linearity provides a dynamical explanation for the collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. Hence the problem of time and the measurement problem are related to each other: the search for a solution for the former problem naturally implies a solution for the latter problem.

  18. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  19. Non-linear polaronic conduction in magnetite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pooja, E-mail: pooja7503@gmail.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rout, P.K., E-mail: pkrout.phy@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Husale, Sudhir; Gupta, Anurag [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Manju [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rakshit, R.K. [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dogra, Anjana, E-mail: anjanad@nplindia.org [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-12-01

    We report the temperature dependent current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires with varying width (w) of 132, 358, and 709 nm. While the widest nanowire (w=709 nm) shows ohmic I (V) curves for all temperatures, those for w=132 and 358 nm show nonlinearity, which can be expressed by a combination of linear (V) and cubic (V{sup 3}) terms. The behaviour of conductance (linear bias component of current) and non-linearity in these nanowires is related to small polaron hopping related conduction. Moreover, we observed an anomalously large hopping lengths, which may be related to the size of percolation cluster and/or antiphase domain. Our study presents first experimental evidence for such non-linear polaronic conduction in magnetite nanowires. - Highlights: • Temperature dependent I–V measurements of FIB fabricated magnetite nanowires. • Small polaron based conduction in non-linear I–V curves. • Anomalously large hopping lengths due to percolation effect and/or antiphase domains.

  20. Non-linear Q-clouds around Kerr black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Herdeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Q-balls are regular extended ‘objects’ that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. We focus on a complex massive scalar field with quartic plus hexic self-interactions. Without the self-interactions, linear clouds have been shown to exist, in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon, along 1-dimensional subspaces – existence lines – of the Kerr 2-dimensional parameter space. They are zero modes of the superradiant instability. Non-linear Q-clouds, on the other hand, are also in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon; but they exist on a 2-dimensional subspace, delimited by a minimal horizon angular velocity and by an appropriate existence line, wherein the non-linear terms become irrelevant and the Q-cloud reduces to a linear cloud. Thus, Q-clouds provide an example of scalar bound states around Kerr black holes which, generically, are not zero modes of the superradiant instability. We describe some physical properties of Q-clouds, whose backreaction leads to a new family of hairy black holes, continuously connected to the Kerr family.

  1. Fitting and forecasting non-linear coupled dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, Santiago; Baldi, Marco; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range $z=0-1.6$ and wave modes below $k=10 \\text{h/Mpc}$. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and w...

  2. Generalized Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, E; Mehrabi, A; Movahed, S M S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate ghost dark energy model in the presence of non-linear interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The functional form of dark energy density in the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model is $\\rho_D\\equiv f(H, H^2)$ with coefficient of $H^2$ represented by $\\zeta$ and the model contains three free parameters as $\\Omega_D, \\zeta$ and $b^2$ (the coupling coefficient of interactions). We propose three kinds of non-linear interaction terms and discuss the behavior of equation of state, deceleration and dark energy density parameters of the model. We also find the squared sound speed and search for signs of stability of the model. To compare the interacting GGDE model with observational data sets, we use more recent observational outcomes, namely SNIa, gamma-ray bursts, baryonic acoustic oscillation and the most relevant CMB parameters including, the position of acoustic peaks, shift parameters and redshift to recombination. For GGDE with the first non-linear interaction, the j...

  3. Testing non-linear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schellstede, Gerold O; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical foundations for testing non-linear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry. Apart from some non-degeneracy conditions to be imposed, our discussion applies to all non-linear electrodynamical theories of the Pleba\\'nski class, i.e., to all Lagrangians that depend only on the two Lorentz-invariant scalars quadratic in the field strength. The main idea of the experiment proposed here is to use the fact that, according to non-linear electrodynamics, the phase velocity of light should depend on the strength and on the direction of an electromagnetic background field. There are two possible experimental set-ups for testing this prediction with Michelson interferometry. The first possibility is to apply a strong electromagnetic field to the beam in one arm of the interferometer and to compare the situation where the field is switched on with the situation where it is switched off. The second possibility is to place the whole interferometer in a strong electromagnetic field and...

  4. Fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic microporous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Sharifi, Payam; Wolff, Justin; Kohli, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Large scale fabrication of non-linear microporous membranes is of technological importance in many applications ranging from separation to microfluidics. However, their fabrication using traditional techniques is limited in scope. We report on fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic micropores (PMS) in polymer membranes by utilizing flow properties of fluids. The shape of the fabricated PMS corroborated well with simplified Navier-Stokes equation describing parabolic relationship of the form L - t(1/2). Here, L is a measure of the diameter of the fabricated micropores during flow time (t). The surface of PMS is smooth due to fluid surface tension at fluid-air interface. We demonstrate fabrication of PMS using curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The parabolic shape of micropores was a result of interplay between horizontal and vertical fluid movements due to capillary, viscoelastic, and gravitational forces. We also demonstrate fabrication of asymmetric "off-centered PMS" and an array of PMS membranes using this simple fabrication technique. PMS containing membranes with nanoscale dimensions are also possible by controlling the experimental conditions. The present method provides a simple, easy to adopt, and energy efficient way for fabricating non-linear parabolic shape pores at microscale. The prepared parabolic membranes may find applications in many areas including separation, parabolic optics, micro-nozzles / -valves / -pumps, and microfluidic and microelectronic delivery systems.

  5. Dynamic consistency for Stochastic Optimal Control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Pierre; Cohen, Guy; De Lara, Michel; Girardeau, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    For a sequence of dynamic optimization problems, we aim at discussing a notion of consistency over time. This notion can be informally introduced as follows. At the very first time step $t_0$, the decision maker formulates an optimization problem that yields optimal decision rules for all the forthcoming time step $t_0, t_1, ..., T$; at the next time step $t_1$, he is able to formulate a new optimization problem starting at time $t_1$ that yields a new sequence of optimal decision rules. This process can be continued until final time $T$ is reached. A family of optimization problems formulated in this way is said to be time consistent if the optimal strategies obtained when solving the original problem remain optimal for all subsequent problems. The notion of time consistency, well-known in the field of Economics, has been recently introduced in the context of risk measures, notably by Artzner et al. (2007) and studied in the Stochastic Programming framework by Shapiro (2009) and for Markov Decision Processes...

  6. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  7. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  8. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenninger, Ronald

    2013-01-09

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  9. Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus M. de la Cruz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  10. A review on non-linear aeroelasticity of high aspect-ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Frederico; Vale, José; Oliveira, Éder; Lau, Fernando; Suleman, Afzal

    2017-02-01

    Current economic constraints and environmental regulations call for design of more efficient aircraft configurations. An observed trend in aircraft design to reduce the lift induced drag and improve fuel consumption and emissions is to increase the wing aspect-ratio. However, a slender wing is more flexible and subject to higher deflections under the same operating conditions. This effect may lead to changes in dynamic behaviour and in aeroelastic response, potentially resulting in instabilities. Therefore, it is important to take into account geometric non-linearities in the design of high aspect-ratio wings, as well as having accurate computational codes that couple the aerodynamic and structural models in the presence of non-linearities. Here, a review on the state-of-the-art on non-linear aeroelasticity of high aspect-ratio wings is presented. The methodologies employed to analyse high aspect-ratio wings are presented and their applications discussed. Important observations from the state-of-the-art studies are drawn and the current challenges in the field are identified.

  11. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  12. Impulsively Generated Linear and Non-linear Alfven Waves in the Coronal Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielewski, P; Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E

    2014-01-01

    We present simulation results of the impulsively generated linear and non-linear Alfven waves in the weakly curved coronal magnetic flux-tubes (coronal funnels) and discuss their implications for the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find the temporal signatures of the small and large-amplitude Alfven waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration with a realistic temperature distribution. We compute the maximum transversal velocity of both linear and non-linear Alfven waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and study their response in the solar corona during the time of their propagation. We infer that the pulse-driven non-linear Alfven waves may carry sufficient wave energy fluxes to heat the coronal funnels and also to power the solar wind that originates in these funnels. Our study of linear Alfven waves show that they can contribute only to the plasma dynamics and heating of t...

  13. Impulsively Generated Linear and Non-linear Alfven Waves in the Coronal Funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Murawski, K.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present simulation results of the impulsively generated linear and non-linear Alfvén waves in the weakly curved coronal magnetic flux-tubes (coronal funnels) and discuss their implications for the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find the temporal signatures of the small and large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration with a realistic temperature distribution. We compute the maximum transversal velocity of both linear and non-linear Alfvén waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and study their response in the solar corona during the time of their propagation. We infer that the pulse-driven non-linear Alfvén waves may carry sufficient wave energy fluxes to heat the coronal funnels and also to power the solar wind that originates in these funnels. Our study of linear Alfvén waves shows that they can contribute only to the plasma dynamics and heating of the funnel-like magnetic flux-tubes associated with the polar coronal holes.

  14. Lmfit: Non-Linear Least-Square Minimization and Curve-Fitting for Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newville, Matthew; Stensitzki, Till; Allen, Daniel B.; Rawlik, Michal; Ingargiola, Antonino; Nelson, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.

  15. Dynamic Teams and Decentralized Control Problems with Substitutable Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Asghari, Seyed Mohammad; Nayyar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers two problems -- a dynamic team problem and a decentralized control problem. The problems we consider do not belong to the known classes of "simpler" dynamic team/decentralized control problems such as partially nested or quadratically invariant problems. However, we show that our problems admit simple solutions under an assumption referred to as the substitutability assumption. Intuitively, substitutability in a team (resp. decentralized control) problem means that the ef...

  16. Non-linear analysis and calculation of the performance of a shelving protection system by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, P. J.; del Coz Díaz, J. J.; Vilán Vilán, J. A.; Suárez Sierra, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper consists on the study, analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a shelving protection system by means of the finite element method (FEM). These shelving protection systems are intended to prevent the eventual damage due to the impacts of transport elements in motion, such as: forklifts, dumpers, hand pallet trucks, and so on. The impact loads may threaten the structural integrity of the shelving system. The present structural problem is highly non-linear, due to the simultaneous presence of the following nonlinearities: material non-linearity (plasticity in this case), geometrical non-linearity (large displacements) and contact-type boundary conditions (between the rigid body and the protection system). A total of forty eight different FEM models are built varying the thickness of the steel plate (4, 5 and 6 mm), the impact height (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 meters) and the impact direction (head-on collision and side impact). Once the models are solved, the stress distribution, the overall displacements and the absorbed impact energy were calculated. In order to determine the best shelving protection's candidate, some constraints must be taken into account: the maximum allowable stress (235 MPa), the maximum displacement (0.05 m) and the absorbed impact energy (400 J according to the European Standard Rule PREN-15512). Finally, the most important results are shown and conclusions of this study are exposed.

  17. Automated, non-linear registration between 3-dimensional brain map and medical head image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, Shinobu; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Zoroofi, R.A.; Uyama, Chikao [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated, non-linear registration method between 3-dimensional medical head image and brain map in order to efficiently extract the regions of interest. In our method, input 3-dimensional image is registered into a reference image extracted from a brain map. The problems to be solved are automated, non-linear image matching procedure, and cost function which represents the similarity between two images. Non-linear matching is carried out by dividing the input image into connected partial regions, transforming the partial regions preserving connectivity among the adjacent images, evaluating the image similarity between the transformed regions of the input image and the correspondent regions of the reference image, and iteratively searching the optimal transformation of the partial regions. In order to measure the voxelwise similarity of multi-modal images, a cost function is introduced, which is based on the mutual information. Some experiments using MR images presented the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  18. Reservoir computing and extreme learning machines for non-linear time-series data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, J B; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; Day, C R; Haycock, P W

    2013-02-01

    Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly recurrent neural networks. In this study an ESN is shown to contain an antagonistic trade-off between the amount of non-linear mapping and short-term memory it can exhibit when applied to time-series data which are highly non-linear. To overcome this trade-off a new architecture, Reservoir with Random Static Projections (R(2)SP) is investigated, that is shown to offer a significant improvement in performance. A similar approach using an ELM whose input is presented through a time delay (TD-ELM) is shown to further enhance performance where it significantly outperformed the ESN and R(2)SP as well other architectures when applied to a novel task which allows the short-term memory and non-linearity to be varied. The hard-limiting memory of the TD-ELM appears to be best suited for the data investigated in this study, although ESN-based approaches may offer improved performance when processing data which require a longer fading memory.

  19. Oscillations of a Beam on a Non-Linear Elastic Foundation under Periodic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Mark Santee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the response of a beam resting on a nonlinear elastic foundation makes the design of this structural element rather challenging. Particularly because, apparently, there is no algebraic relation for its load bearing capacity as a function of the problem parameters. Such an algebraic relation would be desirable for design purposes. Our aim is to obtain this relation explicitly. Initially, a mathematical model of a flexible beam resting on a non-linear elastic foundation is presented, and its non-linear vibrations and instabilities are investigated using several numerical methods. At a second stage, a parametric study is carried out, using analytical and semi-analytical perturbation methods. So, the influence of the various physical and geometrical parameters of the mathematical model on the non-linear response of the beam is evaluated, in particular, the relation between the natural frequency and the vibration amplitude and the first period doubling and saddle-node bifurcations. These two instability phenomena are the two basic mechanisms associated with the loss of stability of the beam. Finally Melnikov's method is used to determine an algebraic expression for the boundary that separates a safe from an unsafe region in the force parameters space. It is shown that this can be used as a basis for a reliable engineering design criterion.

  20. The Finite Deformation Dynamic Sphere Test Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versino, Daniele [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brock, Jerry Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    In this manuscript we describe test cases for the dynamic sphere problem in presence of finite deformations. The spherical shell in exam is made of a homogeneous, isotropic or transverse isotropic material and elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviors are considered. Twenty cases, (a) to (t), are thus defined combining material types and boundary conditions. The inner surface radius, the outer surface radius and the material's density are kept constant for all the considered test cases and their values are ri = 10mm, ro = 20mm and p = 1000Kg/m3 respectively.

  1. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  2. Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-03-01

    Full Bayes linear intervention models have been recently proposed to conduct before-after safety studies. These models assume linear slopes to represent the time and treatment effects across the treated and comparison sites. However, the linear slope assumption can only furnish some restricted treatment profiles. To overcome this problem, a first-order autoregressive (AR1) safety performance function (SPF) that has a dynamic regression equation (known as the Koyck model) is proposed. The non-linear 'Koyck' model is compared to the linear intervention model in terms of inference, goodness-of-fit, and application. Both models were used in association with the Poisson-lognormal (PLN) hierarchy to evaluate the safety performance of a sample of intersections that have been improved in the Greater Vancouver area. The two models were extended by incorporating random parameters to account for the correlation between sites within comparison-treatment pairs. Another objective of the paper is to compute basic components related to the novelty effects, direct treatment effects, and indirect treatment effects and to provide simple expressions for the computation of these components in terms of the model parameters. The Koyck model is shown to furnish a wider variety of treatment profiles than those of the linear intervention model. The analysis revealed that incorporating random parameters among matched comparison-treatment pairs in the specification of SPFs can significantly improve the fit, while reducing the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation. Also, the proposed PLN Koyck model fitted the data much better than the Poisson-lognormal linear intervention (PLNI) model. The novelty effects were short lived, the indirect (through traffic volumes) treatment effects were approximately within ±10%, whereas the direct treatment effects indicated a non-significant 6.5% reduction during the after period under PLNI compared to a significant 12.3% reduction in predicted collision

  3. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  4. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  5. Non-linear DSGE Models and The Optimized Particle Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper improves the accuracy and speed of particle filtering for non-linear DSGE models with potentially non-normal shocks. This is done by introducing a new proposal distribution which i) incorporates information from new observables and ii) has a small optimization step that minimizes...... the distance to the optimal proposal distribution. A particle filter with this proposal distribution is shown to deliver a high level of accuracy even with relatively few particles, and this filter is therefore much more efficient than the standard particle filter....

  6. Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, LW

    2003-01-01

    In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it

  7. Hans Hinterreiter’s non-linear transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil

    poster illustrates four different cases of this process, starting always with a plane-group pattern and showing both the application of non-linear transformations and coloured symmetry. In his more complex patterns, two of which are shown on the poster, Hinterreiter created domains of affinely...... of plane-group patterns onto curvilinear nets of different kinds, mostly combined with a skilful application of principles of dichroic or polychromatic symmetry. Unlike Escher, Hinterreiter strove to achieve the aesthetic ideal of a pure abstract form [2] with its inherent symmetries. His unique, two...

  8. Studies for an alternative LHC non-linear collimation system

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Cerutti, F; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A; Resta-Lopez, J

    2012-01-01

    A LHC non-linear betatron cleaning collimation system would allow larger gap for the mechanical jaws, reducing as a consequence the collimator-induced impedance, which may limit the LHC beam intensity. In this paper, the performance of the proposed system is analyzed in terms of beam losses distribution around the LHC ring and cleaning efficiency in stable physics condition at 7TeV for Beam1. Moreover, the energy deposition distribution on the machine elements is compared to the present LHC Betatron cleaning collimation system in the Point 7 Insertion Region (IR).

  9. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  10. Non-linear optical titanyl arsenates: Crystal growth and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Jenni Eva Louise

    Crystals are appreciated not only for their appearance, but also for their unique physical properties which are utilized by the photonic industry in appliances that we come across every day. An important part of enabling the technical use of optical devices is the manufacture of crystals. This dissertation deals with a specific group of materials called the potassium titanyl phosphate (KIP) family, known for their non-linear optical and ferroelectric properties. The isomorphs vary in their linear optical and dielectric properties, which can be tuned to optimize device performance by forming solid solutions of the different materials. Titanyl arsenates have a wide range of near-infrared transmission which makes them useful for tunable infrared lasers. The isomorphs examined in the present work were primarily RbTiOASO4 (RTA) and CsTiOAsO4 (CTA) together with the mixtures RbxCs 1-xTiOAsO4 (RCTA). Large-scale crystals were grown by top seeding solution growth utilizing a three-zone furnace with excellent temperature control. Sufficiently slow cooling and constant upward lifting produced crystals with large volumes useable for technical applications. Optical quality RTA crystals up to 10 x 12 x 20 mm were grown. The greater difficulty in obtaining good crystals of CTA led to the use of mixed RCTA materials. The mixing of rubidium and cesium in RCTA is more favorable to crystal growth than the single components in pure RTA and CTA. Mixed crystals are rubidium-enriched and contain only 20-30% of the cesium concentration in the flux. The cesium atoms show a preference for the larger cation site. The network structure is very little affected by the cation substitution; consequently, the non-linear optical properties of the Rb-rich isomorphic mixtures of RTA and CTA can be expected to remain intact. Crystallographic methods utilizing conventional X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction have been employed to investigate the properties of the atomic

  11. Non-linear Calibration Leads to Improved Correspondence between Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2007-01-01

    an investigation of an uncomplicated expression of the non-linear working curve that is well suited to an assessment of predicted uncertainties. At small concentrations, the working curve reduces to a straight line that corresponds to the conventional calibration line. If no interferences were disturbing...... limit theorem, an excellent correspondence was obtained between predicted uncertainties and measured uncertainties. In order to validate the method, experiments were applied of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for the analysis of Co and Pt, and experiments of electrothermal atomic absorption...

  12. A non-linear UAV altitude PSO-PD control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model based approach is presented for the altitude stabilization of a hexarotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The mathematical model and control of the hexacopter airframe is presented. To stabilize the system along the vertical direction, a Proportional Derivative (PD) control is taken into account. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is used in this paper to select the optimal parameters of the control algorithm taking into account different objective functions. Simulation sets are performed to carry out the results for the non-linear system to show how the PSO tuned PD controller leads to zero the error of the position along Z earth direction.

  13. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  14. Hierarchical Non-linear Image Registration Integrating Deformable Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Xin; QI Fei-hu

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical non-linear method for image registration was presented, which integrates image segmentation and registration under a variational framework. An improved deformable model is used to simultaneously segment and register feature from multiple images. The objects in the image pair are segmented by evolving a single contour and meanwhile the parameters of affine registration transformation are found out. After that, a contour-constrained elastic registration is applied to register the images correctly. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is effective to segment and register medical images.

  15. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Class D amplifiers fits the automotive demands quite well. The traditional buck-based amplifier has reduced both the cost and size of amplifiers. However the buck topology is not without its limitations. The maximum peak AC output voltage produced by the power stage is only equal the supply voltage....... The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  16. Non linear analyses of speech and prosody in Asperger's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Bang, Dan; Weed, Ethan

    and explain this oddness of speech pattern. In this project, we quantify how the speech patterns of people with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) differ from that of matched controls. To do so, we employed both traditional measures (pitch range and standard deviation, pause duration, and so on) and 2) non......-linear techniques measuring the structure (regularity and complexity) of verbal, prosodic and fluency behaviour. Our aims were (1) to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the speech patterns in AS than has previously been achieved using traditional, linear measures of prosody and fluency, and (2) to employ...

  17. Weak non-linear surface charging effects in electrolytic films

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, D. S.; Horgan, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full non-linear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the reno...

  18. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed, Yasser Fatouh, Wael Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that the Unsymmetric solver of the modal analysis is efficient enough to solve this linear problem after transforming the non-linear behavior of the contact between the drum and the lining to a linear behavior. A SOLID45 which is a linear element is used in the modal analysis and then transferred to non-linear elements which are Targe170 and Conta173 that represent the drum and lining for contact analysis study. The contact analysis problems are highly non-linear and require significant computer resources to solve it, however, the contact problem give two significant difficulties. Firstly, the region of contact is not known based on the boundary conditions such as line pressure, and drum and friction material specs. Secondly, these contact problems need to take the friction into consideration. Finally, it showed a good distribution of the nodal reaction forces on the slotted lining contact surface and existing of the slot in the middle of the lining can help in wear removal due to the friction between the lining and the drum. Accurate contact stiffness can give a good representation for the pressure distribution between the lining and the drum. However, a full contact of the front part of the slotted lining could occur in case of 20, 40, 60 and 80 bar of piston pressure and a partially contact between the drum and lining can occur in the rear part of the slotted lining.

  19. Non-Linear Approach in Kinesiology Should Be Preferred to the Linear--A Case of Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Jeličić, Mario; Papić, Vladan

    2015-07-01

    In kinesiology, medicine, biology and psychology, in which research focus is on dynamical self-organized systems, complex connections exist between variables. Non-linear nature of complex systems has been discussed and explained by the example of non-linear anthropometric predictors of performance in basketball. Previous studies interpreted relations between anthropometric features and measures of effectiveness in basketball by (a) using linear correlation models, and by (b) including all basketball athletes in the same sample of participants regardless of their playing position. In this paper the significance and character of linear and non-linear relations between simple anthropometric predictors (AP) and performance criteria consisting of situation-related measures of effectiveness (SE) in basketball were determined and evaluated. The sample of participants consisted of top-level junior basketball players divided in three groups according to their playing time (8 minutes and more per game) and playing position: guards (N = 42), forwards (N = 26) and centers (N = 40). Linear (general model) and non-linear (general model) regression models were calculated simultaneously and separately for each group. The conclusion is viable: non-linear regressions are frequently superior to linear correlations when interpreting actual association logic among research variables.

  20. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.