WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-catalytic transesterification influencia

  1. Temperature influence on biodiesel production by non-catalytic transesterification; Influencia da temperatura na producao de biodiesel por transesterificacao nao catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto N.M.; Oliveira, Thomas R; Sousa, Elisa M.B.D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce biodiesel using supercritical fluids through of the transesterification process without use of catalysts. It become easier the separation of the reaction products when compared with conventional method. In this work the influence of the temperature in the production of biodiesel from mamona oil was studied. Tree temperatures were studied (473.15 K, 523.15 K and 573.15 K) and the pressure (300 bar) and molar ratio (1:40) was keep constant during the process. Excess of Alcohol was used for this synthesis. The influence of temperature on the conversion and the reaction time was evaluated. The castor bean oil and biodiesel obtained were characterized in relation to their properties more significant. For results, higher conversions were found at higher temperatures (573.15 K), however can see a trend to the stability of reaction. The quality of the product was suitable for most properties evaluated. The equipment designed and built for this purpose was feasible but require some modifications to its optimization. The reaction of biodiesel production was confirmed, even without the addition of catalyst. It was the need to use a large excess of alcohol in relation to oil on this route without catalytic converters. In the case of the route of biodiesel production without the addition of catalysts, was felt the need to use excess alcohol in relation to the castor bean oil. (author)

  2. Biodiesel production through non-catalytic supercritical transesterification: current state and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. da; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The inconveniences of the conventional method for biodiesel production by alkaline catalysis suggests research towards alternative methods, with the non-catalytic transesterification using an alcohol at supercritical conditions proposed as a promising technique for biodiesel production. The so-called supercritical method (SCM) has powerful advantages over conventional techniques, such as fast reaction rates, feedstock flexibility, production efficiency and environmentally friendly benefits. H...

  3. Biodiesel production through non-catalytic supercritical transesterification: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inconveniences of the conventional method for biodiesel production by alkaline catalysis suggests research towards alternative methods, with the non-catalytic transesterification using an alcohol at supercritical conditions proposed as a promising technique for biodiesel production. The so-called supercritical method (SCM has powerful advantages over conventional techniques, such as fast reaction rates, feedstock flexibility, production efficiency and environmentally friendly benefits. However, application of this methodology has some limitations, like operating conditions (elevated temperature and pressure and higher amounts of alcohol, which result in high energy costs and degradation of the products generated. In this review paper the state of the art in relation to the use of the SCM for biodiesel production is reported and discussed, describing the characteristics of the method, the influence of operational parameters on the ester yield, patents available in the field and the perspectives for application of the technique.

  4. Biodiesel production with continuous supercritical process: non-catalytic transesterification and esterification with or without carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ho-mu; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2013-10-01

    The non-catalytic transesterification of refined sunflower oil with supercritical methanol, in the presence of carbon dioxide, was conducted in a tubular reactor at temperatures from 553.2 to 593.2K and pressures up to 25.0 MPa. The FAME yield can be achieved up to about 0.70 at 593.2 K and 10.0 MPa in 23 min with methanol:oil of 25:1 in molar ratio. The effect of adding CO2 on the FAME yield is insignificant. The kinetic behavior of the non-catalytic esterification and transesterification of oleic acid or waste cooking oil (WCO) with supercritical methanol was also investigated. By using the supercritical process, the presence of free fatty acid (FFA) in WCO gives positive contribution to FAME production. The FAME yield of 0.90 from WCO can be achieved in 13 min at 573.2K. The kinetic data of supercritical transesterification and esterifaication were correlated well with a power-law model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoman Puspa Asri; Siti Machmudah; W. Wahyudiono; S. Suprapto; Kusno Budikarjono; Achmad Roesyadi; Motonobu Goto

    2013-01-01

    Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition) to 290 °C (the supercritical state) in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the re...

  6. Biochar as porous media for thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification to synthesize fatty acid ethyl esters from coconut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Choi, Dongho; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production using renewable resources. • Thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification. • Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters without conventional catalysts. • Using biochar as porous medium in the non-catalytic transesterification. - Abstract: This study put great emphasis on evaluating biochar as porous media for the thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification reaction to synthesize fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from coconut oil. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil experimentally justified that the bond dissociation of fatty acid from the backbone of triglycerides (TGs) could be achieved, which finding could be applied to the non-catalytic transesterification reaction. To use biochar as porous medium, the surficial morphology of maize residue biochar (MRB) was characterized, revealing that biochar possessed the wider pore size distribution ranging from meso- to macro-pores than SiO 2 . The highest yield of FAEE from non-catalytic transesterification of coconut oil in the presence of MRB was 87% at 380 °C. To further enhance the FAEE yield, further studies associated with the production of FAEE with biochar made from different biomasses and various pyrolytic conditions should be performed.

  7. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition to 290 °C (the supercritical state in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the reaction were determined by employing a simple method, with the overall chemical reaction followed the pseudo-first–order reaction. Based on the results, the rate constants of vegetables oil were significantly influenced by reaction temperature, which were gradually increased at subcritical temperature, but sharply increased in the supercritical state. However, the rate constants of soybean oil were slightly higher than that of palm oil. The activation energy for transesterification of soybean oil was 89.32 and 79.05 kJ/mole for palm oil. Meanwhile, the frequency factor values of both oils were 72462892 and 391210 min-1, respectively. The rate reaction for both of oil were expressed as -rTG = 72462892 exp(-89.32/RTCTG for soybean oil and -rTG = 391210 exp(-79.05/RTCTG for palm oil. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 18th October 2012; Revised: 14th December 2012; Accepted: 16th December 2012[How to Cite: N.P. Asri, S. Machmudah, W. Wahyudiono, S. Suprapto, K. Budikarjono, A. Roesyadi, M. Goto, (2013. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 215-223. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223 ] View in  |

  8. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Pyrolysis produces more biogasoline than biodiesel fuel. Soap pyrolysis products of vegetable oils can be used as alternative Diesel engine fuel. Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The main factors affecting transesterification are the molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalyst, reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time and the contents of free fatty acids and water in oils. The commonly accepted molar ratios of alcohol to glycerides are 6:1-30:1

  9. Optimization of non-catalytic transesterification of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed oil using supercritical methanol to biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Martínez, Nuria; Andreo-Martínez, Pedro; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Pérez de los Ríos, Antonia Pérez; Chica, Antonio; Beneito-Ruiz, Rubén; Carratalá-Abril, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel from tobacco oil was produced by non-catalytic supercritical methanolysis. • Maximum experimental yield of FAMEs (92.8%) was reached at 300 °C and 90 min. • Optimal conditions by RSM (303.4 °C and 90 min) predicted a maximum FAME yield of 91.1%. • Thermal decomposition of biodiesel was observed above 325 °C and 60 min of reaction. • Glycerol generated at 300 °C and 90 min was degraded and incorporated to the biodiesel. - Abstract: The biodiesel production from non-edible oils has high potential as renewable and ecological fuel. Few researches have been conducted to date on the production of biodiesel from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed oil. The aim of this study was to optimize the biodiesel production from this crude oil by non-catalytic supercritical methanolysis using response surface methodology (RSM). Triglyceride conversion, total and individual FAME yield, monoglyceride and diglyceride yield, and thermal decomposition degree of biodiesel were determined in the temperature and reaction time ranges of 250–350 °C (12–43 MPa) and 15–90 min, respectively, at a fixed methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. According to the RSM, the optimal conditions were 303.4 °C and 90 min, reaching a predicted maximum FAME yield of 91.1 ± 3.2 mol%. This maximum was very close to that obtained experimentally (92.8 ± 2.1 mol%) at 300 °C and 90 min. Decomposition of biodiesel became evident at 325 °C and 60 min of reaction due to the thermal instability of unsaturated methyl esters (methyl linoleate and oleate). The biodiesel obtained in the best experimental reaction conditions (300 °C and 90 min), where no thermal decomposition of FAMEs was observed, contained most of the byproduct glycerol generated, which was degraded and incorporated to the product. This biodiesel basically failed to meet the content of FAMEs as required by the standard EN 14214, the content of monoglycerides and total glycerol, and the acid value, being a

  10. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  11. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  12. Advances in solid-catalytic and non-catalytic technologies for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Aminul; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Chan, Eng-Seng; Moniruzzaman, M.; Islam, Saiful; Nabi, Md. Nurun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The recent technologies for promoting biodiesel synthesis were elucidated. • The design of catalyst consideration of biodiesel production was proposed. • The recent advances and remaining difficulties in biodiesel synthesis were outlined. • The future research trend in biodiesel synthesis was highlighted. - Abstract: The insecure supply of fossil fuel coerces the scientific society to keep a vision to boost investments in the renewable energy sector. Among the many renewable fuels currently available around the world, biodiesel offers an immediate impact in our energy. In fact, a huge interest in related research indicates a promising future for the biodiesel technology. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The number of well-defined catalyst complexes that are able to catalyze transesterification reactions efficiently has been significantly expanded in recent years. The activity of catalysts, specifically in application to solid acid/base catalyst in transesterification reaction depends on their structure, strength of basicity/acidity, surface area as well as the stability of catalyst. There are various process intensification technologies based on the use of alternate energy sources such as ultrasound and microwave. The latest advances in research and development related to biodiesel production is represented by non-catalytic supercritical method and focussed exclusively on these processes as forthcoming transesterification processes. The latest developments in this field featuring highly active catalyst complexes are outlined in this review. The knowledge of more extensive research on advances in biofuels will allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of these technologies toward meeting the critical energy challenges in future

  13. Comparison of transesterification methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Comparative studies on transesterification methods were presented in this work. Biodiesel is obtained from a chemical reaction called transesterification (ester exchange). The reaction converts esters from long chain fatty acids into mono alkyl esters. Chemically, biodiesel commonly is a fatty acid methyl ester. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid or enzyme), alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content) and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A non-catalytic biodiesel production route with supercritical methanol has been developed that allows a simple process and high yield because of the simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of fatty acids. In the catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification method, the yield of conversion rises to 60-90% for the first 1 min

  14. High-yield production of biodiesel by non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification of crude castor oil (Ricinus communis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Figueroa, Celián; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Paneque, Manuel; Palacios-Nereo, Francisco Javier; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil in a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol in a batch reactor was investigated, studying the evolution of intermediate products as well as the conversion of triglycerides and the yield of FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) (biodiesel). Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 250–350 °C (10–43 MPa) at reaction times of 15–90 min for a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. Maintaining thermal stability of biodiesel is one of the most important concerns in high-yield supercritical biodiesel production. Hence, thermal decomposition degree of FAMEs was also investigated in different reaction conditions. The maximum yield of FAMEs (96.5%) was obtained at 300 °C (21 MPa) and 90 min. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides was complete, the yield of intermediate products was low (3.29 and 1.41% for monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively), and thermal decomposition of FAMEs did not occur. The maximum degree of thermal decomposition (80.9%) was produced at 350 °C (43 MPa) and 90 min. Methyl ricinoleate, whose fatty acid chain was the most abundant (88.09 mol%) in castor oil, was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min, leading to low yields of FAMEs under these conditions. - Highlights: • Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil was investigated. • Supercritical methanolysis of crude castor oil reached a high yield of FAMEs. • Ricinoleic acid methyl ester was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min reaction.

  15. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  16. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  17. SNCR technology for NO sub x reduction in the cement industry. [Selective non-catalytic reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupper, D; Brentrup, L [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    1992-03-01

    This article discusses the selective non-catalytic (SNCR) process for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases from cement plants. Topics covered include operating experience, injection of additives, selection of the additive, operating costs, reduction efficiency of SNCR, capital expenditure, secondary emissions and cycles of ammonium. (UK).

  18. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil; Influencia do processo de moagem na estrutura e morfologia de ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} e no desempenho catalitico na reacao de transesterificacao metilica do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F., E-mail: alexcaval2@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, D.B. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  19. Biodiesel production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    Vegetable oil (m)ethyl esters, commonly referred to as 'biodiesel,' are prominent candidates as alternative Diesel fuels. Biodiesel is technically competitive with or offers technical advantages compared to conventional petroleum Diesel fuel. The vegetable oils, as alternative engine fuels, are all extremely viscous with viscosities ranging from 10 to 20 times greater than that of petroleum Diesel fuel. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Transesterifications of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are performed without using any catalyst. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main obstacle to commercialization of the product. With cooking oils used as raw material, the viability of a continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol as a biodiesel by product are primary options to be considered to lower the cost of biodiesel. Supercritical methanol has a high potential for both transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of free fatty acids to methyl esters for a Diesel fuel substitute. In the supercritical methanol transesterification method, the yield of conversion increases to 95% in 10 min. The viscosity values of vegetable oils are between 27.2 and 53.6 mm 2 /s, whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters are between 3.59 and 4.63 mm 2 /s. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are much lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885 kg/m 3 for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63 mm 2 /s. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any Diesel engine without modification

  20. A kinetic study on non-catalytic reactions in hydroprocessing Boscan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Marafi; E. Kam; A. Stanislaus [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center

    2008-08-15

    Non-catalytic hydrothermal cracking reactions are known to associate with catalytic hydrocracking reactions. In a recent study on hydroprocessing of Boscan crude over a specific catalyst system containing three distinct catalysts, it was found that hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetallation (HDM) reactions continued even when the catalyst is severely deactivated. Since the reactor was packed with considerable amount of inert material besides the three catalysts, it will be advantage to determine if the inert materials can also facilitate hydroprocessing reactions. A series of kinetic experiments for the inert particles was undertaken under different space velocity and temperature conditions. The extent of catalytic and non-catalytic hydroprocessing reactions was assessed. Through statistical analysis, the initial reaction rate constant, reaction order and activation energy for various hydroprocessing reactions were then determined. The absolute average deviations (AAD) of the kinetics values obtained for inert materials are less than 10%. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A benign process, non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol method was usedto prepare biodiesel from vegetables oil. The experiment was carried out in batch type reactor (8.8 mlcapacity, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN by changing the reaction condition such as reactiontemperature (from 210°C in subcritical condition to 290°C in supercritical state with of 20°Cinterval, molar ratio oil to methanol (1:12-1:42 and time of reaction (10-90 min. The fatty acidmethyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID.Such analysis can be used to determine the biodiesel yield of the transesterification. The resultsshowed that the yield of biodiesel increases gradually with the increasing of reaction time atsubcritical state (210-230oC. However, it was drastically increased at the supercritical state (270-290oC. Similarly, the yield of biodiesel sharply increased with increasing the ratio molar of soy oilmethanolup to 1:24. The maximum yield 86 and 88% were achieved at 290oC, 90 min of reaction timeand molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:24, for soybean oil and palm oil, respectively.Proses transesterifikasi non katalitik dengan metanol sub dan superkritis,merupakan proses yang ramah lingkungan digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak nabati.Percobaan dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor batch (kapasitas 8,8 ml, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN,dengan variabel kondisi reaksi seperti temperatur reaksi (dari kondisi subkritis 210°C-kondisisuperkritis 290°C dengan interval 20°C, rasio molar minyak-metanol (1:12-1:42 dan waktu reaksi(10-90 menit. Kandungan metil ester asam lemak (FAME dianalisis dengan kromatografi gasdengan detektor FID (GC-FID. Hasil Analisis tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menentukan yieldbiodiesel dari proses transesterifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkatsecara perlahan dengan meningkatnya waktu reaksi pada keadaan subkritis (210-230oC. Namun

  2. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  3. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  4. Direct Transesterification of Soy Biomass for Biodiesel Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyan Lin Htat; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2011-12-01

    In this study, three types of transesterification processes such as conventional base-catalyzed transesterification, conventional solvent- assisted base-catalyzed transesterification and solvent-assisted direct transesterification were studied. As for triglyceride source, refined soya oil was used for first two processes and soy biomass containing appreciable amount of gum was used for direct transesterification process. Methonal was used as alcohol source and ketone-base cosolvent and acetate-base cosolvent were used as cosolvent sources. It was found that the reaction time taken were within 8 to 45 min after oil extraction time 1.5 hr in solvent-assisted direct transesterification process. Time taken for conventional solvent-assisted base-catalyzed transesterification was found to be 1.33 to 8.5 min and, 15 mim and 30 min for conventional base-catalyzed transesterification process. According to yield percenttages of conventional solvent-assisted base-catalyzed transesterification and solvent-assisted direct transesterification by using ketone-base cosolvent and acetate-base cosolvent, acetate-base cosolvent gave the higher yields of biodiesel fuel (BDF) 99.4% and 73.78% repectively. From this investigation it could be seen that solvent assisted direct transesterification process achieved higher overall yield of BDF by comparing with the other transesterification processes when yields were based on soy biomass.

  5. The secret life of kinases: insights into non-catalytic signalling functions from pseudokinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Annette V; Murphy, James M

    2017-06-15

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which pseudokinases, which comprise ∼10% of the human and mouse kinomes, mediate signal transduction has advanced rapidly with increasing structural, biochemical, cellular and genetic studies. Pseudokinases are the catalytically defective counterparts of conventional, active protein kinases and have been attributed functions as protein interaction domains acting variously as allosteric modulators of conventional protein kinases and other enzymes, as regulators of protein trafficking or localisation, as hubs to nucleate assembly of signalling complexes, and as transmembrane effectors of such functions. Here, by categorising mammalian pseudokinases based on their known functions, we illustrate the mechanistic diversity among these proteins, which can be viewed as a window into understanding the non-catalytic functions that can be exerted by conventional protein kinases. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Enzymatic transesterification of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, S.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: hancsokj@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    The research of converting used frying oils to less harmful products with much higher value was forced by environmental, human biological and economical reasons. One possible pathway of the transformation is the enzymatic transesterification. Through the research work used frying oils (UFO) and sunflower oils (SO) from different origins were first properly pre-treated. Then the previously mentioned feeds and different mixtures of them were transesterified in the presence of Novozym 435 enzyme catalyst under different process conditions. Characteristics of the produced methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of EN 14214:2009 standard. We determined that the transesterification of used frying oils is not expediential in the presence of enzyme catalyst because the significant decreasing of catalyst activity. We have found proper UFO and SO mixtures and combination of process conditions (pressure: atmospheric, temperature: 54 +-1 deg C; methanol to triglyceride molar ratio: 4:1; reaction time: 16 hours) resulting in high (>90 %) yield of monoesters. We clearly established that the best results through the enzymatic transesterification were obtained with the improved sunflower oils containing the highest amount (>88 %) of oleic acid and the used frying oils originated from this source. (orig.)

  7. Solvo-thermal in situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Son, Jeesung; Lee, Jae W

    2018-02-01

    This work addresses non-catalytic biodiesel production from spent coffee ground (SCG) by integrating solvo-thermal effect of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) with in situ transesterification over 160 °C. The SCG water content has a positive effect on the DCE hydrolysis up to 60 wt% due to the bimolecular substitution mechanism. The hydrolysis gives an acidic environment favorable for cellulose decomposition, SCG particle size reduction and lipid conversion. The optimal fatty acid ethyl ester yield was 11.8 wt% based on the mass of dried SCG with 3.36 ml ethanol and 3.16 ml DCE at 196.8 °C through the response surface methodology. Using the solvo-thermal effect, direct utilization of wet SCG as a biodiesel feedstock provides not only economic feasibility without using drying process and additional acid catalyst but also environmental advantage of recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental and economic evaluation of selective non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchevskii, V. M.; Shchederkina, T. E.; Proshina, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    There are two groups of atmosphere protecting measures: technology (primary) and treatment (secondary). When burning high-calorie low-volatile brands of coals in the furnaces with liquid slag removal to achieve emission standards required joint use of these two methods, for example, staged combustion and selective non-catalytic reduction recovery (SNCR). For the economically intelligent combination of these two methods it is necessary to have information not only about the environmental performance of each method, but also the operating costs per unit of reduced emission. The authors of this report are made an environmental-economic analysis of SNCR on boiler Π-50P Kashirskaya power station. The obtained results about the dependence of costs from the load of the boiler and the mass emissions of nitrogen oxides then approximates into empirical formulas, is named as environmental and economic characteristics, which is suitable for downloading into controllers and other control devices for subsequent implementation of optimal control of emissions to ensure compliance with environmental regulations at the lowest cost at any load of the boiler.

  9. Study of non-catalytic thermal decomposition of triglyceride at hydroprocessing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Shanmugam; Gevert, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermolysis of triglycerides occurs above 300 °C and cracking intensify above 350 °C. • Decomposition of carboxylic group observed, and β-H abstraction gives radical. • Product contains aldehyde, ketonic, saturated/unsaturated, cyclic, glycerol group. • Gasoline fraction contains lighter, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. • Residues contain ester, dimer and carboxylic groups. - Abstract: Non-catalytic thermal decomposition of triglyceride is studied between 300 and 410 °C at 0.1 and 5 MPa in the presence of H 2 or inert gas. This test is carried in tubular reactor filled with inert material (borosilicate glass pellet). The qualitative and analytical results showed that n-alkanes and alkenes with oxygenated olefins were primary products, consistent with thermal cracking to lighter hydrocarbons. The resulting outlet fuel gas obtained mainly from the radical reaction and had high concentration of CO, ethylene and methane. The decomposition forms a large number of radical compounds containing acids, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon groups. Lighter fraction contains mostly naphthenic group, and heavy fraction contains straight chain paraffinic hydrocarbons. When H 2 partial pressure raised, the cracking of heavy fractions is low, and products contain low concentration of the lighter and gasoline fractions. Here, the thermal decomposition of triglyceride yields lighter fractions due to cracking, decarboxylation and decarbonylation.

  10. Thickness-controlled direct growth of nanographene and nanographite film on non-catalytic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Liu; Hu, Zhiting; Zhang, Jiazhen; Huang, Chunlai; Sun, Liaoxin; Wang, Lin; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been broadly employed for large-scale production of high-quality graphene. However, a following transfer process to targeted substrates is needed, which is incompatible with current silicon technology. We here report a new CVD approach to form nanographene and nanographite films with accurate thickness control directly on non-catalytic substrates such as silicon dioxide and quartz at 800 °C. The growth time is as short as a few seconds. The approach includes using 9-bis(diethylamino)silylanthracene as the carbon source and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) controlling system. The structure of the formed nanographene and nanographite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The nanographite film exhibits a transmittance higher than 80% at 550 nm and a sheet electrical resistance of 2000 ohms per square at room temperature. A negative temperature-dependence of the resistance of the nanographite film is also observed. Moreover, the thickness of the films can be precisely controlled via the deposition cycles using an ALD system, which promotes great application potential for optoelectronic and thermoelectronic-devices.

  11. A non-catalytic histidine residue influences the function of the metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Brian M; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Mpl, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease, and PC-PLC, a phospholipase C, are synthesized as proenzymes by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. During intracellular growth, L. monocytogenes is temporarily confined in a membrane-bound vacuole whose acidification leads to Mpl autolysis and Mpl-mediated cleavage of the PC-PLC N-terminal propeptide. Mpl maturation also leads to the secretion of both Mpl and PC-PLC across the bacterial cell wall. Previously, we identified negatively charged and uncharged amino acid residues within the N terminus of the PC-PLC propeptide that influence the ability of Mpl to mediate the maturation of PC-PLC, suggesting that these residues promote the interaction of the PC-PLC propeptide with Mpl. In the present study, we identified a non-catalytic histidine residue (H226) that influences Mpl secretion across the cell wall and its ability to process PC-PLC. Our results suggest that a positive charge at position 226 is required for Mpl functions other than autolysis. Based on the charge requirement at this position, we hypothesize that this residue contributes to the interaction of Mpl with the PC-PLC propeptide.

  12. Non-thermal plasmas for non-catalytic and catalytic VOC abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, Arne M.; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.

  13. Catalytic gasification in fluidized bed, of orange waste. Comparison with non catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Trujillo, Leonardo; Marquez Montesinos, Francisco; Ramos Robaina, Boris A.; Guerra Reyes, Yanet; Arauzo Perez, Jesus; Gonzalo Callejo, Alberto; Sanchez Cebrian, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    The industry processing of the orange, generates high volumes of solid waste. This waste has been used as complement in the animal feeding, in biochemical processes; but their energy use has not been valued by means of the gasification process. They were carried out gasification studies with air in catalytic fluidized bed (using dolomite and olivine as catalysts in a secondary reactor, also varying the temperature of the secondary reactor and the catalyst mass), of the solid waste of orange and the results are compared with those obtained in the gasification with non catalytic air. In the processes we use a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, valuing the influence of the independent variables and their interactions in the answers, using the software Design-Expert version 7 and a grade of significance of 95 %. The results demonstrate the qualities of the solid waste of orange in the energy use by means of the gasification process for the treatment of these residuals, obtaining a gas of low caloric value. The use of catalysts also diminishes the yield of tars obtained in the gasification process, being more active the dolomite that the olivine in this process. (author)

  14. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  16. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  17. NOx formation and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) in a fluidized bed combustor of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Shiva; Baeyens, Jan; Seville, Jonathan P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Caledonian Paper (CaPa) is a major paper mill, located in Ayr, Scotland. For its steam supply, it previously relied on the use of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) of 58 MW th , burning coal, wood bark and wastewater treatment sludge. It currently uses a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 MW th to generate steam at 99 bar, superheated to 465 o C. The boiler is followed by steam turbines and a 15 kg/s steam circuit into the mill. Whereas previously coal, wood bark and wastewater treatment sludge were used as fuel, currently only plantation wood (mainly spruce), demolition wood, wood bark and sludge are used. Since these biosolids contain nitrogen, fuel NO x is formed at the combustion temperature of 850-900 o C. NO x emissions (NO + NO 2 ) vary on average between 300 and 600 mg/Nm 3 (dry gas). The current emission standard is 350 mg/Nm 3 but will be reduced in the future to a maximum of 233 mg/Nm 3 for stand-alone biomass combustors of capacity between 50 and 300 MW th according to the EU LCP standards. NO x abatement is therefore necessary. In the present paper we firstly review the NO x formation mechanisms, proving that for applications of fluidized bed combustion, fuel NO x is the main consideration, and the contribution of thermal NO x to the emissions insignificant. We then assess the deNO x techniques presented in the literature, with an updated review and special focus upon the techniques that are applicable at CaPa. From these techniques, Selective Non-catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using ammonia or urea emerges as the most appropriate NO x abatement solution. Although SNCR deNO x is a selective reduction, the reactions of NO x reduction by NH 3 in the presence of oxygen, and the oxidation of NH 3 proceed competitively. Both reactions were therefore studied in a lab-scale reactor and the results were transformed into design equations starting from the respective reaction kinetics. An overall deNO x yield can then be predicted for any

  18. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor.

  19. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, S; Nabetani, H; Nakajima, M

    2015-01-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor

  20. Rape oil transesterification over heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, J.M.; Martinez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, UEX, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez, J.F. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, UEX, Avda Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Pardal, A. [Dpto. Ciencias do Ambiente, ESAB, IPBeja, Rua Pedro Soares s/n, 7800-Beja (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    This work studies the application of KNO{sub 3}/CaO catalyst in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol. The objective of the work was characterizing the methyl esters for its use as biodiesel in compression ignition motors. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as, amount of KNO{sub 3} impregnated in CaO, the total catalyst content, reaction temperature, agitation rate, and the methanol/oil molar ratio, were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, cetane index, saponification value, iodine value, acidity index, CFPP (cold filter plugging point), flash point and combustion point, according to ISO norms. The results showed that calcium oxide, impregnated with KNO{sub 3}, have a strong basicity and high catalytic activity as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using an amount of KNO{sub 3} of 10% impregnated in CaO, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction temperature of 65 C, a reaction time of 3.0 h, and a catalyst total content of 1.0%. In these conditions, the oil conversion was 98% and the final product obtained had very similar characteristics to a no. 2 diesel, and therefore, these methyl esters might be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. (author)

  1. Kinetics Study of Balanites Aegyptiaca Oil Transesterification for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User-PC

    determine the rate of transesterification of Balanites oil by measuring the rate of formation of methyl oleate using ... Organosulphonic acid and Zinc acetate on silica are some of the .... Flame Photometry and Atomic Absorption methods. Thus ...

  2. Processivity and Subcellular Localization of Glycogen Synthase Depend on a Non-catalytic High Affinity Glycogen-binding Site*

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Adelaida; Martínez-Pons, Carlos; Fita, Ignacio; Ferrer, Juan C.; Guinovart, Joan J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen synthase, a central enzyme in glucose metabolism, catalyzes the successive addition of α-1,4-linked glucose residues to the non-reducing end of a growing glycogen molecule. A non-catalytic glycogen-binding site, identified by x-ray crystallography on the surface of the glycogen synthase from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi, has been found to be functionally conserved in the eukaryotic enzymes. The disruption of this binding site in both the archaeal and the human muscle glycogen synth...

  3. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  5. Kinetic Parameters of Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Non-Catalytic and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunch with Alumina by Kissinger and Ozawa Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu Mohamed, Alina; Li, Nurfahani; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Izzati Iberahim, Nur; Munirah Rohaizad, Nor; Hamzah, Rosniza

    2018-03-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric non-catalytic and catalytic empty fruit bunch (EFB) pyrolysis with alumina were performed at different heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 K/min under nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 100 ml/min under dynamic conditions from 301 K to 1273 K. The activation energy were calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa methods. Both reactions followed first order reactions. By Kissinger method, the activation energy and Ln A values for non-catalytic and catalytic EFB pyrolysis with alumina were 188.69 kJ mol-1 and 201.67 kJ/mol respectively. By Ozawa method, the activation energy values for non-catalytic and catalytic EFB pyrolysis with alumina were 189.13 kJ/mol and 201.44 kJ/mol respectively. The presence of catalyst increased the activation energy values for EFB pyrolysis as calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa methods.

  6. Non-catalytic direct synthesis of graphene on Si (111) wafers by using inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Won; Shin, Hyunho; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We employ inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition for non-catalytic growth of graphene on a Si (111) wafer or glass substrate, which is useful for practical device applications of graphene without transfer processes. At a RF power (P) of 500 W under C2H2 flow, defect-free 3 ˜ 5-layer graphene is grown on Si (111) wafers, but on glass substrate, the layer is thicker and defective, as characterized by Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The graphene is produced on Si (111) for P down to 190 W whereas it is almost not formed on glass for P < 250 W, possibly resulting from the weak catalytic-reaction-like effect on glass. These results are discussed based on possible growth mechanisms.

  7. Comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thanh Phuoc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae is one of processes that can effectively remove moisture from microalgae. In addition, the hydrochar retains most of fatty acids from microalgae feedstock, and the content of fatty acids in hydrochar is doubled. This research concentrates on the comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar. The result shows that the biodiesel yields of hydrochar were higher than those of microalgae at the same reaction conditions due to the higher extraction rate of fatty acids from hydrochar. Finally, the amount of methanol and catalyst which is required for a given amount of microalgae can be reduced to a half through the direct transesterification of hydrochar.

  8. Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (CEESD), P.O. Box FN 793, Kumasi (Ghana); Kuwornoo, David K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

  9. Microbial Biodiesel Production by Direct Transesterification of Rhodotorula glutinis Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Kuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Lipids derived from oleaginous microbes have become promising alternative feedstocks for biodiesel. This is mainly because the lipid production rate from microbes is one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of energy crops. However, the conventional process for converting these lipids to biodiesel still requires a large amount of energy and organic solvents; (2 Methods: In this study, an oleaginous yeast, Rhodotorula glutinis, was used for direct transesterification without lipid pre-extraction to produce biodiesel, using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Such processes decreased the amount of energy and organic solvents required simultaneously; (3 Results: When 1 g of dry R. glutinis biomass was subject to direct transesterification in 20 mL of methanol catalyzed by 0.6 M H2SO4 at 70 °C for 20 h, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield reached 111%. Using the same amount of biomass and methanol loading but catalyzed by 1 g/L NaOH at 70 °C for 10 h, the FAME yield reached 102%. The acid-catalyzed process showed a superior moisture tolerance; when the biomass contained 70% moisture, the FAME yield was 43% as opposed to 34% of the base-catalyzed counterpart; (4 Conclusions: Compared to conventional transesterification, which requires lipid pre-extraction, direct transesterification not only simplifies the process and shortens the reaction time, but also improves the FAME yield.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  11. Amphiphilic phase-transforming catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaratna, Gayan Ivantha

    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions that involve immiscible liquid-phase reactants are challenging to conduct due to limitations associated with mass transport. Nevertheless, there are numerous reactions such as esterification, transesterification, etherification, and hydrolysis where two immiscible liquid reactants (such as polar and non-polar liquids) need to be brought into contact with a catalyst. With the intention of alleviating mass transport issues associated with such systems but affording the ability to separate the catalyst once the reaction is complete, the overall goal of this study is geared toward developing a catalyst that has emulsification properties as well as the ability to phase-transfer (from liquid-phase to solid-phase) while the reaction is ongoing and evaluating the effectiveness of such a catalytic process in a practical reaction. To elucidate this concept, the transesterification reaction was selected. Metal-alkoxides that possess acidic and basic properties (to catalyze the reaction), amphiphilic properties (to stabilize the alcohol/oil emulsion) and that can undergo condensation polymerization when heated (to separate as a solid subsequent to the completion of the reaction) were used to test the concept. Studies included elucidating the effect of metal sites and alkoxide sites and their concentration effects on transesterification reaction, effect of various metal alkoxide groups on the phase stability of the reactant system, and kinetic effects of the reaction system. The studies revealed that several transition-metal alkoxides, especially, titanium and yttrium based, responded positively to this reaction system. These alkoxides were able to be added to the reaction medium in liquid phase and were able to stabilize the alcohol/oil system. The alkoxides were selective to the transesterification reaction giving a range of ester yields (depending on the catalyst used). It was also observed that transition-metal alkoxides were able to be

  12. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  13. Non-Catalytic Functions of Pyk2 and Fyn Regulate Late Stage Adhesion in Human T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2012-01-01

    T cell activation drives the protective immune response against pathogens, but is also critical for the development of pathological diseases in humans. Cytoskeletal changes are required for downstream functions in T cells, including proliferation, cytokine production, migration, spreading, and adhesion. Therefore, investigating the molecular mechanism of cytoskeletal changes is crucial for understanding the induction of T cell-driven immune responses and for developing therapies to treat immune disorders related to aberrant T cell activation. In this study, we used a plate-bound adhesion assay that incorporated near-infrared imaging technology to address how TCR signaling drives human T cell adhesion. Interestingly, we observed that T cells have weak adhesion early after TCR activation and that binding to the plate was significantly enhanced 30–60 minutes after receptor activation. This late stage of adhesion was mediated by actin polymerization but was surprisingly not dependent upon Src family kinase activity. By contrast, the non-catalytic functions of the kinases Fyn and Pyk2 were required for late stage human T cell adhesion. These data reveal a novel TCR-induced signaling pathway that controls cellular adhesion independent of the canonical TCR signaling cascade driven by tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:23300847

  14. Experimental investigation of N2O formation in selective non-catalytic NOx reduction processes performed in stoker boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stoker fired boiler plants are common throughout Eastern Europe. Increasingly strict emission standards will require application of secondary NOx abatement systems on such boilers. Yet operation of such systems, in addition to reducing NOx emissions, may also lead to emission of undesirable substances, for example N2O. This paper presents results of experimental tests concerning N2O formation in the selective non-catalytic NOx emission reduction process (SNCR in a stoker boiler (WR 25 type. Obtained results lead to an unambiguous conclusion that there is a dependency between the NOx and N2O concentrations in the exhaust gas when SNCR process is carried out in a coal-fired stoker boiler. Fulfilling new emission standards in the analysed equipment will require 40–50% reduction of NOx concentration. It should be expected that in such a case the N2O emission will be approximately 55–60 mg/m3, with the NOx to N2O conversion factor of about 40%.

  15. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mehmood, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Javed, M.T.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  16. Fragment library screening identifies hits that bind to the non-catalytic surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DsbA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Stephen J.; Vazirani, Mansha; Shouldice, Stephen R.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Tay, Stephanie; Morton, Craig J.; Simpson, Jamie S.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    At a time when the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline has stalled, antibiotic resistance is accelerating with catastrophic implications for our ability to treat bacterial infections. Globally we face the prospect of a future when common infections can once again kill. Anti-virulence approaches that target the capacity of the bacterium to cause disease rather than the growth or survival of the bacterium itself offer a tantalizing prospect of novel antimicrobials. They may also reduce the propensity to induce resistance by removing the strong selection pressure imparted by bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, disulfide bond protein A (PaDsbA1) plays a central role in the oxidative folding of virulence factors and is therefore an attractive target for the development of new anti-virulence antimicrobials. Using a fragment-based approach we have identified small molecules that bind to PaDsbA1. The fragment hits show selective binding to PaDsbA1 over the DsbA protein from Escherichia coli, suggesting that developing species-specific narrow-spectrum inhibitors of DsbA enzymes may be feasible. Structures of a co-complex of PaDsbA1 with the highest affinity fragment identified in the screen reveal that the fragment binds on the non-catalytic surface of the protein at a domain interface. This biophysical and structural data represent a starting point in the development of higher affinity compounds, which will be assessed for their potential as selective PaDsbA1 inhibitors. PMID:28346540

  17. Non-ionic Surfactants and Non-Catalytic Protein Treatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Donghai; Jenkins, Bryan

    Our previous research has shown that saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides, has a great potential to be used for bioethanol production because of its high fermentable sugar yield, up to 85% cellulose conversion of pretreated CWR. However, the high cost of enzyme is still one of the obstacles making large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol production economically difficult. It is desirable to use reduced enzyme loading to produce fermentable sugars with high yield and low cost. To reduce the enzyme loading, the effect of addition of non-ionic surfactants and non-catalytic protein on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated CWR was investigated in this study. Tween 20, Tween 80, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as additives to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute sulfuric-acid-pretreated CWR. Under the loading of 0.1 g additives/g dry solid, Tween 20 was the most effective additive, followed by Tween 80 and BSA. With the addition of Tween 20 mixed with cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g cellulose, the cellulose conversion increased 14% (from 75 to 89%), which was similar to that with cellulase loading of 30 FPU/g cellulose and without additive addition. The results of cellulase and BSA adsorption on the Avicel PH101, pretreated CWR, and lignaceous residue of pretreated CWR support the theory that the primary mechanism behind the additives is prevention of non-productive adsorption of enzymes on lignaceous material of pretreated CWR. The addition of additives could be a promising technology to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the enzyme activity loss caused by non-productive adsorption.

  18. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  19. A non-catalytic N-terminal domain negatively influences the nucleotide exchange activity of translation elongation factor 1Bα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosiuk, Tetiana V; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Negrutskii, Boris S; El'skaya, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bα (eEF1Bα) is a functional homolog of the bacterial factor EF-Ts, and is a component of the macromolecular eEF1B complex. eEF1Bα functions as a catalyst of guanine nucleotide exchange on translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). The C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα is necessary and sufficient for its catalytic activity, whereas the N-terminal domain interacts with eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ) to form a tight complex. However, eEF1Bγ has been shown to enhance the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα attributed to the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα. This suggests that the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may in some way influence the guanine nucleotide exchange process. We have shown that full-length recombinant eEF1Bα and its truncated forms are non-globular proteins with elongated shapes. Truncation of the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα, which is dispensable for catalytic activity, resulted in acceleration of the rate of guanine nucleotide exchange on eEF1A compared to full-length eEF1Bα. A similar effect on the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα was observed after its interaction with eEF1Bγ. We suggest that the non-catalytic N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may interfere with eEF1A binding to the C-terminal catalytic domain, resulting in a decrease in the overall rate of the guanine nucleotide exchange reaction. Formation of a tight complex between the eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bα N-terminal domains abolishes this inhibitory effect. © 2015 FEBS.

  20. Diesel fuel from vegetable oil via transesterification and soap pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.

    2002-09-15

    Transesterifications of 6 vegetable oil samples in supercritical methanol (SC MeOH) were studied without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The variables affecting the methyl ester yielded during the transesterification reaction, such as the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature, were investigated. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are the slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than those of the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. (author)

  1. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  2. Biodiesel transesterification kinetics monitored by pH measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M; Medeiros, Nicholas J; Boyd, Donal J; Snell, Jared R

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of a pH change that was observed over the course of the transesterification reaction that converts vegetable oil to biodiesel may provide a simple method to monitor the reaction. Transesterification of canola oil at 6:1 methanol to oil ratio with 0.5 wt.% KOH as catalyst was studied at 25, 35, and 45 °C. Reaction conversion was correlated to pH measurements and the results were shown to be in agreement with an independent measure of conversion using an enzymatic assay for glycerol. Rate constants obtained from these measurements are consistent with those in the literature. The measured pH change appears to be related to dilution of OH(-) ions as the oil is converted to products rather than to depletion of OH(-) due to reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Abdul Aziz, A R; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam F; Bennett, James A; Manayil, Jinesh C; Wilson, Karen

    2014-11-21

    Concern over the economics of accessing fossil fuel reserves, and widespread acceptance of the anthropogenic origin of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change from combusting such carbon sources, is driving academic and commercial research into new routes to sustainable fuels to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population. Here we discuss catalytic esterification and transesterification solutions to the clean synthesis of biodiesel, the most readily implemented and low cost, alternative source of transportation fuels to meet future societal demands.

  5. Transesterification of coconut oil for FAME production using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriadi, Eko; Marlinda, Lenny; Prajitno, Danawati Hari; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    To overcome energy crisis, the vegetable oils-derived biofuel can be chosen as an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. The transesterification of coconut oil in methanol with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst using ultrasound-assisted to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as one of type biofuel was studied. The reaction occurred in batch reactor at a 9 : 1 molar ratio of methanol to coconut oil. The following reaction conditions were used in the catalytic test : concentration of catalyst to oil of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, the reaction time of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 s, and the frequency ultrasonication of 20 and 40 KHz. At first, the preparation of K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was done and followed by transesterification process. After reaction, the phase separation and purification from impurities were done. Finally, FAME was analized based on this parameters, i.e., yield, density, viscosity, and flash point. FAME yield of 93.76% was obtained at the frequency ultrasonication of 40 kHz with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst concentration to oil of 2.5 wt.% for 150 s. It's the best conditions for FAME production by transesterification of coconut oil using ultrasound-assisted.

  6. [Column chromatography purification and analysis of biodiesel by transesterification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yi, Huai-feng; Chen, Yu; Wu, Yu-long; Yang, Ming-de; Chen, Zeng; Tong, Jun-mao

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, crude biodiesel prepared with sorbifolia oil as raw material by transesterification was purified by column chromatography, then the composition of biodiesel was analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR, GC-MS and 1H NMR. Column chromatography can separate the crude biodiesel into two fractions: petroleum ether eluted fraction (A1) and methanol eluted fraction (A2). Petroleum ether eluted fraction was mainly biodiesel fraction, which was produced from sorbifolia oil by transesterification, including methyl linoleate, methyl cis-9-octadecenoate and so on; methanol eluted fraction was mainly glycerol fraction, which came from the side reaction of transesterification. The results show that the purity of refined biodiesel increased from 77.51% to 93.872, and the product recovery rate reached up to 91.04% after the purification by column chromatography. The results obtained by FTIR and 1H NMR further showed that the column chromatography can effectively improve the purity of biodiesel. This paper provides a basis for industrialization of purification of biodiesel.

  7. Intensification of transesterification via sonication numerical simulation and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; ElSamad, Tala; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D numerical simulation of transesterification is accomplished. • A non-isothermal, reactive Navier–stokes was carried out. • Conventional and sonicated process was compared as far as reaction kinetics and yield. • Higher kinetic rates are achieved at lower molar ratios in sonicated process. • It validates feasibility of numerical simulation for transesterification assessment. - Abstract: Transesterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete. The process involves two immiscible reactants to produce the biodiesel and the byproduct glycerol. Biodiesel commercialization has always been hindered by the long process times of the transesterification reaction. Catalyzing the process and increasing the agitation rate is the mode of intensifying the process additional to the increase of the molar ratio, temperature, circulation that all penalize the overall process metrics. Finding shorter path by reducing the reaction into a few minutes and ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction moves the technology from the slow batch process into the high throughput continuous process. In a practical sense this means a huge optimization for the biodiesel production process which opens pathways for faster, voluminous and cheaper production. The mechanism of sonication assisted reaction is explained by the creation of microbubbles which increases the interfacial surface reaction areas and the presence of high localized temperature and turbulence as these microbubbles implode. As a result the reaction kinetics of sonicated transesterification as inferred by several authors is much faster. The aim of this work is to implement the inferred rates in a high fidelity numerical reactive flow simulation model while considering the reactor geometry. It is based on Navier–Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport

  8. Numerical simulation of urea based selective non-catalytic reduction deNOx process for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleta, Jakov; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Petranović, Zvonimir; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SNCR is a simple method for the NOx reduction from large industrial facilities. • Capabilities of the developed mathematical framework for SNCR simulation were shown. • Model was used on the geometry of experimental reactor and municipal incinerator. • Results indicate suitability of the developed model for real industrial cases. - Abstract: Industrial processes emit large amounts of diverse pollutants into the atmosphere, among which NOx takes a significant portion. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is a relatively simple method for the NOx reduction in large industrial facilities such as power plants, cement plants and waste incinerator plants. It consists of injecting the urea-water solution in the hot flue gas stream and its reaction with the NOx. During this process flue gas enthalpy is used for the urea-water droplet heating and for the evaporation of water content. After water evaporates, thermolysis of urea occurs, during which ammonia, a known NO_x reductant, and isocyanic acid are generated. In order to cope with the ever stringent environmental norms, equipment manufacturers need to develop energy efficient products that are at the same time benign to environment. This is becoming increasingly complicated and costly, and one way to reduce production costs together with the maintaining the same competitiveness level is to employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool, in a process today commonly known under the term “virtual prototyping”. The aim of this paper is to show capabilities of the developed mathematical framework implemented in the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, to simulate physical processes of all relevant phenomena occurring during the SNCR process. First, mathematical models for description of SNCR process are presented and afterwards, models are used on the 3D geometry of an industrial reactor and a real industrial case to predict SNCR efficiency, temperature and velocity field. Influence of the main

  9. A process model to estimate the cost of industrial scale biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by supercritical transesterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteren, van J.M.N.; Nisworo, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of a production process in which waste cooking oil is converted via supercritical transesterification with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel). Since waste cooking oil contains water and free fatty acids, supercritical transesterification offers great

  10. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Octyl Dihydrocaffeate and Its Transesterification with Tricaprylin Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddern, Vivian; Yang, Zhiyong; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed at producing a phenolic ester from dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), besides carrying out transesterification reactions of this ester with tricaprylin. The esterification reaction was performed in two ratios (1:1 and 1:3 DHCA:octanol), and the transesterification was done in four ratios...

  12. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5′ terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3′-OH of one DNA strand can attack the t...

  13. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and phytosterol in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Llibin, Sun; Li, Jun; Qi, Liangjun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Dianyu; Walid, Elfalleh; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-12-01

    The transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil was performed using Novozym 435 in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The transesterification reaction was conducted in soybean oil containing 5-25% phytosterol at 55-95 °C and free-water solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, phytosterol concentration, lipase dosage and reaction pressure on the conversion rate of transesterification were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were the reaction temperature (85 °C), reaction time (1 h), phytosterol concentration (5%), reaction pressure (8 Mpa) and lipase dosage (1%). The highest conversion rate of 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. Compared with the method of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil at normal pressure, the transesterification in SC-CO2 reduced significantly the reaction temperature and reaction time.

  14. A review on production of biodiesel using catalyzed transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Santosh Kumar; Lingfa, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is arguably an important fuel for compression ignition engine as far as sustainability and environmental issues are concerned. It can be produced from both edible and non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. Owing to higher viscosity, the utilization of crude vegetable oil is not advisable as it results engine failure. For reducing the viscosity and improving the other fuel characteristics comparable to that of diesel fuel, different approaches have been developed. However, transesterification process is very reliable, less costly and easy method compared to other methods. Due to more free fatty acids content in most of the non-edible vegetable oils, a pretreatment is employed to convert the acids to ester, then transesterified with suitable alcohol. Primarily yield of biodiesel depends upon the molar ratio of oil/alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of catalyst, stirring speed. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are used for synthesis purposes. Heterogeneous catalysts are less costly, environmental benign and can be derived from natural resources. Enzymatic catalysts are more environmental benign than heterogeneous catalysts but are costly, which hinders its widespread research and utilization. This article reviews the results of prominent works and researches in the field of production of biodiesel via catalyzed transesterification process.

  15. EFFECT OF GLYCEROL SEPARATION ON PALM OIL TRANSESTERIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of glycerol separation on palm oil transesterification. Objectives of this study were to suppress the use of excess methanol and shorten the processing time. This research consisted of: design-build reactor, the effect of the glycerol separation on the transesterification reaction, characterization of biodiesel, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed by integrating circulate stirrer pump, static mixer, and sprayer that will bring out the intense reaction in the outer tank reactor. The experiment in this research was the treatment of decreasing the quantity of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and reducing of processing time to 20 min, which was arranged in a completely randomized factorial design. The result showed that, (i the stirring system was effectively worked outside the reactor tank, and in its reactor tank occurred glycerol separation during the process; (ii the rate of glycerol during the process followed the inverse regression equation of Ŷ = 66.44-351.17 X-1; (iii the decrease in the level of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and the reduction of processing time to 20 min in this engineering did not influence the biodiesel yield and quality that met the SNI 04-7182-2006 standard.

  16. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  17. Ionic liquids as transesterification catalysts: applications for the synthesis of linear and cyclic organic carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Selva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs as organocatalysts is reviewed for transesterification reactions, specifically for the conversion of nontoxic compounds such as dialkyl carbonates to both linear mono-transesterification products or alkylene carbonates. An introductory survey compares pros and cons of classic catalysts based on both acidic and basic systems, to ionic liquids. Then, innovative green syntheses of task-specific ILs and their representative applications are introduced to detail the efficiency and highly selective outcome of ILs-catalyzed transesterification reactions. A mechanistic hypothesis is discussed by the concept of cooperative catalysis based on the dual (electrophilic/nucleophilic activation of reactants.

  18. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic assisted biodiesel production of microalgae by direct transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsum, Ummu; Mahfud, Mahfud; Roesyadi, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae are considered as the third generation source of biofuel and an excellent candidate for biofuel production to replace the fossil energy. The use of ultrasonic in producing biodiesel by direct transesterification of Nannochloropsis occulata using KOH as catalyst and methanol as a solvent was investigated. The following condition were determined as an optimum by experimental evaluates:: 1: 15 microalga to methanol (molar ratio); 3% catalyst concentration at temperature 40°C after 30 minute of ultrasonication. The highest yield of biodiesel produced was 30.3%. The main components of methyl ester from Nannochloropsis occulata were palmitic (C16 :0),, oleic (C18:1), stearic (C18;0), arahidic (C20:0) and myristic (C14:0). This stated that the application of ultrasounic for direct transesterificaiton of microalgae effectively reduced the reaction time compared to the reported values of conventional heating systems.

  20. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yingqiang; Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Reddy, Harvind K.; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Zheling; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  1. Ultrasound assisted direct transesterification of algae for biodiesel production : Analysis of emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Manickam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the algae-for-fuel concept has gained renewed interest with energy prices fluctuating widely. Due to some restrictions over the oil extraction from algae, direct transesterification may be considered as a good alternative. In this study, to improve the performance of direct transesterification, ultrasound induction was carried out. A sonicator probe was used to induce the direct transesterification of Cladophora fracta, a freshwater macro alga, which contains 14% lipid on dry biomass basis. Due to ultrasonication about 25% increased biodiesel yields were obtained and the biodiesel thus prepared was analyzed for emission characteristics. The analysis results showed that Cladophora biodiesel emits 18 mg/L of CO whereas petroleum diesel emits 50 mg/L. Similarly, the emission of NOx and particulate matter also were reduced to a considerable level. The Cladophora is a suitable source of biodiesel by ultrasound assisted direct transesterification in industrial level in the future.

  2. Investigation to biodiesel production by the two-step homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Tu, Song; Sha, Yong

    2010-10-01

    For the two-step transesterification biodiesel production made from the sunflower oil, based on the kinetics model of the homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification and the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of the transesterification product, the total methanol/oil mole ratio, the total reaction time, and the split ratios of methanol and reaction time between the two reactors in the stage of the two-step reaction are determined quantitatively. In consideration of the transesterification intermediate product, both the traditional distillation separation process and the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product are investigated in detail by means of the rigorous process simulation. In comparison with the traditional distillation process, the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product has distinct advantage in the energy duty and equipment requirement due to replacement of the costly methanol-biodiesel distillation column. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Los mecanismos de influencia en el liderazgo

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Cardona, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo fundamental identificar las tácticas de influencia que utiliza el señor Carlos Pérez, gerente y socio principal de G. & M., en su trato cotidiano con sus colaboradores, así como la reacción de estos últimos ante dichas tácticas.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    G?lyurt, Mustafa ?mer; ?z?imen, Didem; ?nan, Benan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were opti...

  5. Life cycle assessment of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Munk, Bjarne; Crillesen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator was investigated using LCA. The relationship between NOx-cleaning and ammonia dosage was measured at the plant. Un-reacted ammonia – the ammonia slip – leaving the flue-gas cleaning system......-cleaning efficiency, the fate of the ammonia slip as well as the environmental impact from ammonia production, the potential acidification and nutrient enrichment from NOx-cleaning was calculated as a function of ammonia dosage. Since the exact fate of the ammonia slip could not be measured directly, a number...... of scenarios were set up ranging from “best case” with no ammonia from the slip ending up in the environment to “worst case” where all the ammonia slip eventually ended up in the environment and contributed to environmental pollution. In the “best case” scenario the highest ammonia dosage was most beneficial...

  6. Measurements of physical properties during transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel for prediction of reaction progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, G.R.; Dehghani, S.; Ghanei, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Reaction progress in transesterification of soybean oil predicted using physical properties. ► Transesterification performed at 70 °C with Me/oil ratio 12:1 and 5 wt.% of BaO as catalyst. ► Viscosity and refractive index decreases nonlinearly during the progress of transesterification. ► Pour point increases linearly and cloud point increases nonlinearly during progress of reaction. ► Refractive index and pour point recommended for prediction transesterification progress. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a pure, non-toxic, biodegradable, clean-burning fuel and renewable alternative for fossil diesel fuel. In this work, a new method was introduced to determine reaction progress in transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel by the use of physical property variation during reaction. Quantitative analysis stage for determination fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) which is expensive and time-consuming can be replaced by this method. To develop the method, in the first stage, transesterification of soybean oil at optimum conditions (70 °C with MeOH to oil molar ratio of 12:1 and 5 wt.% of BaO as catalyst) was carried out to determine how conversion and physical properties change with time. Then appropriate functions were fitted on the extracted data and were evaluated by comparison with GC results. Refractive index was selected as good physical property to predict reaction progress.

  7. Ultrasonication aided in-situ transesterification of microbial lipids to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2014-10-01

    In-situ transesterification of microbial lipid to biodiesel has been paid substantial attention due to the fact that the lipid extraction and transesterification can be conducted in one-stage process. To improve the feasibility of in-situ transesterification, ultrasonication was employed to reduce methanol requirement and reaction time. The results showed that the use of ultrasonication could achieve high conversion of lipid to FAMEs (92.1% w lipid conversion/w total lipids) with methanol to lipid molar ratio 60:1 and NaOH addition 1% w/w lipid in 20 min, while methanol to lipid molar ratio 360:1, NaOH addition 1% w/w lipid, and reaction time 12h was required to obtain similar yield in in-situ transesterification without ultrasonication. The compositions of FAMEs obtained in case of ultrasonication aided in-situ transesterification were similar as that of two-stage extraction followed by transesterification processes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification of used vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification reaction. • Pulse sonication appears to have superior effects on transesterification reaction. • Effects of various process parameters on FAMEs yield were discussed in detail. • Effects of ultrasonic intensity and power density were compared for both conditions. • Continuous sonication may be beneficial for short time and plug-flow conditions. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct application of continuous and pulse sonication on transesterification reaction of used vegetable oil. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with the effects of different ultrasonic intensities and power densities were reported. Two process parametric evaluation studies were conducted to compare the effects of continuous and pulse sonication. These included methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time effects on the transesterification reaction. For continuous sonication, a catalyst amount of 0.5% (wt/wt), methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 was sufficient to complete the transesterification reaction in 1–2 min at a power output of 150 W with a biodiesel yield of 93.5%. For pulse sonication, a maximum biodiesel yield of 98% was achieved at 2.5 min of reaction time, 9:1 methanol to oil ratio, and 1.25% catalyst. Generally, higher biodiesel yields were observed for pulse sonication compared to continuous sonication under any given process condition. Power density and ultrasonic intensity tests revealed that biodiesel yields were more sensitive to continuous sonication due to intense mixing. A plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction under continuous sonication

  9. Influence of transesterification reaction temperature on biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@agr.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian government policy has authorized the introduction of biodiesel into the national energy matrix, law no.11.097 of January 13th, 2005. It is necessary, like any new product, to invest in research which is able to cover its entire production chain (planting of oilseeds, vegetable oils extraction and chemical reactions), providing data and relevant information in order to optimize the process and solve critical issues. The objective of this work was to study the effects of temperature on crude sunflower transesterification reaction with ethanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels (25 deg, 32 deg, 47.5 deg, 64 deg and 70 deg C) was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the production suffered the influence of temperature (linear and quadratic effects) and reaction time (linear and quadratic). The generated models did not show significant regression. The model generated was not well suited to the experimental data and the value of the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}=0.52) was low. Consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. (author)

  10. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  11. KINETICS OF PALM OIL TRANSESTERIFICATION IN METHANOL WITH POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE AS A CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoeswono Yoeswono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on palm oil transesterification to evaluate the effect of some parameters in the reaction on the reaction kinetics has been carried out. Transesterification was started by preparing potassium methoxide from potassium hydroxide and methanol and then mixed it with the palm oil. An aliquot was taken at certain time interval during transesterification and poured into test tube filled with distilled water to stop the reaction immediately. The oil phase that separated from the glycerol phase by centrifugation was analyzed by 1H-NMR spectrometer to determine the percentage of methyl ester conversion. Temperature and catalyst concentration were varied in order to determine the reaction rate constants, activation energies, pre-exponential factors, and effective collisions. The results showed that palm oil transesterification in methanol with 0.5 and 1 % w/w KOH/palm oil catalyst concentration appeared to follow pseudo-first order reaction. The rate constants increase with temperature. After 13 min of reaction, More methyl esters were formed using KOH 1 % than using 0.5 % w/w KOH/palm oil catalyst concentration. The activation energy (Ea and pre-exponential factor (A for reaction using 1 % w/w KOH was lower than those using 0.5 % w/w KOH.   Keywords: palm oil, transesterification, catalyst, first order kinetics, activation energy, pre-exponential factor

  12. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transesterification of Waste Activated Sludge for Biosolids Reduction and Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Min Ho; Cha, Daniel K

    2018-02-01

    Transesterification of waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated as a cost-effective technique to reduce excess biosolids and recover biodiesel feedstock from activated sludge treatment processes. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated with recycling transesterification-treated WAS back to the aeration basin. Seventy percent recycling of WAS resulted in a 48% reduction of excess biosolids in comparison with a conventional SBR, which was operated in parallel as the control SBR. Biodiesel recovery of 8.0% (dried weight basis) was achieved at an optimum transesterification condition using acidic methanol and xylene as cosolvent. Average effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations from the test SBR and control SBR were comparable, indicating that the recycling of transesterification-treated WAS did not have detrimental effect on the effluent quality. This study demonstrated that transesterification and recycling of WAS may be a feasible technique for reducing excess biosolids, while producing valuable biodiesel feedstock from the activated sludge process.

  14. Novel Roles of the Non-catalytic Elements of Yeast Protein-disulfide Isomerase in Its Interplay with Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yingbo; Zhang, Lihui; Yu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Chih-chen; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells is catalyzed by the sulfhydryl oxidase, ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1), and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDI is oxidized by Ero1 to continuously introduce disulfides into substrates, and feedback regulates Ero1 activity by manipulating the regulatory disulfides of Ero1. In this study we find that yeast Ero1p is enzymatically active even with its regulatory disulfides intact, and further activation of Ero1p by reduction of the regulatory disulfides requires the reduction of non-catalytic Cys90-Cys97 disulfide in Pdi1p. The principal client-binding site in the Pdi1p b′ domain is necessary not only for the functional Ero1p-Pdi1p disulfide relay but also for the activation of Ero1p. We also demonstrate by complementary activation assays that the regulatory disulfides in Ero1p are much more stable than those in human Ero1α. These new findings on yeast Ero1p-Pdi1p interplay reveal significant differences from our previously identified mode of human Ero1α-PDI interplay and provide insights into the evolution of the eukaryotic oxidative protein folding pathway. PMID:26846856

  15. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  16. KF-loaded mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides: high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guiju; Hua, Zile; Gao, Zhe; Zhu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yu; Shu, Zhu; Zhang, Lingxia; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-09-21

    Using newly developed mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides as supports, a novel kind of high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production has been synthesized. More importantly, the impregnation solvent was for the first time found to substantially affect the structures and catalytic performances of the resultant transesterification catalysts.

  17. Activity and basic properties of KOH/mordenite for transesterification of palm oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pisitpong; Intarapong; Sotsanan; Iangthanarat; Pitchaya; Phanthong; Apanee; Luengnaruemitchai; Samai; Jai-In

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic performance of KOH/mordenite has been studied for transesterification of palm oil using a batch reactor and a packed-bed reactor at 60 C and atmospheric pressure.The KOH/mordenite processed transesterification in the batch reactor gave the highest methyl ester yield of96.7%under optimum conditions,while a methyl ester content over 94.5%was obtained in the packed-bed reactor.This comparison indicates that transesterification in a batch-type reactor gives a higher methyl ester yield than that of a continuous-flow reactor.Dealumination was found in the calcined catalysts and had a significant effect on the physical structure and chemical composition of the catalysts.Leaching of the potassium species was negligible,whereas depositing and washing of the reacted mixture with acetone on the catalyst surface were observed by FTIR.

  18. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, waste cooking oil has subjected to transesterification reaction by potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol methods obtaining for biodiesel. In catalyzed methods, the presence of water has negative effects on the yields of methyl esters. In the catalytic transesterification free fatty acids and water always produce negative effects since the presence of free fatty acids and water causes soap formation, consumes catalyst, and reduces catalyst effectiveness. Free fatty acids in the waste cooking oil are transesterified simultaneously in supercritical methanol method. Since waste cooking oil contains water and free fatty acids, supercritical transesterification offers great advantage to eliminate the pre-treatment and operating costs. The effects of methanol/waste cooking oils ratio, potassium hydroxide concentration and temperature on the biodiesel conversion were investigated

  19. Biodiesel production from wet municipal sludge: evaluation of in situ transesterification using xylene as a cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, O K; Song, J S; Cha, D K; Lee, J W

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a method to produce biodiesel from wet wastewater sludge. Xylene was used as an alternative cosolvent to hexane for transesterification in order to enhance the biodiesel yield from wet wastewater sludge. The water present in the sludge could be separated during transesterification by employing xylene, which has a higher boiling point than water. Xylene enhanced the biodiesel yield up to 8.12%, which was 2.5 times higher than hexane. It was comparable to the maximum biodiesel yield of 9.68% obtained from dried sludge. Xylene could reduce either the reaction time or methanol consumption, when compared to hexane for a similar yield. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content of the biodiesel increased approximately two fold by changing the cosolvent from hexane to xylene. The transesterification method using xylene as a cosolvent can be applied effectively and economically for biodiesel recovery from wet wastewater sludge without drying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical difficulties and solutions of direct transesterification process of microbial oil for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu; Khan, Maksudur Rahman; Islam, M Amirul; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils are considered as alternative to vegetable oils or animal fats as biodiesel feedstock. Microalgae and oleaginous yeast are the main candidates of microbial oil producers' community. However, biodiesel synthesis from these sources is associated with high cost and process complexity. The traditional transesterification method includes several steps such as biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction and solvent recovery. Therefore, direct transesterification or in situ transesterification, which combines all the steps in a single reactor, has been suggested to make the process cost effective. Nevertheless, the process is not applicable for large-scale biodiesel production having some difficulties such as high water content of biomass that makes the reaction rate slower and hurdles of cell disruption makes the efficiency of oil extraction lower. Additionally, it requires high heating energy in the solvent extraction and recovery stage. To resolve these difficulties, this review suggests the application of antimicrobial peptides and high electric fields to foster the microbial cell wall disruption.

  1. Biodiesel production by direct transesterification of microalgal biomass with co-solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Ya; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct transesterification process using 75% ethanol and co-solvent was studied to reduce the energy consumption of lipid extraction process and improve the conversion yield of the microalgae biodiesel. The addition of a certain amount of co-solvent (n-hexane is most preferable) was required for the direct transesterification of microalgae biomass. With the optimal reaction condition of n-hexane to 75% ethanol volume ratio 1:2, mixed solvent dosage 6.0mL, reaction temperature 90°C, reaction time 2.0h and catalyst volume 0.6mL, the direct transesterification process of microalgal biomass resulted in a high conversion yield up to 90.02±0.55wt.%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. State of the art and prospective of lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ilham, Zul; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Mazaheri, Hoora; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enzymatic transesterification process is less energy intensive and robust. • Nano-materials are promising immobilization supports for lipase. • Packed-bed reactors are appropriate for scale-up use. • Potential recombinant, whole cell and recombinant whole cell lipases were enlisted. • Genetic engineering is a promising prospect in biodiesel area. - Abstract: The world demand for fuel as energy sources have arisen the need for generating alternatives such as biofuel. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel used particularly in diesel engines. Currently, biodiesel is mainly produced through transesterification reactions catalyzed by chemical catalysts, which produces higher fatty acid alkyl esters in shorter reaction time. Although extensive investigations on enzymatic transesterification by downstream processing were carried out, enzymatic transesterification has yet to be used in scale-up since commercial lipases are chiefly limited to the cost as well as long reaction time. While numerous lipases were studied and proven to have the high catalytic capacity, still enzymatic reaction requires more investigation. To fill this gap, finding optimal conditions for the reaction such as alcohol and oil choice, water content, reaction time and temperature through proper reaction modelling and simulations as well as the appropriate design and use of reactors for large scale production are crucial issues that need to be accurately addressed. Furthermore, lipase concentration, alternative lipase resources through whole cell technology and genetic engineering, recent immobilizing materials including nanoparticles, and the capacity of enzyme to be reused are important criteria to be neatly investigated. The present work reviews the current biodiesel feedstock, catalysis, general and novel immobilizing materials, bioreactors for enzymatic transesterification, potential lipase resources, intensification technics, and process modelling for enzymatic

  3. Preparation of Biodiesel of Undi seed with In-situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaykumar DALVI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel fraction from oil content of Undi (Calophyllum innophyllum L. is found 60-70%. The extraction of oil is a primary step in any biodiesel production system. To escape this step in-situ transesterification method is used in which the Undi seed crush is directly converted into biodiesel with in-situ transesterification which is fatty acid methyl and ethyl ester composition. The single step reaction is eco-friendly as hexane like solvents not have been used for oil extraction. These components of biodiesel were analysed by GC-MS technique.

  4. Biodiesel production by transesterification of duck tallow with methanol on alkali catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Kim, Jin [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Advanced Chemicals Graduate School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Lee, Ki-Young [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    Duck tallow was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel by transesterification with methanol. The content of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was evaluated on various alkali catalysts during transesterification. The composition and chemical properties of the FAME were investigated in the raw duck tallow and the biodiesel products. The major constituent in the biodiesel product was oleic acid. The FAME content was 97% on KOH catalyst in the reaction. It was acceptable for the limit of European biodiesel qualities for BD100. Acid value, density, and kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel products also came up to the biodiesel qualities. (author)

  5. Kinetics of transesterification of methyl acetate and n-octanol catalyzed by cation exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong; Gao, Li; Li, Xiying; Mao, Liqun [Henan University, Kaifeng (China); Wei, Min [Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou (China)

    2013-05-15

    The transesterification kinetics of methyl acetate with n-octanol to octyl acetate and methanol were studied using Amberlyst 15 as catalyst in a batch stirred reactor. The influence of the agitation speed, particle size, temperature, catalyst loading, and initial reactants molar ratio was investigated in detail. A pseudo-homogeneous (PH) kinetic model was applied to correlate the experimental data in the temperature range of 313.15 K to 328.15 K. The estimated kinetic parameters made the calculated results in good agreement with the experimental data. A kinetic model describing the transesterification reaction catalyzed by cation exchange resins was developed.

  6. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyurt, Mustafa Ömer; Özçimen, Didem; İnan, Benan

    2016-04-22

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were optimum values for the highest fatty acid methyl ester yield.

  7. Utilization of a cost effective Lapindo mud catalyst derived from eruption waste for transesterification of waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talib, N.B.; Triwahyono, S.; Jalil, A.A.; Mamat, C.R.; Salamun, N.; Fatah, N.A.A.; Sidik, S.M.; Teh, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lapindo mud (LM) was used as catalyst in waste cooking oil (WCO) transesterification. • K_2O and CaO were identified as the active species for WCO transesterification. • FTIR and ESR analyses prove activated LM have higher basicity and surface defects. • Under the optimum conditions, WCO transesterification reached 96.6% FAME yield. • Conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in optimum conditions gave 91.69% FAME. - Abstract: The most remarkable property of heterogeneous-catalyzed transesterification is its recyclability which surpass the issue by homogenous catalyst. Lapindo mud (LM), an eruption waste from Indonesia, was treated into an active catalyst for transesterification. LM is reasonably tolerant to FFA, as no visible soap layer was observed during transesterification of high acid value WCO (20.723 mgKOH/g) and POME (120.48 mgKOH/g) with FAME yield of 96.6% and 91.69%, respectively. The reaction conditions obtained for both reaction are mild and comparable to currently reported conditions except LM effectively accelerated the transesterification process of WCO. Reusability test showed that LM exhibited a stable performance with less than 10% declined in FAME after the seventh run with 95% catalyst recovery. Kinetic analysis showed that both WCO and POME transesterification fitted well with Langmuir–Hishelwood first order reaction. The activation energy for WCO and POME transesterification were 55.7 and 59.75 kJ/mol. This findings shows the possibility of LM as a catalyst in general heterogeneous reaction and particularly for transesterification to produce FAME.

  8. Biodiesel production from corn oil by transesterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Dessouky, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is much political demand and economic pressure to convert agricultural surpluses into material, such as motor fuel, in which the world is deficient. Transport industry is primary consumer of crude oil. Due to scarcity of known petroleum reserves, the possible alternative fuel for use in present engine technology is biofuels. Europe, USA and Brazil are successfully using biofuels. Biofuels causes less environmental pollution as compared to normal petro fuels. As a fuel, ethanol (gasohol) is used in internal combustion engine while methyester (Biodiesel) is used in diesel engines with same or better performance as compared to petro fuels. Corn is very valuable crop with numerous industrial applications, and is used in more than 300 modern industries, including the manufacture of textiles, paper, adhesives, insecticides, paints, soaps, explosives and many more. Presently the biggest source of ethanol production is from corn (produced by USA). Edible oil can also be extracted from corn which is normally used for cooking and it can be used for biodiesel production. Many countries are experimenting on fats and oil to get feasible data for production of biodiesel. Presently USA prefer to use soybean oil as raw material for commercial production of biodiesel while in Europe rapeseed oil is preferred, so therefore, it depends upon the availability of raw material in particular area and may change from location to location. In Pakistan we started with corn oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification method. In present study different design parameters such as effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, molar ratio, and Stirrer speed were founded for better conversion of neat and used corn oil into biodiesel. The optimum parameters proposed for neat corn oil are 0.5% of catalyst based on weight of corn oil, temperature between 50 deg. C to 60 deg. C, reaction time 15 minutes, molar ratio of 6:1 and speed of stirrer 155 rpm. In case of used corn oil high catalyst

  9. Transesterification of soybean oil catalyzed by Sr-doped cinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Sadia; Liu, Hui; Khan, Romana; Zhu, Xiao-chan; Skala, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr-doped cinder catalyst was prepared and used for biodiesel synthesis. • A 99% of triglycerides conversion was achieved under optimal reaction conditions. • SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and Sr 5 Al 8 O 1 are determined as dominant compounds which are responsible for high catalytic activity. • Catalyst exhibits high activity and can be easily recovered and regenerated. • The Sr-doped cinder catalyst is used in 14 repeated runs. - Abstract: The Strontium doped cinder was prepared using the wet impregnation method and analyzed as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Different procedure for cinder impregnation were investigated (temperature and duration of catalyst calcinations, the concentration of SrCl 2 solution) and optimal condition was established: impregnation 20 g of cinder 2–5 mm particles with 0.2 M SrCl 2 solution followed by calcinations at 1000 °C for 4 h. The Sr-cinder activity was tested at 90–200 °C using 1–5% mass of catalyst with different molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil (from 9 to 36). The maximum triglycerides (TG) conversion of 99.0% with the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) yield of 97.1% was obtained by using 4% catalyst at 180 °C, for 1 h, and methanol/oil molar ratio 24:1. Influence of free fatty acid (FFA) and water in soybean oil on catalyst activity was analyzed, too. The catalyst could be used for 14 times with TG conversion and FAME yield above 90% and 80% respectively. The Sr-doped cinder catalysts before and after transesterification were characterized using BET surface area, basic strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICP-AAS. Results showed that the formation of SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and Sr 5 Al 8 O 17 complexes should be the main reason for the catalytic activity of prepared catalyst. Slow decrease of catalyst activity during its repeated use is result of Sr–Al-glycerolate formation in reaction between Sr–Al complexes and glycerol

  10. Production of biodiesel via the in situ transesterification of grain sorghum bran and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acylglycerides in sorghum bran and distiller’s dried grains and solubles (DDGS) from sorghum post-fermentation stillage have been converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using an in-situ transesterification (IST) method. The reactions were conducted at 25 deg C or 40 deg C in the presence...

  11. Production of Methyl Ester (Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oils via Trans-esterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Mohammed Salman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Used cooking oil was undergoing trans-esterification reaction to produce biodiesel fuel. Method of production consisted of pretreatment steps, trans-esterification, separation, washing and drying. Trans-esterification of treated oils was studied at different operation conditions, the methanol to oil mole ratio were 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1, at different temperature 30, 40, 50, and 60 º C, reaction time 40, 60, 80, and 120 minutes, amount of catalyst 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 wt.% based on oil and mixing speed 400 rpm. The maximum yield of biodiesel was 91.68 wt.% for treated oils obtained by trans-esterification reaction with 10:1 methanol to oil mole ratio, 60 º C reaction temperature, 80 minute reaction time and 0.5 wt.% of NaOH catalyst. The physical properties such as specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, acid number, flash point, pour point, and water content, were measured and compared them with American Standard Test Methods (ASTM D6751. The results of these properties for biodiesel product at (6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 of methanol to oil mole ratio were within the range of American Standard Test Methods (ASTM D6751.

  12. Highly active CaO for the transesterification to biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TMCS) for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was studied. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6% under 65 oC with 15:1 ...

  13. Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Flurbiprofenate by Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ying Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of L-ascorbyl flurbiprofenate was achieved by esterification and transesterification in nonaqueous organic medium with Novozym 435 lipase as biocatalyst. The conversion was greatly influenced by the kinds of organic solvents, speed of agitation, catalyst loading amount, reaction time, and molar ratio of acyl donor to L-ascorbic acid. A series of solvents were investigated, and tert-butanol was found to be the most suitable from the standpoint of the substrate solubility and the conversion for both the esterification and transesterification. When flurbiprofen was used as acyl donor, 61.0% of L-ascorbic acid was converted against 46.4% in the presence of flurbiprofen methyl ester. The optimal conversion of L-ascorbic acid was obtained when the initial molar ratio of acyl donor to ascorbic acid was 5 : 1. kinetics parameters were solved by Lineweaver-Burk equation under nonsubstrate inhibition condition. Since transesterification has lower conversion, from the standpoint of productivity and the amount of steps required, esterification is a better method compared to transesterification.

  14. A review on the performance of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification: Effects of influencing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Wai Keng; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilization of glycerol to synthesize glycerol carbonate through various routes. • Different types of carbonates and catalysts used for glycerol carbonate production via transesterification are elucidated. • Important factors influencing glycerol carbonate production performances are detailed. • Future research needs of glycerol carbonate production are proposed. - Abstract: Driven by high energy demand and environmental concerns, biodiesel as a substitute for fossil fuels is recognized to be promising renewable and clean energy. The increase in the biodiesel plant dramatically leads to the oversupply of its by-product glycerol in the biodiesel industries. Developing new industrial uses for glycerol is essential to increase the net energy and sustainability of biodiesel. Moreover, glycerol has great potential to be converted into marketable and valuable chemicals. The conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate (GC) has been extensively studied and transesterification of glycerol to GC has been proven to be the most promising route. Aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of this successful conversion path, this paper reviews the chemo- and biocatalytic transesterification of glycerol with different carbonates sources. Also, a detail elucidation of the influence of the catalysts and operating conditions on the GC yield is included to provide an insight into the process. In addition, the future direction of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification is provided in this review

  15. Base catalyzed transesterification of acid treated vegetable oil blend for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar Ali [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak 31750 (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel can be produced from low cost non-edible oils and fats. However, most of these sources are of high free fatty acid content which requires two stage transesterification to reduce the acid value and produce biodiesel. The acid treatment step is usually followed by base transesterification since the latter can yield higher conversions of methyl esters at shorter reaction time when compared with acid catalyzed reaction. In the current study, base transesterification in the second stage of biodiesel synthesis is studied for a blend of crude palm/crude rubber seed oil that had been characterized and treated with acid esterification. Optimum conditions for the reaction were established and effect of each variable was investigated. The base catalyzed transesterification favored a temperature of 55 C with methanol/oil molar ratio of 8/1 and potassium hydroxide at 2% (ww{sup -1}) (oil basis). The conversion of methyl esters exceeded 98% after 5 h and the product quality was verified to match that for biodiesel with international standards. (author)

  16. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transesterification of triacetin with methanol on various solid acid catalysts: A role of catalyst properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zieba, A.; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Chmielarz, P.; Matachowski, L.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 387, 1/2 (2010), s. 13-25 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : transesterification * bio-esters * triacetin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2010

  18. Transesterification of rapeseed and palm oils in supercritical methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biktashev, Sh.A.; Usmanov, R.A.; Gabitov, R.R.; Gazizov, R.A.; Gumerov, F.M.; Gabitov, F.R.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Yarullin, R.S.; Yakushev, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. The studies were performed using the experimental setups which are working in batch and continuous regimes. The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. Also the effect of preliminary ultrasonic treatment (ultrasonic irradiation, emulsification of immiscible oil and alcohol mixture) of the initial reagents (emulsion preparation) on the stage before transesterification reaction conduction on the conversion yield was studied. We found that the preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the initial reagents increases considerably the conversion yield. Optimal technological conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure within 20-30 MPa, temperature within 573-623 K. The optimal values of the oil to alcohol ratio strongly depend on preliminary treatment of the reaction mixture. The study showed that the conversion yield at the same temperature with 96 wt.% of ethanol is higher than with 100 wt.% of methanol. -- Highlights: → The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. → The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. → Transesterification of vegetable oil with supercritical alcohols. → Effect of temperature and pressure on conversion yield. → Preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the vegetable oil+methanol mixture.

  19. Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geris, Regina; Santos, Nadia Alessandra Carmo dos; Amaral, Bruno Andrade; Maia, Isabelle de Souza; Castro, Vinicius Dourado; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas. (author)

  20. Transesterification of used vegetable oil catalyzed by barium oxide under simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Transesterification reaction mediated by simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiations with barium oxide (BaO) heterogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Synergistic effect of simultaneous microwave/ultrasound irradiations was evaluated. • Yields were higher for the MW/US reactions compared to MW or US individually. • BaO catalyzed MW/US transesterification reaction is more environmental-friendly. • BaO catalyzed MW/US transesterification reaction provides better biodiesel yields. • Optimum power density must be identified for energy-efficient biodiesel production. - Abstract: This study presents a novel application of simultaneous microwave and ultrasound (MW/US) irradiations on transesterification of used vegetable oil catalyzed by barium oxide, heterogeneous catalyst. Experiments were conducted to study the optimum process conditions, synergistic effect of microwave and ultrasound irradiations and the effect of power density. From the process parametric optimization study, the following conditions were determined as optimum: 6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.75% barium oxide catalyst by wt.%, and 2 min of reaction time at a combined power output rate of 200 W (100/100 MW/US). The biodiesel yields were higher for the simultaneous MW/US mediated reactions (∼93.5%) when compared to MW (91%) and US (83.5%) irradiations individually. Additionally, the effect of power density and a discussion on the synergistic effect of the microwave and ultrasound mediated reactions were presented. A power density of 7.6 W/mL appears to be effective for MW, and MW/US irradiated reactions (94.4% and 94.7% biodiesel yields respectively), while a power density of 5.1 W/mL was appropriate for ultrasound irradiation (93.5%). This study concludes that the combined microwave and ultrasound irradiations result in a synergistic effect that reduces the heterogeneity of the transesterification reaction catalyzed by heterogeneous catalysts to enhance the biodiesel

  1. Efficient solvothermal wet in situ transesterification of Nannochloropsis gaditana for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Chang, Yong Keun; Lee, Jae W

    2017-05-01

    In situ transesterification of wet microalgae is a promising, simplified alternative biodiesel production process that replaces multiple operations of cell drying, extraction, and transesterification reaction. This study addresses enhanced biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana at elevated temperatures. Compared with the previously reported in situ transesterification process of conducting the reaction at a temperature ranging from 95 to 125 °C, the present work employs higher temperatures of at least 150 °C. This relatively harsh condition allows much less acid catalyst with or without co-solvent to be used during this single extraction-conversion process. Without any co-solvent, 0.58% (v/v) of H 2 SO 4 in the reaction medium can achieve 90 wt% of the total lipid conversion to biodiesel at 170 °C when the moisture content of wet algal paste is 80 wt%. Here, the effects of temperature, acid catalyst, and co-solvent on the FAEE yield and specification were scrutinized, and the reaction kinetic was investigated to understand the solvothermal in situ transesterification reaction at the high temperature. Having a biphasic system (water/chloroform) during the reaction also helped to meet biodiesel quality standard EN 14214, as Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ cations and phosphorus were detected only below 5 ppm. With highlights on the economic feasibility, wet in situ transesterification at the high temperature can contribute to sustainable production of biodiesel from microalgae by reducing the chemical input and relieve the burden of extensive post purification process, therefore a step towards green process.

  2. An optimization study on transesterification catalyzed by the activated carbide slag through the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mengqi; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Cheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New catalyst material for biodiesel production. • New utilization approach of waste carbide slag. • Detailed characterization of carbide slag used as transesterification catalyst. • Optimal parameters for biodiesel production obtained by response surface methodology. • Effect of impurities on catalytic activity of carbide slag in transesterification. - Abstract: After activated at 850 °C under air condition, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate in carbide slag are transformed into calcium oxide. The prepared transesterification catalyst, labeled as CS-850, gains surface area of 8.00 m 2 g −1 , functional groups of vanishing O−C−O and O−H bonds, surface morphology of tenuous branch and porous structure and basic strength of 9.8 < H – < 15.0. From aspects of the molar ratio of methanol to oil (γ), the catalyst added amount (ζ) and the reaction temperature (T r ), transesterification catalyzed by CS-850 is optimized through the Box–Behnken design of the response surface methodology (BBD–RSM). A quadratic polynomial model is preferred for transesterification efficiency prediction with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.9815. The optimal parameters are predicted to be γ = 13.8, ζ = 6.7% and T r = 60 °C with the efficiency of 94.70% and validated by experimental value of 93.83%. Meanwhile, γ is demonstrated to be the most significant variable for the minimum p-value. Besides, CS-850 performs acceptable reusability and for the fifth time reusage, efficiency of 82.61% could still be supplied. Aluminium oxide is proved to have the greatest effect on the catalytic activity of CS-850 among other small quality oxides. Physicochemical properties of the purified biodiesel meet American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) standard

  3. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO(sub x) control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO(sub x) while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO(sub x) reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO(sub x) reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO(sub x) emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO(sub x) reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm(sup 3) (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem

  4. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  5. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilse Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a paramount method for biodiesel production has significance as the demand of alternative fuels like biodiesel is growing rapidly. In the present study, experimental results from chemical-catalysed as well as enzyme-catalysed methods were compared using common influencing parameters such as oil/alcohol molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction duration. Requirement of certain solvents to enhance the reaction rate was explained in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification reaction. Biodiesel conversion of more than 90% was attained for chemical-catalysed transesterification, whereas the conversion rate was 85% for enzyme-catalysed method. This gives the indication of further refinement in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification process. The influencing parameters and absolute results of the analysis give the impression of superiority of enzymatic transesterification method for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid-contained rubber seed oil.

  6. Transesterification of triacetin and castor oil with methanol catalyzed by supported polyaniline-sulfate. A role of polymer morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drelinkiewicz, A.; Kalemba-Jaje, Z.; Lalik, E.; Zieba, A.; Mucha, D.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 455, 30 March (2013), s. 92-106 ISSN 0926-860X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : transesterification * triacetin * castor oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2013

  7. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Using renewable ethanol and isopropanol for lipid transesterification in wet microalgae cells to produce biodiesel with low crystallization temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Rui; Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Yi; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol and isopropanol were used for transesterification in wet microalgae cell. • Decreased droplet size and polarity of lipid were observed after transesterification. • Ethanol and isopropanol dosage needed for 95% FAAE yield were 75% of methanol dosage. • Crystallization temperature of crude biodiesel decreased from 2.08 °C to −3.15 °C. - Abstract: Renewable ethanol and isopropanol were employed for lipid transesterification in wet microalgae cells to produce biodiesel with low crystallization temperature and reduce the alcohol volume needed for biodiesel production. Decreased droplet size and lipid polarity were observed after transesterification with alcohol in microalgae cells. Such decrease was beneficial in extracting lipid from microalgae with apolar hexane. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and alcohol volume on microwave-assisted transesterification with ethanol and isopropanol were investigated, and results were compared with those with methanol. Microwave-assisted transesterification with ethanol and isopropanol, which were more miscible with lipid in cells, resulted in higher fatty acid alkyl ester (FAAE) yields than that with methanol when the reaction temperature was lower than 90 °C. The ethanol and isopropanol volumes in the transesterification with 95% FAAE yield were only 75% of the methanol volume. The crystallization temperatures (0.19 °C and −3.15 °C) of biodiesels produced from wet microalgae through lipid transesterification in cells with ethanol and isopropanol were lower than that with methanol (2.08 °C), which was favorable for biodiesel flow in cold districts and winter.

  10. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  11. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  12. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  13. Role of ultrasonic irradiation on transesterification of palm oil using calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poosumas, Jutipong; Ngaosuwan, Kanokwan; Quitain, Armando T.; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification of palm oil using a circulated continuous flow ultrasonic reactor. • Heterogeneous system using CaO as catalyst. • Effects of ultrasonic frequency and power, and catalyst reusability were considered. • A single high frequency and high intensity irradiation is favorable for heterogeneous system. - Abstract: Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil using a circulated continuous flow ultrasonic reactor was investigated. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, 1 atm and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 9:1. The highest reaction rate was achieved at the catalyst loading of 2 wt%, and biodiesel yield constantly increased until transesterification equilibrium (about 80%) was reached. A higher ultrasonic frequency (50 kHz) promoted the heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of refined palm oil, because the three-phase system (packed solid catalyst, methanol and oil) required more spatial distribution by ultrasonic irradiation. Moreover, the highest ultrasonic power also provided highest transesterification rate and biodiesel yield due to cavitation activity enhancement. Reusability of calcium oxide catalysts was also investigated, and results showed that this can be reused to provide high biodiesel yield for at least three operations with slight decrease in the rate of reaction due to counter balance effect of organic compounds deposition on the catalyst surface. The results from this study can be a basis for scaling up of the process to industrial scale.

  14. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil glycerides: Theoretical and experimental studies of biodiesel reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyda C. Om Tapanes; Donato A. Gomes Aranda; Jose W. de Mesquita Carneiro; Octavio A. Ceva Antunes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Laboratorio GREENTEC

    2008-08-15

    Vegetal oil, also known as triglycerides, is a mixture of fatty acid triesters of glycerol. In the triglycerides alkyl chains of Jatropha curcas oil, predominate the palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids. The process usually used to convert these triglycerides to biodiesel is called transesterification. The overall process is a sequence of three equivalent, consecutive and reversible reactions, in which di- and monoglycerides are formed as intermediates. Semi-empirical AM1 molecular orbital calculations were used to investigate the reaction pathways of base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerides of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid. The most probable pathway and the rate determining-step of the reactions were estimated from the molecular orbital calculations. Our results suggest the formation of only one tetrahedral intermediate, which in a subsequent step rearranges to form the products. The rate determining-step is the break of this tetrahedral intermediate. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. High efficiency esterification and transesterification of alternative feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffito, D.C.; Mansi, S.; Pirola, C.; Vitali, S.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica; Leveque, J.M. [Savoie Univ., Le Bourget du Lac (France). LCME/CISM; Carvoli, G. [Khemistar S.r.l.-P, Novara (Italy); Rispoli, A.; Barnabe, D.; Bucchi, R. [Agri2000 Soc. Coop., Castel Maggiore (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Free Fatty Acids (FFA) esterification and transesterification reactions were studied in presence of traditional and sonochemical assisted techniques, such as microwave (MW) and ultrasound (US). Several non edible oils, both of vegetable origin or waste oil were used. Acid ion exchange resins Amebrlyst {sup registered} 15 (A15) and 46 (A46) and Purolite {sup registered} D5081 were used as catalysts for the FFA esterification. All the oils were successfully deacified over the resins, in particular A46 and D5081 showed a very good performance also after several recycles of use. Sonochemical methods were able to increase the conversion of the reactions. MW resulted to shorten the time to reach the plateau of conversion in FFA esterification, while US-assisted transesterification required lower reagents amount and much shorter times than the traditional one. (orig.)

  16. Biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols in an ultrasonic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Okitsu, Kenji; Nishimura, Rokuro; Maeda, Yasuaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dong, Nguyen The [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2009-03-15

    The biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol and decanol was investigated at molar ratio 6:1 (alcohol:triolein) and 25 C in the presence of base catalysts (NaOH and KOH) under ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) and mechanical stirring (1800 rot/min) conditions. It was found that the rate of the alkyl ester formation under the ultrasonic irradiation condition was higher than that under the stirring condition. In addition, it was confirmed that the rate depended upon the kind of alcohols; as the number of carbon in alcohol increased, the rate of the ester formation tended to decrease. On the other hand, the secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-hexanol, and 2-octanol showed little ester conversion, suggesting that the steric hindrance strongly affected the transesterification of triolein. (author)

  17. Evaluation as a catalyst in ferrispinel NiFe_2O_4 esterification and transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Silva, Adriano Sant'Ana; Kiminami, Ruth Herta Goldschmidt Aliaga

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of nanoscience and nanotechnology, magnetic nanoparticles ferrispinels type, have found numerous applications in biochemistry, molecular biology, biomedicine, diagnosis and heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production. Therefore, we propose to synthesize ferrispinel NiFe_2O_4 and evaluate its performance as a catalyst for esterification and transesterification of the methyl soybean oil. The sample was obtained through combustion reaction with production of 10 g / batch and characterized by XRD, SEM and BET. The catalytic reaction was conducted in high-pressure reactor at 180 °C for 1 hour, with a molar ratio of oil:ethanol 1:12 with 2% catalyst. The results showed the formation of ferrispinel phase, morphology composed of aggregates in the form of irregular blocks formed by pre sintered particles and low interparticle porosity. As a catalyst, the conversion values presented ferrispinel 52% and 4% in the esterification and transesterification, respectively, indicating that promising material for use in biodiesel production. (author)

  18. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  19. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  20. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  1. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a literature review regarding how operating conditions influence vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification yield. The following parameters were studied: temperature and time reaction, alcohol: oil molar ratio, alcohol type, biocatalyst type and concentration, solvent, mixed intensity, reagent purity and free fatty acid and moisture concentration. Yields greater than 90% can be achieved in the enzymatic catalyst of vegetable oil using 35-50°C temperatures, long time reactions (7- 90h and a 3:1alcohol: vegetable oil molar ratio; however, such values would intrinsically depend on the type of lipase and oil u- sed. It was also found that free fatty acid and moisture concentration were parameters which did not require rigorous control due to high enzyme specificity. Lipases immobilised from Pseudomona cepacia bacteria and Rhizopus orizae fungi were most used in vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification.

  2. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodiesel production via the transesterification of soybean oil using waste starfish (Asterina pectinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Beom; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ko, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 °C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.

  4. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuli [Detroit, MI; Salley, Steven O [Grosse Pointe Park, MI; Ng, K Y. Simon [West Bloomfield, MI

    2012-04-24

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  5. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  6. Transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol over Mg–Zn mixed metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Hussein, M.Z.; Yunus, R.

    2013-01-01

    A design was developed for the transesterification reaction of non-edible Jatropha Curcas oil using a heterogeneous catalysis system to replace the use of a homogeneous catalytic reaction. Investigations were conducted on solid MgO–ZnO mixed metal oxide catalyst bases with different atomic ratios of magnesium to zinc (Mg/Zn). These catalysts were characterized by BET (Brunauer–Emmer–Teller) surface area analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and the alkalinity of the catalysts was studied by Temperature Programmed Desorption of carbon dioxide (TPD-CO 2 ). The physicochemical properties of the MgO–ZnO binary system were superior to those of the individual bulk oxides of MgO and ZnO. In addition, the formation of a binary system between MgO and ZnO established an effective method for transesterification processes. In this study, the effects of stoichiometric composition and surface characteristics on the transesterification activity of MgO–ZnO were investigated. The catalysts exhibited high catalytic activity (∼80%) with reliable reusability for biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Transesterification reaction of non-edible jatropha oil using solid base catalyst. ► MgO–ZnO binary system showed superior effect than the individual MgO and ZnO. ► More than 80% of FAME yield was achieved under mild condition. ► MgO–ZnO catalyst showed reliable reusability throughout 5 runs. ► Fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were complying with the biodiesel standards.

  7. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E

    2015-01-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells. (paper)

  8. Optimization of transesterification of rubber seed oil using heterogeneous catalyst calcium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inggrid, Maria; Kristanto, Aldi; Santoso, Herry

    2015-12-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel manufactured with the help of alkali hydroxide catalyst through transesterification reaction of vegetable oil. This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for transesterification reaction producing biodiesel from crude rubber seed oil by varying process parameters such as the molar ratio of alcohol, CaO amount as the alkaline catalyst, and reaction time. The rubber seed oil has a high level of free fatty acid content, which means the use of homogenous alkaline catalyst gives some technological problems such as soap formation which leaded in difficulty in the separation and purification of the product. Calcium oxide (CaO) is one of the most favorable heterogeneous base catalysts because it's reusable, noncorrosive, and low cost. Pre-treatment was performed by acid esterification with H2SO4 as the catalyst to decrease the content of free fatty acid in the rubber seed oil, in this pretreatment process the 12% FFA of crude oil could be reduced to below 3% FFA. The product after esterification process was then transesterified by alkaline transesterification by varying process parameters to convert triglyceride into biodiesel. The study found that maximum curvature for biodiesel yield occurred at 9:1 molar ratio of alcohol, 5%w catalyst loading, and 3 hours reaction time. Design expert software is used to determine the optimum point from experimental data. The result showed that the optimum yield of methyl ester from transesterification was 73.5 % by mass with 0.69 degree of desirability. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its density, viscosity, acid number, and solubility to meet SNI requirement standards.

  9. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E.

    2015-06-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells.

  10. Biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Harrison, Mark D.; Kusumo, Fitranto; Mazaheri, Hoora; Ilham, Zul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Need for alternative energy has led to explore new feedstock. • Ocimum basilicum seeds oil was used as biodiesel feedstock. • Biodiesel was produced via lipase-catalyzed transesterification by Novozym. • Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was employed. - Abstract: The increasing global demand for fuel, limited fossil fuel resources, and increasing concern about the upturn in gaseous CO_2 emissions are the key drivers of research and development into sources of renewable liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel. In the present work, we demonstrate biodiesel production from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) seed oil by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Sweet basil seeds contain 22% oil on a dry weight basis. Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was used to optimize reaction. Temperature, catalyst concentration, time, and methanol to oil molar ratio were the input factors in the optimization study, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was the key model output. FAME composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized transesterification process resulted in a 94.58% FAME yield after reaction at 47 °C for 68 h in the presence of 6% w/w catalyst and a methanol to oil ratio of 10:1. The viscosity, density, calorific value, pour point, and cloud point of the biodiesel derived from sweet basil seed oil conformed to the EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standard specifications. The antioxidant stability of the biodiesel did not meet these specifications but could be improved via the addition of antioxidant.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Dry Microalga Biomass by Microwave-Assisted In-Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadariyah Lailatul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalga is one of the potential feedstocks in the manufacture of biodiesel because it contains high oil content. In this study, Chlorella sp. was selected because its high oil content about 28-32% of oil (based on its dry weight and its presence is abundant among other green algae. In situ transesterification was carried out in round neck flask under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation can facilitate the in situ transesterification by extracted the lipid of microalga and simultaneous convert to FAME. The purposes of this study are to investigate the effect of acid catalyst concentration, microwave power, reaction time and the addition of co-solvent (n-hexane on the yield of biodiesel, to get optimum operating conditions and to know the fatty acid compounds of biodiesel from Chlorella sp. The results of oil extraction and biodiesel were analyzed by GC-MS analysis. Based on the experiment, the yield of microalga oil was 11.37%. The optimum yield of biodiesel by in-situ transesterification was 75.68%. It was obtained at the microwave power of 450 watts, the reaction time of 60 minutes, an acid catalyst concentration of 0,2M of H2SO4, and the co-solvent addition of 10 ml.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Transesterification of Waste Pig Fat in Supercritical Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characteristics of waste pig fat degradation using supercritical alcohols have been studied. Comparative analysis of the influence of supercritical methanol and supercritical ethanol as solvents on the transesterification was the primary focus of this research. The experiments were carried out with waste pig fat to alcohol weight ratios of 1:1.5 (molar ratio: 1:40.5 for methanol and 1:28 for ethanol, 1:2.0 (molar ratio: 1:54 for methanol and 1:37.5 for ethanol and 1:2.5 (molar ratio: 1:67.5 for methanol and 1:47 for ethanol at transesterification temperatures 250, 270 and 290 °C for holding time 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Increase in the transesterification and holding time increased the conversion while increase in alcohol amount from 1:1.5 to 1:2.0 and 1:2.5 had minimal effect on the conversion. Further, majority of the ester composition in using SCM as solvent falls in the carbon range of C17:0, C19:1 and C19:2 while that for SCE falls in the carbon range of C18:0, C20:1 and C20:2. Glycerol was only present while using SCM as solvent.

  13. Optimization of sodium loading on zeolite support for catalyzed transesterification of triolein with methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Yuan; Chou, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Optimization of sodium loading on zeolite HY for catalyzed transesterification of triolein in excess methanol to biodiesel was studied. Zeolite HY catalyst was activated by loading sodium ions to their surface via an ion-exchange method. The effects of ion-exchange process parameters, including the temperature, the process time, the pH value, as well as concentrations and sources of Na(+) cations (NaOH, NaCl and Na2SO4), on the conversion yield of triolein to biodiesel were investigated. Most of these Na(+)-activated zeolite HY catalysts could really facilitate the catalyzed transesterification reaction of triolein to biodiesel at a lower temperature near 65°C. Consequently, a high conversion yield of triglycerides to biodiesel at 97.3% was obtained at 65°C. Moreover, the durability of zeolite catalysts was examined as well. Catalytic performance tests of these zeolite catalysts in transesterification did not show a significant decrease in catalysis at least for three batch cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

  15. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    KAUST Repository

    Urban, Jiří T.; Švec, František; Frechet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhao, Liangliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method with different conditions. • The catalysts were efficient in the soybean oil transesterification. • The catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst were investigated. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO–SnO 2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO–SnO 2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction

  17. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    KAUST Repository

    Urban, Jiří T.

    2011-09-26

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. In-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for sustainable biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses in-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) for the production of biodiesel. For in-situ transesterification process, the methanol, organic solvent and acid catalyst were mixed with wet SCG in one pot and the mixture was heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. Maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 16.75wt.% based on the weight of dry SCG at 95°C. Comprehensive experiments were conducted with varying temperatures and various amounts of moisture, methanol, co-solvent and acid catalyst. Moderate polar and alcohol-miscible organic solvent is suitable for the high FAME yield. Unsaturated FAMEs are subject to oxidative cleavage by nitric acid and shorter chain (C6 and C10) FAMEs were mainly produced while sulfuric acid yielded long chain unsaturated FAMEs (C16 and C18). Utilization of wet SCGs as a biodiesel feedstock gives economic and environmental benefits by recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xin; Fang, Zhen; Liu, Yun-hu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. (author)

  20. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xin [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Fang Zhen, E-mail: zhenfang@xtbg.ac.c [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Liu Yunhu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  1. Optimization of biodiesel production from Chlorella protothecoides oil via ultrasound assisted transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçimen Didem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines because of the high oil prices and environmental issues related to massive greenhouse gas emissions. Nowadays, microalgal biomass has become a promising biodiesel feedstock. However, traditional biodiesel production from microalgae consumes a lot of energy and solvents. It is necessary to use an alternative method that can reduce the energy and alcohol consumption and save time. In this study, biodiesel production from Chlorella protothecoides oil by ultrasound assisted transesterification was conducted and effects of reaction parameters such as methanol:oil ratio, catalyst/oil ratio and reaction time on fatty acid methyl ester yields were investigated. The transesterification reactions were carried out by using methanol as alcohol and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. The highest methyl ester production was obtained under the conditions of 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 1.5% potassium hydroxide catalyst in oil, and for reaction time of 40 min. It was also found that catalyst/oil molar ratio was the most effective parameter on methyl ester yield according to statistical data. The results showed that ultrasound-assisted transesterification may be an alternative and cost effective way to produce biodiesel efficiently.

  2. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xin; Fang Zhen; Liu Yunhu

    2010-01-01

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H 2 SO 4 or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H 2 SO 4 as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H 2 SO 4 for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  4. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    A chloroform-free novel process for the efficient production of biodiesel from wet microalgae is proposed. Crude biodiesel is produced through extraction with hexane after microwave-assisted transesterification (EHMT) of lipids in wet microalgae. Effects of different parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, methanol dosage, and catalyst dosage, on fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) yield are investigated. The yield of FAME extracted into the hexane from the wet microalgae is increased 6-fold after the transesterification of lipids. The yield of FAME obtained through EHMT of lipids in wet microalgae is comparable to that obtained through direct transesterification of dried microalgae biomass with chloroform; however, FAME content in crude biodiesel obtained through EHMT is 86.74%, while that in crude biodiesel obtained through the chloroform-based process is 75.93%. EHMT ensures that polar pigments present in microalgae are not extracted into crude biodiesel, which leads to a 50% reduction in nitrogen content in crude biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of transesterification comparing processes with methanol and ethanol for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The increasing demand for energy on the industrialized world stimulates researches in a renewable fuel. Biodiesel appears like an alternative and utilizes a vegetable oil or animal fat as raw material. The most common method for conversion of the raw material in fuel that can be utilized in Diesel engines is called transesterification. Brazil has a big agricultural potential to produce grains and oils. One of them is the peanut oil that is predominantly cultivated in the southeast of Brazil. There is a prevision that the peanut production reaches 232 thousand tons this year. In this work was evaluated the methanol transesterification and ethanol transesterification of peanut oil using a basic catalyst. The comparison between reactions with the two alcohols showed that methyl esters yield was greater than ethyl esters, with maximum yield of 88.04% for methanol and 84.64% for ethanol. Besides the higher yield, reactions with methanol are easily conducted than with ethanol, the biodiesel purification treatment of final product is quickly and the separation between esters and glycerol is instantaneous. (author)

  6. Transesterification for the preparation of biodiesel from crude-oil of Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Veeresh A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Pongamia pinnata L. by transesterification of the crude-oil with methanol in the presence of NAOH as catalyst. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. Both the acid as well as alkaline esterifications were subsequently performed to get the final product. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. NaOH was found to be a better catalyst than KOH in terms of yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid, or enzyme, alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A maximum conversion of 94% (oil to ester was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 to 65 °C. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of pongamia oil (biodiesel compare well with ASTM standards.

  7. Model study on transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol using solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Piao, Xianglan; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Shenlin

    2010-03-25

    Modeling of the transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel using a solid base as a catalyst is very important because the mutual solubilities of oil and methanol will increase with the increasing biodiesel yield. The heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid reaction system would become a liquid-solid system when the biodiesel reaches a certain content. In this work, we adopted a two-film theory and a steady state approximation assumption, then established a heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid model in the first stage. After the diffusion coefficients on the liquid-liquid interface and the liquid-solid interface were calculated on the basis of the properties of the system, the theoretical value of biodiesel productivity changing with time was obtained. The predicted values were very near the experimental data, which indicated that the proposed models were suitable for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel when solid bases were used as catalysts. Meanwhile, the model indicated that the transesterification reaction was controlled by both mass transfer and reaction. The total resistance will decrease with the increase in biodiesel yield in the liquid-liquid-solid stage. The solid base catalyst exhibited an activation energy range of 9-20 kcal/mol, which was consistent with the reported activation energy range of homogeneous catalysts.

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Acid Oil via a Two-Step Enzymatic Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nakyung; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Kwak, Jieun; Lee, Junsoo; Kim, In-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus. The effects of molar ratio of acid oil to ethanol, temperature, and enzyme loading were investigated to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification with the three immobilized lipases. The optimum conditions of the three immobilized lipases were a molar ratio of 1:5 (acid oil to ethanol), the temperature range of 30-40°C, and the enzyme loading range of 5-10%. The two-step transesterification was then conducted under the optimum conditions of each lipase. The stepwise use of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM or Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM resulted in similar or higher levels of yield to the individual lipases. The maximum yields obtained in both stepwise uses were ca. 92%.

  9. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2012-02-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Detergent assisted ultrasonication aided in situ transesterification for biodiesel production from oleaginous yeast wet biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Sravan Kumar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D

    2017-01-01

    In situ transesterification of oleaginous yeast wet biomass for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production using acid catalyst, methanol with or without N-Lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) treatment was performed. The maximum FAMEs yield obtained with or without N-LS treatment in 24h reaction time was 96.1±1.9 and 71±1.4% w/w, respectively. The N-LS treatment of biomass followed by with or without ultrasonication revealed maximum FAMEs yield of 94.3±1.9% and 82.9±1.8% w/w using methanol to lipid molar ratio 360:1 and catalyst concentration 360mM (64μL H 2 SO 4 /g lipid) within 5 and 25min reaction time, respectively. The FAMEs composition obtained in in situ transesterification was similar to that obtained with conventional two step lipid extraction and transesterification process. Biodiesel fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number and total glycerol) were in accordance with international standard (ASTM D6751), which suggests the suitability of biodiesel as a fuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of FAME by palm oil transesterification via supercritical methanol technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    The present study employed non-catalytic supercritical methanol technology to produce biodiesel from palm oil. The research was carried out in a batch-type tube reactor and heated beyond supercritical temperature and pressure of methanol, which are at 239 o C and 8.1 MPa respectively. The effects of temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to palm oil on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained showed that non-catalytic supercritical methanol technology only required a mere 20 min reaction time to produce more than 70% yield of FAME. Compared to conventional catalytic methods, which required at least 1 h reaction time to obtain similar yield, supercritical methanol technology has been shown to be superior in terms of time and energy consumption. Apart from the shorter reaction time, it was found that separation and purification of the products were simpler since no catalyst is involved in the process. Hence, formation of side products such as soap in catalytic reactions does not occur in the supercritical methanol method.

  12. The stability evaluation of lime mud as transesterification catalyst in resisting CO2 and H2O for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Niu, Sheng-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lime mud (LM) is pretreated with calcination, hydration and desiccation. • The alkali solubility is the amount of alkali compounds dissolved in methanol. • The soluble alkali amount in LM700-H is higher than that of CaO–H. • LM700 possesses a stronger capability than CaO in resisting H 2 O and CO 2 . - Abstract: The most outstanding property of the heterogeneous transesterification catalysts is recyclable, but their catalytic activity may be depressed for the absorption of moisture (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in air, especially for the basic ones. Lime mud (LM) is effective in catalyzing transesterification, yet its property in resisting H 2 O and CO 2 is indistinct, which should be emphasized. In this study, the LM based transesterification catalyst is prepared through calcinations. Then, it is hydrated and desiccated to simulate the contamination by H 2 O and CO 2 . Further, the fresh and the contaminated catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Hammette indicator, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and soluble alkali examination, to reveal the mechanism of LM in resisting H 2 O and CO 2 . Meanwhile, the analytical grade calcium oxide (CaO) is chosen for comparison. Finally, to comprehensively investigate the influences of H 2 O and CO 2 on LM in catalyzing transesterification, the factors of the catalyst addition percentage, molar ratio of methanol to oil and transesterification temperature are evaluated

  13. Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Shailendra; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Garg, Sanjeev

    2008-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification. Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized with the objective of producing high quality rice bran oil biodiesel with maximum yield. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and NaOH as catalyst were found to be 55 deg. C reaction temperature, 1 h reaction time, 9:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 0.75% catalyst (w/w). Rice bran oil methyl ester thus produced was characterized to find its suitability to be used as a fuel in engines. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector

  14. On the tandem Morita-Baylis-Hillman/transesterification processes. Mechanistic insights for the role of protic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpanez, Arthur G.; Coelho, Fernando; Amarante, Giovanni W.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the remarkable rate acceleration under protic solvents such as alcohols and water, the use of acrylates as activated alkenes places a problem due to the possibility of ester hydrolysis or transesterification. Therefore, the tandem transesterification/Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions were investigated by ESI(+)-MS/(MS) and 1H NMR techniques. For the first time, the MBH back-reaction was fully examined by ESI(+)-MS/(MS) using labelling reagents revealed the complex equilibrium involving the Michael-type addition step of DABCO to acrylate. C- and O-protonation were observed at this stage, showing the transesterification process occurs previous to the aldol step, which is the rate-determining step of the mechanism. At this stage, a short-lived tetrahedral intermediate might be involved and should be considered in these processes.

  15. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  16. Fast Synthesis of High Quality Biodiesel from ‘Waste Fish Oil’ by Single Step Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of fish wastes is produced on a daily basis in the Indian sub-continent. This abundant waste source could serve as an economic feedstock for bioenergy generation. In the present study, oil extracted from discarded fish parts was used for high quality biodiesel production. More specifically, a single step transesterification of ‘waste fishoil’ with methanol using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa as homogeneous catalyst under moderate operational conditions resulted in highly pure biodiesel of > 98% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content. Characterization was performed by Fourier Transform-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-NMR.

  17. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate catalyzed in-situ transesterification of Nannochloropsis to fatty acid methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yingqiang; Cooke, Peter; Reddy, Harvind K.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Zheling; Deng, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • [Bmim][HSO_4] catalyzed in-situ transesterification of wet algae. • [Bmim][HSO_4] served as both effective solvent and excellent acid catalyst. • Proposed a mechanism for [Bmim][HSO_4] catalyzed in-situ transesterification. • Identified cell walls and lipid droplets in algae using confocal imaging tests. • Obtained crude biodiesel yield about 95% in 30 min at 200 °C. - Abstract: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Bmim][HSO_4]) is used as a solvent and an acid catalyst for in-situ extractive transesterification of wet Nannochloropsis with methanol. The reaction is supposed to be a five-step process: (1) wet algae cell wall dissolves in ionic liquid at reaction temperatures; (2) hydrogen ions and sulfate ions release from the ionization of HSO_4"−. The hydrogen ions (H"+) act as catalysts for accelerating the reactive extraction of triglyceride from wet Nannochloropsis; (3) hydrogen ions and methanol molecules transfer from bulk to active site of cells without passing through cell wall that is dissolved by ionic liquid; (4) in-situ transesterification of lipid (mainly triglycerides) with methanol; and (5) products transfer from inside of algae cells to outside of cells. The crude biodiesel yield of [Bmim][HSO_4] catalyzed in-situ transesterification is about 95.28% at reaction temperature of 200 °C, reaction time of 30 min, mass ratio of [Bmim][HSO_4] to wet Nannochloropsis of 0.9:1, and a mass ratio of methanol to wet algae of 3:1. It decreases to 81.23% after [Bmim][HSO_4] is recycled for 4 times, which indicates that [Bmim][HSO_4] catalyzed in-situ transesterification is an economic approach for biodiesel production from wet algae.

  18. Evaluation of reaction mechanisms and the kinetic parameters for the transesterification of castor oil by liquid enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol using the enzyme Eversa® Transform as catalyst were investigated. Reactions were carried out for 8 hours at 35 °C with: an alcohol-to-oil molar ratio equal to 6:1, a 5 wt% of liquid enzyme solution and addition of 5 wt% of water by weight of castor oil. From...... methanolysis rates of glycerides obtained, indicated that transesterification dominates over hydrolysis. The mechanism among the four models proposed that gave the best fit could be simplified, eliminating the kinetic parameters with negligible effects on the reaction rates. This model was able to fit...

  19. Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin, and soybean oil with methanol over hydrotalcites with different water contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Se Min; Seo, Gon [School of Applied Chemical Engineering and the Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Yungbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Chang, Duck Rae [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 1110-9 Oryoung-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-480 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin and soybean oil with methanol was examined over rehydrated hydrotalcites (HT-reh), which were previously calcined at 550 C and exposed to an ambient atmosphere, in order to investigate the effect of the water content on their catalytic activity. Rehydration of a calcined hydrotalcite at 25 C produced uniform mesopores of around 4 nm diameter, while the removal of water from the HT-reh by pretreatment at 500 C, formed large heterogeneous mesopores. Methanol was adsorbed and desorbed rapidly in the mesopores of the HT-reh filled with water. The pretreatment of the HT-reh at 500 C removed both water and carbon dioxide, producing strong basic sites. The high activity of fully rehydrated hydrotalcite in the transesterification of three triglycerides was explained by the generation of Broensted basic sites and the rapid migration of methanol in the mesopores, while the improved activity of the rehydrated hydrotalcite pretreated at 500 C by the generation of strong basic sites and empty mesopores due to the removal of water and carbon dioxide. (author)

  20. Activation of Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalysts for transesterification of rape oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-yan Zeng; Zhen Feng; Xin Deng; Yu-qin Li [University of Xiangtan, Hunan (China). Institute of Biotechnology

    2008-10-15

    Mg-Al hydrotalcites with different Mg/Al molar ratios were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetric apparatus and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It was confirmed by XRD that the materials had hydrotalcite structure. The hydrotalcite catalyst calcined at 773 K with Mg/Al molar ratio of 3.0 exhibited the highest catalytic activity in the transesterification. In addition, a study for optimizing the transesterification reaction conditions such as molar ratio of the methanol to oil, the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the stirring speed and the amount of catalyst, was performed. The optimized parameters, 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio with 1.5% catalyst (w/w of oil) reacted under stirring speed 300 rpm at 65{sup o}C for 4 h reaction, gave a maximum ester conversion of 90.5%. Moreover, the solid catalyst could be easily separated and possibly reused. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Discovery and characterizaton of a novel lipase with transesterification activity from hot spring metagenomic library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new gene encoding a lipase (designated as Lip-1 was identified from a metagenomic bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC library prepared from a concentrated water sample collected from a hot spring field in Niujie, Eryuan of Yunnan province in China. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 622 amino acid residues. It was cloned, fused with the oleosin gene and over expressed in Escherichia coli to prepare immobilized lipase artificial oil body AOB-sole-lip-1. The monomeric Sole-lip-1 fusion protein presented a molecular mass of 102.4 kDa. Enzyme assays using olive oil and methanol as the substrates in petroleum ether confirmed its transesterification activity. Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 8,11-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 8-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and Octadecanoic acid methyl ester were detected. It showed favorable transesterification activity with optimal temperature 45 °C. Besides, the maximal biodiesel yield was obtained when the petroleum ether system as the organic solvent and the substrate methanol in 350 mmol/L (at a molar ratio of methanol of 10.5:1 and the water content was 1%. In light of these advantages, this lipase presents a promising resource for biodiesel production.

  2. Synthesis and characterization cobalt ferrite and evaluation of performance in the transesterification methyl two lipid sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, R.B.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Dantas, B.B.; Silva, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The cottonseed and soybean oils are two lipid matrices that can be used to obtain biodiesel through the use of homogeneous catalysts, which increase operating costs. The use of heterogeneous catalysts can remedy this problem. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the use of heterogeneous catalyst CoFe 2 O 4 synthesized by combustion reaction in the transesterification of methyl cottonseed oil, soybean and their mixtures (1:1). The sample was characterized by XRD and textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption. The catalytic tests were conducted at 200 deg C, molar ratio of oil:ethanol 1:15, 2% of catalyst and 3 hours. The results show that the synthesis has been effective in obtaining the phase CoFe2O4 with surface area of 23.75 m 2 g -1 . Tests for transesterification of methyl cottonseed oil, soybean and their blends indicated that the material under study resulted conversions above 50%. The highest efficiency was obtained for the reaction using the mixture of oils. (author)

  3. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  4. Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: Transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Alcantara, Ramon; Garcia-Martinez, Jesus; Carrasco, Jesus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, School of Mines, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003-Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in some parts of the world. The main uses of Jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the Jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with methanol, catalysed with sodium methoxide (1wt% of the oil). The transesterification reaction has been carried out in an autoclave at 60 deg C, with a molar ratio methanol/oil 7.5:1, and vigorous stirring (600rpm), reaching a quantitative conversion of the oil after 4h. The separation of the fatty acid methyl esters (the fraction rich in FAME, 79% FAME mixture; 21% fatty alcohols; 51% of methyl cis-11-eicosenoate) from the fatty alcohols rich fraction (72% fatty alcohols; 28% FAME mixture; 26% of cis-11-eicosen-1-ol, 36% of cis-13-docosen-1-ol) has been accomplished in a single crystallization step at low temperature (-18 deg C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. The fraction rich in FAME has a density (at 15 deg C), a kinematic viscosity (at 40 deg C), a cold filter plugging point and a high calorific value in the range of the European standard for biodiesel (EN 14214)

  5. The utilization of leftover as acid catalyst to catalyse the transesterification and esterification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. K.; Yau, Y. H.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) is a green and renewable energy. It is carbon neutral and produces less air pollutants in combustion. In my project, the selected feedstock of biodiesel production is grease trap oil (GTO). It is extracted from restaurants, and needs pre-treatment. The triglycerides and free fatty acid (FFA) are the main components of GTO. Both triglycerides and free fatty acid can be converted to biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) by transesterification and esterification, through reaction with alcohol (methanol) and catalyst. In the processes, acidic catalyst is chosen to speed up the reactions. The catalyst used In the study, a heterogeneous solid acid is applied. It is waste cooked rice (WCR) collected from leftover. The WCR powder is pyrolysed in 400°C furnace 15 hours and blown with nitrogen gas (incomplete carbonization). The WCR black powder is then mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid and heat in 160°C furnace 15 hours and continuous blown with nitrogen gas (sulphonation). This heterogeneous solid acid is used in the both transesterification and esterification to produce FAME. Moreover, in the optimal reaction conditions, this catalyst offers a stable catalytic effect. After 20 times usage in optimal reaction condition, the catalytic activity remains unchanged.

  6. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the cutinase-catalyzed transesterification of oils in AOT reversed micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2011-11-01

    The kinetics of the enzymatic transesterification between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol for biodiesel production in a bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reversed micellar system, using recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi as a catalyst, was investigated. In order to describe the results that were obtained, a mechanistic scheme was proposed, based on the literature and on the experimental data. This scheme includes the following reaction steps: the formation of the active enzyme-substrate complex, the addition of an alcohol molecule to the complex followed by the separation of a molecule of the fatty acid alkyl ester and a glycerol moiety, and release of the active enzyme. Enzyme inhibition and deactivation effects due to methanol and glycerol were incorporated in the model. This kinetic model was fitted to the concentration profiles of the fatty acid methyl esters (the components of biodiesel), tri-, di- and monoglycerides, obtained for a 24 h transesterification reaction performed in a stirred batch reactor under different reaction conditions of enzyme and initial substrates concentration.

  8. Biodiesel synthesis by direct transesterification of microalga Botryococcus braunii with continuous methanol reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Ciudad, Gustavo; Schober, Sigurd; Mittelbach, Martin; Navia, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Direct transesterification of Botryococcus braunii with continuous acyl acceptor reflux was evaluated. This method combines in one step lipid extraction and esterification/transesterification. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) synthesis by direct conversion of microalgal biomass was carried out using sulfuric acid as catalyst and methanol as acyl acceptor. In this system, once lipids are extracted, they are contacted with the catalyst and methanol reaching 82%wt of FAME yield. To optimize the reaction conditions, a factorial design using surface response methodology was applied. The effects of catalyst concentration and co-solvent concentration were studied. Hexane was used as co-solvent for increasing lipid extraction performance. The incorporation of hexane in the reaction provoked an increase in FAME yield from 82% (pure methanol) to 95% when a 47%v/v of hexane was incorporated in the reaction. However, the selectivity towards non-saponifiable lipids such as sterols was increased, negatively affecting biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic studies and thermodynamics of oil extraction and transesterification of Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Yasin, N H Mat; Derek, C J C; Lim, J K

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a mixture of chloroform and methanol (1:1, v/v) was applied to oil extraction from Chlorella sp. at 30, 40, 50 and 60 degrees C for 150 min extraction times. Kinetic studies revealed that the values of n and the rate constants were found to depend strongly on temperature. The activation energy was Ea = 38.893 kJ/mol, and the activation thermodynamic parameters at 60 degrees C were ΔS≠ = -180.190 J/mol , ΔH≠ = 36.124k J/mol and ΔG≠ = 96.128k J/mol. Both ΔH and ΔS yielded positive values, whereas ΔG was negative at 60 degrees C, indicating that this process is endothermic, irreversible and spontaneous. The acidic transesterification process was also investigated by gas chromatographic analysis of the microalgae fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) at different temperatures and reaction times. The fatty acid profile indicated that the main components were palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The concentration of linolenic acid increased and oleic acid decreased as the temperature increased. Two-hour transesterification is the best reaction time for biodiesel production because it produces the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (74%). These results indicate the potential of Chlorella sp. to produce biodiesel of good quality.

  10. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: one-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Aitao; Xu, Yi; Ngo, Thao P N; Phua, Szechao; Li, Zhi

    2012-11-01

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel (FAME) from grease (15-40wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Combining immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) (Novozyme 435) favoring the esterification and immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) (Lipozyme TLIM) preferring the transesterification at 2:8 (wt/wt) gave FAME in 80% yield, being better than that with Novozyme 435 or Lipozyme TLIM. Recombinant Escherichia coli (Calb/Tll) co-expressing CALB and TLL was engineered as a more efficient tandem-lipases system. Using wet or dry cells (4wt%) gave FAME in 87% or 95% yield, which is much better than that with E. coli cells expressing either CALB or TLL alone. Cells of E. coli (Calb/Tll) were recycled for five times and retained 75% productivity, thus being practical for producing biodiesel from grease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic activity of calcium-based mixed metal oxides nanocatalysts in transesterification reaction of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noraakinah; Ismail, Kamariah Noor; Hamid, Ku Halim Ku; Hadi, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, biodiesel has become the forefront development as an alternative diesel fuel derived from biological sources such as oils of plant and fats. Presently, the conventional transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel gives rise to some technological problem. In this sense, heterogeneous nanocatalysts of calcium-based mixed metal oxides were synthesized through sol-gel method. It was found that significant increase of biodiesel yield, 91.75 % was obtained catalyzed by CaO-NbO2 from palm oil compared to pure CaO of 53.99 % under transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 10:1, reaction time 3 h, catalyst concentration 4 wt%, reaction temperature 60 °C, and mixing speed of 600 rpm). The phase structure and crystallinity as well as the texture properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. Sol-gel method has been known as versatile method in controlling the structural and chemical properties of the catalyst. Calcium-based mixed oxide synthesized from sol-gel method was found to exist as smaller crystallite size with high surface area.

  12. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal from rapeseed through in-situ alkaline transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Yang, Qiuhui; Sun, Fuan; He, Mingyang; Chen, Qun; Yun, Zhi; Qin, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    In-situ alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal was carried out. Water removal from milled rapeseed by methanol washing was more effective than vacuum drying. The conversion rate of rapeseed oil into FAME was 92%, FAME mass was 8.81 g, glucosinolates content in remaining rapeseed meal was 0.12% by methanol washing, while by vacuum drying the values were 46%, 4.44 g, 0.58%, respectively. In the presence of 0.10 mol/L NaOH in methanol, with methanol/oil molar ratio of 180:1 and a 3h reaction at 40 °C, a conversion rate of 98% was achieved, and the glucosinolates content was reduce to 0.07%, a value which below the GB/T 22514-2008 standard in China. Thus the rapeseed meal can be used as a source of protein in animal feed. The FAME prepared through in-situ alkaline transesterification met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound-enhanced rapid in situ transesterification of marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Tamilarasan; Kasirajan, Ramachandran; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2014-03-01

    In situ transesterification of Enteromorpha compressa algal biomass was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The maximum methyl esters (ME) yield of 98.89% was obtained using ultrasonic irradiation. Tetra hydro furan (THF) and acid catalyst (H2SO4) was found to be an appropriate co-solvent and catalyst for high free fatty acids (FFA) content E. compressa biomass to increase the efficiency of the reactive in situ process. The optimization study was conducted to obtain the maximum yield and it was determined as 30vol% of THF as a co-solvent, 10wt% of H2SO4, 5.5:1 ratio of methanol to algal biomass and 600rpm of mixing intensity at 65°C for 90min of ultrasonic irradiation time. The produced biodiesel was characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) analysis. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed the first-order reaction mechanism. Rapid in situ transesterification was found to be suitable technique to produce biodiesel from marine macroalgae feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samuel J; Ott, Lisa S

    2012-07-01

    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent.

  15. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Ramirez, Kelsey; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  16. Vapour–Liquid and Chemical Equilibria in the Ethyl Ethanoate + Ethanol + Propyl Ethanoate + Propanol System Accompanied with Transesterification Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 328, AUG 25 (2012), s. 61-68 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : transesterification * vapour-liquid equilibrium * correlation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012

  17. Influencia de la Medicina Francesa en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrade Valderrama

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Me da autoridad para hablar ante ustedes, quienes por segunda vez en nuestra Historia y ahora en una seria Asociación reviven los lazos de la Medicina Colombiana con la gran Escuela Francesa, el haber pertenecido a una de las últimas generaciones, formadas en la Universidad Nacional, que estudiaron toda la carrera en los textos provenientes de ese país y recibieron de maestros, casi todos formados bajo esa notable influencia, todos los principios y normas del ejercicio profesional. Disminuída casi al mínimo, tras la ruptura de comunicación y situación originada por la Segunda Guerra Mundial y tras los cambios, que en el orden social y tecnológico han ocurrido en estos últimos cincuenta años, hoy buscan todas las entidades que tienen a su cargo la Educación Médica, revivir la imagen de un médico general, familiar o comunitario, que pueda restituir la perdida relación Médico-Paciente, base de la antigua Escuela Francesa y que correctamente orientado y utilizando la esplendorosa tecnología de este final de siglo, pueda ser la salvación para el cuidado integral del paciente del próximo milenio que se avecina.

    A través de la Historia, se ha visto cómo el cetro de la Medicina ha rotado por diversas culturas y países. España, por razones políticas, alejada de Francia, recibió, en el campo médico el influjo de Alemania e Inglaterra. A sus colonias de América, fué muy poco lo que de ellas llegó. Sólo hasta finales del siglo XVIII, vino un hombre genial, naturalista y médico, quien pasara a la Historia Universal con la célebre Expedición Botánica y que fué el padre de la medicina colombiana: José Celestino Mutis. El puso en marcha la primera Escuela de Medicina, en 1802 y allí estudiaron los primeros médicos que pasada la Guerra de la Independencia, encabezados por José Félix Merizalde, habrían de recibir la primera Misión Francesa, en 1823.

    Médicos franceses conocidos antes en el país fueron

  18. Microwave Energy Increases Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Yield in Human Whole Blood Due to Increased Sphingomyelin Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Ciobanu, Flaviu; Taha, Ameer Y; Stark, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) by fingertip prick collection for fatty acid profiling are becoming increasingly popular due to ease of collection, minimal invasiveness and its amenability to high-throughput analyses. Herein, we assess a microwave-assisted direct transesterification method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from DBS. Technical replicates of human whole blood were collected and 25-μL aliquots were applied to chromatography strips prior to analysis by a standard 3-h transesterification method or microwave-assisted direct transesterification method under various power (variable vs constant), time (1-5 min) and reagent (1-10% H2SO4 in methanol) conditions. In addition, a standard method was compared to a 5-min, 30-W power microwave in 1% H2SO4 method for FAME yield from whole blood sphingomyelin, and sphingomyelin standards alone and spiked in whole blood. Microwave-assisted direct transesterification yielded no significant differences in both quantitative (nmol/100 µL) and qualitative (mol%) fatty acid assessments after as little as 1.5- and 1-min reaction times, respectively, using the variable power method and 5% H2SO4 in methanol. However, 30-W power for 5 min increased total FAME yield of the technical replicates by 14%. This increase appears largely due to higher sphingomyelin-derived FAME yield of up to 109 and 399% compared to the standard method when determined from whole blood or pure standards, respectively. In conclusion, microwave-assisted direct transesterification of DBS achieved in as little as 1-min, and 5-min reaction times increase total fatty acids primarily by significantly improving sphingomyelin-derived fatty acid yield.

  19. Transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils by using waste egg shell derived calcium based mixed metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S.; Lamba, Bhawna Y.; Bisht, Kamal K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Nayan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken eggshell derived CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides were prepared. • Transesterification of high free fatty acid containing non-edible oils were achieved using prepared catalysts. • CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides have shown better activity in comparison to neat CaO(cesp). • Best Conversions were achieved with ZnO–CaO(cesp). • Catalyst has shown good reusability up to 4 cycles without significant loss in its activity. - Abstract: Solid base heterogeneous catalysts are one of the promising materials for the transesterification of vegetable oils because these catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require very severe operating conditions. Calcium oxide has shown good catalytic activity due to its high basicity which is required for transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs). In the present study, the transesterification of non-edible, high free fatty acid containing Jatropha and Karanja oils was studied by using waste chicken egg shell derived calcium (i.e. CaO(cesp)) based mixed metal oxides (M-CaO; M = ZnO, MnO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ) as heterogeneous catalyst. A comparison was also made on the catalytic performance of these prepared catalysts. The catalyst characterizations were done by XRD, SEM, TGA, FT-IR and BET techniques. The effectiveness of the catalysts was highly influenced by the calcination temperature. ZnO–CaO(cesp) catalyst was found to be the most efficient catalyst among all. The maximum conversion for the transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils were achieved using 5 wt% catalyst, 65 °C temperature and 12:1 methanol/oil ratio. The catalyst could be re-used effectively during four cycles. Use of the CaO(cesp) based mixed oxides made the process more environmental benign and economical. The biodiesel prepared has shown good fuel characteristics as per EN, ASTM and IS standards

  20. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol......-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35 °C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5 wt% of enzyme and 5...... wt% of water contents, 94 % of FAME yield and 6.1 % of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8 hours are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content....

  1. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol.

  2. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA content (32 mg KOH/g of oil. Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  3. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Ponnusami, V

    2017-12-01

    Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  4. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    formation of feruloyl fish oil products as well when appropriate amount of glycerol was present in the reaction. Therefore, the addition of equivalent molar amount of glycerol to EF was decided for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 oC), reaction time (1......The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method...... to 5 days), enzyme load (2 to 20 %) and substrate amount ratio of fish oil/EF (1 to 5) were thus studied with assistance of response surface methodology (RSM) for the purpose of maximizing the formation towards feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were...

  5. Biodiesel. A revision of the obtaining process by means of the transesterification of vegetables oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea, Pedro Nel; Agudelo, Jhon Ramiro; Zapata, Paula A; Mendoza, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils and animal fats. It can be used as an alternative fuel to diesels for use in diesel engines. biodiesel is produced by transesterification of large branched triglycerides into smaller, straight chain molecules of alkyl esters, using a low molecular weight alcohol and an adequate catalyst. The objective of this work is to make an overview about production technology of biodiesel. Research work has been focused in the following variables that affect yield and purity of alkyl esters: type of raw material, type and quantity of catalyst, type of alcohol, molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature

  6. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetics of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Vincenza; Ricca, Emanuele; De Paola, Maria Gabriela; Curcio, Stefano; Iorio, Gabriele

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the reaction of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides with ethanol in a reaction medium containing hexane at a temperature of 37 degrees C has been studied. The enzyme was Lipase from Mucor miehei, immobilized on ionic exchange resin, aimed at achieving high catalytic specific surface and recovering, regenerating and reusing the biocatalyst. A kinetic analysis has been carried out to identify the reaction path; the rate equation and kinetic parameters have been also calculated. The kinetic model has been validated by comparison between predicted and experimental results. Mass transport resistances estimation was undertaken in order to verify that the kinetics found was intrinsic. Model potentialities in terms of reactors design and optimization are also shown.

  8. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. → RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). → Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. → Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  9. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Reaction Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF with fish oil from cod liver was investigated with Novozym® 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for the production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method was first set up to characterise the reaction products together with liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The influence of the addition of glycerol to the system on the feruloyl acylglycerol profile was investigated in terms of transesterification performance. The bioconversion rate of EF can be significantly increased with the increased formation of feruloyl fish oil products when appropriate amount of glycerol is present in the reaction. Therefore, an equivalent molar amount of glycerol was added to EF for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 °C, reaction time (1 to 5 days, enzyme load (2 to 20 % and molar ratio of fish oil and EF in the substrate (1 to 5 were thus studied with the assistance of response surface methodology (RSM for the purpose of maximizing the formation of feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were found to be: temperature 70 °C, enzyme load 4.3 %, substrate ratio 4.7, and reaction time 5 days. Under these conditions, the maximum conversion of EF reached 92.4 %, and the formation of feruloyl fish oil reached 80.4 %, but the formation of by-product was minimized to 11.4 % only.

  10. Transesterification of waste cooking oil: Process optimization and conversion rate evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabu, R.; Janajreh, I.; Honnery, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The highest purity of the produced biodiesel determined by gas chromatography was 95%. ► Produced biodiesel samples fell within the requirements of American standard for biodiesel. ► The reaction order is 1st order with a rate constant of 0.01 min -1 in the above point min -1 . - Abstract: Biodiesel is a mono-alkyl ester of vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oil. It is gaining importance in the quest of finding sustainable fuel as it is compatible with petrodiesel and its synthesis process is becoming more commercially deployable. It is commonly prepared by the transesterification of triglycerides or the esterification of free fatty acid with methanol by stirring and accelerated by the presence of base or acidic catalyst. In this work biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) following different process settings with the objective to achieve maximum yield and purity. Due to immiscibility and reaction reversibility, high purity WCO biodiesel of 95% was produced at 12:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio at 1% w/w NaOH catalyst and under continuous mixing of 2 h at 60 °C. Chemical kinetics was determined for the optimal process and found to follow 1st order reaction rate with a rate constant ranges from 0.0035 to 0.0106 min −1 . The activation energy was also evaluated by running the experiment at three different temperatures and found to be near 25,496 J/mol. The distillation curve and properties of the resulted fuel was also assessed and were compared plausibly to ASTM biodiesel standards. Furthermore, the emitted soot from a diffusion wick flame was measured via opacity meter and clearly show the advantage of the biodiesel with a nearly an order of magnitude lower.

  11. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sibarani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters.   Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch

  12. Effect of reactive agent and transesterification catalyst on properties of PLA/PBAT blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitivut, S; Suttiruengwong, S; Seadan, M

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to study the properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blends with two different reactive systems: free radical reaction through peroxide (Perkadox) and transesterification catalyst (tetrabutyl titanate; TBT). Two blends composed of PLA as a matrix phase with the composition of 80 and 70 percent by weight. PLA/PBAT blends with Perkadox were prepared in twin screw extruder, whereas PLA/PBAT blends with TBT were prepared in an internal mixer. The morphology of the blends was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile and impact testingsof the blends were reported. In case of the blends with Perkadox, SEM micrographs revealed that the size of particles was substantially reduced when adding more Perkadox. Young's modulus and the tensile strength of all blend ratios were insignificantly changed, whereas the elongation at break was decreased when compared to non-reactive blends due to the possible crosslinking reaction as observed from melt flow index (MFI) values. When adding Perkadox, the impact strength of PLA/PBAT (80/20) remained almost unchanged. However, the impact strength of PLA/PBAT (70/30) was enhanced, increasing to 110% for 0.05 phr Perkadox. In case of the blends with TBT, SEM micrographs showed the decrease in the particle size of PBAT phase when adding TBT. Young's modulus and the tensile strength of all blend ratios were not different, but the elongation at break was improved when adding TBT owing to the transesterification reaction. For PLA/PBAT (80/20), the elongation at break was increased by 39%, whereas the elongation at break was increased by 15% for PLA/PLA (70/30). The impact strength of all blend ratios unaffected. (paper)

  13. Continuous transesterification of biodiesel in a helicoidal reactor using recycled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, Fredy; Salvado, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The main problem with biodiesel is the high cost of oils made from oleaginous crops. For this reason, various raw materials have been analysed with a view to reducing production costs and obtaining a product that can compete with the price of petrodiesel. Recycled oil is one of the most promising alternatives in the production of biodiesel because not only is the cheapest raw material but it also avoids the expense of treating the oil as a residue. Another way to reduce costs is to make the process more economical. Conventional technology uses sodium hydroxide as the basic catalyst and large-scale batch reactors, whose mechanical agitation requires high energy consumption due to residence times of at least 60 min and temperatures of 60 C. In this paper we use a recycled pretreated oil to compare conventional transesterification with continuous transesterification in a tubular reactor. In this reactor the reactants (oil, methanol and sodium hydroxide) flow through a helicoidal tube submerged in a heating bath at 60 C. The reactor has five outlets distributed non-uniformly to enable samples to be taken at different reaction times. This is to reduce the reaction time and avoid the need for mechanical agitation. With the aim of improving the quality of the biodiesel obtained, we varied the helicoidal system by incorporating a static micromixer and supplying energy in the form of ultrasound from the heating bath. This reactor produced biodiesel and glycerine at compositions roughly equal to those obtained in the batch process (89% FAME content at 75 min) but did so continuously (2.5 mL/min) and just 13 min after the reactants were integrated in a single line using a T device. Both the oil and the biodiesel were characterized and analysed in accordance with European standard UNE EN14214 for biodiesel. (author)

  14. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali

    2015-05-01

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  15. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer, E-mail: umer.rashid@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Anwar, Farooq, E-mail: fqanwar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad, E-mail: ashrafbot@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Muhammad [Department of Statistics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Yusup, Suzana, E-mail: drsuzana_yusuf@petronas.com.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. {yields} RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). {yields} Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. {yields} Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  16. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of corn and soybean oils with ethanol or butanol using resin-bound truncated Candida antarctica lipase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic catalysts, such as lipases, have advantages over chemical catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel. A gene encoding a synthetic truncated Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was generated via automated PCR and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Western b...

  17. Bio-esters formation in transesterification and esterification reactions on carbon and silica supported organo-sulfonic acids-polyaniline solid catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalemba-Jaje, Z.; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Lalik, E.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 135, 1 November (2014), s. 130-145 ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : sufonic acids * transesterification * triacetin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  18. Data set for extraction and transesterification of bio-oil from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariram Venkatesan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0.50 g and 8:1 M ratio. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the physio-chemical properties of the derived algal biodiesel were also presented.

  19. Data set for extraction and transesterification of bio-oil from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Hariram; Godwin, John J; Sivamani, Seralathan

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0.50 g and 8:1 M ratio. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the physio-chemical properties of the derived algal biodiesel were also presented.

  20. The Effect of Acetone Amount Ratio as Co-Solvent to Methanol in Transesterification Reaction of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianto, T. S.; Nurlestari, R.

    2018-04-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by transesterification reaction using acetone as co-solvent has been carried out. This research studied the optimal amount ratio of acetone as co-solvent to methanol in the transesterification process using homogeneous alkaline catalyst KOH 1% (w/w) of waste cooking oil at room temperature for 15 minutes of reaction time. Mole ratio of waste cooking oil to methanol is 1:12. Acetone was added as co-solvent in varied amount ratio to methanol are 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1, respectively. The results of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analysed using GC-MS instrument. The results showed that the optimal ratio is 1:4 with 99.93% of FAME yield.

  1. One-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation for biodiesel production from starting material of high degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Xinmin; Zhang, Hua

    2010-08-01

    A one-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation was established to produce biodiesel from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil which is eliminated as a potential feedstock by a specification of iodine value (IV; 120 g I(2)/100g maximum) contained in EN 14214. A series of alkaline earth metal oxides and alkaline earth metal supported copper oxide were prepared and tested as catalysts. SrO supported 10 wt.% CuO showed the superior catalytic activity for transesterification with a biodiesel yield of 96% and hydrogenation with a reduced iodine value of 113 and also exhibited a promising selectivity for eliminating methyl linolenate and increasing methyl oleate without rising methyl stearate in the selective hydrogenation. The fuel properties of the selective hydrogenated methyl esters are within biodiesel specifications. Furthermore, cetane numbers and iodine values were well correlated with the compositions of the hydrogenated methyl esters according to degrees of unsaturation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Subroto, Edy; Tensiska, Tensiska; Indiarto, Rossi; Hidayat, Chusnul

    2013-01-01

    Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC fo...

  3. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  4. One step transesterification process of sludge palm oil (SPO) by using deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Renita; Ramadhani, Debbie Aditia; Maisarah, Siti

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel production by using sludge palm oil (SPO) as raw material is generally synthesized in two step reactions, namely esterification and transesterification, because the free fatty acid (FFA) content of SPO is relatively high. However, the presence of choline chloride (ChCl), glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES), in transesterification may produce biodiesel from SPO in just one step. In this study, DES was produced by the mixture of ChCl and glycerol at molar ratio of 1:2 at a temperature of 80°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm for 1 hour. DES was characterized by its density and viscosity. The transesterification process was performed at reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar with ratio of 9:1, sodium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1 % wt, DES as cosolvent with concentration of 0 to 5 % wt, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and one hour reaction time. The obtained biodiesel was then assessed with density, viscosity, and ester content as the parameters. FFA content of SPO as the raw material was 7.5290 %. In this case, DES as cosolvent in one step transesterification process of low feedstock could reduce the side reaction (saponification), decrease the time reaction, decrease the surface tension between ethanol and oil, and increase the mass transfer that simultaneously simplified the purification process and obtained the highest yield. The esters properties met the international standards of ASTM D 6751, with the highest yield obtained was 83.19% with 99.55% of ester content and the ratio of ethanol:oil of 9:1, concentration of DES of 4%, catalyst amount of 1%, temperature of reaction at 70°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm.

  5. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Response surface methodology optimization of lipase catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingxia; Wang, Yun; Guan, Xiu Li; Yu, Dong Dong

    2013-01-01

    The immobilized lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and methanol for biodiesel production in tert-butanol was investigated. The effects of different tert-butanol volume, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and immobilized lipase amount on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions for the transesterification were a reaction time of 17.355 h, a reaction temperature of 34.868 °C, an immobilized lipase amount of 12.435 %, a methanol molar ratio of 5.282:1, a tert-butanol volume ratio of 0.577:1. The optimal predicted yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 88.5 % and the actual value was 88.1 %. The predicted yield of fatty acid esters and the real one was very close, indicating that the RSM based on central composite design (CCD) was adaptable for a FAME study for the present transesterification system. Moreover, the infrared spectrum of biodiesel showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O–C–O, C=C and –(CH_2)n–. Furthermore, GC-linked mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid

  7. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaO catalyst was successfully developed from wood gasification bottom ash. • CaCO 3 in bottom ash can be converted to CaO catalyst by calcination. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash exhibited high activity towards transesterification. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times. - Abstract: The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propose, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 °C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (E a ) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol −1 . Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly

  8. Transesterification of waste cooking oil by an organic solvent-tolerant alkaline lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Poonam; Yoo, Hah-Young; Kim, Seung Wook; Choi, Yun Hee; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce a microbial enzyme that can potentially be utilized for the enzymatic transesterification of waste cooking oil. To that end, an extracellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. CS273. The molecular mass of purified lipase was estimated to be 36.55 kDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at alkaline pH 8.0 to 8.5 and temperature 40 °C, while the enzyme was stable in the pH range 7.0 ∼ 9.0 and at temperature ≤40 °C. The lipase showed highest hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). The lipase activity was enhanced by several salts and detergents including NaCl, MnSo₄, and deoxy cholic acid, while phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at concentration 10 mM inhibited the activity. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents including ethanol and methanol which are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides (ester) contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Applicability of the lipase in transesterification of waste cooking oil was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. Comparison of Biodiesel Obtained from Virgin Cooking Oil and Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical and Catalytic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of transesterification of virgin cooking oil (VCO and waste cooking oil (WCO in catalyzed and supercritical transesterification process using methanol and ethanol as solvents has been conducted in this study. The luminous point of this research was the direct comparison of catalytic and supercritical process using the ester composition obtained from virgin cooking oil and waste cooking oil transesterification. Oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6 and reaction condition of 65 °C and 1 bar pressure were considered for the catalytic process, while 260 °C and high pressure (65 and 75 bar for methanol and ethanol, respectively were accounted for the supercritical process. Distinct layer separation was observed for both processes. Ester, fatty acid and glycerol composition was studied for both the upper and lower layers separately, from which 100% ester composition in the upper layer and a mixture of ester and other composition in the lower layer was obtained for the catalytic process owing to succeeding filtration and washing. However, mixture of ester (>75% and other composition was obtained in both layers for the supercritical process where purification process was not implemented. The similarity in the result obtained demonstrates the superiority of waste cooking oil compared to virgin cooking oil, taking cost into consideration.

  10. Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipan Kumar Sohpal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative source of fuel that can be synthesized from edible, non-edible and waste oils through transesterification. Firstly Transesterification reaction of Jatropha Curcas oil with butanol in the ratio of 1:25 investigated by using of sodium hydroxide catalyst with mixing intensity of 250 rpm in isothermal batch reactor. Secondly the fuzzy model of the temperature is developed. Performance was evaluated by comparing fuzzy model with the batch kinetic data. Fuzzy models were developed using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 27th January 2011, Revised: 13rd February 2011; Accepted: 16th February 2011[How to Cite: V.K. Sohpal, A. Singh, A. Dey. (2011. Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 31-38. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.816.31-38][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.816.31-38 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/816 ] | View in 

  11. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil by transesterification using heterogeneous catalyst natural zeolite modified with K2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim; Iriany; Bani, O.; Parinduri, S. Z. D. M.; Ningsih, P. R. W.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, an effort had been made to use natural zeolite from Tapanuli Utara, North Sumatera as a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Biodiesel production is usuallythrough transesterification, and a catalyst is employed to improve reaction rate and yield. In this research rice bran oil (RBO) was used as feedstock. The objective of this work was to discover the effectiveness of natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 as catalysts in biodiesel production from RBO. K2CO3/natural zeolite catalyst modification was by impregnation method at various K2CO3 concentrations followed by drying and calcination. Transesterification was conducted at 65°C and 500 rpm. Effect of process variables such as the amount of catalyst, reaction time, and the molar ratio of methanol to RBO was investigated.The maximum yield of 98.18% biodiesel was obtained by using 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to RBO at a reaction time of 3 hours in the presence of 4 w% catalyst. The obtained biodiesel was then characterized by its density, viscosity and ester content. The biodiesel properties met the Indonesia standard (SNI).The results showed that natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 was suitable as a catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel through transesterification from RBO.

  12. RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of various biochars as porous media for biodiesel synthesis via pseudo-catalytic transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on investigating the optimized chemical composition of biochar used as porous material for biodiesel synthesis via pseudo-catalytic transesterification. To this end, six biochars from different sources were prepared and biodiesel yield obtained from pseudo-catalytic transesterification of waste cooking oil using six biochars were measured. Biodiesel yield and optimal reaction temperature for pseudo-catalytic transesterification were strongly dependent on the raw material of biochar. For example, biochar generated from maize residue exhibited the best performance, which yield was reached ∼90% at 300°C; however, the maximum biodiesel yield with pine cone biochar was 43% at 380°C. The maximum achievable yield of biodiesel was sensitive to the lignin content of biomass source of biochar but not sensitive to the cellulose and hemicellulose content. This study provides an insight for screening the most effective biochar as pseudo-catalytic porous material, thereby helping develop more sustainable and economically viable biodiesel synthesis process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of parameter and interaction between parameter of the microwave assisted transesterification process of coconut oil using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayanti, Nur; Suryanto, A.; Qadariyah, L.; Prihatini, P.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    A simple batch process was designed for the transesterification of coconut oil to alkyl esters using microwave assisted method. The product with yield above 93.225% of alkyl ester is called the biodiesel fuel. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiment and obtain the maximum possible yield of biodiesel in the microwave-assisted reaction from coconut oil with KOH as the catalyst. The results showed that the time reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst have significant effects on yield of alkyl ester. Based on the response surface methodology using the selected operating conditions, the time of reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst in transesterification process were 150 second and 0.25%w/w, respectively. The largest predicted and experimental yield of alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal conditions are 101.385% and 93.225%, respectively. Our findings confirmed the successful development of process for the transesterification reaction of coconut oil by microwave-assisted heating, which is effective and time-saving for alkyl ester production.

  16. Influence of vegetable oils fatty acid composition on reaction temperature and glycerides conversion to biodiesel during transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzi, S; Gandía, L M; Arzamendi, G; Ruiz, J J; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Presence of unreacted glycerides in biodiesel may reduce drastically its quality. This is why conversion of raw material in biodiesel through transesterification needs to readjust reaction parameter values to complete. In the present work, monitoring of glycerides transformation in biodiesel during the transesterification of vegetable oils was carried out. To check the influence of the chemical composition on glycerides conversion, selected vegetable oils covered a wide range of fatty acid composition. Reactions were carried out under alkali-transesterification in the presence of methanol. In addition, a multiple regression model was proposed. Results showed that kinetics depends on chemical and physical properties of the oils. It was found that the optimal reaction temperature depends on both length and unsaturation degree of vegetable oils fatty acid chains. Vegetable oils with higher degree of unsaturation exhibit faster monoglycerides conversion to biodiesel. It can be concluded that fatty acid composition influences reaction parameters and glycerides conversion, hence biodiesel yield and economic viability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of reaction conditions and type of alcohol on biodiesel yields and process economics of supercritical transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Nikolić-Djorić, Emilija B.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification in supercritical methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol investigated. • Effect of alcohol, reaction temperature, pressure and time on yields analyzed. • Temperature has the highest impact on yield, followed by time and pressure. • Direct material and energy costs for each of the production alternatives estimated. • Lowest costs are achieved at highest yields even at very low oil prices. - Abstract: Experiments with transesterification of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) were carried out in a batch reactor at various reaction temperatures (250–350 °C), working pressure (8–12 MPa), reaction time, and constant 42:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio. Influence of different alcohols and reaction conditions on biodiesel yield was investigated using linear multiple regression models. Temperature had the highest impact on yields, followed by reaction time and pressure. With increased molecular weight of alcohols, relative importance of temperature for explanation of yields decreased and relative importance of time and pressure increased. Economic assessment has revealed that transesterification in supercritical methanol has the lowest direct material and energy costs. Yield has crucial impact on process economics. Direct costs decrease with increase in biodiesel yields. Even at very low prices of oil feedstock the lowest cost is achieved at the highest yield

  18. Enzymatic transesterification of microalgal oil from Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biodiesel synthesis using immobilized Burkholderia lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chen, Ching-Lung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    An indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 grown in an outdoor tubular photobioreactor with CO(2) aeration obtained a high oil content of up to 63.2%. The microalgal oil was then converted to biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification using an immobilized lipase originating from Burkholderia sp. C20. The conversion of the microalgae oil to biodiesel was conducted by transesterification of the extracted microalgal oil (M-I) and by transesterification directly using disrupted microalgal biomass (M-II). The results show that M-II achieved higher biodiesel conversion (97.3 wt% oil) than M-I (72.1 wt% oil). The immobilized lipase worked well when using wet microalgal biomass (up to 71% water content) as the oil substrate. The immobilized lipase also tolerated a high methanol to oil molar ratio (>67.93) when using the M-II approach, and can be repeatedly used for six cycles (or 288 h) without significant loss of its original activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION PARAMETERS FOR OPTIMAL BIODIESEL YIELD FROM CRUDE JATROPHA OIL USING A NEWLY SYNTHESIZED SEASHELL CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. R. REDDY

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysts are promising catalysts for optimal biodiesel yield from transesterification of vegetable oils. In this work calcium oxide (CaO heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized from Polymedosa erosa seashell. Calcination was carried out at 900ºC for 2h and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Catalytic efficiency of CaO was testified in transesterification of crude Jatropha oil (CJO. A response surface methodology (RSM based on five-level-two-factor central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize two critical transesterification parameters catalyst concentration to pretreated CJO (0.01-0.03 w/w % and the reaction time (90 min - 150 min. A JB yield of 96.48% was estimated at 0.023 w/w% catalyst and 125.76 min reaction using response optimizer. The legitimacy of the predicted model was verified through the experiments. The validation experiments conformed a yield of JB 96.4%±0.01% as optimal at 0.023 w/w% catalyst to pretreated oil ratio and 126 min reaction time.

  20. Una retórica de la influencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia González

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre las últimas décadas del siglo XIX y las primeras del XX se publica en el Río de la Plata un número considerable de relatos anclados en los debates que recorren la cultura europea del momento y que giran en torno a fenómenos de influencia. Este denominador común se declina, según los textos, en una serie de temas privilegiados : hipnosis, sugestión, herencia, mimetismo, vampirismo, parasitismo, emanación de todo tipo de rayos, ondas y fluidos capaces de modificar el comportamiento de un ...

  1. Influencia lunar en cultivos, animales y ser humano

    OpenAIRE

    Mera Andrade, Rafael; Artieda Rojas, Jorge; Muñoz Espinoza, Manolo; Romero Viamonte, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Los saberes ancestrales son la base para solucionar problemas de manera sencilla. La luna, desde tiempos pasados se ha mostrado como un indicador de afectaciones tanto en el suelo, los animales de distintas regiones y el hombre. La influencia lunar tiene un gran efecto en la pecuaria, debido a que los animales dependen de la luminosidad para alimentarse o salvaguardar su vida, las fases lunares tienen un efecto positivo en la ganadería y en los animales marinos ya que benefician algunos aspec...

  2. Adaptable liquid crystal elastomers with transesterification-based bond exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzon, Drew W; Traugutt, Nicholas A; McBride, Matthew K; Bowman, Christopher N; Yakacki, Christopher M; Yu, Kai

    2018-02-14

    Adaptable liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) have recently emerged to provide a new and robust method to program monodomain LCE samples. When a constant stress is applied with active bond exchange reactions (BERs), polymer chains and mesogens gradually align in the strain direction. Mesogen alignment is maintained after removing the BER stimulus (e.g. by lowering the temperature) and the programmed LCE samples exhibit free-standing two-way shape switching behavior. Here, a new adaptable main-chain LCE system was developed with thermally induced transesterification BERs. The network combines the conventional properties of LCEs, such as an isotropic phase transition and soft elasticity, with the dynamic features of adaptable network polymers, which are malleable to stress relaxation due to the BERs. Polarized Fourier transform infrared measurements confirmed the alignment of polymer chains and mesogens after strain-induced programming. The influence of the creep stress, temperature, and time on the strain amplitude of two-way shape switching was examined. The LCE network demonstrates an innovative feature of reprogrammability, where the reversible shape-switching memory of programmed LCEs is readily deleted by free-standing heating as random BERs disrupt the mesogen alignment, so LCEs are reprogrammed after returning to the polydomain state. Due to the dynamic nature of the LCE network, it also exhibits a surface welding effect and can be fully dissolved in the organic solvent, which might be utilized for green and sustainable recycling of LCEs.

  3. Optimization of Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification of Safflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Math

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Composite Design is used for the optimization of alkaline catalyzed transesterification parameters such as methanol quantity, catalytic concentration, and rotational speed by keeping the temperature and reaction time constant. The Central Composite Design method is employed to get the maximum safflower oil methyl ester yield. The combined effects of catalyst concentration, rotational speed, and molar ratio of alcohol to oil were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. A statistical model has predicted the maximum yield of safflower oil methyl ester (94.69% volume of oil parameters such as catalyst concentration (0.6 grams, methanol amount (30 mL, rotational speed (600 rpm, and keeping constant reaction temperature (55°C to 65°C and reaction time (60 minutes. Experimental maximum yield of 91.66% was obtained at above parameters. XLSTAT is used to generate a linear model to predict the methyl ester yield as a function of methanol quantity, catalyst concentration, and rotational speed by keeping constant reaction temperature (55°C to 65°C and reaction time (60 minutes. MINITAB is used to draw the 3D response surface plot and 2D contour plot to predict the maximum biodiesel yield.

  4. Comparative evaluation of thermal degradation for biodiesels derived from various feedstocks through transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Niu, Sheng-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TG–FTIR is employed to evaluate thermal degradation characteristics of biodiesels. • Lower content of unsaturated fatty acid is responsible for higher thermal stability. • Evolved products are alkanes, aldehyde/ketones, ethers, alkenes and CO 2 . - Abstract: Biodiesel is commonly derived from various feedstocks through transesterification. Since thermal degradation is concerned with a lot of scientific applications, it is essential to evaluate the thermal degradation characteristics for biodiesel. In this study, thermal degradation of biodiesel is investigated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fatty acid composition and the characteristic functional groups of biodiesel are detected by gas chromatography (GC) and FTIR in advance. Then, TGA experiments are conducted at linear heating rates from 20 °C min −1 to 40 °C min −1 under nitrogen atmosphere in temperature range from 25 °C to 600 °C. Subsequently, the activation energy, including enthalpy, is determined by Friedman method and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and the reaction order is calculated through the Avrami theory. In addition, the pre-exponential factor, the Gibbs free energy, and the entropy are also calculated. Finally, to obtain a comprehensive understanding for thermal degradation of biodiesels, all evolved products are detected by FTIR in real time

  5. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  6. Screening for Extracellular Lipase Enzymes with Transesterification Capacity in Mucoromycotina Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kotogán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 169 zygomycetes fungal strains including some cold-tolerant isolates were screened for their extracellular lipolytic activity towards tributyrin. Nineteen of them were outstanding in their enzyme production as they developed the largest lipolytic halo around the colonies in plate tests. Mortierella alpina, M. echinosphaera, Mucor corticolus, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus oryzae, Rh. stolonifer, Umbelopsis autotrophica, U. isabellina, U. ramanniana var. angulispora and U. versiformis were selected for further studies to characterise their lipolytic enzyme production in detail. In these assays, effect of Tween 80 and palm, soybean, sunflower, olive, extra virgin olive, wheat germ, corn germ, sesame seed, pumpkin seed and cottonseed oils on the enzyme activities was investigated, and wheat bran-based submerged and solid-state fermentations were also tested. Tween 80 and olive oil proved to be efficient inductors for lipolytic enzyme production, which was also enhanced when wheat bran was used as support. Addition of mineral salts and olive oil to the solid fermentation medium resulted in at least 1.5-fold increment in the enzyme activities of the crude extracts. Organic synthesis was also assayed by the selected lipases, in which enzymes from the fungi R. miehei, Rh. stolonifer and M. echinosphaera gave the best yields during transesterification reactions between p-nitrophenyl palmitate and ethanol.

  7. Characterization and transesterification of Iranian bitter almond oil for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atapour, Mehdi; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the production of biodiesel using bitter almond oil (BAO) in a potassium hydroxide catalyzed transesterification reaction was investigated. The BAO was obtained from resources available in Iran and its physical and chemical properties including iodine value, acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, fatty acid composition and mean molecular weight were specified. The low acid value of BAO (0.24 mg KOH/g) indicated that the pretreatment of raw oil with acid was not required. The fatty acid content analysis confirmed that the contribution of unsaturated fatty acids in the BAO is high (84.7 wt.%). Effect of different parameters including methanol to oil molar ratio (3-11 mol/mol), potassium hydroxide concentration (0.1-1.7% w/w) and reaction temperature (30-70 o C) on the production of biodiesel were investigated. The results indicated that these parameters were important factors affecting the tranesterification reaction. The fuel properties of biodiesel including iodine value, acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, saponification value, cetane number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and distillation characteristics were measured. The properties were compared with those of petroleum diesel, EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards and an acceptable agreement was observed.

  8. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  9. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W

    2018-07-01

    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, Max Rocha [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, Mateus José C. [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, Davy [DME/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus – I, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio, E-mail: guilhermelucena@cchsa.ufpb.br [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, João Bosco L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus I, 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, Lucianna [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH{sub 4}OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  11. Concurrent production of biodiesel and chemicals through wet in situ transesterification of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hanjin; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W

    2015-10-01

    This work addresses an unprecedented way of co-producing biodiesel (FAEE) and valuable chemicals of ethyl levulinate (EL), ethyl formate (EF) and diethyl ether (DEE) from wet in situ transesterification of microalgae. EL, EF, and DEE were significantly produced up to 23.1%, 10.3%, and 52.1% of the maximum FAEE mass with the FAEE yield higher than 90% at 125 °C. Experiments to elucidate a detailed route of EL and EF synthesis were fulfilled and it was found that its main route to the production of EL and EF was the acid hydrolysis of algal cells and esterification with ethanol. To investigate the effect of reaction variables on the products yields, comprehensive experiments were carried out with varying temperatures, solvent and alcohol volumes, moisture contents and catalyst amounts. Coproduction of DEE, EL, EF and FAEE can contribute to elevating the economic feasibility of microalgae-based biodiesel supply chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadzadeh Shirazi, Hamed; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Ghotbi, Cyrus

    2017-09-01

    Microalgae as a candidate for production of biodiesel, possesses a hard cell wall that prevents intracellular lipids leaving out from the cells. Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification has the potential for destruction of microalgae hard cell wall and conversion of extracted lipids to biodiesel that consequently reduces the total energy consumption. Response surface methodology combined with central composite design was applied to investigate process parameters including: Temperature, Time, Methanol-to-dry algae, Hexane-to-dry algae, and Moisture content. Thirty-two experiments were designed and performed in a batch reactor, and biodiesel efficiency between 0.44% and 99.32% was obtained. According to fatty acid methyl ester yields, a quadratic experimental model was adjusted and the significance of parameters was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects of single and interaction parameters were also interpreted. In addition, the effect of supercritical process on the ultrastructure of microalgae cell wall using scanning electron spectrometry (SEM) was surveyed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of one step KOH activation and CaO modified carbon in transesterification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Abd Rahim; Zaki, Muhammad Azam Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    In this work, one step activation was introduced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and calcium oxide (CaO) modified palm kernel shells. Various concentration of calcium oxide was used as catalyst while maintaining the same concentration of potassium hydroxide to activate and impregnate the palm kernel shell before calcined at 500°C for 5 hours. All the prepared samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). FTIR analysis of raw palm kernel shell showed the presence of various functional groups. However, after activation, most of the functional groups were eliminated. The basic strength of the prepared samples were determined using back titration method. The samples were then used as base heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification reaction of rice bran oil with methanol. Analysis of the products were performed using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) to calculate the percentage conversion of the biodiesel products. This study shows, as the percentage of one step activation potassium and calcium oxide doped carbon increases thus, the basic strength also increases followed by the increase in biodiesel production. Optimization study shows that the optimum biodiesel production was at 8 wt% catalyst loading, 9:1 methanol: oil molar ratio at 65°C and 6 hours which gives a conversion up to 95%.

  14. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamamre, Zayed; Yamin, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of waste frying oil as potential source for Biodiesel production. • Optimization of important reaction parameters. • A high yield and conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. • Determination of fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from used frying oil. - Abstract: Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 °C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm 2 /s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I 2 /100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm 3) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214

  15. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, Max Rocha; Oliveira, Mateus José C.; Keyson, Davy; Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio; Oliveira, João Bosco L.; Gama, Lucianna

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH 4 OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH 4 OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  16. Lithium containing MgAl mixed oxides obtained from sol-gel hydrotalcite for transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. B. Lima-Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract The innumerous advantages of heterogeneous catalysts employed in biodiesel production have stimulated the search for a solid catalyst capable of replacing the industrially used homogeneous catalysts. This paper investigates the effect of the sol-gel method in the catalytic activity and stability of Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the “in situ” lithium addition to a MgAl hydrotalcite. The analyses based on N2 physisorption, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 were carried out to elucidate the properties of the catalysts. Considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were observed with the Li addition. Li reduced the surface area and increased the crystallite size of the oxides. Furthermore, Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the calcination of the sol-gel MgAl hydrotalcites presented substantial morphological differences when compared to the same oxides obtained by heat treatment of hydrotalcites synthesized via the conventional co-precipitation route. Furthermore, Li increased the number and strength of the base sites which resulted in the increase of the oxide reactivities towards the transesterification reaction between methyl acetate and ethanol. The activity was dependent on the Li loading on the catalysts. The catalyst containing only 5 wt.% Li turned out to be highly active (( 85% conversion at 50°C, ethanol/methyl acetate molar ratio = 6/1, 4 wt.% of catalyst and 30 min of reaction. Stability tests showed that the Li-MgAl catalysts lose activity after 3 reuse cycles.

  17. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana Colla Underground Stem (MBCUS catalyst was treated thermally mixing with 5:1 w/w of Strontium Oxide (SrO and the dynamic sites were reformed. The MBCUS-SrO showed sharper crystalline phases as evidence from XRD and TEM analysis. The composition and morphology were characterized from BET, SEM, EDX thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and XRF analysis. The optimization process for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L oil (JCO having high percentage of free fatty acids was carried out using orthogonal arrays adopting the Taguchi method. The linear equation was obtained from the analysis and subsequent biodiesel production (96% FAME was taken away from the JCO under optimal reaction conditions. The biodiesel so prepared had identical characteristics to that with MBCUS alone, but at a lower temperature (200˚C and internal vapour pressure. Metal leaching was much lower while reusability of the catalyst was enhanced. It was also confirmed that the particle size has little impact upon the conversion efficacy, but the basic active sites are more important. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 19th August 2015; Revised: 8th December 2015; Accepted: 1st January 2016 How to Cite: Kumar, P., Sarma, A.K., Bansal, A., Jha, M.K. (2016. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 140-150 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150

  18. Mixed methanol/ethanol on transesterification of waste cooking oil using Mg/Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yingqun; Wang, Qunhui; Zheng, Lu; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Yuhui

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using calcined Mg/Al HT (hydrotalcite) as heterogeneous catalyst was investigated. This study describes the calcined Mg/Al HT prepared under optimal conditions to catalyse waste cooking oil for biodiesel preparation and proposes a plausible catalysis mechanism. The catalysts were characterised by Fourier Transform-Infrared, X-ray diffraction, Thermal Gravity Analysis-Differential thermal gravity and Brunner−Emmet−Teller measurements. Hydrotalcite with Mg/Al ratio of 3:1 showed a uniform mesoporous structure, excellent crystallinity, high surface area (270.5 m 2 /g) and good catalytic activity (at 500 °C calcination). The highest biodiesel yield obtained was 95.2% under optimised conditions of alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, methanol/ethanol molar ratio of 4:2, catalyst content of 1.5%, reaction time of 2.5 h, reaction temperature of 80 °C. Mixed methanol/ethanol showed good synergistic effects as an ester exchange agent, and the catalyst was easily separated and recycled. Therefore, Mg/Al hydrotalcite can effectively catalyse waste cooking oil for biodiesel preparation with mixed methanol/ethanol. - Highlights: • Mg/Al hydrotalcite filtered and stirred with acetone has the better dispersion. • Mg/Al hydrotalcite used as catalyst to prepare biodiesel. • Catalytic mechanism of Mg/Al hydrotalcite was investigated. • Mixed Methanol/Ethanol used as transesterification agent to prepare biodiesel. • Regenerative catalyst was assessed to make catalyst reuse well.

  19. Facile synthesis of pegylated zinc(II) phthalocyanines via transesterification and their in vitro photodynamic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ming; Lo, Pui-Chi; Ye, Jing; Wu, Chi; Fong, Wing-Ping; Ng, Dennis K P

    2011-10-21

    Treatment of 4,5-bis[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]phthalonitrile and 4,5-bis[3,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]phthalonitrile with an excess of 1,3-diiminoisoindoline in the presence of Zn(OAc)(2)·2H(2)O and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in triethylene glycol monomethyl ether or polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (with an average molecular weight of 550) led to "3 + 1" mixed cyclisation and transesterification in one pot, affording the corresponding di-β-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines in 7-23% yield. As shown by absorption spectroscopy, these compounds were essentially non-aggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide and could generate singlet oxygen effectively. The singlet oxygen quantum yields (Φ(Δ) = 0.53-0.57) were comparable with that of the unsubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine (Φ(Δ) = 0.56). These compounds in Cremophor EL emulsions also exhibited photocytotoxicity against HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells with IC(50) values in the range of 0.25-3.72 μM. The analogue with four triethylene glycol chains was the most potent photosensitiser and localised preferentially in the mitochondria of HT29 cells. The bis(polyethylene glycol)-counterpart could form surfactant-free nanoparticles both in water and in the culture medium. The hydrodynamic radii, as determined by dynamic laser light scattering, ranged from 6.3 to 79.8 nm depending on the preparation methods and conditions. The photocytotoxicity of these nanoparticles (IC(50) = 0.43-0.56 μM) was comparable with that of the Cremophor EL-formulated system (IC(50) = 0.34 μM).

  20. Transesterification of Nannochloropsis oculata microalga's oil to biodiesel using calcium methoxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Siow Hwa; Islam, Aminul; Yusaf, Talal; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly liquid fuel similar to conventional diesel in combustion properties. It has received international attention in recent times, as that biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic and safe to store. In this study, high grade biodiesel was produced from microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata) derived lipids via transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of heterogeneous Ca(OCH 3 ) 2 (calcium methoxide) catalyst. The biodiesel was produced with high yield; (92%) at 60 °C compared to the highest yield reported as 22% with the use of a Mg–Zr catalyst. The product exhibited excellent performances. The catalyst was characterized by TG/DTA (thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses), XRD (X-ray diffraction), BET (Brunauer – Emmett – Teller), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis. The effect of different reaction parameters including reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) was studied. Interestingly, the catalyst can be reused five times successively without affecting the biodiesel yield. Biodiesel produced from microalgae oil consists of high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making it highly suitable as winter grade biodiesel. - Highlights: • Biodiesel synthesis from microalgae derived oil by Ca(OCH 3 ) 2 solid catalyst. • Studied effects of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time. • Biodiesel yields >90% in 3 h using 12 wt.% catalyst, 30:1 methanol/oil at 60 °C. • Catalyst could be reused up to five times without significant lost of activity

  1. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the possible renewable energy resources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides of vegetable oils and animal fats have shown potential as substitutes for petroleum-based diesel fuels. The biodiesel could be produced from vegetable oils over homogeneous catalyst, heterogeneous catalyst, or enzymatic catalyst. In this study, the synthesized SO42-/ZnO catalyst was explored to be used in the heterogeneous biodiesel production by using the vegetable oils and methanol. The study began with the preparation of SO42-/ZnO catalyst followed by the transesterification reaction between vegetable oil with methanol. The independent variables (reaction time and the weight ratio of catalyst/oil were optimized to obtain the optimum biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester yield. The results of this study showed that the acid catalyst SO42-/ZnO was potential to be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of vegetable oils. Optimum operating condition for this catalytic reaction was the weight ratio of catalyst/oil of 8:1 and reaction time of 2.6 h with respect to 75.5% yield of methyl ester products. The biodiesel product was also characterized to identify the respected fatty acid methyl ester components. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 23rd October 2012, Revised: 25th November 2012, Accepted: 25th November 2012[How to Cite: I. Istadi, Didi D. Anggoro, Luqman Buchori, Inshani Utami, Roikhatus Solikhah, (2012. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 150-157. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157 ] | View in 

  2. Soybean oil transesterification: Study of using Nb2O5.xH2O as catalyst in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic and environmental reasons show a trend towards replacing fossil fuels with biofuels such as those from triglycerides. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils and animal fat through several processes such as transesterification, esterification, usually with methanol, ethanol or through pyrolysis, all of them in the presence of an acid or basis catalyst. The use of solid catalysts in biodiesel production has the following advantages: easy recovery and reuse, thus decreasing process costs and amount of waste generated.1 Some of the problems in the use of solid catalysts are: low concentration of active sites, microporosity, and leaching of active sites.2 Studies aiming at developing methodologies involving hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in biodiesel production have been carried out by our research group.3,4 Parameters such as the use of assistant solvent to increase the boiling point of the mixture (toluene, ethylene glycol, and DMSO, pre-thermal treatment (calcinations and catalyst molar concentration were initially assessed in esterification, oleic acid, and methanol reactions.  From these studies we could observe that high temperatures and excessive alcohol favor esterification reactions.  The best reaction conditions were then used as models and employed in transesterification reactions of soybean oil.  DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide was the solvent used to increase the reaction medium temperature without evaporating all the methanol. Transesterification reactions were carried out with soybean oil (0.5 g, methanol (0.85 g, DMSO (2.50 ml, and hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in ratios of 20% and 100% (in relation to oil mass.  Catalyst was employed without pretreatment and after pretreatment at 115 °C, 300 °C, and 500 °C. The reactions occurred at 170 °C, under reflux for 48 hours.  A reaction without a catalyst was also carried out. All the reactions have shown conversion using CCD and they have been determined by 1H NMR

  3. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Some Parameters on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of reaction time and NaOH catalyst in transesterification of coconut oil enhanced by microwave and to obtain a biodiesel. Reaction was conducted in batch reactor which equipped by microwave. Coconut oil contains saturated fatty acids about 70% with medium chain (C8-C14, especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The reaction was initiated by mixing oil and methanol with oil to methanol mole ratios of 1:3, 1:6, 1:9 and 1:12, catalyst concentration of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 wt.%, as well as setting electrical power at 100, 264 and 400 W. The reaction times were of  0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 min. The result showed that microwave could be employed as an energy source and was able to accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel using NaOH catalyst. The biodiesel yields increase with increasing microwave power. The highest yield of biodiesel obtained  was of  97.37%  with reaction conditions set at 0.2 wt.% catalyst, a reaction time of 2 min, molar ratio of methanol to oil 1:9 and microwave power of 400 watt. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 15th January 2015; Revised: 10th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Suryanto, A., Suprapto, S., Mahfud, M. (2015. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Reaction Time on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 162-168. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 

  4. Development and evaluation of a novel low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic reactor for intensifying the transesterification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Aghbashlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic reactor was developed and evaluated for intensifying the transesterification process. The reactor was equipped with an automatic temperature control system, a heating element, a precise temperature sensor, and a piezoelectric-based ultrasonic module. The conversion efficiency and specific energy consumption of the reactor were examined under different operational conditions, i.e., reactor temperature (40‒60 °C, ultrasonication time (6‒10 min, and alcohol/oil molar ratio (4:1‒8:1. Transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst (potassium hydroxide using methanol. According to the obtained results, alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, ultrasonication time of 10 min, and reactor temperature of 60 °C were found as the best operational conditions. Under these conditions, the reactor converted WCO to biodiesel with a conversion efficiency of 97.12%, meeting the ASTM standard satisfactorily, while the lowest specific energy consumption of 378 kJ/kg was also recorded. It should be noted that the highest conversion efficiency of 99.3 %, achieved at reactor temperature of 60 °C, ultrasonication time of 10 min, and alcohol/oil molar ratio of 8:1, was not favorable as the associated specific energy consumption was higher at 395 kJ/kg. Overall, the low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic module could be regarded as an efficient and reliable technology for intensifying the transesterification process in terms of energy consumption, conversion efficiency, and processing time, in comparison with high power, low frequency ultrasonic system reported previously. Finally, this technology could also be considered for designing, developing, and retrofitting chemical reactors being employed for non-biofuel applications as well.

  5. Facile fabrication of a stable and recyclable lipase@amine-functionalized ZIF-8 nanoparticles for esters hydrolysis and transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Wei, Yayu; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhiying; Su, Xiurong; Shen, Cai

    2017-08-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) represent one of the metal organic frameworks (MOF) with high potential for enzyme immobilization due to their exceptional chemical and thermal stability, negligible cytotoxicity, and easy synthesis under mild biocompatible conditions. Amine-functionalized ZIF-8 (An-ZIF-8) are capable of forming multipoint attachment via hydrogen bonding with lipase which will immobilize and further enhance stabilization of lipase. In addition, increased hydrophilicity of An-ZIF-8 will increase partitioning of An-ZIF-8 immobilized lipase at the aqueous/organic interface which enable lipase to expose its active site and retain its catalytic activity at its highest. Present study reports the use of ZIF-8 and An-ZIF-8 nanoparticles as carrier for Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL), compares the ester hydrolysis and transesterification activities of immobilized lipase with those of free lipase, and evaluates the reusability and recovery rate of the immobilized lipase. An-ZIF-8 nanoparticles (average 130.42 ± 0.55 nm) were facilely synthesized via mixing ZIF-8 nanoparticles with ammonia hydroxide solution. Despite having similar characteristics of high crystallinity and forming cuboid-like particles, An-ZIF-8 demonstrated significantly ( P hydrolysis and transesterification activities with those of free BCL. BCL@An-ZIF-8 demonstrated superior catalytic stability in comparison to BCL@ZIF-8 with retainment of more than 80% of its initial hydrolysis and transesterification activity for at least 10 repeated runs. In addition, more than 80% of the BCL@An-ZIF-8 can be easily recovered during each cycle of the reusability test through simple centrifugation.

  6. Biodiesel synthesis via transesterification of lipid Chlorophyta cultivated in walne rich carbon medium using KOH/Zeolite catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Hayati, Siti Zahrotul; Putri, Dwini Normayulisa

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae from the Chlorophyta division such as Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris are highly potential to be developed as biodiesel feedstocks because they have a high oil content up to 58%. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohols with the aid of homogeneous catalysts such as KOH. However, the use of KOH catalysts produces soaps in the biodiesel synthesis. Heterogeneous catalysts are known to solve this problem. One of them is natural zeolite. Zeolite can be used as a catalyst and as a support catalyst. Loading KOH on the zeolite surface is expected to increase alkalinity in KOH/Zeolite catalysts so as to increase the activity of KOH/Zeolite catalyst in transesterification of triglyceride with methanol. In this experimental lipid of microalgae will be used for produced biodiesel via transesterification reaction with methanol and KOH/Zeolite as a catalyst heterogeneous at 60 °C for 3h and utilized catalyst modificated KOH/Zeolite with variation 0.5 M, 1 M and 1.5 M KOH. The modified zeolite was then analyzed by XRF, XRD and BET. The result showed that the yield of biodiesel from lipid N.oculata was 81,09% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 86,53% by 1KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 1,5KOH/Zeolite and 88,13% by 1.5KOH/Zeolit, while the biodiesel produced from lipid C.vulgaris was 59.29% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite, 82.27% by 1KOH/Zeolite and 83.72% by 1.5KOH/Zeolite.

  7. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Diogo Mueller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabricio Fredo; Santos, Vinicius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jessica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto, E-mail: lmazzini@uol.com.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas RS (Brazil); Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de [Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  8. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Novizar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Yuliani, Sri; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Salimon, Jumat; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2014-01-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH co...

  9. Use of Ultrasound and Co-solvents to improve the in-situ Transesterification of Microalgae Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Sun, Zhifa; Carrington, Gerry C.

    2012-01-01

    and transesterification process. To further improve the feasibility of the use of the in-situ method, this paper investigates modifications to reduce the large process methanol requirements, and potentially improve the oil to methyl esters conversion and biodiesel yields. The results obtained showed that use...... of ultrasound agitation for the in-situ process, as well as combining this stirring regime with co-solvent use (n-pentane and diethyl ether) significantly improved the Chlorella oil to methyl esters conversion with reduced reacting methanol volumes....

  10. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Diogo Müller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabrício Fredo; Santos, Vinícius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jéssica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto; Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de; Samios, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 – triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 – nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 – thin layer chromatography, 4 – as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  11. Tailoring the Synergistic Bronsted-Lewis acidic effects in Heteropolyacid catalysts: Applied in Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Meilin; Xue, Lifang; Sun, Zhong; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Shi, Junyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influences of Lewis metals on acidic properties and catalytic activities, a series of Keggin heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts, HnPW11MO39 (M = TiIV, CuII, AlIII, SnIV, FeIII, CrIII, ZrIV and ZnII; for Ti and Zr, the number of oxygen is 40), were prepared and applied in the esterification and transesterification reactions. Only those cations with moderate Lewis acidity had a higher impact. Ti Substituted HPA, H5PW11TiO40, posse lower acid content compared with TixH3−4...

  12. Transesterification of castor oil usingMgO/SiO2 catalyst and coconutoilas co-reactant

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisah D. Pandiangan; Novesar Jamarun; Syukri Arief; Wasinton Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the transesterification of castor oil with the use of coconut oil as co-reactant and MgO/SiO2as heterogeneous base catalyst. The catalyst was preparedfrom rice husk silica and magnesium nitrate by sol-gel method, with MgO load of 20% relative to silica, and then subjected to sintering treatment at 600 oC for 6 hours. A series of experiments was carried out, indicating that the use of coconut oil as co-reactant significantly promoted the conversion of castor oil into b...

  13. Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Costarrosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodiesel has become a very promising alternative to fossil diesel fuel, regarding environmental concerns and fuel resource depletion. Biodiesel is usually produced through homogeneous or heterogeneous transesterification of different fatty raw materials. Although main research has been carried out with homogenous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts may be of interest due to ease of recovery and recycling, as well as readiness for continuous processing. In this work, calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT was used for the heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil. Three reaction parameters, namely, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM at constant temperature (65 °C, using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content (86.23% w/w FAME/sample was predicted by the model with an R-squared value of 98.45%, using 3.39 g of HT (8.5% w/w oil and an 8:1 methanol-oil molar ratio, for a duration of 3.12 h. It was observed that calcination of HT, while avoiding the previous washing step, allowed the presence of chemical species that enhanced the effect of the catalyst. It can be concluded from this field trial that calcined and nonwashed Mg-Al hydrotalcite may be considered an effective basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Also, RSM proved to be a useful tool for predicting biodiesel yield.

  14. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, M.R.; Oliveira, M.J.C.; Keyson, D.; Lucena, G.L.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnAl_2O_4 spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT_b15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO_3)_3·9H_2O, Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl_2O_4 had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m"2 g"−"1) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  16. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  17. Production of novel "functional oil" rich in diglycerides and phytosterol esters with "one-pot" enzymatic transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Ming; Huang, Qing; Huang, Feng-Hong; Guo, Ping-Mei; Xiang, Xia; Deng, Qian-Chun; Li, Wen-Lin; Wan, Chu-Yun; Zheng, Chang

    2014-06-04

    Diglycerides and phytosterol esters are two important functional lipids. Phytosterol esters mixed with dietary diglyceride could not only influence body weight but also prevent or reverse insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. In this study, a kind of novel "functional oil" rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters was prepared with "one-pot" enzymatic transesterification. First, lipase AYS (Candida rugosa) was immobilized on the porous cross-linked polystyrene resin beads (NKA) via hydrophobic interaction. The resulting immobilized AYS showed much better transesterification activity and thermal stability to freeways. On the basis of the excellent biocatalyst prepared, a method for high-efficiency enzymatic esterification of phytosterols with different triglycerides to produce corresponding functional oils rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters was developed. Four functional oils rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters with conversions >92.1% and controllable fatty acid composition were obtained under the optimized conditions: 80 mmol/L phytosterols, 160 mmol/L triglycerides, and 25 mg/mL AYS@NKA at 180 rpm and 50 °C for 12 h in hexane. The prepared functional oil possessed low acid value (≤1.0 mgKOH/g), peroxide value (≤2.1 mmol/kg), and conjugated diene value (≤1.96 mmol/kg) and high diglyceride and phytosterol ester contents (≥10.4 and ≥20.2%, respectively). All of the characteristics favored the wide application of the functional oil in different fields of functional food.

  18. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rashid, Umer; Islam, Aminul; Hussien, Mohd Zobir; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed oxide. • Effects of Ca-to-La ratio, catalyst concentration, methanol/oil ratio and reaction temperature were optimized. • Biodiesel yield >85% was achieved at 65 °C temperature. • CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst can be easy regenerated. - Abstract: Heterogeneous solid mixed oxide (CaO–La 2 O 3 ) catalysts with different molar ratios of calcium to lanthanum (Ca-to-La) were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized solid CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed metal oxide catalysts were utilized in transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Under the optimized conditions at 65 °C, 4% catalyst dose with 24:1 MeOH to Jatropha oil molar ratio, the transesterification reaction exhibited 86.51% of biodiesel yield. The prepared catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption with Brunauer–Emmer–Teller (BET) method, temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Influence of Ca-to-La atomic ratio in the mixed metal oxide catalyst, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, different oils on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield were appraised. Different catalyst regeneration procedures were also performed to investigate the reusability of the CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst

  19. Tailoring the Synergistic Bronsted-Lewis acidic effects in Heteropolyacid catalysts: Applied in Esterification and Transesterification Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meilin; Xue, Lifang; Sun, Zhong; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Shi, Junyou

    2015-09-16

    In order to investigate the influences of Lewis metals on acidic properties and catalytic activities, a series of Keggin heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts, HnPW11MO39 (M = Ti(IV), Cu(II), Al(III), Sn(IV), Fe(III), Cr(III), Zr(IV) and Zn(II); for Ti and Zr, the number of oxygen is 40), were prepared and applied in the esterification and transesterification reactions. Only those cations with moderate Lewis acidity had a higher impact. Ti Substituted HPA, H5PW11TiO40, posse lower acid content compared with Ti(x)H(3-4x)PW12O40 (Ti partial exchanged protons in saturated H3PW12O40), which demonstrated that the Lewis metal as an addenda atom (H5PW11TiO40) was less efficient than those as counter cations (Ti(x)H(3-4x)PW12O40). On the other hand, the highest conversion reached 92.2% in transesterification and 97.4% in esterification. Meanwhile, a good result was achieved by H5PW11TiO40 in which the total selectivity of DAG and TGA was 96.7%. In addition, calcination treatment to H5PW11TiO40 make it insoluble in water which resulted in a heterogeneous catalyst feasible for reuse.

  20. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Vin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5% > solvent quantity (26.7% > reaction time (17.5% > catalyst amount (8.3%. Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36% > catalyst (28.62% > time (19.72% > temperature (17.32%. The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2, reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2, catalyst amount of 5% (level 3, and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2, respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp.

  1. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  2. Production of Structured Phosphatidylcholine with High Content of DHA/EPA by Immobilized Phospholipase A1-Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of structured phosphatidylcholine (PC enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA by transesterification of DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters with PC using immobilized phospholipsase A1 (PLA1 in solvent-free medium. Firstly, liquid PLA1 was immobilized on resin D380, and it was found that a pH of 5 and a support/PLA1 ratio (w/v of 1:3 were the best conditions for the adsorption. Secondly, the immobilized PLA1 was used to catalyze transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. The maximal incorporation of DHA and EPA achieved was 30.7% for 24 h of reaction at 55 °C using a substrate mass ratio (PC/ethyl esters of 1:6, an immobilized PLA1 loading of 15% and water dosage of 1.25%. Then the reaction mixture was analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The composition of reaction product included 16.5% PC, 26.3% 2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC, 31.4% 1-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC, and 25.8% sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (GPC.

  3. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  4. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  5. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  6. A whole biodiesel conversion process combining isolation, cultivation and in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of native microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazzar, Souhir; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Marzouki, Mohamed Néjib; Acién-Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José María; Molina-Grima, Emilio; Smaali, Issam

    2015-08-01

    A coupled process combining microalgae production with direct supercritical biodiesel conversion using a reduced number of operating steps is proposed in this work. Two newly isolated native microalgae strains, identified as Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., were cultivated in both batch and continuous modes. Maximum productivities were achieved during continuous cultures with 318mg/lday and 256mg/lday for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. Microalgae were further characterized by determining their photosynthetic performance and nutrient removal efficiency. Biodiesel was produced by catalyst-free in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of wet unwashed algal biomass (75wt.% of moisture). Maximum biodiesel yields of 45.62wt.% and 21.79wt.% were reached for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids of Chlorella sp. showed a decrease in their proportion when comparing conventional and supercritical transesterification processes (from 37.4% to 13.9%, respectively), thus improving the quality of the biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodiesel synthesis by TiO2-ZnO mixed oxide nanocatalyst catalyzed palm oil transesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuvilakku, Rajesh; Piraman, Shakkthivel

    2013-12-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternating environmentally benign fuel to mineral diesel. For the development of easier transesterification process, stable and active heterogeneous mixed metal oxide of TiO2-ZnO and ZnO nanocatalysts were synthesized and exploited for the palm oil transesterification process. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and FE-SEM studies for their structural and morphological characteristics. It was found that TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst exhibits good catalytic activity and the catalytic performance was greatly depends on (i) catalyst concentration (ii) methanol to oil molar ratio (iii) reaction temperature and (iv) reaction time. A highest 98% of conversion was obtained at the optimum reaction parameters with 200 mg of catalyst loading and the biodiesel was analyzed by TLC and (1)H NMR techniques. The TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst shows good catalytic performance over the ZnO catalyst, which could be a potential candidate for the large-scale biodiesel production from palm oil at the reduced temperature and time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from transesterification of palm oil over ostrich eggshell-derived CaO catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Shan, Rui; Shi, Jiafu; Yan, Beibei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, waste ostrich eggshell-derived calcium oxide (denoted as CaO(OE)) particles were synthesized and explored as cost-effective catalysts for the ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of palm oil. The physicochemical properties of the resultant catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, XRF and Hammett indicator, while the catalytic activity was evaluated through transesterification of palm oil with methanol under ultrasonic conditions. More specifically, the CaO(OE) showed comparable catalytic activity to the one derived from commercial calcium carbonate (denoted as CaO(Lab)). Moreover, under ultrasonic conditions, the catalytic activity of CaO(OE) could be enhanced significantly. The maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters could reach 92.7% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 60 min with ultrasonic power of 60% (120 W), methanol-to-oil ratio of 9:1, and catalyst loading of 8 wt.%. The results indicated that the CaO(OE) catalysts showed good catalytic performance and reusability, and may potentially reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  11. Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp.

  12. Key role of temperature monitoring in interpretation of microwave effect on transesterification and esterification reactions for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazubert, Alex; Taylor, Cameron; Aubin, Joelle; Poux, Martine

    2014-06-01

    Microwave effects have been quantified, comparing activation energies and pre-exponential factors to those obtained in a conventionally-heated reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oils via transesterification and esterification reactions. Several publications report an enhancement of biodiesel production using microwaves, however recent reviews highlight poor temperature measurements in microwave reactors give misleading reaction performances. Operating conditions have therefore been carefully chosen to investigate non-thermal microwave effects alone. Temperature is monitored by an optical fiber sensor, which is more accurate than infrared sensors. For the transesterification reaction, the activation energy is 37.1kJ/mol (20.1-54.2kJ/mol) in the microwave-heated reactor compared with 31.6kJ/mol (14.6-48.7kJ/mol) in the conventionally-heated reactor. For the esterification reaction, the activation energy is 45.4kJ/mol (31.8-58.9kJ/mol) for the microwave-heated reactor compared with 56.1kJ/mol (55.7-56.4kJ/mol) for conventionally-heated reactor. The results confirm the absence of non-thermal microwave effects for homogenous-catalyzed reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi

    2013-08-01

    Two strategies of converting industrial wastes to microbial lipid and direct transesterification of obtained lipid into biodiesel were attempted. Several oleaginous yeasts were cultivated on industrial wastes. The yeasts grew well on the wastes with low C/N ratio (i.e. serum latex) but accumulated high lipid content only when the wastes had a high C/N ratio (i.e. palm oil mill effluent and crude glycerol). The yeast lipids have similar fatty acid composition to that of plant oil indicating their potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. The combination of these wastes and two-phase cultivation for cell growth and lipid accumulation improved lipid productivity of the selected yeast. The direct transesterification process that eliminates cell drying and lipid extraction steps, gave comparable yield of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester >70% within 1h) to that of conventional method. These two successful strategies may contribute greatly to industrializing oil production from microbes and industrial wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic and environmental performance of oil transesterification in supercritical methanol at different reaction conditions: Experimental study with a batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Milan; Micic, Radoslav; Kiss, Ferenc; Dedovic, Nebojsa; Simikic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of reaction parameters on FAME yields has been investigated. • The highest yield (93%) was achieved after 15 min at 350 °C and 12 MPa. • Models which predict with high certainty yields at different reaction conditions. • Economic and environmental performance of supercritical transesterification. • The lowest costs and impacts are always achieved at the highest yields. - Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of various reaction parameters (temperatures, working pressures and reaction time) on biodiesel yields and environmental and economic performance of rapeseed oil transesterification in supercritical methanol. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. Results were statistically analysed and multiple regression models which describe and predict biodiesel yields with high certainty at different reaction conditions were provided. The highest biodiesel yield (93 wt%) was achieved at 350 °C and 12 MPa after 15 min of reaction. The lowest direct costs and life cycle environmental impacts (in terms of GHG emissions and fossil energy demand) are achieved at the highest yield due to the lowest oil consumption per unit of biodiesel produced. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that even at significantly lower oil feedstock prices this observation stands firm

  15. Low cost guinea fowl bone derived recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for microwave assisted transesterification of Annona squamosa L. seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Veena; Sharma, Yogesh Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Discarded guinea fowl bone used to derive catalyst for biodiesel production. • High conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% achieved in 20 min by microwave assisted transesterification of Annona Squamosa L. seed oil. • Catalyst was stable and can be reused up to five times by activation with >80% conversion. • Complete process is cheap, eco-friendly and fulfils ASTM standard limits. - Abstract: Guinea fowl bone derived heterogeneous catalyst was utilized for biodiesel production for the first time on microwave heating system from Annona squamosa (custard apple seed) oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS, BET surface area and basicity. Optimization for various reaction conditions on FAME conversion was explored. Maximum conversion of 95.82 ± 0.2% FAME was attained at 1:18 M ratio of oil: methanol, 4 wt% of catalyst at 800 W microwave power and 65 °C reaction temperatures for 20 min. Custard apple seed oil was studied by GCMS, whereas synthesized FAME was analysed by "1H FTNMR spectroscopy. Catalyst was reused up to five times with maximum conversion of >80%. Physicochemical properties of synthesized FAME were studied as per ASTM standards. Results displayed that catalyst derived from guinea fowl bone showed better reusability and has enormous potential to be used for biodiesel production under microwave irradiated transesterification of Annona squamosa L. (custard apple seed) oil within a short reaction time.

  16. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  17. Analisis de redes sociales y procesos de influencia en la toma de decision grupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ricardo Vivas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan los procesos de influencia por medio del estudio de las relaciones entre medidas convencionales y estructurales en tareas de toma de decisión grupal. Se exploraron los componentes de conectividad y prestigio como facilitadores del proceso de influencia; la conectividad por medio del flujo global, la participación, la densidad de la red ego centrada y la cohesión o distancia reticular. El prestigio se analizó por medio del status sociométrico, medidas de influencia y centralidad (grado, prestigio y poder y medidas de equivalencia estructural para delimitar roles y posiciones. Se utilizó la prueba Supervivencia en la Luna y participaron 70 alumnos de tercer año de la Carrera de Psicología. Los resultados muestran que existe una asociación significativa entre el conocimiento previo a la tarea y la influencia social medida como contribución al producto grupal, que las medidas de centralidad tienen relación con aspectos de la dinámica grupal y no con la contribución al producto y que los roles varían dentro y fuera de la tarea. La influencia está significativamente asociada a la densidad de la red personal. La interpretación de los resultados sugiere que las redes personales de baja densidad favorecen la capacidad de influencia en la producción grupal y que la alta cohesión y conectividad subgrupal la deterioran. También sugieren que las medidas de centralidad se relacionan con influencia en el tráfico comunicacional pero no con la productividad. Y que el status previo y el obtenido durante la actividad, no se vinculan con la producción.

  18. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  19. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available . Partial trans-esterification took place between wheat starch and the polymers. The blends appeared as homogenous, translucent films with one glass transition temperature range, between that of starch and of the polymer. The presence of wheat starch...

  20. Activity and stability of polyaniline-sulfate-based solid acid catalysts for the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of fatty acids with methanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zieba, A.; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 383, 1/2 (2010), s. 169-181 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodiesel * transesterification * triacetin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2010

  1. The study of CaO and MgO heterogenic nano-catalyst coupling on transesterification reaction efficacy in the production of biodiesel from recycled cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvildari, Kambiz; Anaraki, Yasaman Naghavi; Fazaeli, Reza; Mirpanji, Sogol; Delrish, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuels' pollution and their non-renewability have motivated the search for alternative fuels. Some common example of seed oils are sunflower oil, date seed oil, soy bean oil. For instance, soy methyl and soy-based biodiesel are the main biodiesel. Biodiesel is a clean diesel fuel that can be produced through transesterification reaction. Recycled cooking oil, on the other hand, is one of the inexpensive, easily available sources for producing biodiesel. This article is aimed at production of biodiesel via trans-esterification method, Nano CaO synthesis using sol-gel method, and Nano MgO synthesis using sol-gel self-combustion. Two catalysts' combination affecting the reaction's efficacy was also discussed. Optimum conditions for the reaction in the presence of Nano CaO are 1.5 % weight fracture, 1:7 alcohol to oil proportion and 6 h in which biodiesel and glycerin (the byproduct) are produced. Moreover, the optimum conditions for this reaction in the presence of Nano CaO and Nano MgO mixture are 3 % weight fracture (0.7 g of Nano CaO and 0.5 g of Nano MgO), 1:7 alcohols to oil proportion and 6 h. Nano MgO is not capable of catalyzing the transesterification by itself, because it has a much weaker basic affinity but when used with Nano CaO due to its surface structure, the basic properties increase and it becomes a proper base for the catalyst so that CaO contact surface increases and transesterification reaction yield significantly increases as well. This study investigates the repeatability of transesterification reaction in the presence of these Nano catalysts as well.

  2. Nanocrystalline K–CaO for the transesterification of a variety of feedstocks: Structure, kinetics and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Ali, Amjad

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in current manuscript demonstrated the preparation of potassium ion impregnated calcium oxide in nano particle form and its application as solid catalyst for the transesterification of a variety of triglycerides. The catalyst was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic, BET surface area measurement, and Hammett indicator studies in order to establish the effect of K + impregnation on catalyst structure, particle size, surface morphology, and basic strength. The catalyst prepared by impregnating a mass fraction of 3.5% K + in CaO was found to exist as ∼40 nm sized particles, and same was employed in present study as solid catalyst for the transesterification of a variety of feedstocks viz., mutton fat, soybean, virgin cotton seed, waste cotton seed, castor, karanja and jatropha oil. Under optimized conditions, K–CaO was found to yield 98 ± 2% fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from the employed feedstocks, and showed a high tolerance to the free fatty acid and moisture contents. A pseudo first order kinetic model was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters and under optimized conditions first order rate constant and activation energy was found to be 0.062 min −1 and 54 kJ mol −1 , respectively. The Koros–Nowak criterion test has been employed to demonstrate that measured catalytic activity was independent of the influence of transport phenomenon. Finally, few physicochemical properties of the FAMEs prepared from waste cotton seed oil, karanja oil and jatropha oils have been studied and compared with European standards. -- Graphical abstract: TEM image of 3.5–K–CaO. Display Omitted Highlights: ► K–CaO as nanosized solid catalyst for the transesterification of variety of feedstock has been prepared and characterized. ► K–CaO was found effective even when 8.4% free fatty acid and 10.3% moisture contents were present in the feedstock. ► K–CaO was reused 3 times and

  3. Transesterificação de óleos vegetais: caracterização por cromatografia em camada delgada e densidade Transesterification of vegetable oils: characterization by thin-layer cromatography and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Froehner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the transesterification of two vegetable oils: soybean and waste frying oil. The main problem of transesterification is related to the measurement of the ethyl ester content. In this work we used a quick analytical method for assessing the ethyl ester fraction of the purified fuel-grade transesterification products by applying a simple correlation with density. If the ester content is higher than 85% by weight the correlation allows the determination by a single density measurement. This method is suitable for control and determines the ethyl ester quickly and simply.

  4. Design and Integration for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil via Transesterification Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abbaspour Aghdam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biodiesel is Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME which is used as a renewable fuel in diesel engines. Extraction of lipid from various flora sources, including Sunflower, Palm, Canola or animal oils, with a Trans-Esterification reaction between alcohol and Triglyceride (TG, leads to production of Biodiesel and Glycerin. The production cost of biodiesel is so important that is now considered as the greatest obstacle during scale-up process. In this research, a model-type of biodiesel production unit (using vegetable oil source, was designed by Aspen HYSYS V7.2 software, then a great deal of the attempt was employed to optimize the overall yield against the processing parameters including: mass and energy consumption load, as well as some technical discussion regarding associated apparatuses. Materials and Methods Process Design The simulation was carried out using Aspen HYSYS V7.2 employing Triolein (as TG, Oleic acid (as Free Fatty Acid (FFA, and Oleat as biodiesel. Avoiding side-stream reactions as well as trans-esterification, the FFA content was taken to a mere 0.05% (%mass. Feed stream was considered as product of NaOH-catalyzed bi-reactor system operating at 60˚C and 1 atm with the overall conversion of 70% using two series reactors. The ratio of TG to Alcohol is 1:3, however, owing to establish an appropriate reactor performance; this ratio was applied as 1:6 practically. The design was mainly intended to produce 480 m3d-1 biodiesel with mass concentration of 99.65%. Methanol was used in this investigation due to low cost, accessibility and handling considerations. NRTL was taken as the Equation of State (EOS for the process and should be used PRSV equation in the decanter. Thermal Integration Energy consumption was taken into account as basis of optimization in this study. Table 2 demonstrates the thermal characteristics of all streams consist of source and down-streams, while outlet stream like glycerol streams were neglected to

  5. Evaluation of catalytic ferrispinel MFe_2O_4 (M = Cu, Co, Mn and Ni) in transesterification reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Silva, Adriano Sant'Ana; Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Among the existing biofuels, biodiesel has achieved great economic and technological, for its potential to replace petroleum diesel and being biodegradable, have low emission of gaseous and be from renewable sources highlighted. In this context we propose to evaluate the performance of ferrispinel type MFe_2O_4, where M represents divalent metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Mn) in methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil. The ferrispinel were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, FTIR and magnetic measurements. The results indicate that the synthesis is conducive to the production of ferrispinel with magnetization values ranging from 11.0 to 58.0 emu/g. The conversion values were 53; 55; 57 and 52 %, respectively, concluding that the type of divalent metal affects the morphology and hence the catalytic conversion. (author)

  6. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil and Soybean Oil by Combi-lipases Under Ultrasound-Assisted Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Matte, Carla Roberta; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2018-04-21

    This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil. The results showed that ultrasound technology, in combination with the application of enzyme mixtures, known as combi-lipases, and the use of waste oil, could be a promising route to reduce the overall process costs of enzymatic production of biodiesel.

  7. Production of Biodiesel from Thespesiapopulnea seed oil through rapid in situ transesterification - an optimization study and assay of fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, G.; Nageswara Rao, P.; Renganathan, S.

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel production was carried out from Thespesia populnea seed oil through rapid insitu transesterification. Influence of reaction parameters such as catalyst type and concentration, methanol to biomass ratio, co-solvent volume, temperature and agitation speed on conversion of oil into methyl esters was investigated. The effect of different co-solvents on conversion was evaluated. Optimum methyl ester conversion of 97.80% was achieved at 1.5wt% of KOH catalyst, 5.5:1 (v/w) methanol to biomass ratio, 25vol%tetrahydrofuranco-solvent, 60°C and 500 rpm within 120min of reaction time. Fuel properties of produced methyl esters were well fitted within the limits of ASTMD 6751 standards. Considering the properties of produced biodiesel, Thespesia populnea seed derived biodiesel can be used as potential alternate to fossil diesel fuel.

  8. Highly efficient extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides from Chlorella sp. KR-1 for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Kim, Young Hyun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2013-11-01

    We developed a method for the highly efficient lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglyceride from Chlorella sp. KR-1 using dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Almost all of the total lipids, approximately 38.9% (w/w) of microalgae dry weight, were extracted from the dried microalgae biomass using a DMC and methanol mixture (7:3 (v/v)). The extracted triglycerides were transesterified into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst in DMC. Herein, DMC was used as the reaction medium and acyl acceptor. The reaction conditions were optimized and the FAMEs yield was 293.82 mg FAMEs/g biomass in 6 h of reaction time at 60 °C in the presence of 0.2% (v/v) water. Novozyme 435 was reused more than ten times while maintaining relative FAMEs conversion that was greater than 90% of the initial FAMEs conversion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of KOH/Al2O3 as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via in situ transesterification from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guixia; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Mu, Ruimin

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous KOH/Al2O3 catalysts, synthesized by the wet impregnation method with different KOH loadings (20-40 wt%) and calcination temperatures from 400°C to 800°C, were used to produce biodiesel from Chlorella vulgaris biomass by in situ transesterification. The highest yield of biodiesel of 89.53±1.58% was achieved at calcination temperature of 700°C for 2 h and 35 wt% loading of KOH, and at the optimal reaction condition of 10 wt% of catalyst content, 8 mL/g of methanol to biomass ratio and at 60°C for 5 h. The characteristics of the catalysts were analysed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller.

  11. Efficient KF loaded on MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds in the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel; Santos-Gutiérrez, Teresa; Lima, Enrique; Flores-Moreno, Jorge L.; Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Martínez-Ortiz, María de J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized. • After KF impregnation and calcination fluorinated species were detected. • Fluorinated species were stables and actives. • LDH composition and KF load effect were evaluated in biodiesel production. - Abstract: In this work a series of MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized by coprecipitation method at constant pH. In order to obtain the catalysts, the samples were modified with KF by incipient wetness impregnation at different wt%, after that, they were dried and calcined to obtain the mixed oxides. The effect of divalent cations ratio and KF load were studied in the transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil to obtain biodiesel employing an inedible oil. XRD analysis showed typical diffraction patterns of LDH, by nitrogen physisorption the LDH mesoporous structure was also confirmed, 27 Al NMR spectra showed bands at 10 and 88 ppm attributed to the Al coordination before and after thermal treatment. While for the impregnated samples after calcination the profiles exhibited the mixed oxide formation, in addition, another peaks appeared associated to the formation of various fluorinated species as shown by XRD, additionally, 19 F NMR showed a main signal at −180 ppm indicating the presence of active tetrahedral aluminum fluoride species. The reaction evolution was monitoring calculating the oil conversion to biodiesel by integration of the signal spectra using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of catalytic tests in transesterification reaction showed a direct correlation between Mg/Ca ratio and KF content in the oil conversion to biodiesel, the higher conversion was achieved (90%) when Mg/Ca = 1 and KF load was 30 wt%

  12. Sustainable biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil by using CaO catalysts prepared from chicken manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcined chicken manure was successfully used as catalyst for biodiesel production. • Ca compound in chicken manure was converted into active CaO by calcination. • Chicken manure-derived catalysts show high activity towards transesterification. • Biodiesel fuels can be produced by using waste cooking oils. - Abstract: The low cost and efficient CaO catalysts have been successfully prepared from chicken manure by a simple calcination, in this present work. Chicken manure contains significant content of calcium compounds that can easily be converted into the active calcium oxide catalyst after calcination at 850 °C under air. The Hammett indicator test showed that the obtained CaO catalyst has the basic strength in a range of 15 < H- < 18.4, revealing that the basicity of the obtained catalyst is mainly ascribed to the strong basic properties of metal–O groups. The obtained CaO catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for biodiesel production from transesterification of waste cooking oil and methanol. Up to 90% FAME yield was obtained at optimum reaction condition (i.e. 7.5 wt% of catalyst, 15:1 of methanol:oil molar ratio and 65 °C). The experimental kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-first order model and the activation energy was found to be 78.8 kJ mol"−"1. Moreover, fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were determined according to the European standard and found to be within the specifications. The uses of chicken manure as a catalyst source and waste cooking oil as a raw material for biodiesel production not only offers the environmentally friendly and cost-effective way to recycle those wastes, but also help to lower the biodiesel production cost to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum-based diesel.

  13. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M.L.; Quinn, Matthew; Wychen, Stefanie van; Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. (orig.)

  14. Efficient KF loaded on MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds in the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel, E-mail: aguzmanv@ipn.mx [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Santos-Gutiérrez, Teresa [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Lima, Enrique [IIM-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 México DF (Mexico); Flores-Moreno, Jorge L. [UAM-Azcapotzalco, Área de Química de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 México DF (Mexico); Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Martínez-Ortiz, María de J. [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized. • After KF impregnation and calcination fluorinated species were detected. • Fluorinated species were stables and actives. • LDH composition and KF load effect were evaluated in biodiesel production. - Abstract: In this work a series of MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized by coprecipitation method at constant pH. In order to obtain the catalysts, the samples were modified with KF by incipient wetness impregnation at different wt%, after that, they were dried and calcined to obtain the mixed oxides. The effect of divalent cations ratio and KF load were studied in the transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil to obtain biodiesel employing an inedible oil. XRD analysis showed typical diffraction patterns of LDH, by nitrogen physisorption the LDH mesoporous structure was also confirmed, {sup 27}Al NMR spectra showed bands at 10 and 88 ppm attributed to the Al coordination before and after thermal treatment. While for the impregnated samples after calcination the profiles exhibited the mixed oxide formation, in addition, another peaks appeared associated to the formation of various fluorinated species as shown by XRD, additionally, {sup 19}F NMR showed a main signal at −180 ppm indicating the presence of active tetrahedral aluminum fluoride species. The reaction evolution was monitoring calculating the oil conversion to biodiesel by integration of the signal spectra using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The results of catalytic tests in transesterification reaction showed a direct correlation between Mg/Ca ratio and KF content in the oil conversion to biodiesel, the higher conversion was achieved (90%) when Mg/Ca = 1 and KF load was 30 wt%.

  15. Utilization of immobilized lipases as catalysts in the transesterification of non-edible vegetable oils with ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tiosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of commercially available immobilized lipase preparations (Novozym® 435 and Lipozyme TL IM, both from Novozymes, and Lipase PS IM from Amano as catalysts in the transesterification reaction of different alkyl-chain triglycerides with ethanol. The ethanolysis of native oils from Brazilian Amazon plants andiroba (Carapa guianensis, babassu (Orbignya sp., jatropa (Jatropha curcas, and palm (Elaeis sp. was studied in a solvent-free system. In a typical reaction, the immobilized preparations were added to the mixture of vegetable oil-to-ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:9. The reactions were performed at 50 ºC for a maximum period of 48 h. Under the conditions used, all the immobilized lipase preparations were able to generate the main esters of fatty acids present in the tested feedstocks, and both the reaction rate and ester yield were dependent on the source of lipase and vegetable oil. The viscosity values for the samples obtained in each reaction displayed a consistent reduction in relation to their original feedstocks, which also confirms the high conversion of triglycerides to ethyl esters (99.8-74.0%. The best performances were obtained with Amano PS IM and Novozym® 435, with the biodiesel samples from the babassu and jatropha oils exhibiting viscosity values in accordance with those predicted by the technical standards of ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm²/s. Lipozyme TL IM displayed an unsatisfactory performance, indicating that the conditions of the transesterification reaction should be improved. This comparative study using different catalysts and several vegetable oil sources with varying fatty acid compositions is particularly important for all tropical countries with a diversity of native vegetable oil sources.

  16. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  17. Transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel by using waste obtuse horn shell-derived CaO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seik Lih; Wong, Yong Chen; Tan, Yen Ping; Yew, Sook Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost effective CaO catalyst derived from waste obtuse horn shells. • The optimum biodiesel yield, 86.75% can be achieved under mild reaction conditions. • The catalyst can be reused up to 3 times with biodiesel yield more than 70%. • Deactivation of catalyst was due to leaching of CaO and pores-filling. - Abstract: The calcium oxide catalysts derived from waste obtuse horn shells were utilized in the transesterification of palm oil into biodiesel. This environment-friendly catalyst is thermally activated at 800 °C for 3 h. The resulting CaO catalyst was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (TPD-CO 2 ), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns of calcined catalyst showed intense peaks of calcium oxide, consistent with XRF results that revealed calcium is the major element present in the obtuse horn shells. High calcination temperature (800 °C) tended to promote agglomeration of fine crystals, resulted in a smaller surface area (0.07 m 2 /g) as examined by BET. Catalytic activities in the transesterification process had been investigated using one-variable-at-a-time technique. The optimum palm oil conversion was 86.75% under reaction conditions of 6 h, 5 wt.% of catalyst amount and methanol to oil ratio of 12:1. Reusability of this waste shell derived catalyst was examined and results showed that the prepared catalysts are able to be reused up to 3 times with conversion of more than 70% after the third cycles. Although the reusability may not be excellent at the moment, it is still in the exploratory study. More efforts were done to improve its properties and stability

  18. Influencia de la densidad y del confinamiento con geotextil en columnas de grava

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Manzanares, Marina

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: El tratamiento con columnas de grava es uno de los métodos de mejora del terreno empleados habitualmente para la cimentación de terraplenes o estructuras sobre suelos blandos. El estudio realizado en esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en analizar: - La influencia de la densidad de la grava de la columna - El empleo de columnas ensacadas con geotextil. El análisis de la influencia de la densidad de la grava se ha realizado mediante ensayos realizados en laboratorio en modelo reducido con d...

  19. Influencia de la densidad y del confinamiento con geotextil en columnas de grava

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Manzanares, Marina

    2014-01-01

    El tratamiento con columnas de grava es uno de los métodos de mejora del terreno empleados habitualmente para la cimentación de terraplenes o estructuras sobre suelos blandos. El estudio realizado en esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en analizar: - La influencia de la densidad de la grava de la columna - El empleo de columnas ensacadas con geotextil. El análisis de la influencia de la densidad de la grava se ha realizado mediante ensayos realizados en laboratorio en modelo reducido con dos densid...

  20. Música y cerebro: influencia del arte musical en la biología humana

    OpenAIRE

    Siesto Sánchez, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de grado. Grado en Biología. Curso académico 2016-2017 El trabajo analiza la posible influencia de la música en el desarrollo de las habilidades humanas. Se analiza la anatomía humana relacionada en el proceso, desde el sistema auditivo hasta la corteza cerebral. La segunda parte del estudio lo pone en relación con el proceso de percepción y se refiere a la relaciónd el hombre con la música a lo largo de la historia, con particular atención a la influencia que pueda haber t...

  1. Transesterification of babassu oil catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia encapsulated in sol-gel matrix employing protic ionic liquid as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vanessa Souza Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic transesterification from non-edible vegetable oil (babassu oil and ethanol is provided. A set of seven experiments featuring a full 22 factorial design with three central points and different combinations of molar ratio and temperature as independent variables was employed. Transesterification reactions were catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase encapsulated in a hydrophobic matrix obtained by the sol-gel technique using protic ionic liquid (N-methylmonoethanolamine pentanoate as additive and with conventional heating (40 – 56°C. Ethyl esters highest yield (51.90% was obtained by experimental design with 1:7 molar ratio (oil:alcohol and temperature at 40°C during 48h reaction. The process with a 5-fold increase of enzymatic load provided 98.69% ethyl esters yield with 4.29 mm2 s-1 viscosity

  2. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yong-Lu; Tian, Song-Jiang; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  4. Ultrasound assisted production of fatty acid methyl esters from transesterification of triglycerides with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst: optimization, mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted transesterification of triglycerides (TG) with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst was investigated, where the changes in the reactants and products (diglycerides (DG), monoglycerides (MG), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerin (GL)) concentrations were discussed to understand the reaction mechanism and kinetics under ultrasound irradiation. The optimum reaction condition for the FAME production was the concentration of KOH 1.0 wt.%, molar ratio of TG to methanol of 1:6, and irradiation time of 25 min. The rate constants during the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME were estimated by a curve fitting method with simulated curves to the obtained experimental results. The rate constants of [Formula: see text] were estimated to be 0.21, 0.008, 0.23, 0.005, 0.14 and 0.001 L mol(-1)min(-1), respectively. The rate determining step for the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME was the reaction of MG with methanol into GL and FAME. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  6. Transesterification of Jatropha oil with dimethyl carbonate to produce fatty acid methyl ester over reusable Ca–La–Al mixed-oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsuddin, Y.; Murat, M.N.; Hameed, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification of Jatropha oil over CaO-based catalyst. • Physicochemical properties of the synthesized catalyst. • Best reaction condition for FAME synthesis. • The catalyst showed high activity and stability for transesterification with Jatropha oil. - Abstract: Jatropha oil (JO) was transesterified with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) over synthesized Ca–La–Al mixed-oxide catalyst. The influence of different parameters on transesterification of Jatropha oil was investigated in a batch reactor. These parameters included reaction temperature (110–160 °C), reaction time (30–240 min), DMC-to-oil molar ratio (4:1–18:1) and catalyst loading amount (1–10 wt.%, based on the oil weight). The mixed-oxide catalyst with a molar ratio of 6:2:1 (Ca–La–Al) showed high catalytic activity for FAME synthesis. More than 90% of FAME was obtained under the following reaction conditions: 150 °C, reaction temperature; 180 min, reaction time; 15:1, DMC-to-oil molar ratio; and 7 wt.% amount of catalyst loading. The catalyst also exhibited high stability and could be reused for up to five cycles with less than 5% yield reduction per cycle.

  7. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicik Herlina Yulianti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CaOZnO nanoparticle catalysts with Ca to Zn atomic ratios of 0.08 and 0.25 have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis provided with Rietica and Maud software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and its properties was compared with bare CaO and ZnO catalysts. The phase composition estimated by Rietica software revealed that the CaO catalyst consists of CaO and CaCO3 phases. The estimation of the particle size by Maud software, showed that the particle size of all catalysts increased by the following order: ZnO. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Yulianti, C.H., Ediati, R., Hartanto, D., Purbaningtias, T.E., Chisaki, Y., Jalil, A.A., Hitam, C.K.N.L.C.K., Prasetyoko, D., (2014. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 100-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110

  8. Bio diesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil Using NaOH/ Al2O3 Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq Yap Yun Hin; Nurul Fitriyah Abdullah; Mahiran Basri; Taufiq Yap Yun Hin; Nurul Fitriyah Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increase in price of petroleum and environmental concerns, the search for alternative fuels has gained importance. In this work, bio diesel production by transesterification of palm oil with methanol has been studied in a heterogeneous system using sodium hydroxide loaded on alumina (NaOH/ Al 2 O 3 ). NaOH/ Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation of alumina with different amount of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide followed by calcination in air for 3 h. The prepared catalysts were then characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD). Moreover, the dependence of the conversion of palm oil on the reactions variables such as the molar ratio of methanol/oil, the amount of catalysts used, reaction temperatures and reaction times were performed. The conversion of 99 % was achieved under the optimum reaction conditions. The bio diesel obtained was characterized by FT-IR and the pour point was measured. (author)

  9. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M.R. [S.J. College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mysore (India)

    2012-11-15

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  11. Preparation And Characterization Of Modified Calcium Oxide From Natural Sources And Their Application In The Transesterification Of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqliliriana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium oxide catalysts were prepared from natural calcium sources such as limestone and mud creeper shell and the catalytic activities were evaluated in the transesterification of palm oil. The raw material which mainly composed of calcium carbonate can be easily converted to calcium oxide CaO after calcination above 1000 K for few hours. Abundant cheap sources benign high conversion and nontoxic become main advantages of these catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRF TGA XRD CO2-TPD SEM and BET methods. Thermal decomposition of CaCO3 will produced CaO which later will be converted into calcium hydroxide CaOH2 via simple hydration technique. Under optimum reaction condition methanol to oil ratio 151 catalyst loading 3 wt. reaction temperature 338 K for 5 hours the highest conversion of palm oil to methyl ester recorded were 98 and 94 when using modified limestone and mud creeper shell respectively. The results observed an increment up to 80 by using modified catalysts with characterization results showed high in basicity and surface area. Hence promising materials via simple and cheap method can be achieved.

  12. Characterization and parametric study of mesoporous calcium titanate catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noor Yahida; Ngadi, Norzita; Jusoh, Mazura; Halim, Noor Amirah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: •Simple synthesis of mesoporous calcium titanate by sol-gel-hydrothermal method. •Improvement of characteristics and catalytic activity from commercial CaO. • Production of biodiesel at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: Mesoporous calcium titanate (MCT) catalyst was synthesized via a sol-gel-hydrothermal method and investigated as a catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO). Calcium was supported on titanate in order to increase their surface area, stability and consequently, improve its performance in the transesterification of WCO to biodiesel. Synthesized catalyst was characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), N_2 physisorption, Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and carbon dioxide temperature-programmed desorption (CO_2-TPD). The catalyst possessed high surface area, basicity and stability than calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst. The highest biodiesel yield achieved was 80.0% in 3:1 of methanol to WCO molar ratio, 0.2 wt.% of MCT catalyst for 1 h at 65 °C. Reusability study suggested that this catalyst can be recycled for five successive runs.

  13. Optimization of One-Step In Situ Transesterification Method for Accurate Quantification of EPA in Nannochloropsis gaditana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a valuable source of lipid feedstocks for biodiesel and valuable omega-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis gaditana has emerged as a promising producer of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA due to its fast growth rate and high EPA content. In the present study, the fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis gaditana was found to be naturally high in EPA and devoid of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, thereby providing an opportunity to maximize the efficacy of EPA production. Using an optimized one-step in situ transesterification method (methanol:biomass = 90 mL/g; HCl 5% by vol.; 70 °C; 1.5 h, the maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultivated under rich condition was quantified as 10.04% ± 0.08% by weight with EPA-yields as high as 4.02% ± 0.17% based on dry biomass. The total FAME and EPA yields were 1.58- and 1.23-fold higher separately than that obtained using conventional two-step method (solvent system: methanol and chloroform. This one-step in situ method provides a fast and simple method to measure fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yields and could serve as a promising method to generate eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester from microalgae.

  14. Surfactant-assisted direct biodiesel production from wet Nannochloropsis occulata by in situ transesterification/reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoru A. Salam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an in situ transesterification/reactive extraction of Nannochloropsis occulata for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME production using H2SO4, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS plus H2SO4 and zirconium dodecyl sulphate (ZDS. A maximum 67 % FAME yield was produced by ZDS. Effect of inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS in H2SO4 for FAME enhancement and water tolerance was also studied by hydrating the algae with 10 % - 30 % distilled water (w/w dry algae. Treatment with SDS in H2SO4 increases the FAME production rate and water tolerance of the process. Inclusion of SDS in H2SO4 produced a maximum 98.3 % FAME yield at 20 % moisture in the algae. The FAME concentration began to diminish only at 30 % moisture in the algae. Furthermore, the presence of a small amount of water in the biomass or methanol increased the lipid extraction efficiency, improving the FAME yield, rather than inhibiting the reaction.

  15. Optimization of the process of methylic transesterification of palm oil an experimental plant in batches in RECOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Quesada, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The production process of biodiesel is optimized in the Laboratorio de Investigacion of RECOPE. A subprocess of raw material purification and finished product is implemented. Parameters of optimization for the experimental plant are established by a bibliographic search. Palm oil acquired by RECOPE is characterized. The optimization of the alkaline transesterification of palm oil with methanol is realized in the experimental plant of RECOPE, through a full factorial design of five variables on two levels: the effect of temperature, the relationship of catalyst-oil, the speed of agitation, the molar relationship alcohol-oil and the reaction time in the production of biodiesel. The operation optimal values of the experimental plant are obtained by ANOVA. The maximum quantity of soaps required is determined to saturate exchange resin used in the purification of the biodiesel. The parameters of optimum operating are proposed for the production process of methyl biodiesel of palm according to the conditions of the oil and in the test plant of RECOPE. The result of the analysis of control variables of the biodiesel as the density have been according to reported by the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano (RTCA). However, the measured variables to biodiesel as total glycerin, inflammability point, content of fatty acid methyl esters and acid number have indicated the necessity to implement pretreatment steps from the oil by acid esterification. Besides, the study has determined that biodiesel remains without comply with the standards established by the RTCA for its commercialization at national or international level [es

  16. Biosynthesis, characterization and enzymatic transesterification of single cell oil of Mucor circinelloides--a sustainable pathway for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana K F; Rivaldi, Juan D; Barbosa, Jayne C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides URM 4182 was tested to determine its ability to produce single-cell oil suitable for obtaining biodiesel. Cell growth and lipid accumulation were investigated in a medium containing glucose as the main carbon source. A microwave-assisted ethanol extraction technique (microwave power ⩽200 W, 50-60 °C) was established and applied to lipid extraction from the fungal hyphae to obtain high lipid concentration (44%wt) of the dry biomass, which was considerably higher than the quantity obtained by classical solvent methods. The lipid profile showed a considerable amount of oleic acid (39.3%wt), palmitic acid (22.2%wt) and γ-linoleic acid (10.8%wt). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of the single-cell oil with ethanol using a immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym® 435) as the catalyst. (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses confirmed conversion of 93% of the single-cell oil from M. circinelloides into ethyl esters (FAEE). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Two Fusarium Verticillioides Lipases: Stability, Hydrolysis, Transesterification and Enantioselectivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dell Antonio Facchini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides lipases were purified in a “cascade” method using octadecyl Sepabeads and octyl Sepharose resins, which led to the isolation of two proteins with lipolytic activities. Lip 1 was purified after octyl Sepharose adsorption presenting 30.3 kDa and, Lip 2 presented 68.0 kDa after octadecyl adsorption. These immobilization processes resulted in an increase of 3-fold in activity of each immobilized enzyme. These enzymes presented optima of pH of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively and temperature at 40 °C. They were thermostable at 40 °C and both remained more than 50% of its activity at the pH range of 5.0 to 7.0, with 180 min of incubation. The sardine oil hydrolysis showed higher EPA/DHA ratio. Concerning the ethanolysis reaction, Lip 2 showed higher conversion (5.5% and both lipases showed activity in the release of the S enantiomers from 2-O-butyryl-2-phenylacetic acid (mandelic butyrate acid and HPBE hydrolysis. Lip 2 also demonstrated capacity of transesterification. These applications made these enzymes attractive for industrial application.

  18. Preparation of CaO/Fly ash as a catalyst inhibitor for transesterification process off palm oil in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwani, Z.; Fatra, W.; Saputra, E.; Maulana, R.

    2018-03-01

    A palm fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst was prepared and used in transesterification from off-grade palm oil for biodiesel production. The catalyst synthesized by loading CaO of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) into fly ash through impregnation method. The optimum catalyst preparation conditions were determined by influence of calcination temperature and weight ratio of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and fly ash. Catalyst with highest catalytic activity was achieved when calcined at 800 °C and proportion of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O to fly ash is 80:20. Under the conditions of oil : methanol ratio of 1:6, catalyst dosage of 6 wt% and temperature of 70 °C for 2 h, the biodiesel yield reaches to 71.77%. CaO, SiO2, Ca(OH)2 and Ca2SiO4 were found in the catalyst through X-ray diffraction (XRD) while the basic strength of the catalyst H_ in the range 9.3 – 11. Surface area of the developed catalyst is 24.342 m2/g through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Characteristics of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, flash point has been matched with standard for biodiesel specification of Indonesia.

  19. Imperata cylindrica sp as Novel Silica-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts for Transesterification of Palm Oil Mill Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaini, Zainab; Shahrom, Farra Diana; Jamil, Nurfarahen; Wahi, Rafeah; Ahmad, Zainal Abiddin

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel from palm oil mill sludge (POMS) was prepared in the presence of novel silica-based heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp. Imperatacid and Imperatabase are two types of heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and pore size measurement. Imperatacid has particle size of 43.1-83.9 µm while Imperatabase in the range of 89-193 µm. Imperatacid was conveniently applied in esterification step to afford > 90 wt% oil in 1:3 (oil/methanol) and 10 wt% catalyst, followed by transesterification with 1 wt% Imperatabase and 1:1 (oil/methanol) for 1 h at 65°C to afford 80% biodiesel with higher percentage of methyl palmitate (48.97%) and methyl oleate (34.14%) compare to conventional homogeneous catalyst. Reusability of the catalyst up to three times afforded biodiesel ranging from 78-80% w/w. The biodiesel was demonstrated onto alternative diesel engine (Megatech(®)-Mark III) and showed proportional increased of torque (ɽ) to biodiesel loading.

  20. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2012-11-01

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL FROM KAPUK SEED OIL (Ceiba Pentandra L AT VARIATION STIRRING DURATION IN TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Dwi Siswani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel targeted as SNI 04-7182-2006 standard has been done from kapuk randu seed, following two steps i.e. sokhlet extraction process of kapuk seed oil from kapuk seed using n-heksane as a solvent, and the production of biodiesel from kapuk seed oil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH as catalyst. Transesterificatin process was performed at temperature 50 oC with the variation of stirring duration as followed  50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes. The kapuk randu extraction resulted  % kapuk randu seed oil, while the transestherification process resulted around 55 - 65%. The biodiesel product characteristics provided the density value of all biodiesel at stirring durations variation are suitable with SNI standard (850 – 890 kg/m3, the viscosity value of all biodiesel are  higher than the range SNI value (2,3 – 6,0 cSt. While the flash point values are lesser than SNI standard (10160 - 11000 cal/g.   Keywords: kapuk randu seed, transestherification, biodiesel

  2. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  3. Glymes as benign co-solvents for CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe

    2013-07-01

    The base (such as CaO)-catalyzed heterogeneous preparation of biodiesel encounters a number of obstacles including the need for CaO pretreatment and the reactions being incomplete (typically 90-95% yields). In this study, a number of glymes were investigated as benign solvents for the CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel with a high substrate loading (typically soybean oil >50% v/v). The triglyceride-dissolving capability of glymes led to a much faster reaction rate (>98% conversions in 4h) than in methanol alone (typically 24h) and minimized the saponification reaction when catalyzed by anhydrous CaO or commercial lime without pre-activation. The use of glyme (e.g. P2) as co-solvent also activates commercial lime to become an effective catalyst without calcination pretreatment. The SEM images suggest a dissolution-agglomeration process of CaO surface in the presence of P2, which could remove the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 layer coated on the surface of lime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil: A possible step in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thalles A; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud V

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35°C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5wt% of enzyme and 5wt% of water contents, 94% of FAME yield and 6.1% of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8h are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of biodiesel production from sewage sludge obtained from the A²/O and MBR processes by in situ transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Juanjuan; Zhu, Fenfen; Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Luyao; Xiong, Yiqun; Wu, Xuemin; Yan, Fawei

    2016-03-01

    The potential of two types of sludge obtained from the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes as lipid feedstock for biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was investigated. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel yield using three-factor and four-level orthogonal and single-factor tests. Several factors, namely, methanol-to-sludge mass ratio, acid concentration, and temperature, were examined. The optimum yield of biodiesel (16.6% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 96.7%) from A(2)/O sludge was obtained at a methanol-to-sludge mass ratio of 10:1, a temperature of 60°C, and a H2SO4 concentration of 5% (v/v). Meanwhile, the optimum yield of biodiesel (4.2% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 92.7%) from MBR sludge was obtained at a methanol-to-sludge mass ratio of 8:1, a temperature of 50°C, and a H2SO4 concentration of 5% (v/v). In this research, A(2)/O technology with a primary sedimentation tank is more favorable for obtaining energy from wastewater than MBR technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of hydrotalcite-hydroxyapatite material doped with carbon nanotubes and its application in catalysis of transesterification reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, E.; Barros, T.; Pereira, C.; Almeida, O.; Brasil, H.; Reis, M.A L. dos

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize hydrotalcite-hydroxyapatite (HTHAp) material doped with three different proportions (1, 5 and 15% w/w) of carbon nanotubes (NTC) in order to evaluate its potential as a heterogeneous catalyst in the soybean oil methanolysis reaction. The synthesis of the HTHAp material was performed by the co-precipitation method (10≤pH≤ 11) with ultrasonic homogenization and hydrothermal treatment at 80 °C. XRD, SEM/EDS, FT-IR, Raman, N 2 physisorption and TG/DTA were the characterization techniques performed. The sample HTHAp1NTC, doped at 1% w/w, was tested as a catalyst under two temperature conditions (180 and 240 °C), 4 h reaction time, 2.5% catalyst loading and alcohol:oil ratio of 12:1. Doping contributed to improve structural, morphological and thermal stability properties of HTHAp material. The yield results achieved 35.2% (180 °C) and 40.5% (240 °C) qualifying the HTHAp material doped with CNT as a potential catalyst in the transesterification reaction. (author)

  7. Hoteles y sanatorios: influencia de la tuberculosis en la arquitectura del turismo de masas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez Morales

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo pretende constatar la influencia que ha ejercido la tuberculosis en la formalización de la arquitectura del turismo de masas. Para ello se repasa la evolución tipológica del hotel a partir de la eclosión del sanatorio antituberculoso en el contexto de la estación turística alpina de mediados del siglo XIX. Un recorrido que se realiza tendiendo puentes entre los progresos en arquitectura y los avances en terapias médicas. El objetivo es hacer evidente el proceso de hibridación que se produce entre ambas tipologías arquitectónicas. Una imbricación que se extiende hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial pero cuya influencia aún persiste en la arquitectura del turismo masivo de sol y playa.

  8. Influencia de la adición del filler calizo sobre el fraguado del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez, Ignacio

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals about the infuence that addition of calcareous "filler" has on the set of portland cement which rates are from 0 up to 50% of filler.

    En el presente artículo se estudia la influencia que la adición de "filler" calizo ejerce sobre el fraguado del cemento portland, al que se le añaden porcentajes desde O al 50% en filler.

  9. Influencia del modelo elástico en la dinámica de estructuras articuladas

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, M.; López-Hernández, E.

    1997-01-01

    Se estudia la influencia en la dinámica de una estructura articulada de barras de madera, de la aproximación a las propiedades tensión-deformación del material. Se ha adoptado un método de cálculo por diferencias finitas en el dominio del tiempo, con un modelo de masas concentradas en los nodos.

  10. La danza y su influencia en la percepción de plenitud y bienestar psicoemocional.

    OpenAIRE

    Rengifo Rodríguez, Lorelcris; Carrero Planes, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Desde los resultados obtenidos en diversas investigaciones que han identificado la influencia del trabajo corporal sobre la inteligencia emocional y otras variables psicológicas, se derivó el interés por descubrir los efectos o beneficios de la danza sobre las habilidades emocionales u otros procesos psicosociales asociados al bienestar y plenitud. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objetivo explorar la vivencia de personas que practican danza, de manera profes...

  11. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  12. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M.; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m2 g -1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m 2 g -1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  13. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  14. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  15. Kinetic comparison of two basic heterogenous catalysts obtained from sustainable resources for transesterification of waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Moradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline earth metal oxides are appropriate catalysts for biodiesel production and among them, CaO and MgO are known for possessing the best efficiency. In this study, catalysts synthesized from economical and sustainable resources were used for biodiesel production. More specifically, waste mussel shells and demineralized (DM water treatment precipitates as calcium and magnesium carbonate sources, were converted into calcium and magnesium oxides at temperatures above 900 oC. Methanol and waste cooking oil were reacted in a 250 mL two-necked flask at 24:1 and 22.5:1 ratios in presence of 12 and 9.08 wt% of mussel shell-based and DM water treatment precipitates-based catalysts, respectively. The effects of temperature (328, 333, 338, 343 and 348 K and time (1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 h at a stirrer speed of 350 rpm on the conversion of the oil into biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained indicated a pseudo-first order kinetics for the transesterification reaction using both catalysts. The activation energies in the presence of the DM water treatment precipitates and mussel shell catalysts were measured at 77.09 and 79.83 kJ.mol-1, respectively. Accordingly, the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst resulted in a faster reaction due to its lower activation energy value. Moreover, the catalysts were reused five times and the results obtained showed that the methanol-driven extraction of CaO contained in the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst was lower than the waste mussel shell catalyst proving the higher stability of the new heterogeneous catalyst i.e. the calcinated DM water treatment precipitates.

  16. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  17. Full-scale treatment of wastewater from a biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Galasso, Maurizio; De Feo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater derived from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied at full scale. The investigated wastewater treatment plant consisted of the following phases: primary adsorption/coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes, biological treatment with the combination of trickling filter and activated sludge systems, secondary flocculation/sedimentation processes, and reverse osmosis (RO) system with spiral membranes. All the processes were developed in a continuous mode, while the RO experiment was performed with batch tests. Two types of BDF wastewater were considered: the first wastewater (WW1) had an average total chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and feed flow rate of 10,850.8 mg/L, 5.9 and 2946.7 L/h, respectively, while the second wastewater (WW2) had an average total COD, pH and feed flow rate of 43,898.9 mg/L, 3.3 and 2884.6 L/h, respectively. The obtained results from the continuous tests showed a COD removal percentage of more than 90% for the two types of wastewater considered. The removal of biorefractory COD and salts was obtained with a membrane technology in order to reuse the RO permeate in the factory production cycle. The rejections percentage of soluble COD, chlorides and sulphates were 92.8%, 95.0% and 99.5%, respectively. Because the spiral membranes required a high number of washing cycles, the use of plane membranes was preferable. Finally, the RO reject material should be evaporated using the large amount of inexpensive heat present in this type of industry.

  18. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    The demand for renewable forms of energy has increased tremendously over the past two decades. Of all the different forms of renewable energy, biodiesel, a liquid fuel, has emerged as one of the more viable possibilities. This is in large part due to the fact that biodiesel can readily be used in modern day diesel engines with nearly no engine modifications. It is commonly blended with conventional petroleum-derived diesel but it can also be used neat. As a result of the continued growth of the industry, there has been a correspondingly large increase in the scientific and technical research conducted on the subject. Much of the research has been conducted on the feasibility of using different types of feedstocks, which generally vary with respect to geographic locale, as well as different types of catalysts. Much of the work of the present study was involved with the investigation of the binary liquid-liquid nature of the system and its effects on the reaction kinetics. Initially, the development of an analytical method for the analysis of the compounds present in transesterification reaction mixtures using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The use of UV(205 nm) as well as refractive index detection (RID) were shown capable to detect the various different types of components associated with transesterification reactions. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution was primarily used. Using a unique experimental apparatus enabling the simultaneous analysis of both liquid phases throughout the reaction, an experimental method was developed for measuring the reaction rate under both mass transfer control and reaction control. The transesterification reaction rate under each controlling mechanism was subsequently evaluated and compared. It was determined that the reaction rate is directly proportional to the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase. Furthermore, the reaction rate accelerates rapidly as the system

  19. Synthesis of [11C]-labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 etherate catalysed esterification - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, U.; Falzon, C.; Issa, W.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Blanc, P.; White, J.; Scott, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    An important issue in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the development of labelling techniques to incorporate positron emitting radionuclides into biologically active compounds. When labelling with 11C, the short 20 minutes half-life of the radionuclide significantly limits the number of synthetic protocols available to the radiochemist. C-l synthons such as [HCJ-methyl iodide (1) or methyl triflate (2) are readily available and are frequently used as alkylating agents for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. However, the use of these alkylating agents often makes it necessary to introduce protecting groups in order to prevent labelling at unwanted sites on the molecule. Since the removal of protecting groups is a time-consuming process, a more direct synthesis strategy is desirable. This has prompted us to investigate the esterification of carboxylic acids using [1 lC]-mcthanol and BF3 etherate as Lewis acid catalyst. Our results have demonstrated that the reaction conditions necessary to promote the esterification can cleave functional groups such as ethers. We have therefore shifted our attention towards the irreversible transesterification of enol esters using [HCl-methanol and a tin catalyst as an alternative strategy to [HC]-methyl ester formation. We have prepared a series of 5 aromatic ethoxy vinyl esters bearing various functional groups. The transesterification (radiolabelling) was carried out in DMSO at 150 Degrees C for 7 minutes in the presence of [HQMeOH and 1.3-dichlo-rotetrabutyldistannoxane as catalyst. We have found that the transesterification of enol esters is a mild and efficient labelling method for the formation of [HCl-methyl esters. The reaction proceeds smoothly and leaves functional groups intact. It requires only one synthesis step compared to two steps for the conventional method, and gives a radiochemical yields of 25%

  20. CaO Nanocatalyst for Transesterification Reaction of Palm Oil to Biodiesel: Effect of Precursor’s Concentration on the Catalyst Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, N.; Ismail, K. N.; Hamid, K. H. Ku; Hadi, Abdul

    2018-05-01

    Depletion of fossil fuel sources in a few decades due to industrialization and motorization has led to a keen interest in the production of alternative fuels like biodiesel. Research on the development and improvement of more efficient transesterification process for biodiesel production has attain great attention in the last decade. The using of low cost catalyst is one of the main focuses on the biodiesel production. As a basic heterogeneous catalyst, CaO has been examined in the transesterification of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. In this research, calcium oxide (CaO-X) catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method at different Ca2+ precursor concentration (X = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 M). The crystalline structure and morphology of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. All the synthesized catalysts were then applied to transesterification reaction of palm oil to produce biodiesel. The characterization by x-ray diffraction demonstrate CaO-1.0 was partially hydrated due to the incomplete reaction during synthesis. As a matter of fact, formation of H2O on the surface of CaO causes lower basic strength of the catalysts, thus responsible in lowering the catalytic activity. It is demonstrated that CaO-2.0 exhibits mesoporous structure with least chemisorb amount of H2O on the catalysts surface has a very active catalytic activity. It was found that 2.0M of calcium precursor has high catalytic activity and 81% FAME yield was obtained within 3h reaction.

  1. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was purposed for testing reusability and stability of calcium oxide-based catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO over transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst was synthesized by co-precipitation method of calcium and zinc nitrates followed by impregnation of potassium nitrate. The fresh and used catalysts were tested after regeneration. The catalysts were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and BET Surface Area in order to compare the catalyst structure between the fresh and used catalysts. The catalyst testing in transesterification proses was carried out at following operating conditions, i.e. catalyst weight of 6 wt.%, oil to methanol mole ratio of 1:15, and temperature of 60 oC. In addition, metal oxide leaching of K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst during reaction was also tested. From the results, the catalysts exhibited high catalytic activity (80% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield after three-cycles of usage and acceptable reusability after regeneration. The catalyst also showed acceptable stability of catalytic activity, even after three-cycles of usage. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 16th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016 How to Cite: Istadi, I., Mabruro, U., Kalimantini, B.A.,  Buchori, L., Anggoro, D.D. (2016. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 34-39. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39

  2. Esterification of oily-FFA and transesterification of high FFA waste oils using novel palm trunk and bagasse-derived catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel palm trunk and bagasse derived catalysts have been prepared. • Reduction of FFAs from 42 to <1 wt.% in 15 min under pseudo-infinite methanol. • Transesterification of waste oil results in FAME yield of 80.6–83.2% in 4 h. • Pseudo-infinite methanol affords two-folds FAME yield of conventional methods. - Abstract: Waste cooking oil is increasingly becoming a significant component of biodiesel feedstock and its conversion to FAME requires coupling of esterification and transesterification processes. In this study, new environmentally benign catalysts were prepared from oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse, which are sustainable because of the superfluity of oil palm trunk and abundant supply of bagasse. Effect of preparation variable, surface acidity and textural properties, pre-esterification of FFA in oil matrices and transesterification of waste oil under pseudo-infinite methanol and conventional methods were investigated. The preparation variable, H 2 SO 4 impregnation time showed marginal effect on sulfonic acid density after 6 h, and the corresponding values for 6–10 h impregnations were 1.33 ± 0.01–1.41 ± 0.01mmol g −1 for OPT and 1.44 ± 0.01–1.48 ± 0.01mmol g −1 for SCB catalysts. In esterification of palmitic acid, activity of catalysts with different H 2 SO 4 impregnation time correlates with their sulfonic acid density. The catalysts demonstrated rapid esterification of FFA in oil matrices under pseudo infinite methanol, reducing its content from 42 wt.% to <1 wt.% in just 15 min. Similarly, the conversions of waste oil by OPT and SCB derived catalysts were 80.6% and 83.2%, respectively after 4 h under pseudo-infinite methanol, and 43.7% and 45%, respectively after 6 h under conventional method. These catalysts have shown remarkable properties that are suitable for biodiesel production from waste oil

  3. Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Y.; Kumar, N.; Bugaje, I.M.; Pali, H.S.; Kathkar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using co-solvent systems reduce reaction time by 60%. • Only small volume of co-solvent is required to improve the process. • Greater than 90% yields were obtained within the first 10 min. • Physico-chemical and fuel properties of FAMEs were within standard limits. • Acetone was found to be the best co-solvent for the transesterification. - Abstract: Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 ° 0 C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced

  4. Catalysts of Cu(II) and Co(II) ions adsorbed in chitosan used in transesterification of soy bean and babassu oils - a new route for biodiesel syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rondinelly Brandão; Lima Neto, Alcides Fernandes; Soares Dos Santos, Lucas Samuel; de Oliveira Lima, José Renato; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Dos Santos, José Ribeiro; de Lima, Geraldo Magela; de Moura, Edmilson Miranda; de Moura, Carla Verônica Rodarte

    2008-10-01

    Catalysts of Cu(II) and Co(II) adsorbed in chitosan was used in transesterification of soy bean and babassu oils. The catalysts were characterized by infrared, atomic absorption and TG, and biodiesels was characterized by infrared, NMR, CG, TG, physic chemistry analysis. The maximum adsorption values found for copper and cobalt cations were 1.584 and 1.260mgg(-1), respectively, in 180min. However, conversion of oils in biodiesel was better when used Co(II) adsorbed in chitosan.

  5. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  6. Preparation of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Animal Oil and AlcoholUnder the Catalysis of SO42- / TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was obtained through transesterification of animal oil and ethanol under the catalysis of SO42- / TiO2 We have inspected the activation of SO42- / TiO2prepared under different dipping vitriol concentration,baking activation temperature. The optimum conditions to prepare SO42- / TiO2are; dipping vitriol concentration of TiCl4 hydrolysis product is 1.5 mol / L, baking activation temperature for this catalyst takes 500°C. It can guarantee the catalyst has a smaller size and a higher load of vitriol. With animal oil as raw materials, ethanol as transesterifying agent and SO42- / TiO2as catalyst, the influence of reaction time, mass ratio of ethanol to oil and the dosage of catalyst were investigated. Optimum condition to obtain biodiesel was studied through orthogonal experiment, and it is listed as follow: mass ratio of ethanol to oil is 1.5:1.0, dosage of catalyst is 30 g SO42- / TiO2versus per 100 g animal oil, and reaction time is 8.0 h when reaction temperature is controlled as 80°C. The yield of biodiesel is 0.796 g/g under the above condition. SO42- / TiO2can be used as an effective catalyst during transesterification of animal oil and ethanol, and it can be reused

  7. Metaloxide--ZrO2 catalysts for the esterification and transesterification of free fatty acids and triglycerides to obtain bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manhoe; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-09-06

    Mixed metal oxide catalysts (ZnO, CeO, La2O3, NiO, Al203, SiO2, TiO2, Nd2O3, Yb2O3, or any combination of these) supported on zirconia (ZrO2) or hydrous zirconia are provided. These mixed metal oxide catalysts can be prepared via coprecipitation, impregnation, or sol-gel methods from metal salt precursors with/without a Zirconium salt precursor. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalyzes both esterification and transesterification of oil containing free fatty acids in one batch or in single stage. In particular, these mixed metal oxides supported or added on zirconium oxide exhibit good activity and selectivity for esterification and transesterification. The low acid strength of this catalyst can avoid undesirable side reaction such as alcohol dehydration or cracking of fatty acids. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalysts are not sensitive to any water generated from esterification. Thus, esterification does not require a water free condition or the presence of excess methanol to occur when using the mixed metal oxide catalyst. The FAME yield obtained with metal oxides/ZrO2 is higher than that obtained with homogeneous sulfuric acid catalyst. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalasts can be prepared as strong pellets and in various shapes for use directly in a flow reactor. Furthermore, the pellet has a strong resistance toward dissolution to aqueous or oil phases.

  8. Waste crab shell derived CaO impregnated Na-ZSM-5 as a solid base catalyst for the transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Shankar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated calcium oxide extracted from crab shell impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 has been investigated. Crab shells were collected, powdered and calcined at 900 °C, and CaO was impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 and calcined at 550 °C for 10 h. The CaO/Na-ZSM-5 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area. The prepared catalyst was tested for its catalytic activity by transesterifing neem oil into biodiesel in the presence of methanol. The influence of various parameters including reaction time, temperature, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and dosage were also investigated. Produced biodiesel have also been tested using proton NMR spectroscopy. Biodiesel yield as 95% has been achieved with 15% CaO impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 at 75 °C. The optimum transesterification reaction conditions were identified as follows: reaction temperature, 75 °C; reaction time, 6 h; methanol-to-neem oil molar ratio, 12:1; catalyst dosage, 0.2 g; and catalyst concentration, 15%. Based on the above study, it can be concluded that the calcium oxide impregnated Na-ZSM-5 can be a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  9. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on hydrophobic supports and application in biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of vegetable oils in solvent-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lionete N; Oliveira, Gladson C; Rojas, Mayerlenis J; Castro, Heizir F; Da Rós, Patrícia C M; Mendes, Adriano A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Tardioli, Paulo W

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the preparation of biocatalysts for ethanolysis of soybean and babassu oils in solvent-free systems. Polystyrene, Amberlite (XAD-7HP), and octyl-silica were tested as supports for the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase (PFL). The use of octyl-silica resulted in a biocatalyst with high values of hydrolytic activity (650.0 ± 15.5 IU/g), immobilization yield (91.3 ± 0.3 %), and recovered activity (82.1 ± 1.5 %). PFL immobilized on octyl-silica was around 12-fold more stable than soluble PFL, at 45 °C and pH 8.0, in the presence of ethanol at 36 % (v/v). The biocatalyst provided high vegetable oil transesterification yields of around 97.5 % after 24 h of reaction using babassu oil and around 80 % after 48 h of reaction using soybean oil. The PFL-octyl-silica biocatalyst retained around 90 % of its initial activity after five cycles of transesterification of soybean oil. Octyl-silica is a promising support that can be used to immobilize PFL for subsequent application in biodiesel synthesis.

  12. La polémica influencia de Adolfo Posada en el pensamiento de los catedráticos de derecho de la generación del 900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel García Bouzas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Las razones de la influencia de Posada entre los juristas rioplatenses. Un particular enfoque del krausismo. Receptividad y difusión de su pensamiento. Concepción organicista del estado. El sufragio como un deber.Valoración de su influencia en nuestra historia intelectual

  13. Influencia del Pseudo Dionisio en Nicolás de Cusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Hubert R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás de Cusa (1401-1464 reconoce la influencia del Pseudo Dionisio en su propio pensamiento, especialmente en su teología negativa. Este trabajo busca mostrar esta influencia en el libro referencia del Cusano: el De Docta Ignorantia (la Docta Ignorancia. Esta obra consta de 3 partes. Solo en la primera parte, Nicolás sigue de cerca las ideas del Pseudo Dionisio y solo en ella lo cita. En las demás, aunque se nota la influencia, nuestro autor se siente más libre: las fundaciones están firmes, el constructor puede construir libremente. Para probar esta tesis, se toman dos ejemplos: el tema de las tinieblas y la coincidencia de los opuestos. Este ejercicio permite conocer cómo y por qué se recibió al Pseudo Dionisio en la historia de la teología. Permite también profundizar el sentido de la teología de Nicolás de CusaThe reflections of Nicolas of Cusa (1401-1464 recognise the influence of Pseudo Dyonisius, particularly in his negative theology. The present study shows this influence on Nicolas' most important book: the De Docta Ignorantia (the Learned Ignorance. The book is divided into three parts and it is in the first part that Nicolas directly pursues the ideas of Pseudo Dyonisius and it is only here that he quotes them. In the other parts of the book although the influence is noted, the foundations have been set and are solid and the author or builder can construct with freedom. To prove this thesis, 2 examples are presented: the theme of darkness and the coincidence of opposites. This exercise shows how and why Pseudo Dyonisius has been accepted into the history of the theology. It also deepens the meaning of the Nicolas of Cusa's theology

  14. Influencia del tempo de la música en las emociones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Azael Caballero-Meneses

    2010-01-01

    exposición de 24 estudiantes de licenciatura a treinta extractos musicales de distinto tempo. Además se evaluó la posible modulación de la relación tempo-valencia por el rasgo de personalidad extroversión/introversión. Los resultados confirmaron la influencia del tempo sobre el arousal, pero no sobre la valencia, así como una posible mediación de la dimensión de personalidad introversión-extroversión sobre la valencia.

  15. Influencia de la betarraga (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) en el aumento de leucocitos, en ratones

    OpenAIRE

    Jony Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La betarraga es una planta oriunda del Mediterráneo utilizada para fines alimenticios y medicinales. Contiene flavonoides. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia del consumo del extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en el incremento de leucocitos, en el ratón albino. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Bioterio de la Institución Educativa 1182. Material biológico: Veinte ratones albinos de la cepa balb/c, machos, de peso promedio 24 g. Intervenciones: Se formó dos grupos, experim...

  16. Influencia de la humedad en el ensayo de resistencia de los ladrillos de suelo-cemento

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, José I.; Escobar Martín, Dunia

    1994-01-01

    A través de un diseño experimental adecuado se pretende mostrar la influencia de la humedad en el ensayo a compresión de los ladrillos de suelo-cemento, obteniendo las ecuaciones que muestran esta relación. Su generalización posterior permitió elaborar una matriz de correlación de las resistencias con las diferentes humedades de ensayo, de forma tal que se pueda ensayar con una humedad dada y estimar la resistencia que tendrá esa muestra para diferentes valores de humedad, con un buen nive...

  17. Influencia de la salud bucal durante el embarazo en la salud del futuro bebé

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Valdés, Liuba; Valle Lizama, Raúl Luis

    2015-01-01

    Fundamento: El embarazo se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries y gingivitis. Objetivo: Profundizar en el conocimiento sobre la influencia de estas afecciones bucales en la salud del futuro bebé. Conclusiones: El embarazo genera adaptaciones en la fisiología femenina las cuales pueden repercutir en la salud bucal de la gestante. Las afecciones bucales más frecuentes son la caries dental y la gingivitis, estas si no son tratadas a tiempo pueden afectar la salud del futuro bebé. Back...

  18. Uso e influencia de la televisión en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Jiménez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación está contextualizada en torno al uso e influencia que ejerce la televisión en la infancia. En concreto hemos escogido un grupo de niños del tercer ciclo de Educación Primaria (10-12 años). Primeramente, tratamos de comprobar el uso que hacen de la televisión los alumnos que hemos tomado como muestra así como el tipo de programas que ven. Posteriormente, analizaremos una pequeña muestra de esos programas más seguidos por nuestros alumnos encuestados. Para ello, partire...

  19. INFLUENCIA DEL TEMPO DE LA MÚSICA EN LAS EMOCIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Azael Caballero-Meneses; Marina Menez

    2010-01-01

    Se sabe que la música puede influir en dos componentes de las emociones: el arousal y la valencia. En particular, se ha reportado que el tempo o rapidez de la música está directamente relacionado con el arousal, aunque su relación con la valencia o medida de afecto no es aún clara. En este trabajo se analizó la influencia del tempo en ambos componentes mediante la exposición de 24 estudiantes de licenciatura a treinta extractos musicales de distinto tempo. Además se evaluó la posible m...

  20. Las organizaciones contemporáneas tipo mp3 y su influencia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Macías Cardona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace una reflexión sobre la influencia cultural de organizaciones contemporáneas con estructuras des-jerarquizadas y procesos internos no secuenciales, que el profesor Richard Sennet ha llamado organizaciones MP3. A partir de las estructuras organizacionales descritas por Álvaro Zapata, la distinción entre trabajo y labor de Hannah Arendt, los mecanismos de vigilancia foucaultianos y una contextualización en Colombia, se analiza la baja lealtad institucional, la disminución de la confianza informal entre quienes laboran y el debilitamiento del conocimiento institucional.

  1. Espacios y ambientes comerciales. La influencia del contexto en la eficacia comunicativa

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Mª Eugenia; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Comunicació Audiovisual i Publicitat

    2015-01-01

    El ambiente que rodea a un consumidor cuando se encuentra en un establecimiento comercial puede provocar efectos sobre él que deriven en una conducta y comportamiento favorable o desfavorable ante los procesos comunicativos que se producen en él. La investigación surgió de la necesidad de averiguar la capacidad de influencia que poseen los componentes del contexto espacial (color de la pared, iluminación, música, etc.) que rodean al sujeto; es decir, conocer cómo intervienen éstos en el ámbit...

  2. La influencia de las guerras civiles sobre la represión estatal en posguerras

    OpenAIRE

    Herreros, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analizan los determinantes de la represión estatal en posguerras. Su argumento principal es que ciertas dinámicas de las guerras civiles explican la variación en represión estatal en la posguerra. Para comprobar la influencia de las guerras civiles en la represión estatal, se emplea una base de datos que incluye a todos los países que han experimentado una guerra civil en el período 1976-2009. Los resultados muestran que una victoria rebelde en la guerra o un compromiso en...

  3. En búsqueda del ADN y las influencias en algunos sistemas presidenciales y parlamentarios

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Carpizo

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo examina las recíprocas influencias entre las Constituciones de seis países: tres con sistema presidencial, dos con sistema parlamentario y uno con sistema semipresidencial. Los tres últimos pertenecen a Europa. Los sistemas presidenciales de América Latina se inspiraron en la Constitución Americana, tanto como en alguna europea, especialmente la española de 1812. Los enormes poderes presidenciales en América Latina llevaron a introducir en el sistema presidencial controles propios ...

  4. En búsqueda del ADN y las influencias en algunos sistemas presidenciales y parlamentarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carpizo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo examina las recíprocas influencias entre las Constituciones de seis países: tres con sistema presidencial, dos con sistema parlamentario y uno con sistema semipresidencial. Los tres últimos pertenecen a Europa. Los sistemas presidenciales de América Latina se inspiraron en la Constitución Americana, tanto como en alguna europea, especialmente la española de 1812. Los enormes poderes presidenciales en América Latina llevaron a introducir en el sistema presidencial controles propios del sistema parlamentario

  5. En búsqueda del ADN y las influencias en algunos sistemas presidenciales y parlamentarios

    OpenAIRE

    Carpizo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo examina las recíprocas influencias entre las Constituciones de seis países: tres con sistema presidencial, dos con sistema parlamentario y uno con sistema semipresidencial. Los tres últimos pertenecen a Europa. Los sistemas presidenciales de América Latina se inspiraron en la Constitución Americana, tanto como en alguna europea, especialmente la española de 1812. Los enormes poderes presidenciales en América Latina llevaron a introducir en el sistema preside...

  6. INFLUENCIA DEL LIDERAZGO DOCENTE EN LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LA ESCUELA DE POSGRADO DE LA UNE

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Camones, Luis Eustaquio; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación tuvo como propósito determinar la influencia del liderazgo que los docentes ejercen en las aulas sobre la efectividad de la escuela de posgrado de la UNE. Se basó en la teoría de liderazgo transformacional. Se usaron una muestra de 126 estudiantes, instrumentos adaptados y la regresión lineal múltiple. Los resultados más importantes encontrados fueron que el liderazgo docente influye positiva y significativamente en la efectividad de la escuela de posgrado de la UNE y que e...

  7. La motivación laboral y su influencia en la empresa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Cacho, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Este proyecto se centra en un tema de gran interés como es la motivación laboral y su influencia en la empresa. Como sabemos este tema no es nuevo y se ha analizado y estudiado desde hace mucho tiempo, debido a la incidencia que tiene en el mundo laboral, económico y social. La motivación laboral lleva una trayectoria positiva en cuanto a su estudio e importancia, gracias a su estrecha relación con los problemas, soluciones, costes, beneficios y ventajas competitivas de las empresas. Para ...

  8. La influencia de la musicoterapia en ni??os con disfemia

    OpenAIRE

    P??rez Bazoco, M??nica

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende realizar una peque??a investigaci??n sobre la influencia que tiene la musicoterapia en los ni??os que presentan disfemia. La musicoterapia es un medio de rehabilitaci??n que incide tanto desde el punto de vista fisiol??gico (como puede ser la ejercitaci??n de la voz), como desde la perspectiva emocional e intelectual, proporcionando un desarrollo afectivo y cognoscitivo. Por tanto, la din??mica planteada de modelos mel??dicos y r??tmicos parece repercutir en el des...

  9. Effect of solvents and oil content on direct transesterification of wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biodiesel synthesis using immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Chen, Ching-Lung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-05-01

    In this work, a one-step extraction/transesterification process was developed to directly convert wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 into biodiesel using immobilized Burkholderia lipase as the catalyst. The microalgal biomass (water content of 86-91%; oil content 14-63%) was pre-treated by sonication to disrupt the cell walls and then directly mixed with methanol and solvent to carry out the enzymatic transesterification. Addition of a sufficient amount of solvent (hexane is most preferable) is required for the direct transesterification of wet microalgal biomass, as a hexane-to-methanol mass ratio of 1.65 was found optimal for the biodiesel conversion. The amount of methanol and hexane required for the direct transesterification process was also found to correlate with the lipid content of the microalga. The biodiesel synthesis process was more efficient and economic when the lipid content of the microalgal biomass was higher. Therefore, using high-lipid-content microalgae as feedstock appears to be desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. La influencia externa en las políticas educativas de Argentina, Brasil y Chile (1990-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Rambla, Francesc Xavier,

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del artículo es analizar el papel que juega la influencia internacional en el diseño y aplicación de políticas educativas en el Cono Sur. Específicamente pretende explorar el proceso a través del cual las ideas, recomendaciones y metas globales modelan las políticas educativas latinoamericanas. Para ello, el artículo se centra en el programa de Educación para Todos en el Acuerdo General de Comercio de Servicios, analizando los mecanismos de influencia externa que intervienen en ca...

  11. Influencia de Gregorio de Nisa sobre Juan Escoto Eriúgena: Aproximación a partir del Periphyseon

    OpenAIRE

    Pachas, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    A partir de los cinco libros del Periphyseon el autor intenta un acercamiento entre el pensamiento de Juan Escoto Eriúgena y Gregorio de Nisa, buscando sobre todo las principales influencias del segundo sobre el primero. Encuentra una plataforma de amplia base común entre ambos pensadores, marcada principalmente por un tipo de pensamiento circular según el esquema: procesión y retorno. Sin embargo, es notoria la influencia del Niseno sobre el Carolingio, principalmente cuando se trata de plan...

  12. Estudio de la influencia del lavado y del ensimaje sobre la estabilidad de hilatura y las propiedades de los hilados.

    OpenAIRE

    Coll Tortosa, Liberto; Palet Alsina, Daniel; Cegarra Sánchez, José; Gacén Guillén, Joaquín; Naik, Arun

    1995-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de un lavado deficiente de la lana sobre la estabilidad de hilatura y las propiedades de los hilados. El motivo de este estudio es solucionar el problema de la acumulación de residuos no hilables en los órganos de la máquina de hilar, que repercuten negativamente en la hilatura y en las propiedades de los hilados. Este problema fue abordado en un trabajo anterior (julio 91) en el que se analizó la influencia de la intensidad del aclarado, sin en...

  13. Sobre los determinantes y efectos de la influencia de politica (On the Determinants and Effects of Political Influence)

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Chong; Mark Gradstein

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se emplea una encuesta de gran alcance entre empresas de varios países para evaluar su influencia en las políticas oficiales. Se halló que la influencia guarda una relación con empresas más grandes propiedad del Estado que tienen un alto grado de concentración de la propiedad. Por el contrario, la tenencia foránea tiene escasa importancia. También se descubrió que la medida en que se considera que las políticas gubernamentales y la legislación entorpecen el crecimiento de las ...

  14. BRASIL BAJO INFLUENCIA NAPOLEÓNICA Y FRANCESA: LOS MENSAJEROS DE LA INDEPENDENCIA: MILITARES, LIBREROS Y PERIODISTAS

    OpenAIRE

    PUIGMAL, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    La historiografía clásica presenta la independencia de Brasil como un evento particular, generalmente aislado del acontecer continental y sin hacer referencia a la influencia militar y política napoleónica. Este artículo tiene como propósito principal entender la emancipación brasileña en un contexto mucho más amplio y demostrar la amplia presencia e influencia napoleónica en el marco de la lucha militar y de la construcción del Estado nuevo, permitiendo así integrar a Brasil en un movimiento...

  15. Influencia de la responsabilidad social en la lealtad: aplicación en el mercado de servicios

    OpenAIRE

    García de los Salmones Sánchez, María del Mar; Rodríguez del Bosque Rodríguez, Ignacio Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la influencia de la responsabilidad social corporativa en el comportamiento del consumidor mediante su inclusión en los modelos tradicionales de lealtad. Para ello, se parte de una revisión de la literatura sobre el concepto que da pie al planteamiento de varias hipótesis de investigación relativas a la influencia del comportamiento socialmente responsable en la valoración de un servicio y en la imagen corporativa, antecedentes directos, junto con...

  16. A Non-catalytic Deep Desulphurization Process using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Nalinee B.; Bhandari, Vinay M.; Sorokhaibam, Laxmi Gayatri; Ranade, Vivek V.

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach is developed for desulphurization of fuels or organics without use of catalyst. In this process, organic and aqueous phases are mixed in a predefined manner under ambient conditions and passed through a cavitating device. Vapor cavities formed in the cavitating device are then collapsed which generate (in-situ) oxidizing species which react with the sulphur moiety resulting in the removal of sulphur from the organic phase. In this work, vortex diode was used as a cavitating device. Three organic solvents (n-octane, toluene and n-octanol) containing known amount of a model sulphur compound (thiophene) up to initial concentrations of 500 ppm were used to verify the proposed method. A very high removal of sulphur content to the extent of 100% was demonstrated. The nature of organic phase and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase were found to be the most important process parameters. The results were also verified and substantiated using commercial diesel as a solvent. The developed process has great potential for deep of various organics, in general, and for transportation fuels, in particular.

  17. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  18. Non-Catalytic Reforming with Applications to Portable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Mokhov, and H.B. Levinsky, A laser-induced fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering study of NO formation in preheated, laminar, rich...Flame, 1995. 100(4): p. 571- 590 . 43. Evertsen, R., J.A. Van Oijen, R.T.E. Hermanns, L.P.H. De Goey, and J.J. Ter Meulen, Measurements of absolute

  19. Non-Catalytic Self Healing Composite Material Solution, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber reinforce polymer (FRP) composite materials are seeing increasing use in the construction of a wide variety of aerospace structures. However, uncertainties...

  20. Catalytic/non-catalytic combination process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luftglass, B.K.; Sun, W.H.; Hofmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing a nitrogenous treatment agent comprising urea, one or more of the hydrolysis products of urea, ammonia, compounds which produce ammonia as a by-product, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, or mixtures thereof into the effluent at an effluent temperature between about 1200 degrees F and about 2100 degrees F; and contacting the treated effluent under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides in the effluent with a catalyst effective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia

  1. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Aziz, Akram M.; Al-Tamer, Marwa H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PET was converted to activated carbon and then sulfonated to prepare carbon acid catalyst. • Carbon acid catalyst was used for esterification of high acid value Silybum marianum L. seed oil. • Biodiesel was obtained with 96.98% efficiency. - Abstract: In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 °C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 °C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of

  2. INFLUENCIA DEL TEMPO DE LA MÚSICA EN LAS EMOCIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Azael Caballero-Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que la música puede influir en dos componentes de lasemociones: el arousal y la valencia. En particular, se ha reportadoque el tempo o rapidez de la música está directamenterelacionado con el arousal, aunque su relación con la valenciao medida de afecto no es aún clara. En este trabajo se analizóla influencia del tempo en ambos componentes mediante laexposición de 24 estudiantes de licenciatura a treinta extractosmusicales de distinto tempo. Además se evaluó la posiblemodulación de la relación tempo-valencia por el rasgo de personalidadextroversión/introversión. Los resultados confirmaronla influencia del tempo sobre el arousal, pero no sobrela valencia, así como una posible mediación de la dimensiónde personalidad introversión-extroversión sobre la valencia.

  3. Influencia de la estrategia "toma de decisiones" en el autoconcepto de adolescentes consumidores de alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Isabel Hernández Pedroza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la influencia de la estrategia "toma de decisiones" en el autoconcepto de adolescentes consumidores de alcohol. Se aplicó un estudio longitudinal, pre-experimental. Se incluyeron 30 adolescentes, previo consentimiento informado de estudiantes y padres. La recolección de datos se realizo con AUDIT, test de conflicto decisional y The Tennessee Self-Concep Scale (TSCS. Se encontró que la edad promedio fue 16.56 ± 0.85 años, 60% hombres, el 100% de los adolescentes presentaron conflicto decisional. El 100% habían consumido alcohol alguna vez en su vida. No se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el autoconcepto pre y post intervención (p = 0.27, excepto en la dimensión Yo moral (p = 0.01. Se concluye de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos en la pre y post intervención que la estrategia de intervención tuvo una influencia en la dimensión del autoconcepto Yo Moral del adolescente consumidor de alcohol. Es posible que esto influyera en la percepción de sí mismo al encontrarse con la realidad de que por primera vez consideraba su capacidad o incapacidad para tomar decisiones.

  4. La influencia social de los medios de comunicación en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karines Rodríguez Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se expone cómo se desarrolla la influencia social de los medios de comunicación sobre los usuarios en Twitter, durante la celebración de la VII Cumbre de la Asociación de Estados del Caribe (AEC. La investigación parte del análisis de un corpus de 1500 tuits con las etiquetas temáticas #CubaCaribe, #VIICumbreAEC, #CumbreAEC. Utilizando el análisis del discurso mediado por computador, los resultados muestran la habilidad de influencia de los medios de comunicación a través de patrones de repetición-reacción y en la construcción del consenso sobre la valoración del acontecimiento. El reporte de caso explica cómo los parlamentos mediáticos repercuten en la comunidad de usuarios en el contexto microblogging.

  5. La centralidad en las comunicaciones y la influencia percibida en los pequeños grupos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Noemi Terroni

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta los resultados de medidas del análisis de redes en la comunicación de pequeños grupos que resuelven una tarea de recuperación de memoria y su asociación con la influencia percibida. El reactivo empleado es una historia y los 65 participantes, alumnos de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, debieron reconstruir la misma primero en forma individual, luego grupal colaborativa y nuevamente en forma individual. Se registraron las interacciones grupales con comunicación cara a cara y mediada por computadora; se analizaron las medidas de prominencia, la centralidad y el prestigio de la comunicación y el tipo de alocución, orientado a la gestión grupal o hacia la tarea. Se observaron asociaciones significativas entre las medidas reticulares y la influencia percibida para ambos medios de comunicación y se hallaron diferencias en la comunicación de gestión grupal. Se discuten estos resultados con relación a las restricciones que imponen los canales de comunicación mediados.

  6. Synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester as a synthetic base oil for drilling fluids using chemical transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib, N. S.H.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the synthesis of a palm based ethylhexyl ester was examined through a transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME with 2-ethylhexanol (EH. A sodium methoxide in methanol solution was used as a catalyst. The reaction was carried out at a fixed pressure of 1.5 mbar by varying the temperature (80–140 °C, POME/2EH molar ratio (1:1.5–1:2.2, reaction time (0.5–4 h and catalyst concentration (1–2% w/w. The reaction with 2-ethylhexanol involved a single step reversible reaction, thus, the reaction was completed in a very short time. The optimum conditions were obtained in less than 30 minutes with 1.5 mbar pressure, 70 °C, and 1:2 molar ratio of POME to 2EH. The analysis of the final product (ethylhexyl ester was performed using gas chromatography which exhibited 98% of ethyl hexyl ester yield. The gas chromatography analysis of ethyl hexyl ester revealed two major esters peaks i.e. ethyl hexyl palmitate and ethylhexyl oleate.En el presente estudio se analizó la síntesis de ésteres de acetato de hexilo de palma mediante reacción de transesterificación de los ésteres metílicos de aceite de palma (PME con 2-etilhexanol (EH. Como catalizador se utiliza una solución de metóxido de sodio en metanol. La reacción se lleva a cabo a presión fija de 1,5 mbar mediante la variación de temperatura (80–140 °C, relación molar POME/2EH (1:1.5–1:2.2, tiempo de reacción (0,5–4 h y concentración de catalizador (1–2% w / w. La reacción con 2-etilhexanol implica un solo paso de una reacción reversible, por lo tanto, ésta se completa en un tiempo muy corto. Las condiciones óptimas se obtuvieron en menos de 30 min a 1,5 mbar, 70 °C y una relación molar de 1:2 de POME al 2EH. El análisis del producto final se realizó usando cromatografía de gases que mostró un rendimiento del 98% del etilhexil éster. El análisis de la cromatografía de gases del etilhexil éster muestra dos grandes picos

  7. Evolución de la inmunología e influencia en los trasplantes de órganos

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Vegas, Luz María

    2012-01-01

    Se profundiza en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos del sistema inmunológico y la evolución histórica de los mismos para conocer la influencia de la inmunología en los trasplantes y las medidas preventivas más adecuadas para evitar las complicaciones

  8. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  9. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4 and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F.; Costa, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl_2O_4 was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N_2 adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  10. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Vathavanichkul, Peerawut; Palitsakun, Supaphorn; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2014-03-01

    Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325μm achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent %FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/Poly(butylenes succinate) blend: Phase behavior and mechanical property control using its transesterification system as the compatibilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylenes succinate) (PTT/PBS) blends and their ester-exchanged system were prepared by melt mixing for the phase behavior and the viscoelasticity studies. A typical two-phase structure can be seen on the blends because two polymers are immiscible thermodynamically. The phase inversion behavior of the blends can be well determined by the blending ratio dependence of their dynamic rheological responses, which can also be predicted by the viscous Utracki model based on the viscosity ratio. However, the dynamic viscoelastic responses of the blends cannot be well described by the emulsion model because two polymers are highly asymmetric in their viscoelasticity. Besides, transesterification is an effective approach of reducing interfacial tension and improving final phase morphology of the blends, which can be evaluated qualitatively from viscoelastic response alterations after ester exchange reaction. The mechanical properties of PTT/PBS blends were also studied. The results reveal that the ester-exchanged blends show mechanical strengths even lower than the pristine ones because of bulk degradation accompanied with transesterification, despite their improved phase structure. However, they can be used as the good compatibilizer to improve phase adhesion of the pristine blends, enhancing strengths of the PTT based blends or toughness of the PBS based blends evidently. - Highlights: • Phase inversion of the blends can be determined by their rheological responses. • Improved phase morphology can be evaluated from viscoelasticity alterations. • The ester-exchanged system is suitable to be used as the compatibilizer. • Mechanical properties can be controlled by introducing ester-exchanged system

  12. The Effect of Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Crystallinity as a CaO Support on the Transesterification of Used Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Putri Purnamasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of used cooking oil was carried out over calcium oxide supported on mesoporous H-ZSM-5 prepared from kaolin as solid base catalysts. Solid basic catalysts investigated in this study were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The XRD pattern showed peaks corresponding to the CaO and mesoporous ZSM-5 in the sample. The peak intensity of the CaO increased as CaO loading in ZSM-5 was increased. The characterization based on FTIR spectroscopy revealed that CaO/H-ZSM-5 solids have functional groups characteristics of both CaO and mesoporous H-ZSM-5 which appeared in the band at around  550 cm-1 and 480 cm-1. The isotherm of N2 adsorption-desorption of CaO/H-ZSM-5 indicated the type IV isotherm with the presence of hysteresis loop. For the catalytic activity, the biodiesel yield using catalyst of 10 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 %, 30 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 %, 50 % CaO/HZSM-5 (100 % were 24.34, 27.37, and 29.73 %, respectively. It also related with the basic active site, when loading CaO increased, the basic active site also increased. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 8th March 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Purnamasari, A.P., Sari, M.E.F., Kusumaningtyas, D.T., Suprapto, S., Hamid, A., Prasetyoko, D. (2017. The Effect of Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Crystallinity as a CaO Support on the Transesterification of Used Cooking Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(3: 329-336 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.802.329-336

  13. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of mixed nanoferrites submitted to transesterification and esterification reaction using methyl and ethyl route for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Joelda; Leal, Elvia; Mapossa, Antonio Benjamim; Silva, Adriano Sant'Ana; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo

    2016-01-01

    The mixed nanoferrites of Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 and Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 were synthesized by combustion reaction using urea as fuel and a conical reactor as heating source in batches of 10 g, and then tested as heterogeneous nanocatalysts in the transesterification and esterification reaction of soya bean oil using the methyl and ethyl routes to biodiesel production. During the synthesis the time and temperature of the reactions were measured, and the evolved gases and the color of the emitted flames were observed. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET and gas chromatography. The reaction tests were carried out with 10 g of oil for 1 h, oil:alcohol molar ratio of 1:12, 2 % (w/w) of catalyst, and conducted at 180 °C. The XRD patterns and the FTIR spectra revealed the presence of the inverse spinel phase type B(AB)_2O_4. The morphology showed the formation of agglomerates with fragile morphology and high surface area. The chromatographic analysis produced excellent results in the esterification reactions for both samples in the tested conditions, with special emphasis on Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4, whose conversions were of 91.4 % in methyl esters and of 77.8 % in ethyl esters, while the Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample showed conversion of 75.1 and 65.1 %, respectively. The conversions in the methyl and ethyl transesterification were of 14 and 2 % of the Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample, and of 11 and 3 % for the Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample. (author)

  14. Influencia de las tecnologías celulares en el rendimiento académico

    OpenAIRE

    y Hellen Navarro Jiménez, Giselle León León, Deyber Alvarado Fernández, Luis Bent Solano

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo surge a partir de una investigación sobre la influencia de tecnologías celulares en el rendimiento académico, la cual se realizó bajo el enfoque mixto en la clasificación de mixto dominante, en cuanto a los instrumentos para recopilar la información, se aplicó un cuestionario a dieciséis estudiantes de sétimo año, se realizaron observaciones al desarrollo de las lecciones y se entrevistó al docente de enseñanza de las ciencias de un Liceo del Área Metropolitana costarrice...

  15. Cambios en la gestión contable: influencia de las nuevas tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón Pérez, Esther; Fuentes Perdomo, Juana; Serrano Moracho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    [ES]En el trabajo que presentamos se revisan los nuevos enfoques de dirección de empresas basados en gestión de procesos y gestión de riesgos, y su influencia en el futuro de la información económica-financiera, lo que dará lugar a cambios acelerados por las más avanzadas aplicaciones informáticas de la contabilidad y las prácticas de auditoría, puesto que en la práctica diaria de las empresas, tanto la auditoría como la información contable y los sistemas de información, contemplan ya dicho ...

  16. Influencia del advergaming en los jóvenes universitarios de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Garrido Gallardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos donde el consumidor es capaz de encontrar lo que desea sin ser interrumpido por la publicidad, los anunciantes ven necesaria la tarea de expandir sus mensajes por medio de nuevas alternativas que acerquen al público con la marca de manera atractiva. El advergame forma parte de estas nuevas herramientas ya que busca fidelizar al consumidor mediante juegos interactivos que representen los valores, características y beneficios de la marca. Para conocer cuál es la influencia de esta herramienta publicitaria en los jóvenes de la ciudad de Lima, este artículo realiza un análisis sobre la actitud que ellos generan hacia la marca dependiendo del tratamiento que se le da en el juego, el tiempo de exposición y otras variables.

  17. Influencia de curso pre cálculo en ecuaciones diferenciales y desarrollo de pensamiento variacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawency Vergel Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sigue un enfoque cuantitativo con apoyo del enfoque cualitativo, descriptivo, diseño cuasi experimental. En esta investigación se plantearon los objetivos: estudiar si mejoran las competencias en pensamiento variacional y didácticas de los estudiantes con la utilización de curso precálculo utilizando plataforma virtual respecto a enseñanza tradicional; examinar la influencia en desarrollo del pensamiento matemático y su enseñanza; así como analizar qué tipología de alumnos obtiene mejores resultados en relación a su nivel de competencia digital. Se han obtenido los siguientes avances: el grupo experimental ha obtenido una mejora estadísticamente significativa de sus competencias interpretativas y de pensamiento matemático respecto al grupo control.

  18. Entretenimiento, espiritualidad, familia y la influencia de pares universitarios en el consumo de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydee Rivera de Parada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación de los factores socio-culturales de familia, entretenimiento y espiritualidad y la influencia de pares y el consumo de drogas entre los estudiantes universitarios. Estudio es multicéntrico, con un diseño transversal, participaron 250 estudiantes de una universidad en San Salvador, El Salvador. Se realizaron análisis porcentuales, pruebas de asociación y correlación. Se encontró que los factores socioculturales de familia y espiritualidad podrían estar protegiendo ya que la mayoría 80% valoran positivamente estos dos valores. La mayoría de estudiantes consumen muy poco drogas ilícitas, marihuana 2%, cocaína 1% y anfetaminas 1.2%; pero consume más las drogas lícitas alcohol 42%, tabaco 21%.

  19. La influencia del liderazgo sobre el aprendizaje. El papel mediador del contexto organizativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pérez López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la relación existente entre liderazgo y aprendizaje organizativo. Con apoyo en investigaciones previas, se plantea un modelo cuya premisa básica es que la relación entre ambos conceptos es directa e indirecta, en la medida en que el liderazgo influye sobre el contexto organizativo en que se desarrolla el aprendizaje. El presente modelo teórico ha sido contrastado empíricamente a partir de una muestra de 162 empresas españolas, confirmándose la influencia del liderazgo sobre la cultura organizativa y el desarrollo de las políticas de recursos humanos, factores que, a su vez, influyen sobre el aprendizaje. Sin embargo, la relación directa entre liderazgo y aprendizaje organizativo no se confirma. Las implicaciones del estudio, limitaciones y futuras líneas de investigación son discutidas en el trabajo.

  20. Influencia del modelo elástico en la dinámica de estructuras articuladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence in the dynamics of an articulated structure of sweep wooden, of the approximation to the material tension-deformation properties. A time-domain calculation method by finite differences has been used with a model of lumped masses in the nodes.

    Se estudia la influencia en la dinámica de una estructura articulada de barras de madera, de la aproximación a las propiedades tensión-deformación del material. Se ha adoptado un método de cálculo por diferencias finitas en el dominio del tiempo, con un modelo de masas concentradas en los nodos.

  1. Influencia de variables psicológicas en el rendimiento de jugadores amateurs de golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Irazusta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la presente investigación es analizar las variaciones del estado de ánimo intracompetición en los jugadores amateurs de golf, así como analizar la influencia que tiene el grado de confianza y otras variables motivacionales en el resultado de la competición. Se realizó la investigación con un total de 296 jugadores y se pasaron los cuestionarios a cada jugador en tres momentos, antes, durante y después de la competición.Una vez analizados los datos se constató que existen grandes fluctuaciones en el estado de ánimo de los jugadores y que el resultado esperado sufre modificaciones a lo largo de la competición.

  2. La influencia socioeconómica en el comportamiento de juego de preescolares

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Rombe, Patrícia Gonçalves; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Considerando que o contexto econômico influencia o brincar de crianças, este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar as diferenças entre os brinquedos utilizados por crianças de duas diferentes classes socioeconômicas. Os dados foram coletados junto a 50 mães de crianças com idade entre três e seis anos, metade pertencentes à classe econômica A2 (Grupo 2), e a outra metade pertencente à classe econômica D (Grupo 1), segundo o Critério Brasil. Os resultados apontam para a existência de diferenças ...

  3. Influencia del yeso sobre la velocidad de hidratación del cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi, G.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePara esclarecer la Influencia del yeso sobre el fraguado y endurecimiento del cemento, los autores estudiaron el grado de hidratación de los cuatro principales minerales del clínker de cemento Portland y el efecto del yeso sobre ellas. Haciendo uso del análisis cuantitativo de rayos X, se determinó la porción no hidratada. Simultáneamente, se determinaron los tiempos de fraguado y las resistencias. Los ensayos se llevaron a cabo sobre tres clínkeres sintéticos de diferentes composiciones y sobre dos clínkeres de cemento Portland comerciales.

  4. Influencia de la rodilla en la amortiguación de vibraciones sobre plataforma oscilante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bruñó-Soler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de plataformas vibratorias se ha extendido en los ámbitos deportivo y clínico. Sin embargo, son escasos los trabajos sobre su correcta utilización y seguridad. En este estudio transversal se registró, en 22 sujetos sanos (23,7 ± 3,7 años, talla 1,75 ± 0,08 m, masa 71,63 ± 14,5 kg con un nivel de actividad física bajo/medio, la aceleración en el eje vertical en la cabeza durante la posición de bipedestación sobre una plataforma vibratoria, en tres angulaciones distintas (180º, 150º y 120º, a tres frecuencias de vibración (5, 16 y 27 Hz y a una amplitud constante (3 mm. El objetivo del estudio fue valorar la influencia de la posición de la rodilla sobre la transmisión de vibraciones desde la plataforma hasta la cabeza. Los resultados indican que la amortiguación de la vibración aumentó con cada incremento en el grado de flexión de la rodilla, siendo la influencia de la posición articular tanto más relevante cuanto mayor fue la frecuencia de vibración de la plataforma (p <0.001. Estos resultados sugieren que para la realización segura de ejercicios en bipedestación sobre plataforma vibratoria a intensidades altas debe evitarse la extensión completa de rodilla.

  5. Influencia del medio familiar en niños con conductas agresivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Valentín Noroño Morales

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, sobre la influencia del medio familiar en niños de 9 a 11 años, con conductas agresivas, evaluados y diagnosticados en el Departamento de Psicología del Policlínico " Dr. Tomás Romay"; la muestra estuvo conformada además, por los padres de estos niños. A todos ellos se les aplicó una serie de técnicas con el objetivo principal de describir las características del medio familiar y su influencia en las conductas agresivas de los infantes. Se concluyó en que como características del medio familiar predominaron las familias disfuncionales incompletas, con manifestaciones de agresividad, alcoholismo, mala integración social y familiar, rechazo hacia los hijos e irresponsabilidad en su cuidado y atención.A descriptive study of the influence of the family environment on children aged 9-11 years old, evaluated and diagnosed at the Psychology Department of "Dr Tomás Romay" polyclinics, was carried out. The children´s parents were also part of the sample. All of them were applied a series of techniques to find out the characteristics of the family environment and its influence on children´s aggressive behaviors. It was concluded that the predominant characteristics were uncompleted dysfunctional families with manifestations of aggressiveness, alcoholism, poor social and family integration, rejection to children and lack of responsibility in relation to their care and attention.

  6. Influencia del clima escolar y familiar en adolescentes, víctimas de ciberacoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ortega Barón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El ciberacoso es un fenómeno de creciente preocupación social que afecta cada vez más a niños y adolescentes de todos los países desarrollados. A diferencia de la considerable literatura que hay sobre las relaciones entre el acoso escolar y el contexto familiar y escolar, todavía hay pocos trabajos sobre la influencia de estos entornos sociales en el problema del ciberacoso. Mediante una metodología cuantitativa, el objetivo principal del presente estudio fue analizar la influencia del contexto escolar y familiar en víctimas de ciberacoso. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.062 adolescentes (51,5% chicos y 48,5% chicas, de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M=14,5; DT=1,62. Se establecieron tres grupos de contraste: cibervíctimas severas, cibervíctimas moderadas y no víctimas de ciberacoso. Los resultados del análisis de varianza indicaron que las cibervíctimas severas en comparación con las no víctimas puntúan significativamente más alto en conflicto familiar y obtienen puntuaciones más bajas en el resto de variables familiares (autoestima familiar, cohesión y expresividad, y variables escolares (implicación, afiliación y ayuda al profesor, consideradas en el estudio. Los análisis de regresión revelaron que la autoestima académica y familiar y algunas dimensiones del clima familiar y escolar predicen la cibervictimización en la adolescencia. Estos novedosos resultados muestran la importancia de incluir a la familia y a la escuela en los programas de prevención del ciberacoso.

  7. Influencia de la actividad física y la alimentación equilibrada en la mejora de la calidad de vida /

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaurrazaga Dobaran, Andoni

    2013-01-01

    Se estudia la influencia que la actividad física tiene en la calidad de vida de las personas. Es de sobra conocido que vivir de forma saludable es beneficioso para la salud pero se trata de esclarecer qué entendemos por “vivir de forma saludable” y cuál puede ser su influencia en el mantenimiento y mejora de la calidad de vida de las personas

  8. Evaluation as a catalyst in ferrispinel NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} esterification and transesterification; Avaliacao do ferroespinelio NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} como catalisador em reacao de esterificacao e transesterificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Silva, Adriano Sant' Ana, E-mail: klebersonric@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Kiminami, Ruth Herta Goldschmidt Aliaga [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The advancement of nanoscience and nanotechnology, magnetic nanoparticles ferrispinels type, have found numerous applications in biochemistry, molecular biology, biomedicine, diagnosis and heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production. Therefore, we propose to synthesize ferrispinel NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and evaluate its performance as a catalyst for esterification and transesterification of the methyl soybean oil. The sample was obtained through combustion reaction with production of 10 g / batch and characterized by XRD, SEM and BET. The catalytic reaction was conducted in high-pressure reactor at 180 °C for 1 hour, with a molar ratio of oil:ethanol 1:12 with 2% catalyst. The results showed the formation of ferrispinel phase, morphology composed of aggregates in the form of irregular blocks formed by pre sintered particles and low interparticle porosity. As a catalyst, the conversion values presented ferrispinel 52% and 4% in the esterification and transesterification, respectively, indicating that promising material for use in biodiesel production. (author)

  9. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekati-Goudarzi, Mohamad; Boldor, Dorin; Nde, Divine B

    2016-02-01

    In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20min and temperature of 58.1°C. H(+)NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influencia de la autoestima y del apoyo social percibido sobre el bienestar psicológico de estudiantes universitarios chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Barra Almagia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, de tipo correlacional transeccional, examinó la influencia de la autoestima y del apoyo social percibido sobre el bienestar psicológico, en una muestra de 450 estudiantes de ambos sexos de la Universidad de Concepción, Chile, quienes respondieron las Escalas de Autoestima de Rosenberg, de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff y el Cuestionario de Apoyo Social Percibido. Se encontró que la autoestima tenía una influencia mayor sobre el bienestar psicológico que el apoyo social percibido. Aunque no hubo diferencias de sexo en el bienestar psicológico global, se observaron diferencias a favor de los hombres en las dimensiones de autoaceptación y autonomía, y a favor de las mujeres, en crecimiento personal, así como diferencias a favor de los hombres en autoestima y a favor de las mujeres en apoyo socialpercibido.

  11. INFLUENCIA DE LOS INVERSIONISTAS INSTITUCIONALES EN LAS DECISIONES DE ESTRUCTURA DE CAPITAL DE LA EMPRESA. Evidencia para un mercado emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Araya Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza empíricamente la influencia de las Administradoras de Fondos de Pensión (AFP como principales accionistas institucionales, sobre las decisiones de estructura de capital de la empresa chilena. Estos inversionistas pueden influir en la estructura de capital mediante distintos papeles como los de monitoreo a la gestión y de recopilación y transferencia de información al mercado. El análisis es desarrollado durante el periodo 2009-2011 para una muestra de 109 empresas chilenas que cotizan en la bolsa. Las AFP no sólo participan en el mercado accionario sino que también compiten por la deuda pública, por lo que nuestros resultados son relevantes al indicar la positiva influencia de este tipo de inversionistas en la contratación y emisión de deuda, particularmente la pública.

  12. INFLUENCIA DE LA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA EN LAS TRANSMISIONES A FRECUENCIA 2.4 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    González Romero, Pedro Vicente; Espina Ávila, Luis Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación se planteó como propósito fundamental determinar la influencia de la presión atmosférica sobre una señal transmitida en una frecuencia de 2.4 GHz. La investigación es de tipo explicativa, con diseño metodológico experimental. Mediante ella se obtiene la atenuación de una señal de 2.4GHz a diferentes presiones atmosféricas y se determinan las gráficas que muestran el comportamiento observado. Como resultado de esta investigación se observó que sí existe una influencia...

  13. Los niños, la influencia de la televisión y el rendimiento escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Pauta Guevara, Ricardo Arturo

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación titulada “Los niños, la influencia de la televisión y el rendimiento escolar”, tiene como objetivo general mostrar la influencia que ejerce la Televisión en el comportamiento y en el rendimiento escolar de los niños de 6 a 9 años de edad, de clase media de Lima. Los medios de comunicación hoy en día, son parte de nuestra vida. Nos acompañan y entretienen, ponen a nuestro alcance lo ajeno y lejano, alientan nuestra imaginación con personajes e historias, nos mantienen...

  14. STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION EFFECT OF Nb2O5-ZAA CATALYST TOWARDS TOTAL CONVERSION OF BIODIESEL IN TRANSESTERIFICATION OF WASTED COOKING OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Tri Padmaningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on the concentration effect of Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst towards total conversion of biodiesel has been conducted. The natural zeolite (ZA was activated by dipping in NH4Cl solution and was calcined using N2 atmosphere at 500 °C for 5h to produce the ZAA sample. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst was made by mixing the activated natural zeolite (ZAA, Nb2O5 3 % (w/w and oxalic acid 10 % (w/w solution, until the paste was formed, followed by drying and calcining the catalyst for 3 h at 500 °C under N2 atmosphere. Catalyst characterizations were conducted by measuring acidity with NH3 gas using gravimetric method and porosimetric analysis using N2 gas adsorption based on the BET equation by surface area analyzer instrument. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst was then used as an acid catalyst in free fatty acid esterification reaction of wasted cooking oil in methanol medium with variation of catalyst concentration: 1.25%; 2.5%; 3.75% and 5% towards the weight of oil+methanol. The reaction was continued by transesterification of triglyceride in the used cooking oil using NaOH catalyst in methanol medium. For comparison, the esterification reaction using H2SO4 catalyst 1.25% towards the weight of oil+methanol has been conducted as well. Methyl ester (biodiesel product was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The characters of biodiesel were analyzed using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM method. The results showed that modification of ZAA by impregning Nb2O5 3% (w/w increased the total catalyst acidity from 5.00 mmol/g to 5.65 mmol/g. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst has specific surface area of 60.61 m2/g, total pore volume of 37.62x10-3 cc/g and average pore radius of 12.41 Å. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst with concentration of 1.25%-5% produced higher total conversion of biodiesel than that of H2SO4 catalyst 1.25%. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst with concentration of 3.75% produced the highest total conversion of biodiesel, i

  15. Cambios espaciales y su influencia en la configuración territorial de Aguazul y Tauramena 1974–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yolima Devia Acosta

    2011-09-01

    una periodización basada en el cambio en las actividades económicas y en los cambios político-administrativos en la configuración territorial de estos municipios. El artículo centra el análisis en la influencia de la actividad petrolera en la región, y en su capacidad directa e indirecta de transformar el territorio.

  16. Celos y violencia en alumnos de enseñanza secundaria. Influencia de los estilos educativos familiares

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich Navarro, Mª del Milagro

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis consiste en establecer la relación entre los celos en la adolescencia y la influencia de los estilos educativos familiares a la hora de explicar la violencia entre iguales, las reacciones emocionales y las conductas desajustadas de los adolescentes. Las reacciones emocionales se miden con las variables: celos, ansiedad y hostilidad. En cuanto a las reacciones conductuales se maneja como variable el bullying o victimización entre iguales. Con respecto a la variable e...

  17. Influencia do indice de massa corporal no equilibrio e na configuracao plantar em obesos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade é uma doença crônica degenerativa multifatorial que pode levar a alterações do sistema musculoesquelético, como mudança do centro de gravidade e sobrecarga mecânica sobre os membros inferiores. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o índice de massa corporal (IMC com o equilíbrio corporal e verificar associação entre o IMC e a configuração plantar. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 obesos, de ambos os gêneros, com IMC maior ou igual a 30 Kg/m². Inicialmente, os voluntários foram submetidos às avaliações de medidas antropométricas a fim de calcular o valor do IMC. Em seguida, foram submetidos ao teste de equilíbrio corporal estático Balance Error Scoring System (BESS e a plantigrafia para a identificação da impressão plantar. Por meio do método de Viladot, os voluntários foram classificados em grupos: pé plano (GPP, pé cavo (GPC e pé neutro (GPN. A correlação entre as variáveis IMC e BESS foi calculada por meio do coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson e associação entre o IMC e a configuração plantar foi realizada por meio da análise de variância (Anova. Para todas as análises, nível de significância considerado foi p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os valores da correlação entre o IMC e o BESS foram r = - 0,1 e p = 0,59. Os valores da associação do IMC entre GPN - GPP; GPN - GPC; GPP - GPC foram respectivamente: p = 0,76; p = 0,001; p = 0,07. CONCLUSÃO: O índice de massa corporal de adultos obesos não influencia o equilíbrio corporal, porém influencia na configuração plantar.

  18. Influencia española en la enfermería colombiana Spanish influence Colombian nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Velandia M

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available La autora establece cuatro herencias recibidas por la enfermería colombiana: la tradición de tipo religioso, la condición femenina o de género, la herencia militar y la herencia antropológica o étnica. En esta última se tiene en cuenta tanto la herencia indígena como la influencia de la enfermería española, con todos sus influjos mediterráneos. La influencia religiosa se inicia con el sacerdote Jesuita Pedro Claver hacia 1610 -1617; continúa con los Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios hacia 1768 y posteriormente en 1873 con la llegada de las Hermanas de la Caridad de la Presentación. Compara la organización de la enfermería en el Hospital de la Santa Cruz de Barcelona, donde parece ser se empezó a organizar la enfermería como tal, analizando las funciones del Administrador de la sala de enfermos, el Servidor, las mujeres encargadas de las salas de enfermas o de niños, la Ecónoma, la Jefe de Sala, y el Enfermero Mayor, en relación con los cargos y funciones actuales en los Hospitales colombianos.Four statements inferenced from: religious traditions, gender or woman status, military heritage and ethnic inheritance, and their influence in nursing, are presented in this article. The ethnic inheritance analyses the issue based upon the cultural influences of the native-indigenous groups and the Spanish and Mediterranean attributes in nursing development.The religious tradition began with Pedro Claver's J.C. presence between 1610 and 1617. His presence is followed by the "Hermanos Hospilalarios de San Juan de Dios" in 1768, and further with the presence of the sisters of Charity in 1873. Lastly, the article compares the Barcelona's Santa Cruz hospital organization, where at that time, seems to appear a new type of nursing arrangement; which present functions and charges, currently utilized in Colombian hospitals ( administrator of patient rooms, "Servidor", women in charge of female patients and sick children, "economa

  19. Production of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha curcas oil via transesterification using Bi2O3–La2O3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiah Nizah, M.F.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Rashid, Umer; Teo, Siow Hwa; Shajaratun Nur, Z.A.; Islam, Aminul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction time were optimized. • High FAME conversion of 93% was achieved. • Bi 2 O 3 –La 2 O 3 catalysts were characterized using XRD, BET, TPD-CO 2 and TPD-NH 3 . • Effects of acidity and basicity of the catalyst have been correlated with the FAME conversion. • Bi 2 O 3 –La 2 O 3 catalyst can easy to recover and maintain 87% conversion after three times of successive reuse. - Abstract: The simultaneous esterification and transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) was carried out in the presence of Bi 2 O 3 (1–7 wt.%) modified La 2 O 3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, desorption of CO 2 (TPD-CO 2 ) and NH 3 (TPD-NH 3 ). Under the optimal reaction condition of methanol/oil molar ratio of 15:1, 2 wt.% of catalyst amount and a reaction temperature of 150 °C for 4 h, the highest conversion of biodiesel obtained was 93%. This catalyst maintained 87% of FAME conversion after three times of successive reuse

  20. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (<6:1) at 65 °C in 5 h. The activity of the catalyst was attributed to its high basicity as supported by Hammett studies and CO(2)-TPD measurements. The catalyst was successfully reused in up to four cycles. Some of the properties such as density, viscosity, neutralization number and glycerol content of the obtained biodiesel matched well with the standard DIN values. It is concluded that a scalable heterogeneously catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel using Br(φ)nsted acidic ionic liquid as high-efficient and eco-friendly catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoyao Feng; Ting Qiu; Jinbei Yang; Ling Li; Xiaoda Wang; Hongxing Wang

    2017-01-01

    The transesterification of palm oil and methanol catalyzed by Br(φ)nsted acidic ionic liquids was investigated.Four eco-friendly Br(φ)nsted acidic ionic liquids were prepared and their structures were characterized by NMR,FT-IR and TG-DTG.The results demonstrated that [CyN1,1PrSO3H][p-TSA] was more efficient than the other ionic liquids and chosen as catalyst for further research.The influences of various reaction parameters on the conversion of palm oil to biodiesel were performed,and the orthogonal test was investigated to seek the optimum reaction conditions,which were illustrated as follows:methanol to oil mole ratio of 24∶1,catalyst dosage of 3.0 wt% of oil,reaction temperature of 120 ℃,reaction time of 150 min,and the biodiesel yield achieved 98.4%.In addition,kinetic study was established for the conversion process,with activation energy and preexponential factor of 122.93 kJ·mol-1 and 1.83 × 1015,respectively.Meanwhile,seven-time recycling runs of ionic liquid were completed with ignorable loss of its catalyst activity.The refined biodiesel met the biodiesel standard EN 14214.

  2. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  3. Single-step transesterification with simultaneous concentration and stable isotope analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert J; Jahren, A Hope

    2011-05-30

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is increasingly applied to food and metabolic studies for stable isotope analysis (δ(13) C), with the quantification of analyte concentration often obtained via a second alternative method. We describe a rapid direct transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs) for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by GC-C-IRMS demonstrating robust simultaneous quantification of amount of analyte (mean r(2) =0.99, accuracy ±2% for 37 FAMEs) and δ(13) C (±0.13‰) in a single analytical run. The maximum FAME yield and optimal δ(13) C values are obtained by derivatizing with 10% (v/v) acetyl chloride in methanol for 1 h, while lower levels of acetyl chloride and shorter reaction times skewed the δ(13) C values by as much as 0.80‰. A Bland-Altman evaluation of the GC-C-IRMS measurements resulted in excellent agreement for pure oils (±0.08‰) and oils extracted from French fries (±0.49‰), demonstrating reliable simultaneous quantification of FAME concentration and δ(13) C values. Thus, we conclude that for studies requiring both the quantification of analyte and δ(13) C data, such as authentication or metabolic flux studies, GC-C-IRMS can be used as the sole analytical method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Pure and Al-doped ZnO obtained by the modified Pechini method applied in ethanolic transesterification of cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M.F.; Silva-Neta, A.R.; Farias, A.F.F.; Souza, A.G.; Fonseca, M.G.; Pontes, L.F.B.L.; Santos, I.M.G., E-mail: ieda.garcia@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LACOM/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2017-01-15

    Pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and 5% Al-doped ZnO (ZNAL) were synthesized using the modified Pechini method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRF confirmed the theoretical stoichiometry, while XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicated that Al{sup 3+} was incorporated into the ZnO wurtzite lattice with no secondary phases, leading to a decrease in the band gap value and to a meaningful increase of the Lewis basic sites. Pure and doped ZnO were used as catalysts in the ethylic transesterification of cottonseed oil using a factorial design to determine the best synthesis conditions. Oil conversion into biodiesel was evaluated by viscosity measurements and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The results analyzed by factorial design indicated that the catalyst type and temperature were the determinant factors in the conversion indices. The highest basicity of the ZNAL lead to a significant increase of the catalytic potential, reaching a reduction of the oil viscosity next to 71% at 130 °C and greater than 85% at 200 °C. (author)

  5. Effects of some inhibitors on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides and preparation of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of the lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Peng, Feng; Du, Wei; Liu, Canming; Liu, Dehua

    2012-08-01

    Microbial lipid produced using yeast fermentation with inexpensive carbon sources such as lignocellulosic hydrolyzate can be an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Several inhibitors that can be generated during acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose were added solely or together into the culture medium to study their individual inhibitory actions and their synergistic effects on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides. When the inhibitors were present in isolation in the medium, to obtain a high cell biomass accumulation, the concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and vanillin should be lower than 2, 5, 0.5 and 1.5 g/L, respectively. However, the synergistic effects of these compounds could dramatically decrease the minimum critical inhibitory concentrations leading to significant growth and lipid production inhibitions. Unlike the above-cited inhibitors, sodium lignosulphonate had no negative influence on biomass accumulation when its concentration was in the range of 0.5-2.0 g/L; in effect, it was found to facilitate cell growth and sugar-to-lipid conversion. The fatty acid compositional profile of the yeast lipid was in the compositional range of various plant oils and animal tallow. Finally, the crude yeast lipid from bagasse hydrolyzate could be well converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) by enzymatic transesterification in a tert-butanol system with biodiesel yield of 67.2% and lipid-to-biodiesel conversion of 88.4%.

  6. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  7. FAST GC-FID METHOD FOR MONITORING ACIDIC AND BASIC CATALYTIC TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTIONS IN VEGETABLE OILS TO METHYL ESTER BIODIESEL PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Takabayashi Sato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID method for the simultaneous analysis of methyl palmitate (C16:0, stearate (C18:0, oleate (C18:1, linoleate (C18:2 and linolenate (C18:3 in biodiesel samples was proposed. The analysis was conducted in a customised ionic-liquid stationary-phase capillary, SLB-IL 111, with a length of 14 m, an internal diameter of 0.10 mm, a film thickness of 0.08 µm and operated isothermally at 160 °C using hydrogen as the carrier gas at a rate of 50 cm s-1 in run time about 3 min. Once methyl myristate (C14:0 is present lower than 0.5% m/m in real samples it was used as an internal standard. The method was successful applied to monitoring basic and acidic catalysis transesterification reactions of vegetable oils such as soybean, canola, corn, sunflower and those used in frying process.

  8. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  9. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  10. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp. NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaharraj, Kalimuthu; Karpagam, Rathinasamy; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Arumugam, Muthu; Varalakshmi, Perumal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the improved biomass (1.6 folds) and lipid (1.3 folds) productivities in Synechocystis sp. NN using agro-industrial wastes supplementation through hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) for cost-effective methodologies for biodiesel production was achieved. Besides, efficient harvesting in Synechocystis sp. NN was achieved by electroflocculation (flocculation efficiency 97.8±1.2%) in 10min when compared to other methods. Furthermore, different pretreatment methods were employed for lipid extraction and maximum lipid content of 19.3±0.2% by Synechocystis sp. NN was attained by ultrasonication than microwave and liquid nitrogen assisted pretreatment methods. The highest FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) conversion of 36.5±8.3mg FAME/g biomass was obtained using titanium oxide as heterogeneous nano-catalyst coupled whole-cell transesterification based method. Conclusively, Synechocystis sp. NN may be used as a biodiesel feedstock and its fuel production can be enriched by hybrid RSM-GA and nano-catalyst technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influencia de los sistemas de información en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suárez López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo resaltar el papel fundamental que tienen los sistemas de información en nuestras organizaciones, los impactos e influencia en cada área en las que implementamos estos sistemas para hacer más eficiente y eficaces los procesos administrativos, involucrando a todos los que conforman la organización. Por otra parte cómo puede una organización adquirir ventajas competitivas de las otras a través de los sistemas de información.Palabras Claves:Sistemas de Información, Tecnología, Organización, Internet, Competitividad.Abstract:The following article aims to highlight the fundamental role of information systems in our organizations, the impact and influence in each of the areas in which we implement these systems to create more efficient and effective administrative processes, involving all making up the organization. Moreover, this article also highlights how an organization can acquire competitive advantages from other organizations through information systems.Keywords:Information Systems, Technology, Organization, Internet, Competitiveness.

  12. La influencia del conocimiento político en las decisiones de voto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta FRAILE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo discute y compara dos lógicas explicativas del comportamiento electoral: el voto por resultados y el voto ideológico. En concreto, el trabajo pone a prueba uno de los principales supuestos de ambas teorías: que las reglas que guían las decisiones de voto de los ciudadanos son las mismas independientemente de su nivel de interés, conocimiento e información sobre los temas políticos. Para ello se analiza material empírico proveniente de encuestas postelectorales en cuatro democracias: España, Portugal, Hungría y Polonia. Los datos pertenecen al segundo módulo del programa de Estudio Comparado de Sistemas Electorales (CSES, 2005, que contiene información sobre el comportamiento electoral y el conocimiento político de los ciudadanos. Los resultados apuntan a que mientras la influencia del conocimiento político en la lógica del voto por resultados es clara y contundente, resulta mucho menos concluyente en el caso del voto ideológico. Todo ello sugiere que el control democrático de los gobiernos a través de la sanción de su rendimiento requiere unos niveles mínimos de conocimiento e información sobre la política por parte de la ciudadanía.

  13. Influencia del consumo de cannabis en la enfermedad periodontal: una Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Mederos

    Full Text Available Resumen: Recientes publicaciones plantean la posible asociación del cannabis (Cannabis sativa con el desarrollo de la periodontitis. Objetivo: Analizar la influencia del consumo de cannabis en la enfermedad periodontal, relevando la evidencia disponible e identificando las variables asociadas en los estudios . Material y método: se realizó una Scoping Review a partir de una búsqueda estructurada en PubMed/ MEDLINE, Science Direct, LILACS, SciELO hasta mayo de 2017 . Resultados: Estudios “In vivo” mostraron una mayor pérdida ósea en animales expuestos a Cannabis. Los casos clínicos muestran que el uso crónico de cannabis puede resultar en agrandamientos gingivales y periodontitis crónica severa localizada. Los estudios epidemiológicos demuestran una asociación estadística entre Cannabis y periodontitis. Conclusiones: El consumo del Cannabis parece estar asociado con una mayor presencia de periodontitis. Sin embargo, se desconoce el mecanismo específico por el cual actúa en los tejidos gingivales.

  14. Influencia familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En la cultura mediterránea la familia sigue siendo la agencia socializadora por excelencia, a pesar de diversos cambios referenciales y en la intensidad de los afectos, así como en los estilos disciplinares característicos de nuevas tipologías de familias postmodernas. La influencia y modelado familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes está bien establecida en indicadores tales como experiencias paternas con las drogas, apego y supervisión parental, clima afectivo, dinámica sociofamiliar, etc. Nuestro objeto de estudio se centra en el análisis psicosocial de tales indicadores, así como en ofrecer un análisis diferencial de la valoración de la relación paterno-filial en relación con las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en un colectivo de adolescentes españoles. Se ha confirmado una mayor permisividad actitudinal y menor concienciación ante los efectos dañinos de las drogas en los hijos de padres consumidores de sustancias psicoactivas tanto legales como ilegales. Se confirma la importancia psicosocial del Apoyo más valorado por los adolescentes que no consumen drogas, así como la percepción diferencial del empleo del Castigo-Coerción y de la Reprobación en adolescentes consumidores que presentan niveles de mayor permisividad actitudinal.

  15. Mejora de la calidad del acero obtenido por colada continua mediante influencias electrofísicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shklyar, V.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with tin smelted in a crucible and industrial tests with crude steel poured in moulds had been carried out. These metals were subjected to electrophysical influences. As a result of the applied electric field, it is observed in tin that during the solidification, the crystalization temperature and the solidification time are changed. Crystal growth in the electric field direction and an increase of the fracture limit in the steel ingot are observed.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio con estaño fundido en crisol y a escala industrial con acero líquido vertidos en moldes, sometiendo estos metales a influencias electrofísicas. Como resultado del campo aplicado, en el estaño se observa que durante la solidificación varía la temperatura de cristalización y el tiempo de solidificación. En el lingote de acero se observa un crecimiento de los cristales en dirección del campo eléctrico y un aumento del límite de rotura.

  16. Competitividad y desarrollo en Colombia: influencia de los organismos supranacionales e interés nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Granados Ruíz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito argumenta que la influencia de los organismos supranacionales en las decisiones en cuanto a estrategias comerciales de orden nacional no es coherente con las necesidades del país y por tanto, no están destinadas a favorecer el desarrollo económico regional que se genera a partir del fortalecimiento del aparato exportador. Dichas estrategias estarían más en función del mercado global.Palabras Clave: Organismos supranacionales; comercio; subvenciones; desarrollo; pobreza;  libertad. Competitiveness and development in Colombia. Influence of the supranational organizations and national interestAbstractThis article argues that the influences that supranational organizations are having on trading decisions made by national governments is not being coherent with those countries’ needs, and thus, are not meant to favor the regional economic development that is expected to be generated by the strengthening of the export sector. These strategies are thought in function of the global market.Key Words: Supranational organizations; trade; subsidies; development; poverty; freedom.

  17. El fantasma del abstencionismo y la influencia mediática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Edith Barajas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nadie duda, en el inicio de un nuevo milenio, de la influencia y el impacto de los medios masivos de comunicación. La prensa, la radio, la televisión y, contemporáneamente Internet, juegan un papel clave en la nueva era de la humanidad, donde la paradoja es tener información a mansalva para un ser actual dominado por fenómenos como el cortoplacismo, los antimodelos, las guerras, el esoterismo, la hambruna, la religión y la violencia, todo englobado, a su vez, en una economía mundializada que rompe y descarna las fronteras de las naciones, y en donde los futurólogos citan las dos grandes vías: la era digital y la era biológica.En el llamado "control de masas", el medio masivo, especialmente el electrónico, desarrolla un actor importante dentro del mundo global, pues mantiene a la mayoría de la población concentrada en temas que no son precisamente los del orden de mayor interés (en nuestro país, podemos considerar el escándalo Trevi-Andrade como un elemento distractor, sobre los problemas que aquejan al país; es decir, la opinión pública se concentra en ese enfoque, antes de irse a lo medular

  18. Influencia de los Roles de Equipo en las Actividades del Desarrollador de Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Estrada Guzmán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los roles básicos en el proceso del software es precisamente el de desarrollador, también denominado ingeniero de software, cuyas actividades principales son: el análisis, diseño, programación y pruebas del producto a desarrollar. Estas actividades, dependiendo generalmente del tamaño del proyecto y de la metodología, pueden estar a cargo de diferentes personas o bien de un grupo de desarrolladores que en conjunto las llevan todas a cabo; en este último caso, estaríamos hablando de trabajo en equipo entre iguales o pares. Por otro lado, de acuerdo con la teoría de roles de equipo, las personas tienden a comportarse de manera regular en forma distintiva cuando colaboran, estas formas particulares de colaborar es probable que influyan en el desempeño del equipo de desarrolladores de software. En este documento se presenta un caso de estudio con la finalidad de entender la influencia de los roles de equipo en ciertas actividades involucradas en el proceso de desarrollo de software.

  19. INFLUENCIA DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y LA PODA EN EL CULTIVO DEL PEPINO (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paublo Javier Bravo Bravo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia de la densidad de siembra y el número de poda de ejes en el cultivo de pepino (Cucumis sativus. Se estudiaron tres distancias de siembra 1.0x0.2, 1.0x0.4 y 1.0x 0.6 m y la poda de ejes productivos dejando 1, 2 y 3 ejes por planta. La poda se realizó a los 30 días después del trasplante. Se evaluaron las características del fruto de diámetro (cm, longitud (cm, peso (g, fruto por planta y rendimiento por hectárea. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques al azar y los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza. Se obtuvo diferencias para la variable rendimiento/hectárea con respecto al resto de las variables evaluadas.

  20. La guerra de Argelia y la Argentina. Influencia e inmigración francesa desde 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranaletti, Mario

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the question of the French presence and influence in the Argentine society between 1955 and 1976, specially, in the military and catholic spheres. Two questions are treated in this article. First, it analyzes two moments of the French migration process in Argentina in the long run: the fugitives’ arrival --with charges for intelligence with the German occupant--, and the émigrés and fugitives’ arrival as result of the Algeria’s independence. Secondly, these facts are related to the construction of the State terrorism implemented in Argentina since 1974.

    Este trabajo aborda la cuestión de la presencia e influencia francesa en la sociedad argentina entre 1955 y 1976, en especial en el ámbito militar y católico. Dos cuestiones son tratadas en este artículo. En primer término, se analizan dos momentos de una presencia inmigrante de más larga data como la francesa: la llegada de fugitivos con cargos por inteligencia con el ocupante alemán, y el arribo de emigrados y fugitivos como resultado de la independencia de Argelia. En segundo lugar, se relacionan estos hechos con la construcción del terrorismo de Estado implementado en Argentina a partir de 1974.

  1. La influencia de los rasgos psicológicos en las actitudes hacia el empleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mercedes García Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explica la influencia que el rasgo psicológico locus de control, conjuntamente con las variables que definen el capital humano de un país -género, edad y educación-, ejercen sobre las actitudes hacia el empleo en la República de Cabo Verde. De entre estos rasgos demográficos del individuo, el género es analizado más profundamente debido al interés actual por reducir las desigualdades en razón de género en el mercado laboral. Los 448 cuestionarios recabados muestran que, en este país, los atributos demográficos edad y nivel de estudios, así como el rasgo de personalidad locus de control, son importantes determinantes de las actitudes hacia el empleo de la población activa. Los resultados ofrecen las bases sobre las que redirigir las políticas de empleo en Cabo Verde para afrontar los puntos débiles que limitan el desarrollo del mercado de trabajo y amenazan la integración social.

  2. Las influencias de Bakunin y Kropotkin sobre el movimiento libertario español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mintz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor hace hincapié en el peso de la visión bakuninista en el inicio del movimiento sindical español y de paso trata de trazar líneas de separación entre el sindicalismo libertario y el movimiento anarquista. Insiste también en la profunda influencia de Kropotkin entre la militancia de la CNT.El autor considera que el movimiento libertario español (con su honda tradición sindical es inseparable de Bakunin y Kropotkin.Palabras claves:  CNT, Movimiento libertario, Bakunin, Kropotkin____________________ABSTRACT:The author emphasizes the weight of Bakunin's vision in starting the Spanish trade union movement and by the way he tries to draw lines of separation between libertarian syndicalism and anarchist movement. He underlines also the profound influence of Kropotkin among CNT activists. The author believes that the Spanish libertarian movement (with its deep tradition of unionism is inseparable from Bakunin and Kropotkin. Keywords: CNT, libertarian movement, Bakunin, Kropotkin

  3. Influencia de las diferentes etapas de procesamiento sobre la microestructura de dispositivos multicapa basados en PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solera, E.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the influence of both rheological and processing parameters on the microstructure and reliability of multilayer ceramic chips based on PZT has been conducted. The multilayer chips were obtained by tape casting. Viscosity measurements of different slurries with various solids content have been correlated with both the thickness and the green density of the casted layers. The critical points of the thermal treatments, organics burn-out and sintering, have been identified. The green microstructure of the layers and the final microstructure of the sintered chips have been studied by SEM.

    Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de la influencia de los parámetros reológicos y de procesamiento sobre la microestructura y consistencia de chips multicapa de PZT obtenidos mediante un proceso de colado en cinta. Para ello se han realizado medidas de viscosidad de distintas barbotinas con diferente contenido en sólidos y su relación con el espesor y densidad en verde de las cintas obtenidas, se han identificado los puntos críticos del ciclo de quemado-sinterización y, mediante MEB se ha estudiado la microestructura en verde de las láminas coladas y la microestructura final de los chips multicapa fabricados.

  4. Influencia del cine en la Generación del 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Lobato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recibido: 19 de marzo, 2008 • Aprobado: 22 de abril, 2008 Este artículo se centra en la influencia que el cine ejerció en la literatura. La aparición del cinematógrafo supuso una revolución en lo cultural; y el mundo de la imagen vino a sumarse a otras artes milenarias, como la pintura y la literatura, las cuales habían servido al hombre para expresar ideas y sentimientos. El cine se considera una rama más de las vanguardias, y, así, el genio creativo de nuestros poetas de la Generación del 27 se vio fructificado, accediendo a territorios antes no explorados por ellos, con lo que sus imágenes y metáforas sobrepasaron los límites conocidos y se adentraron en un universo nuevo, marcado por lógicas de carácter más aperturista.

  5. Influencia del polvo del horno de cemento sobre plantas y animales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenkamp, H.

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl pretendido «polvo de cemento» de los alrededores de las fábricas no es de cemento, sino que se compone, en su mayor parte, de caliza molida muy fina. Es, por tanto, un producto intermedio de la fabricación del cemento. Sería mucho más correcto llamarle «polvo del horno de cemento». Continuamente alegan los agricultores que este «polvo del horno de cemento» es dañino para plantas y animales, y en los últimos años, para probar la validez de tales asertos, se han llevado a cabo numerosas investigaciones científicas para estudiar los efectos de este polvo. Estamos hoy día en posesión de una serie· de trabajos muy completos que dan una idea clara sobre el efecto del polvo del horno de cemento. Los animales domésticos útiles (por ejemplo: corderos, vacas de leche no sufren ningún perjuicio clínico, ninguna deficiencia de su estado general, a pesar de serie administradas grandes dosis de polvo. Los ensayos agrícolas con plantas útiles (avena, trébol, remolacha azucarera, pastos que han sido efectuados durante varios años, han demostrado que ni siquiera cantidades elevadas de polvo provocan perjuicios ni influencias nefastas sobre el crecimiento y sobre la recolección.

  6. La influencia católica en la configuración del sistema político y educativo nacional argentino a fines del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Duarte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe las diferentes corrientes de pensamiento que influenciaron en el proceso de conformación estatal argentino. Sobresalen entre ellas la línea liberal y la línea católica de fuerte influencia en la elite dirigente del país. A partir de allí realizamos un análisis sobre la orientación política tomada por el Estado y la influencia impelida por el catolicismo particularmente en el debate sobre la conformación del aparato educativo nacional. La conclusión a la que arribamos en este estudio explica el por qué del sometimiento político e ideológico al que se vio sujeto el Estado argentino respecto a la influencia del Vaticano.

  7. Catalytic optimization and physicochemical studies over Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst for transesterification of low grade cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Kamal, Norhasyimah; Wan Abu Bakar, Wan Azelee; Ali, Rusmidah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn/Ca/Al 2 O 3 has high potential in producing biodiesel. • High basicity favoured high conversion of biodiesel. • Calcination temperature showed the highest influence on the catalytic activity. • RSM was used to determine the optimum operating conditions for biodiesel production. - Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in green and renewable fuels due to the worldwide concern of an environmental crisis. So, this study focused on the synthesis, optimization and characterization of series of heterostructure Zn/Ca/Al 2 O 3 catalysts with different parameters to test their effectiveness towards biodiesel production. The physicochemical properties of the potential catalyst were determined by BET, FESEM and CO 2 -TPD. The activity of the catalyst in transesterification reaction was evaluated at reaction temperature of 65 °C, 3 h reaction time, 6% (w/w) catalyst concentration and 1:24 M ratio of oil to methanol. The investigation of the synthesized Zn/Ca/Al 2 O 3 catalyst showed that the calcination temperature, number of alumina coatings and dopant to base ratio have significant effects on the catalytic performance. These three critical parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken design (BBD) to determine the optimum operating conditions for biodiesel production. From RSM study, the optimum conditions were 800 °C calcination temperature, 3 times alumina beads coating and 10:90 dopant to base ratio which gave 97.80% biodiesel conversion. From the F-value and low p-value (<0.05) obtained showed that the model was significant for predicting the optimum biodiesel conversion. An experiment was conducted under the optimum conditions to confirm the agreement of the model prediction and the experimental results. The experimental value (97.64%) closely agreed with the predicted results from RSM and hence validated the findings of response surface optimization.

  8. Central composite design approach towards optimization of flamboyant pods derived steam activated carbon for its use as heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawane, Sumit H.; Kumar, Tarkeshwar; Halder, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon was prepared from novel precursor flamboyant pods (Delonix regia). • Activation process was optimized using central composite design approach. • Prepared activated carbon at optimized condition was used as support for KOH. • Carbon based heterogeneous catalyst was used in transesterification of HBO. • Effect of catalyst loading and alcohol ratio on biodiesel yield was studied. - Abstract: The present investigation emphasises the preparation of carbon based KOH impregnated heterogeneous catalyst from flamboyant pods (Delonix regia) for the production of biodiesel from novel feedstock Hevea brasiliensis oil (HBO). Initially, carbonized char was physically activated by superheated steam and the process was optimized to study the effects of activation time and temperature by central composite design approach (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). Activated carbon was impregnated with KOH at four different ratios. Biodiesel production process was carried out at constant temperature 60 °C, reaction time 1 h, and 5 g of carbon based catalyst at varying quantities of catalyst loading (0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 wt%) and methanol to oil ratio (5:1–20:1). The influence of parameters on the biodiesel yield at varied condition was studied. Maximum yield of 89.3% was obtained at methanol to oil ratio 15:1 and catalyst loading 3.5 wt% and corresponding yield at same process parameters was observed to be 88.7% implying the significant activity of catalyst in reutilization. Produced biodiesel was characterized following ASTM standards. The experimental analysis confirmed that the carbonaceous catalyst developed from flamboyant pods under optimized condition is capable of transesterifying HBO into biodiesel

  9. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. La influencia de la televisión en los niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura PERLADO EKMAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se exponen los resultados más relevantes de una investigación que pretendía analizar la influencia que ejerce el medio televisivo en los niños con edades comprendidas entre los 6, 7 y 8 años. Un cuestionario conformado por 55 preguntas, agrupadas en diferentes dimensiones y de opciones múltiples fue aplicado a una muestra de 432 niños con edades de 6, 7 y 8 años procedentes de 8 centros educativos de Zaragoza (España, acerca de la influencia que la televisión genera en ellos. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizaron las pruebas pertinentes. Como conclusiones más relevantes de esta investigación se puede constatar que: los niños muestran interés por todos los programas infantiles que incluyen escenas de acción y violencia, relegando a segundo término los educativos; la publicidad moldea decisivamente la mente de estos niños, los niños pasan la mayoría de su tiempo libre sentados frente al televisor, la publicidad de los juguetes es percibida por ellos como engañosa. Les cuesta distinguir entre ficción y realidad. Resulta injustificable que no exista una mayor regulación y un control seguro sobre publicidad y programas infantiles.ABSTRACT: In this article I report the results of an investigation which tried to detect the effects of television in eight Primary Schools. The study was performed in eight Primary Schools from Zaragoza (Spain with 432 children. Theirs ages are 6, 7 and 8 years old. The children answered to 55 questions about the programs of television. Data was analyse using the stadistic program SPSS. The analysis of the investigation results showing that the children are specially interested in violent programs and the children don't like didactic programs very much. The children are very often sitting in front of television.RÉSUMÉ: Dans cet article je donne une information sur une recherche qui prétendait détecter l'influence.de la télévision dans huits Écoles Primaires

  11. Influencia del microsite en la imagen de marca a través de experiencias significativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda de Frutos Torres

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas e instituciones, actualmente, son conscientes del potencial que ofrece internet como instrumento para mantener una relación activa con sus públicos de interés. Con este propósito diseñan estrategias de comunicación específicamente destinadas a que el usuario pueda establecer una relación interactiva con la marca. Una de las formas de estar presente en la red es a través del microsite que se perfilan como una solución para estrechar los lazos entre el usuario y la marca.El objetivo del estudio es valorar la influencia del microsite como herramienta de comunicación corporativa y su importancia en la construcción de la imagen de marca. Para ello se ha llevado a cabo un estudio empírico a partir de tres acciones de comunicación reales de tres marcas conocidas representativas de tres estrategias de comunicación. Las tres acciones se llevaron a cabo con microsites y fueron visitados y evaluados por una muestra de 41 personas. Los resultados muestran que la valoración global hacia el microsite puede explicarse en torno a tres dimensiones su grado de entretenimiento, su valor informativo y el agrado asociado. Se comprueba que la experiencia generada por el microsite es diferente dependiendo de la estrategia de comunicación utilizada y contribuye de forma distinta a explicar la actitud hacia la marca. Cada estrategia constituye una experiencia diferenciada para el usuario sin embargo la implicación del usuario con la categoría del producto obtiene un papel determinante en  la relación con la imagen de marca.

  12. Educación para la salud. Influencia en ancianos hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla Ledia González Sánchez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio descriptivo longitudinal, sobre la influencia de la Educación para Salud en la adquisición de conocimientos y cambios de actitud y control de la enfermedad en ancianos hipertensos de 2 consultorios del Policlínico California, en el año 1977. El universo lo constituyeron 126 ancianos, a los que se les aplicó MINI-MENTAL-TEST, resultando aptos para la investigación 92 gerontes, a éstos se le realizó encuesta y resultó que el mayor porcentaje tenía conocimientos sobre su enfermedad evaluados de regular, al igual que la actitud ante la misma. Estos aspectos mejoraron después de la técnica educativa, incrementándose también el número de pacientes controlados de su enfermedad. Se formularon recomendaciones.A descriptive and longitudinal study about the influence of health education on the acquisition of knowledge and changes of attitude and control of hypertension was conducted among the elderly from 2 family physician offices of the "California" Polyclinic, in 1997. The MINI-MENTAL-TEST was applied to the 126 aged people who took part in this study. According to the results, 92 of them proved to be apt. After surveying them, it was observed that most of them knew about their disease and were evaluated as fair. They received the same evaluation for their attitude towards the disease. These aspects improved when the aducative technique was used. The number of patients under control increased, too. Recommendations were made.

  13. Influencia del espesor de adhesivo de poliuretano en la resistencia de uniones sometidas a cortadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ledesma, R.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The thickness of adhesive layers in metallic bonded joints has direct influence in the performance and mechanical behaviour of these joints. The aim of this study was to analyse the strength and strain properties of steel overlap joints bonded with polyurethane adhesive layers with different thickness. The results show that the strength is maximum when the thickness of the adhesive layer is very thin, 0.1 mm. When the thickness growth to 1 mm the strength goes down rapidly. For layers from 1 to 1.5 mm the strength goes down slower and from 1.5 to 4 mm the strength is nearly constant. In other hand, the joint strain increase uniformly with adhesive layer thickness growth.

    El espesor de la capa de adhesivo en las uniones por adhesión de materiales metálicos, tiene una influencia notable en el comportamiento y las propiedades mecánicas de dichas uniones. El objeto de este trabajo fue analizar las propiedades de resistencia y desplazamiento, presentadas por uniones a solape de acero, unidas con capas de diferentes espesores de un adhesivo de poliuretano. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la resistencia mecánica es máxima para capas de adhesivo de espesor muy delgado: 0,1 mm. Cuando el espesor crece de 0,1 hasta 1 mm la resistencia disminuye rápidamente. Para capas desde 1 hasta 1,5 mm la resistencia disminuye más lentamente y, a partir de 1,5 mm, la resistencia permanece prácticamente constante. Por otro lado, los desplazamientos de la unión aumentan uniformemente a medida que crece el espesor de la capa de adhesivo.

  14. Conocimientos sobre sexualidad y su influencia en el embarazo en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Alexandra García Macías

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia es en la actualidad un problema de salud que genera serias consecuencias personales, sociales y económicas, con repercusión en la salud individual, familiar y colectiva. Objetivo: Identificar los conocimientos sobre la sexualidad y su influencia en el embarazo en la adolescencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico, transversal, en un universo de 80 adolescentes de 15 a 19 años del Equipo Urbano de Salud 23 Latacunga, a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta sobre sexualidad y métodos anticonceptivos; los datos fueron procesados en el programa SPSS, el análisis se realizó mediante el test de Chi Cuadrado con un nivel de significación de p<0.05. Resultados: La mayoría de los adolescentes presentó conocimientos insuficientes sobre sexualidad (n=50 62.5%. El inicio de las relaciones sexuales predominó a los 15 años (n=11 13.7%; el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en la primera relación sexual fue bajo (n=30 37.5%; el método anticonceptivo más utilizado fue el condón con un (n=22 27.5%, a continuación, se ubicaron los anticonceptivos naturales.  Conclusiones: Predominó el desconocimiento sobre sexualidad y métodos anticonceptivos, a la vez fue temprano el inicio de la vida sexual con un poco utilización de métodos de anticoncepción.

  15. Una nueva ultraestructura de ópalo CT en silcretas. Posible indicador de influencia bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustillo, Mª A.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscope observations of opaline silcretes found in the playa of a Miocene shallow lake reveal new opal CT microstructures. These microstructures are made up of fibres, filaments or rods, which are formed, in tum by coalesced microspheres or microhemispheres (0,1-0,2 µ diameter. They are up to 10 µ in length although larger ones could exist. They are straight, bent, wavy or even hairpin shaped. These microstructures comprise part of the opaline mass of the silcretes and are very similar to both neogenic opaline structures which are formed by bacterial intluence and to silicified biofilms. Therefore microbial mediation could exist in the genesis of this opal CT, although a possible inorganic origin by silicification of sepiolite is also considered.Un estudio mediante MEB de silcretas miocenas opalinas formadas por silicificación de playas en un ambiente de «playa-lake» pone de manifiesto la existencia de una nueva microestructura de ópalo CT. Esta microestructura denominada en general fibrosa, se manifiesta por la presencia de multitud de fibras, filamentos o varillas formadas por la alineación de microesferas o microhemisferas que presentan un diámetro entre 0,1 y 0,2 µ. Las fibras, filamentos o varillas tienen formas variables: rectas, curvadas, onduladas y «en horquilla», y presentan longitudes de hasta 10 µ, aunque podrían existir longitudes mayores. La disposición organizada de las microesferas en filamentos o fibras, constituyendo la masa general del ópalo, y su parecido con microestructuras opalinas que han sido formadas por influencia bacteriana, hacen considerar esta hipótesis, aunque no se puede descartar totalmente un origen inorgánico por silicificación de sepiolita.

  16. Influencia de la betarraga (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en el aumento de leucocitos, en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La betarraga es una planta oriunda del Mediterráneo utilizada para fines alimenticios y medicinales. Contiene flavonoides. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia del consumo del extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en el incremento de leucocitos, en el ratón albino. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Bioterio de la Institución Educativa 1182. Material biológico: Veinte ratones albinos de la cepa balb/c, machos, de peso promedio 24 g. Intervenciones: Se formó dos grupos, experimental y control, cada uno de diez ratones. Al grupo experimental se le administró vía oral extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en dosis de 250 mg/kg, volumen de 2 mL, cada cinco horas durante una semana, alternando con nutrientes, y al grupo control solo se le administró nutrientes. Principales medidas de resultados: Recuento de leucocitos. Resultados: Dentro del periodo de acondicionamiento, se observó un ligero incremento en la media de leucocitos del grupo control (3 681 ± 431,1 frente al grupo experimental (3 579 ± 473,5, cuya diferencia no fue significativa. Luego de administrar al grupo experimental el extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta, alternando con sus nutrientes respectivos, se observó diferencia significativa de la media (7 961 ± 275,4 frente al grupo control (3 693 ± 414,7 (t student p<0,05. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el consumo del extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta incrementó significativamente el número de leucocitos.

  17. Influencia de la humedad en el ensayo de resistencia de los ladrillos de suelo-cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima, José I.

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to show the influence of humidity on the compression test of the soil-cement bricks through an adapted experimental design. The equations showing this relation are obtained. The subsequent generalization provides the possibility of making a pattern of correlation of strengths with different test humidities. Thus, the tests could be performed with a given humidity and the strength of the particular specimen for different humidity values could be estimated with a high degree of certainty. This makes possible the comparison of strength between tested elements in different humidity conditions, verification of fulfillment of recommended strength values and their expressing in terms of a basic humidity value, which is what the currently valid Technical Instructions lack.

    A través de un diseño experimental adecuado se pretende mostrar la influencia de la humedad en el ensayo a compresión de los ladrillos de suelo-cemento, obteniendo las ecuaciones que muestran esta relación. Su generalización posterior permitió elaborar una matriz de correlación de las resistencias con las diferentes humedades de ensayo, de forma tal que se pueda ensayar con una humedad dada y estimar la resistencia que tendrá esa muestra para diferentes valores de humedad, con un buen nivel de confianza. Esto posibilita que se puedan realizar comparaciones de resistencia entre elementos ensayados en condiciones desiguales de humedad, verificar el cumplimiento de los valores recomendados de resistencia y referirlos a un valor de humedad base, defecto actual de las Instrucciones Técnicas vigentes.

  18. Asistencia respiratoria mecánica: Influencia de la edad en la evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J. Chertcoff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available No existe un concepto definido sobre la influencia de la edad en la mortalidad de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Realizamos un trabajo prospectivo-observacional para determinar si la edad es un factor independiente de mortalidad de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Se incluyeron 200 pacientes internados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires. Se registraron características y comorbilidades al ingreso, al inicio de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica, complicaciones y evolución en el Hospital y a los 6 meses. Los 200 pacientes incluidos fueron divididos en dos grupos: Grupo 1 (n = 164 menores de 80 años y Grupo 2 (n = 36 de 80 años o más. No hubo diferencias en la mortalidad en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y en el Hospital entre los pacientes menores de 80 años y los de 80 años o más. (55.56% vs. 41.46% y 58.33% vs. 42.68%. La supervivencia a los 6 meses de los = 80 años fue significativamente menor (22.22% vs. 48.17%, p = 0.0051. En el análisis multivariado solamente un APACHE II > 20 (p = 0.0007 o la ausencia de vida autónoma (p = 0.0028 conservaron poder predictivo independiente. Los pacientes añosos que reciben asistencia respiratoria mecánica no presentan una mayor mortalidad por el sólo hecho de ser ancianos. La restricción de los cuidados terapéuticos invasivos no parece justificada por la edad avanzada.

  19. Influencia de las relaciones familiares sobre el aborto provocado en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Calderón S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la influencia de las relaciones familiares sobre el aborto provocado en adolescentes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles; los casos fueron 58 adolescentes con aborto provocado que acudieron al Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo, por hemorragia, y el grupo control fueron 58 adolescentes pareadas según edad de la paciente, edad gestacional y nivel socioeconómico, que continuaron con el embarazo y acudieron al control prenatal en el mismo hospital. Resultados: Sólo 20% de los casos comunicó a sus padres sobre el embarazo, a diferencia del 62% de los controles (p<0,001, la falta de confianza hacia los padres estuvo asociada con el aborto provocado (OR: 4,5; IC95: 1,7-12,3, no se encontró asociación con el antecedente familiar de aborto o con la violencia intrafamiliar. Las reacciones negativas (violencia, retirar a la afectada de los estudios o hacerla trabajar de los padres ante la noticia del aborto fueron más frecuentes en el grupo con aborto (OR: 14,1; IC95: 3,9-50,9; así como la presentación de molestias y discusiones entre los miembros de las familias de los casos (OR: 23,9; IC95: 12,4-208,7. Conclusión: La comunicación y el nivel de confianza con los padres, así como reacciones negativas ante la noticia del embarazo están fuertemente relacionados con el aborto provocado, en las adolescentes de Trujillo.

  20. Influencia del enfoque teórico en el estilo personal del terapeuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martín Casari Cobo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper aims to study the theoretical and technical influences on therapists backgrounds (PST based on his/her own personal style, and also keeping in mind the common and particular features imposed in their tasks, beyond the scope of their work and the specific requirements they completed for their work. For this research, an PST-Q (Fernandez-Alvarez & Garcia, 1998 questionnaire is applied to a sample of 106 psychotherapists from Argentina. Significant differences in their personal style (PST (between psychoanalytic therapists and psychologists with different theoretical orientation are found. The results are analyzed and future aspects of research are created. Resumen El estilo personal del terapeuta se refiere a características habituales que cada uno impone en su tarea como resultado de su peculiar manera de ser, más allá del enfoque de trabajo que utilice y de los requerimientos específicos que le exija la intervención. El objetivo de este artículo de investigación consistió en estudiar la influencia de la orientación téorico-técnica en el desarrollo del Estilo Personal del Terapeuta (EPT. Para ello, se administró el cuestionario EPT-C (Fernández-Álvarez & García, 1998 a una muestra de 106 psicoterapeutas de Argentina, encontrándose diferencias significativas en las funciones del EPT en los terapeutas psicoanalistas en comparación con los psicólogos de otras orientaciones teóricas. Se analizan los resultados y se plantean futuras líneas de investigación.

  1. INFLUENCIA DEL CULTIVO INTERCALADO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DE TOMATE CEREZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo determinar la influencia en la cosecha y calidad de los frutos de Solanum lycopersicum L. (1753 cv. cereza [Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 1768] (tomate en convivencia con cultivos intercalares de cinco Fabaceae, plantas auxiliadoras en la agricultura y dos tratamientos con y sin residuos de cosecha de Zea mayz L. El estudio fue im- plantado en el Polo Centro Sul, Piracicaba-SP. Brasil, en suelo Argisol rojo-amarillo distrófico. El diseño experimental fue en bloque al azar con cinco repeticiones y ocho tratamientos en con- vivencia con plantas de tomate con:1 Sin residuos de ZEAMA-Zea mayz L.;2 Con residuos de ZEAMA- Zea mayz L. cv.cativerde 2; 3 CANEN- Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.; 4CRO- JU- Crotalaria juncea L.; 5 MUCPR- Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. cv. arbusto (enana o anã; 6 VIGRA- Vigna radiata L. 7 LUPAL- Lupinus albus L.; 8 VIGUN- Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Los resultados mostraron que la producción y calidad de los frutos de tomate fue normal, sin ataque de plagas y no se aplicó ningún agrotóxico. El abono verde, así como la presencia o ausencia de residuos de cosecha de maíz, no interfiere en la temporada de cosecha. En cuanto al análisis de sólidos solubles totales (SST y acidez (pH no difirió entre los tratamientos.

  2. Influencia del estudio personal en la adquisición de conocimientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Nebot-Cegarra

    Full Text Available Introducción. La actividad del docente suele ser la primera influencia formativa que recibe el alumno en el proceso de aprendizaje de un determinado tema, pero se consolida mediante el estudio personal. En el presente trabajo se ha determinado el grado de mejora obtenido tras el estudio personal en la puntuación alcanzada en una serie de cuestiones, que fueron previamente evaluadas justo después de ser enseñadas¹. Material y Métodos. Se efectuó una prueba a 66 alumnos inmediatamente después de realizar una actividad teoricopráctica de la asignatura Biología del Desarrollo y Teratogenia, que la repitieron días después. Se valoró la existencia de diferencias significativas en el grado de mejoría en función de las características de las cuestiones planteadas y del tiempo transcurrido entre ambas pruebas. Resultados. Hubo mejora en todos los tipos de cuestiones siendo significativa para las cuestiones en que los alumnos precisaron durante la sesión docente una actitud más activa que aquellas otras en que solamente debían observar. De estas últimas mejoraron más las de percepción auditiva. En las respuestas que requerían nombrar, la mejora significativa fue inversamente proporcional a la complejidad de los términos, pero los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en los términos con dificultad fonética alta. Los días transcurridos entre las pruebas no influyeron significativamente en los incrementos de la nota global. Conclusiones. El estudio personal permite una mejora general en la comprensión de los contenidos, independientemente de su grado de dificultad en el aprendizaje a corto plazo.

  3. Influencia educativa de los medios de comunicación social en la sociedad neoliberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio VERA VILA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo es una reflexión acerca de la forma en la que se articulan y operan los medios de comunicación en lo que se ha dado en llamar el neoliberalismo y cuál es, en ese contexto, su influencia educativa. Los medios de comunicación entendidos como conjunto de empresas que tienen por misión informar a las personas de lo que ocurre en el mundo, han jugado y juegan un importante papel social. Desde el punto de vista educativo, el análisis del mundo de la comunicación en el contexto neoliberal actual, invita a demandar mayores dosis de educación ciudadana. Ser ciudadanos autónomos y críticos en unos entornos persuasivos tan poderosos, con tal cantidad de información, exige potenciar los procesos educativos y una distribución más igualitaria de los recursos y dispositivos formativos disponibles.ABSTRACT: This work is a reflection about the form in which the media are articulated and the way they opérate in the neoliberalism and which is, in that context, its educational influence. The media understood as a group of companies that have for mission to inform people of what happens in the world, has played and they play an important social role. From the educational point of view, the analysis of the world of the communication in the neoliberal context, invites to demand more civic education. To be autonomous and critical citizens in such persuasive environments, with so many information, it demands to foster the educational processes and a more equitable distribution of the available formative resources.

  4. Influencia de la reserva cognitiva en la calidad de vida en sujetos con enfermedad de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de vida (CV se define como la percepción personal que un individuo tiene de su situación vital. Dentro de los factores que pueden influir en la CV, se encuentra la Reserva Cognitiva (RC, que podría entenderse como la capacidad del cerebro para hacer frente al daño cerebral generado por la patología, mediante procesos cognitivos preexistentes o compensatorios. El objetivo principal de este estudio, consiste en analizar, como influye la RC en la auto-percepción subjetiva de la CV en sujetos diagnosticados de Enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA y comprobar si existen perfiles diferenciales en función de la sintomatología depresiva y el estado cognitivo de los mismos. La muestra utilizada estaba formada por 112 sujetos que se distribuyeron en dos grupos: uno de 74 sujetos diagnosticados de EA, y otro de 38 sujetos sanos. Se ha utilizado el cuestionario SF-36 para evaluar la CV. En relación a la variable RC, destacar que los sujetos con mayor RC, puntuaron más alto en cada una de las dimensiones del SF-36. La RC podría ser una fuente de influencia en la percepción de la CV de las personas con EA, en la medida en que sus diversos componentes conducirían a la consecución de una capacidad funcional más óptima y una aceptación del estado cognitivo.

  5. Influencia de los bioplaguicidas en los parámetros de calidad de Calendula officinalis L. y Matricaria recutita L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Govín, Ester; Rivera Amita, María Magdalena; Carballo Guerra, Caridad

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Calendula officinalis L. y Matricaria recutita L. son dos especies medicinales de gran importancia económica y social en Cuba, su cultivo con frecuencia anual se ha visto afectado por la aparición de plagas y enfermedades, con el deterioro del rendimiento de masa vegetal y en su calidad. OBJETIVOS: determinar la influencia de los bioplaguicidas en los parámetros de calidad de Calendula officinalis L. y Matricaria recutita L. MÉTODOS: las drogas vegetales, fueron sometidas a trat...

  6. Evaluación de la influencia en el desarrollo infantil de un proyecto de educación musical

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Lloret, Jara

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación pretende determinar si hay influencias entre un proyecto de Educación Musical Infantil y el desarrollo integral de los niños/as que participan en el mismo, siguiendo el modelo de inteligencias múltiples de Gardner. Se evalúan niños/as entre 3 y 7 años de 7 colegios de Sevilla. Se hace un recorrido por el desarrollo humano, viendo sus diferentes dimensiones, centrándonos posteriormente en el desarrollo emocional. Se revisa la legislación actual para ver qué base teórica tien...

  7. Influencia de los estilos de crianza en el desarrollo de conductas adictivas hacia el consumo de drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia Cadaya, Eva María

    2015-01-01

    Dado que el consumo de drogas supone un importante problema a nivel social, y la prevalencia del mismo en la adolescencia es significativamente elevada, el propósito fundamental de este proyecto ha sido destacar la influencia que ejerce la familia, en general, y los estilos parentales, en particular, sobre los hijos en el desarrollo de conductas adictivas hacia las drogas. Además de hacer referencia a la investigación de Baumrind (1971,1991), pionera en los estudios sobre estilos parent...

  8. Influencia del estrés académico en el sistema binocular en universitarios de la UVA

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: El estrés visual, tras trabajo prolongado en cerca, produce modificaciones en el sistema binocular. Esta hipótesis ha sido poco contrastada experimentalmente. El objetivo principal es medir la influencia del estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios de la UVA mediante la medida de la foria. Métodos: Se ha medido la foria en 22 estudiantes, con su corrección habitual, antes y después de un examen, mediante tres métodos: técnica de la varilla de Maddox, técnica de Von Graefe y...

  9. La influencia del género en los estilos de liderazgo y dirección

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruiz, Luna

    2013-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Máster (TFM) pretende llevar a cabo un análisis de la influencia del género en los estilos de liderazgo y en los estilos de dirección empleados por los directores/as que ocupan cargos de responsabilidad, a través de la revisión y estudio de diversas publicaciones. En primer lugar, y con el fin de poder llegar a concluir si el género puede ser un factor influyente en los estilos de liderazgo y dirección, hemos tratado de establecer a través de las definiciones aportadas ...

  10. Estudio descriptivo de la influencia del inglés en la prensa mexicana del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Amador, María

    2015-01-01

    L a prensa es reflejo de la realidad vivida en un determinado periodo de tiempo . Este artículo pretende mostrar la influencia de la lengua inglesa en la mexicana a través del análisis de los anglicismos localizados en diversos periódicos publicado s en México durante el siglo XIX . Asimismo se tratará de comprobar la e volución de estas voces a nivel formal y semántico con el fin de determinar si permanecieron y se ada...

  11. Influencia que tienen los programas de televisión infantil en los argumentos del juego simbólico

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome R., María Esther

    2004-01-01

    La influencia negativa de los programas televisivos dirigidos ó no a niños de 4 a 5 años determinan los argumentos del juego infantil, esta situación se evidencia en las repetidas manifestaciones de agresividad en el entorno escolar y familiar; en el uso de términos despectivos que descalifican y ridiculizan a compañeros y amigos; en los argumentos de conversación frente al juego; en el rechazo a las actividades físicas que impliquen movimiento; en la asunción de roles y postur...

  12. El delito de tráfico de influencias en la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia

    OpenAIRE

    Piedrahita Jaramillo, Renán

    2012-01-01

    El presente ensayo está dirigido al estudio desde la jurisprudencia del delito de tráfico de influencias (arts. 411 y 411 A). La justificación del estudio propuesto está dada por la necesidad de mirar la parte especial del Código Penal, en tanto que la mayoría de la doctrina nacional se ha interesado por el estudio de su parte general, recabando en los institutos que conforman el injusto penal y el tipo subjetivo, entre otros temas, sin mirar la necesidad de sentar las bases de interpretación...

  13. El liberalismo económico de la escuela de Salamanca y su influencia en el desarrollo institucional y organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José G.; Castillo Girón, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia que tiene el liberalismo económico de la llamada escuela de Salamanca en el desarrollo de las instituciones y organizaciones de su época. Se concluye que toda esta orientación de los teólogos morales de la escuela de Salamanca metidos a economistas, tratando asuntos de la economía, tenían como fi nalidad lograr un desarrollo institucional y organizacional que responde a las demandas de la época. Contrariamente al liberali...

  14. Influencia de algunas variables en la biosorción de plomo con residuos agrícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernáinz Bermúdez de Castro, Francisco; Blázquez García, Gabriel; Calero de Hoces, Mónica; Martín-Lara, Mª Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la biosorción de plomo presente en medios acuosos utilizando como sólidos sorbentes hueso de aceituna, alpeorujo y ramón del olivo, analizando la influencia sobre el proceso del pH, concentración de biosorbente, tamaño de partícula y tiempo de contacto. Los resultados muestran que en medios muy ácidos no se produce retirada de plomo con ninguno de los sólidos, aumentando el porcentaje de plomoretirado a medida que se eleva el pH del medio hastaalcanzar un valor...

  15. Inteligencia emocional y su influencia en el clima organizacional en los niveles gerenciales medios de las PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Cira de Pelekais; Angel Nava; Luis Tirado

    2006-01-01

    El propósito fue determinar la influencia de la Inteligencia Emocional sobre Clima Organizacional en los niveles gerenciales medios de las PYMES. La investigación fue caracterizada bajo un enfoque descriptivo explicativo, con un diseño no experimental transeccional. Como unidades de análisis fueron tomadas las PYMES adscritas a la cámara de Industria y Comercio de Cabimas, totalizando 100 empresas activas. Para la recolección de la información se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado, con ...

  16. Influencia del evento el niño-oscilacion del sur sobre las precipitaciones en cinco ciudades del litoral ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Rodriguez Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Luna Rodriguez, Javier Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    La investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del fenómeno enos, caracterizado por los índices oni e icen, sobre las precipitaciones ocurridas en el período de 1975-2016 en ciudades del litoral ecuatoriano, con la finalidad de que contribuya al diseño de lineamientos para mejorar la respuesta de la población ante la posible presencia del evento Guayaquil MAGISTER EN CAMBIO CLIMATICO

  17. Influencia de Las Cargas Térmicas Sobre Flujos de Aire Generados en Una Habitacíon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Ruiz de Adana Santiago, Manuel; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    El flujo de aire en el interior de un local generado con un sistema de ventilación y difusión de aire puede verse afectado por las cargas térmicas internas del local. En este trabajo, se estudia la influencia de las cargas térmicas internas debidas a personas en el flujo de aire interior de un lo...... difusor textil de baja velocidad. Los resultados obtenidos pueden resultar de interés para validar las predicciones obtenidas a partir de modelos numéricos de difusores....

  18. Plan de gestión integral del riego en la zona de influencia de la acequia de Tabacundo

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Mármol, Alexis Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    El presente producto consistió en la elaboración de plan integral de riego de la acequia Tabacundo el cual consta de un diagnóstico situacional en la zona de influencia, identificación de problemas, análisis del medio interno y externo, identificación de actores, planteamiento de la misión, visión, objetivos y estrategias para mejorar la gestión del agua de riego en la acequia Tabacundo dentro de los ámbitos socio-organizativo, técnico, económico productivo y ambiental. Este producto se ...

  19. INFLUENCIA DE LA MADERA JUVENIL DE PINO RADIATA SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE TABLEROS OSB

    OpenAIRE

    PECHO,Robert; ANANIAS,Rubén A; BALLERINI,Aldo; CLOUTIER,Alain

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de la madera juvenil de pino radiata (Pinus radiata D. Don) sobre las propiedades mecánicas de tableros de hojuelas orientadas OSB. La madera para los ensayos es recogida de 10 árboles en pié de 26 años creciendo en plantaciones manejadas de la Octava región, Chile. La determinación de madera juvenil se realiza observando la variación radial de los anillos de crecimiento de la madera, usando un analizador de anillos en base a rayos X. Los detalles de l...

  20. Influencia de los procesos de depuración sobre la toxicidad de las aguas residuales textiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi Rosell, Martí; Vilaseca i Vallvé, Ma. Mercè (Maria Mercè)

    1983-01-01

    La toxicidad de algunos productos utilizados en los procesos de tintura y acabado de los artículos textiles es muy elevada. En este trabajo se determina la toxicidad frente a la Dafnia Magna de algunos productos químicos utilizados en la Industria Textil. También se estudia la influencia de los procesos de depuración sobre la toxicidad de las aguas residuales textiles. La toxicité de quelques produits utilisés dans les processus de teinture et d'ennoblissement des articles textiles est ...