WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-catalytic ethanol reforming

  1. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  2. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion...... 400 ppm of the carbon in the feed at approx. 600 °C. The different promoters did not influence the product distribution to any significant extent. Selective poisoning with small amounts of K2SO4 on Ni–CeO2/MgAl2O4 at 600 °C decreased carbon deposition from 900 to 200 ppm of the carbon in the feed...

  3. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  4. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  5. Production of syngas by ethanol reforming on Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, Rafael C.; Oliveira, Amir A.M.; Donadel, Karina; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro N.; Rambo, Carlos R. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. of Combustion and Thermal Systems Engineering], Emails: catapan@labcet.ufsc.br, donadel@emc.ufsc.br, pedronovaes@emc.ufsc.br, rambo@enq.ufsc.br; Oliveira, Therezinha Maria N.; Wagner, Theodoro M. [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville, SC (Brazil). Campus Universitario Bom Retiro], E-mails: tnovais@univille.br, theowag@terra.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the recent literature, attention has been directed to the development of noble metals based catalysts for the ethanol reforming. However, the high costs and low availability of noble metals, e.g. platinum, as a resource justify the development of alternatives technologically, economically and environmentally viable such as Ni-based catalysts. Here, the thermal decomposition, partial oxidation and steam reforming of ethanol over SiO{sub 2} supported Ni was studied in a packed bed reactor in the 673 - 973 K temperature range at 1 atm. The catalyst was produced from 10% NiO, 5% of bentonite and 85% (wt.) of natural amorphous silica fibers (NASF). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluation revealed that particles of Ni were homogeneously distributed over the NASF. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns did not show peaks related to silicates in all spectra, which indicates that there is no, apparently, interaction between the nickel catalysts and SiO{sub 2} or devitrification The reactions of ethanol on this catalyst occurs mainly by the dehydrogenation reaction generating acetaldehyde. Further, CH{sub 3}CHO is decomposed to CH{sub 4} and CO. In parallel to this route, ethanol is dehydrated producing ethylene, which is successively dehydrogenated in Ni sites generating carbon on the surface. Also, carbon can be produced by consecutive dehydrogenation of CH{sub 4}. Both reactions contribute to increase the production of H{sub 2} to values higher than those predicted by the thermodynamic equilibrium. (author)

  6. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  7. Kinetic behaviour of commercial catalysts for methane reforming in ethanol steam reforming process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Vicente; Javier Ere˜na; Martin Olazar; Pedro L. Benito; Javier Bilbao; Ana G. Gayubo

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming has been studied in a fluidized bed (in order to ensure bed isothermicity) on commercial catalysts for methane reforming. The results allow analyzing the effect of temperature (in 300-700◦C range), and both metal and support nature on the reaction indices (ethanol conversion, yields and selectivities to H2 and byproducts (CO2, CO, CH4 and C2H4O)). Special attention has been paid to catalysts’ stability by comparing the evolution of the reaction indices with time on stream at 500◦C (minimum CO formation) and 700◦C (minimum deactivation by coke deposition). Although they provide a slightly lower H2 yield, the results evidence a good behaviour of Ni based catalysts, indicating that they are an interesting alternative of more expensive Rh based ones.

  8. Hydrogen generation from steam reforming of ethanol in dielectric barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowei Wang; Yijun Lü; Xu Zhang; Shuanghui Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge(DBD)was used for the generation of hydrogen from ethanol reforming.Effects of reaction conditions,such as vaporization temperature,ethanol flow rate,water/ethanol ratio,and addition of oxygen,on the ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield,were studied.The results showed that the increase of ethanol flow rate decreased ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield,and high water/ethanol ratio and addition of oxygen were advantageous.Ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield increased with the vaporization room temperature up to the maximum at first,and then decreased slightly.The maximum hydrogen yield of 31.8% was obtained at an ethanol conversion of 88.4% under the optimum operation conditions of vaporization room temperature of 120℃,ethanol flux of 0.18 mL/min,water/ethanol ratio of 7.7 and oxygen volume concentration of 13.3%.

  9. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  10. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  11. Session 4: Catalytic behavior of Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite like compounds in bio-ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comas, J.; Laborde, M.; Amadeo, N. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria. Pabellon de Industrias. Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the ethanol steam reforming on massive Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite like compounds as catalyst, at 773 K and atmospheric pressure, was studied. In particular, from the experiments carried out at different water/ethanol feed ratio is possible to elucidate the catalytic behavior for ethanol steam reforming over Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite. (authors)

  12. Hydrogen production by autothermal reforming of ethanol: pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Ferreira, Paulo F.P. [Hydrogen Technology (HyTron), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Email: antonio@hytron.com.br; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Edgar A. de Godoi Rodrigues; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/ IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work provides information about the development of an integrated unit for hydrogen production by auto thermal reforming of ethanol with nominal capacity of 1 kg/h H{sub 2} 4.5 (99.995%). The unit is composed by a Fuel Processing Module (FPM), resulting from auto thermal and shift reactor integration, responsible for the thermochemical step, plus an over heater of the liquid input (EtOH and H{sub 2}O), operated recovering thermal energy from PSA blown-down (H{sub 2} Purification Module - MPH2), besides other thermal equipment which completes the integration. Using a computational routine for scaling the process and preliminary performance analysis, it was possible to optimize operating conditions, essential along unit operations design. Likewise, performance estimation of the integrated unit proceeds, which shows efficiency about 72.5% from FPM. Coupled with the PSA recovery rate, 72.7%, the unit could achieve overall energy performance of 52.7%, or 74.4% working in co-generation of hydrogen and heat. (author)

  13. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  14. The role of bio-ethanol in aqueous phase reforming to sustainable hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarev, A.V.; Murzina, E.V.; Eraenen, K.; Murzin, D.Yu. [Aabo Akademi University, Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FIN-20500 Turku/Aabo (Finland); Kirilin, A.V. [Aabo Akademi University, Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FIN-20500 Turku/Aabo (Finland); Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kustov, L.M. [Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mikkola, J.-P. [Aabo Akademi University, Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FIN-20500 Turku/Aabo (Finland); Umeaa University, Technical Chemistry Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological Centre, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    Aqueous Phase Reforming (APR) has during the recent years emerged as a potent, alternative means of processing raw materials of biological origin to component suitable as chemicals and fuel components. In contrary to e.g. steam reforming, aqueous phase reforming bares the promise of lower temperatures in processing which gives rise to potential of reduced energy consumption in the upgrading process itself. Aqueous phase reforming was studied over Pt/Al2O3 at 225 C. Stable catalyst performance and high selectivity was observed. Upon a comparison of two 'bio-alcohols', bio-ethanol and Sorbitol (a sugar alcohol), the latter one is a better feedstock from overall energy utilization viewpoint but the use of it results in a broad range of products. Interestingly, in the case of sorbitol-ethanol mixtures, an improvement in the hydrogen yield was observed. (author)

  15. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Renewable hydrogen: carbon formation on Ni and Ru catalysts during ethanol steam-reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Sehested, J.;

    2007-01-01

    Biomass is probably the only realistic green and sustainable carbonaceous alternative to fossil fuels. By degradation and fermentation, it can be converted into bioethanol, which is a chemical with a range of possible applications. In this study, the catalytic steam-reforming of ethanol for the p...

  17. Cobalt particle size effects on catalytic performance for ethanol steam reforming - Smaller is better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, Andre L M; Den Breejen, Johan P.; Mattos, Lisiane V.; Bitter, Johannes H.; De Jong, Krijn P.; Noronha, Fábio B.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol steam reforming reaction at 773 K for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. It was found that the turnover frequency increases with decreasing Co particle size, which was attributed to the increasing fra

  18. Cobalt particle size effects on catalytic performance for ethanol steam reforming – Smaller is better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da A.L.M.; Breejen, den J.P.; Mattos, L.V.; Bitter, J.H.; Jong, de K.P.; Noronha, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol steam reforming reaction at 773 K for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. It was found that the turnover frequency increases with decreasing Co particle size, which was attributed to the increasing fra

  19. Oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over carbon nanofiber supported Co catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, A.L.M.; Mattos, L.V.; den Breejen, J.P.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.; Noronha, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol oxidative steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. The smallest (4 nm) were quite stable during OSR reaction but significant carbon formation was detected.

  20. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd–Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosti, Silvano; Basile, Angelo; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio; Castelli, Stefano; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Gallucci, Fausto; Licusati, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the rea

  1. Bio-ethanol steam reforming: Insights on the mechanism for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Sanz, J.L.; Isabel, R.; Padilla, R.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Arjona, R. [Greencell (ABENGOA BIOENERGIA), Av. de la Buhaira 2, 41018 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    New catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-ethanol have been developed. Catalytic tests have been performed at laboratory scale, with the reaction conditions demanded in a real processor: i.e. ethanol and water feed, without a diluent gas. Catalyst ICP0503 has shown high activity and good resistance to carbon deposition. Reaction results show total conversion, high selectivity to hydrogen (70%), CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} being the only by-products obtained. The reaction yields 4.25mol of hydrogen by mol of ethanol fed, close to the thermodynamic equilibrium prediction. The temperature influence on the catalytic activity for this catalyst has been studied. Conversion reaches 100% at temperature higher than 600{sup o}C. In the light of reaction results obtained, a reaction mechanism for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. Long-term reaction experiments have been performed in order to study the stability of the catalytic activity. The excellent stability of the catalyst ICP0503 indicates that the reformed stream could be fed directly to a high temperature fuel cell (MCFC, SOFC) without a further purification treatment. These facts suggest that ICP0503 is a good candidate to be implemented in a bio-ethanol processor for hydrogen production to feed a fuel cell. (author)

  2. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Sun, Junming; Yang, Cheng; Strohm, James J.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared for steam reforming of ethanol under conditions suitable for industrial hydrogen production. The reaction conditions were varied to elucidate the differences in reaction pathways on both catalysts. On Co/ZnO, CH4 is a secondary product formed through the methanation reaction, while it is produced directly by ethanol decomposition on Rh. The difference in the reaction mechanism is shown to favor Co-based catalysts for selective hydrogen production under elevated system pressures (up to 15 bar) of industrial importance. The carbon deposition rate was also studied, and we show that Co is more prone to coking and catalyst failure. However, the Co/ZnO catalyst can be regenerated, by mild oxidation, despite the high carbon deposition rate. We conclude that Co/ZnO is a more suitable catalyst system for steam reforming of ethanol due to the low methane selectivity, low cost and possibility of regeneration with mild oxidation.

  3. Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Levko, D

    2012-01-01

    The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

  4. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents sustainable sources of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). The system was experimentally characterized and theoretically modelled using a 1-dimensional system model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink...

  5. Reforming of Ethanol to Produce Hydrogen over PtRuMg/ZrO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Y. Z. Chiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified PtRu/ZrO2 catalyst with Mg is evaluated for the oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (OSRE and the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE. In order to understand the variation in the reaction mechanism on OSRE and SRE, further analysis of both fresh and used catalyst is concentrated on for TEM, TG, Raman, and TPR characterization. The results show that the OSRE reaction requires a higher temperature (∼390°C to achieve 100% ethanol conversion than the SRE reaction (∼2500°C. The distribution of CO is minor for both reactions (< 5% for OSRE, < 1% for SRE. This demonstrates that the water gas shift (WGS reaction is an important side-reaction in the reforming of ethanol to produce H2 and CO2. A comparison of the temperature of WGS (WGS shows it is lower for the SRE reaction (WGS∼250°C for SRE, ~340°C for OSRE.

  6. Ethanol steam reforming on Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts: Effect of the aluminium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindo, M.; Vizcaino, A.J.; Calles, J.A.; Carrero, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933, Mostoles (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    A series of Ni catalysts supported on Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials (Si/Al = 20, 60, 140, 240, {infinity}) was prepared and tested in ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, NH{sub 3}-TPD, TEM, ICP-AES, {sup 27}Al-MAS-NMR and N{sub 2}-sorption measurements. It was found that the incorporation of Al atoms into SBA-15 structure is responsible for the formation of catalyst acid sites, an increase of the size of nickel species and stronger metal-support interaction between Ni and Al-SBA-15 carrier. Regarding ethanol steam reforming, catalysts with higher Al content keep ethanol conversion along time. However, Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts produce larger amounts of ethylene and coke, with slightly lower hydrogen selectivity than Ni/SBA-15. This is the consequence of ethanol dehydration in Ni/Al-SBA-15 acid sites, while ethanol dehydrogenation mechanism predominates in Ni/SBA-15 catalyst. (author)

  7. Hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of ethanol over noble metal catalysts supported on oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqing Chen; Hao Yu; Yong Tang; Minqiang Pan; Guangxing Yang; Feng Peng; Hongjuan Wang; Jian Yang

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced over noble metal (Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd) catalysts supported on various oxides, including γ-Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2 and La2O3, via the autothermai reforming reaction of ethanol (ATRE) and oxidative reforming reaction of ethanol (OSRE). The conversion of ethanol and selectivites for hydrogen and byproducts such as methane, ethylene and acetaldehyde were studied. It was found that lanthana alone possessed considerable activity for the ATRE reaction, which could be used as a functional support for ATRE catalysts. It was demonstrated that Ir/La2O3 prevented the formation of methane, and Rh/La2O3 encumbered the production of ethylene and acetaldehyde. ATRE reaction was carried out over La2O3-supported catalysts (Ir/La2O3) with good stability on stream, high conversion, and excellent hydrogen selectivity approaching thermodynamic limit under autothermal condition. Typically, 3.4 H2 molecules can be extracted from a pair of ethanol and water molecules over Ir(5wt%)/La2O3. The results presented in this paper indicate that Ir/La2O3 can be used as a promising catalyst for hydrogen production via ATRE reaction from renewable ethanol.

  8. Ethanol dry reforming for syngas production over Ir/CeO2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯腾飞; 雷雨声; 张绍印; 张江华; 蔡伟杰

    2015-01-01

    Syngas production from CO2 reforming of ethanol over an Ir/CeO2 catalyst was investigated. Catalysts characterization was conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The Ir/CeO2 catalyst was more active and stable toward syngas formation (molar ratio~1). The superior catalytic performance was interpreted in terms of the strong interaction between Ir particles and ceria support which was crucial for efficient ethanol/CO2 activation and coke removal on the catalyst surface.

  9. Low-temperature steam-reforming of ethanol over ZnO-supported Ni and Cu catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homs, Narcis; Llorca, Jordi; De la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    ZnO-supported Ni and Cu as well as bimetallic Co-Ni and Co-Cu catalysts containing ca. 0.7wt% sodium promoter and prepared by the co-precipitation method were tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at low temperature (523-723K), using a bioethanol-like mixture diluted in Ar. Monometallic ZnO-supported Cu or Ni samples do not exhibit good catalytic performance in the steam-reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production. Copper catalyst mainly dehydrogenates ethanol to acetaldehyde, whereas nickel catalyst favours ethanol decomposition. However, the addition of Ni to ZnO-supported cobalt has a positive effect both on the production of hydrogen at low temperature (<573K), and on catalyst stability. Evidence for alloy formation as well as mixed oxides at the microstructural level was found in the bimetallic systems after running the ethanol steam-reforming reaction by HRTEM-EELS. (author)

  10. Effect of ZnO facet on ethanol steam reforming over Co/ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ning; Zhang, He; Davidson, Stephen D.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ZnO facets on ethanol steam reforming (ESR) were investigated over Co/ZnO catalysts synthesized using ZnO with different fractions of (10-10) non-polar facet. Co supported on ZnO with a higher fraction of (10-10) non-polar facet shows higher C-C cleavage activity and higher selectivity to CO2 (lower selectivity to CO) compared with Co supported on ZnO with less (10-10) non-polar facet exposed. The improved ethanol steam reforming performances are attributed to the high fraction of metallic Co stabilized by the ZnO (10-10) non-polar facet, which enhanced C-C cleavage and water-gas-shift (WGS) activities.

  11. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, S. [Universita di Messina (Italy); Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S. [Istituto CNR-TAE, Messina (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  12. Parametric study of hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming in a membrane microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de-Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microreactors are miniaturized chemical reaction systems, which contain reaction channels with characteristic dimensions in the range of 10-500 µm. One possible application for microreactors is the conversion of ethanol to hydrogen used in fuel cells to generate electricity. In this paper a rigorous isothermal, steady-state two-dimensional model was developed to simulate the behavior of a membrane microreactor based on the hydrogen yield from ethanol steam reforming. Furthermore, this membrane microreactor is compared to a membraneless microreactor. A potential advantage of the membrane microreactor is the fact that both ethanol steam reforming and the separation of hydrogen by a permselective membrane occur in one single microdevice. The simulation results for steam reforming yields are in agreement with experimental data found in the literature. The results show that the membrane microreactorpermits a hydrogen yield of up to 0.833 which is more than twice that generated by the membraneless reactor. More than 80% of the generated hydrogen permeates through the membrane and, due to its high selectivity, the membrane microreactor delivers high-purity hydrogen to the fuel cell.

  13. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  14. Ethanol steam reforming over Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.J.; Hudgins, R.R.; Silveston, P.L.; Croiset, E. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Eight magnesium-aluminium (Mg-Al) mixed oxides and magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were studied in order to identify the most effective Mg-Al mixed oxide for hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming. Co-precipitated precursors were calcinated to prepare the Mg-Al mixed oxides. Activity and selectivity of the mixed oxides for ethanol steam reforming were evaluated at 773 and 923 K. Results showed that all catalysts performed poorly during the steam reforming reaction, and produced low rates of hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Catalysts with an MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel crystal structure gave the best performance at both reaction temperatures. However, carbon deposits were discovered on all catalysts for reactions performed at 923 K. Co-precipitation resulted in more effective contact between the Mg and Al in the form of Mg-Al LDO and MgAL{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The absence of pure oxides suggested that Mg and Al were chemically coupled in the mixed oxide catalysts. Results of the study showed that the catalyst with an atomic ratio of 0.66 Mg1Al2 was the most active and achieved the highest rates of production for hydrogen. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Non-thermal plasma ethanol reforming in bubbles immersed in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-03-01

    Ethanol reforming in non-thermal plasma generated in atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in liquid ethanol/water solution is studied using a self-consistent multi-species fluid model. The influence of the dielectric constant of the liquid on the plasma dynamics and its effect on the generation of active species is analyzed. Several modes of discharge are obtained for large liquid dielectric constant. In these modes, we obtain either an axial streamer or a combination of two simultaneous streamers propagating along the bubble axis and near the liquid wall. The influence of these modes on the production of active species is also studied. The main reactions responsible for the generation of molecular hydrogen and light hydrocarbon species are analyzed. A possible mechanism of hydrogen generation in liquid phase is discussed.

  16. Sustainable hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming using a partially reduced copper-nickel oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chung; Cheng, Hongkui; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Shawn D

    2015-05-22

    Hydrogen production through the use of renewable raw materials and renewable energy is crucial for advancing its applications as an energy carrier. In this study, we fabricated a solid oxide solution of Cu and Ni within a confined pore space, followed by a partial reduction, to produce a highly efficient catalyst for ethanol steam reforming (ESR). At 300 °C, EtOH is completely converted, a H2 yield of approximately 5 mol per mol is achieved, and CO2 is the main carbon-containing product. This demonstrates that H2 production from bioethanol is an efficient and sustainable approach. Such a highly efficient ESR catalyst is attributed to the ability of the metal-oxide interface to facilitate the transformation of CHx adspecies from acetaldehyde decomposition into methoxy-like adspecies, which are reformed readily to produce H2 and consequently reduce CH4 formation.

  17. Comparative thermoeconomic analysis of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and by ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Godoy, Gustavo; Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro; Cavaliero, Carla [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering School], Email: garg@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is the focus of this work that evaluates in comparative form through thermo economic analysis two hydrogen production processes: water electrolysis and ethanol steam reforming. Even though technical-economical barriers still exist for the development of an economy based on hydrogen, these difficulties are opportunities for the appearance of new business of goods and services, diversification of the energy mix, focus of research activities, development and support to provide sustainability to the new economy. Exergy and rational efficiency concept are used to make a comparison between both processes. (author)

  18. Non-Catalytic Reforming with Applications to Portable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    and J.J. Beaman, Jr., “Freeform Fabrication of Non-Metallic Objects by Selective Laser Sintering and Infiltration”, Materials Science Forum, 561-565...eventually either blows off or flashes back. This has prompted the design and development of reactors with stationary reaction zones [9, 70]. In contrast...the flame will propagate into the porous flow straighteners and flash back. Figure B.3 shows the stable operating conditions for premixed heptane

  19. The reformation of ethanol and application to fuel cells; A reforma do etanol e sua aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ennio Peres da; Camargo, Joao Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br; joaoc@fem.unicamp.br; Carolino, Iaponira Rando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. e-mail: yaponira@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the perspectives for using of ethanol (EtOH) obtained from the sugar cane for electric power production, through a integrated system constituted by a hydrogen generator, by using the ethanol reforming associated to a fuel cell feed with the produced hydrogen. The paper also focuses the present re-structuration of the Brazilian electric sector identifying the possibility of implantation that system.

  20. Ethanol steam reforming on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: Effect of Mg addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, A.J.; Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Arena, P.; Baronetti, G.; Laborde, M.A.; Amadeo, N. [Chemical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Ethanol steam reforming is an interesting alternative for hydrogen production since ethanol can be renewably obtained. Use of lamellar double hydroxides (LDHs) as precursors of nickel catalysts leads to highly dispersed metal particles in an aluminium structure. In this sense, a Ni(II)Al(III) catalyst was synthesized from a LDH precursor and tested in ethanol steam reforming. Although this catalyst presents high stability, acidity of alumina promotes carbon deposition from ethylene through ethanol dehydration. For this reason, in order to neutralize acid sites, a series of catalysts was prepared by Mg addition to LDH precursors varying Mg/Ni ratio. The effect of Mg/Ni ratio in the catalyst on coke formation during ethanol steam reforming was studied, resulting in significant reduction of the amount of deposited carbon for Mg/Ni ratio higher than 0.1. Moreover, Mg addition increases the catalytic activity due to lower ethylene formation, which competes with ethanol for the same Ni active sites. (author)

  1. Co-current and counter-current configurations for ethanol steam reforming in a dense Pd–Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; De Falco, M.; Tosti, S.; Marrelli, L.; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol steam-reforming reaction to produce pure hydrogen has been studied theoretically. A mathematical model has been formulated for a traditional system and a palladium membrane reactor packed with a Co-based catalyst and the simulation results related to the membrane reactor for both co-curr

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  3. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY TEST OF CoMo/ZnO CATALYST ON ETHANOL CONVERSION USING STEAM REFORMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity test of CoMo/ZnO catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol have been investigated. The catalysts preparation was carried out by impregnation of Co and/or Mo onto ZnO sample. Water excess was used in ethanol feed for steam reforming process under mol ratio of ethanol:water (1:10. Characterizations of catalysts were conducted by analysis of metal content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Determination of catalysts acidity was conducted by gravimetric method of adsorption of pyridine base. Catalytic activity test on ethanol conversion using steam reforming method was conducted in a semi-flow reactor system, at a temperature of 400 oC, for 1.5 h under N2 flow rate of 10 mL/min. Gas product was analyzed by gas chromatograph with TCD system. The results of catalysts characterizations showed that the impregnation of Co and/or Mo metals on ZnO sample increased its acidity and specific surface area. The content of Co in Co/ZnO and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 1.14 and 0.49 wt%. The Mo content in CoMo/ZnO catalyst was 0.36 wt%. The catalytic activity test result on ethanol conversion showed that the ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts produced gas fraction of 16.73, 28.53, and 35.53 wt%, respectively. The coke production of ZnO, Co/ZnO, and CoMo/ZnO catalysts was 0.86, 0.24, and 0.08 wt%, respectively. The gas products consisted mainly of hydrogen.   Keywords: CoMo/ZnO catalyst, steam reforming, ethanol

  4. Highly loaded Ni-based catalysts for low temperature ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Ma, Hongyan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Di; Tian, Hao; Xiao, Shengning; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the design of high-loading Ni/Al2O3 catalysts (78 wt% Ni) for low temperature ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were synthesized via both co-precipitation (COP) and impregnation (IMP) methods. All the catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 pulse chemisorption. The characterization results demonstrated that the preparation method and the loading significantly affected the nickel particle size, active nickel surface area and catalytic performance. Over COP catalysts, large nickel particles were presented in nickel aluminum mixed oxides. In comparison, IMP catalysts gained more ``free'' NiO particles with weak interaction with the aluminum oxide. Consequently, COP catalysts yielded smaller nickel particles and larger active nickel surface areas than those of IMP catalysts. High loading is beneficial for obtaining sufficient active nickel sites when nickel particles are dispersed via COP, whereas excessive nickel content is not desired for catalysts prepared by IMP. Specifically, the 78 wt% nickel loaded catalyst synthesized by COP possessed small nickel particles (~6.0 nm) and an abundant active nickel area (35.1 m2 gcat-1). Consequently, COP-78 achieved superior stability with 92% ethanol conversion and ~35% H2 selectivity at 673 K for 30 h despite the presence of a considerable amount of coke.

  5. Ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell: a thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, S.; Maggio, G.; Cavallaro, S.

    The economy of the world energy sources is showing interest in the utilization of oxygenated products whose purpose is to improve the storage and the transfer of hydrogen as a non-polluting fuel with a high heat power density. An interesting field of utilization of these products is represented by the fuel cell systems for production of electricity. In this respect, the use of the water/ethanol mixture has been investigated as an alternative fuel for molten carbonate fuel cells. Some thermodynamic calculations have been carried out by a mathematical model to determine the energy and mass balances for a water/ethanol fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell. The thermodynamic efficiencies determined for this system have been correlated with the main operative parameters that give some interesting findings indicating encouraging aspects on the utilization of these systems to the production of electricity and heat. Lastly, attractive operative conditions have been determined and compared with that of a molten carbonate fuel cell with methane direct internal reforming.

  6. Sorption-enhanced steam reforming of ethanol: thermodynamic comparison of CO{sub 2} sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.J.; Santos, J.C.; Cunha, A.F.; Rodrigues, A.E. [University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Porto (Portugal); Diaz Alvarado, F.; Gracia, F. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Catalisis, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    A thermodynamic analysis is performed with a Gibbs free energy minimization method to compare the conventional steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) process and sorption-enhanced SRE (SE-SRE) with three different sorbents, namely, CaO, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, and hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc). As a result, the use of a CO{sub 2} adsorbent can enhance the hydrogen yield and provide a lower CO content in the product gas at the same time. The best performance of SE-SRE is found to be at 500 C with an HTlc sorbent. Nearly 6 moles hydrogen per mole ethanol can be produced, when the CO content in the vent stream is less than 10 ppm, so that the hydrogen produced via SE-SRE with HTlc sorbents can be directly used for fuel cells. Higher pressures do not favor the overall SE-SRE process due to lower yielding of hydrogen, although CO{sub 2} adsorption is enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Pure silica SBA-15 supported Cu-Ni catalysts for hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcayno, A.J.; Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologya (ESCET), c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen selectivity and the CO{sub 2}/CO{sub x} molar ratio. The best catalytic performance was achieved at 600 C with a catalyst containing 2 and 7 wt% of copper and nickel, respectively. In addition, two catalysts were prepared by the method of direct insertion of Ni and Cu ions as precursors in the initial stage of the synthesis. XRD, TEM, N{sub 2} adsorption and ICP-AES results evidenced that SBA-15 materials with long range hexagonal ordering could be successfully synthesized in the presence of copper and nickel salts with the (Cu+Ni) contents around 4-6 wt%. However, lower hydrogen selectivity and together with ethanol and water conversions were observed with catalysts prepared by direct synthesis in comparison with those prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over Cu-Ni supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, A.J.; Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia (ESCET), c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    In the present work, Cu-Ni supported catalysts were tested in ethanol steam reforming reaction. Two commercial amorphous solids (SiO{sub 2} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and three synthesized materials (MCM-41, SBA-15 and ZSM-5 nanocrystalline) were used as support. A series of Cu-Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalysts with different Cu and Ni content were also prepared. It was found that aluminium containing supports favour ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the acid sites, which in turn, promotes the coke deactivation process. The highest hydrogen selectivity is achieved with the Cu-Ni/SBA-15 catalyst, due to a smaller metallic crystallite size. Nevertheless, the Cu-Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalyst showed the best catalytic performance, since a better equilibrium between high hydrogen selectivity and CO{sub 2}/CO{sub x} ratio is obtained. It was seen that nickel is the phase responsible for hydrogen production in a greater grade, although both CO production and coke deposition are decreased when copper is added to the catalyst. (author)

  9. Catalytic activity of cobalt and cerium catalysts supported on calcium hydroxyapatite in ethanol steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Co,Ce/Ca10(PO46(OH2 catalysts with various cobalt loadings for steam reforming of ethanol (SRE were prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal and sol-gel methods, and characterized by XRD, TEM, TPR-H2, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and cyclohexanol (CHOL decomposition tests. High ethanol conversion (close to 100% was obtained for the catalysts prepared by both methods but these ones prepared under hydrothermal conditions (HAp-H ensured higher hydrogen yield (3.49 mol H2/mol C2H5OH as well as higher amount of hydrogen formed (up to 70% under reaction conditions. The superior performance of 5Co,10Ce/HAp-H catalyst is thought to be due to a combination of factors, including increased reducibility and oxygen mobility, higher density of basic sites on its surface, and improved textural properties. The results also show a significant effect of cobalt loading on catalysts efficiency in hydrogen production: the higher H2 yield exhibit catalysts with lower cobalt content, regardless of the used synthesis method.

  10. Co-Fe-Si Aerogel Catalytic Honeycombs for Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Domínguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt talc doped with iron (Fe/Co~0.1 and dispersed in SiO2 aerogel was prepared from silica alcogel impregnated with metal nitrates by supercritical drying. Catalytic honeycombs were prepared following the same procedure, with the alcogel synthesized directly over cordierite honeycomb pieces. The composite aerogel catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focus ion beam, specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic layer is about 8 µm thick and adheres well to the cordierite support. It is constituted of talc layers of about 1.5 µm × 300 nm × 50 nm which are well dispersed and anchored in a SiO2 aerogel matrix with excellent mass-transfer properties. The catalyst was tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction, aimed at producing hydrogen for on-board, on-demand applications at moderate temperature (573–673 K and pressure (1–7 bar. Compared to non-promoted cobalt talc, the catalyst doped with iron produces less methane as byproduct, which can only be reformed at high temperature, thereby resulting in higher hydrogen yields. At 673 K and 2 bar, 1.04 NLH2·mLEtOH(l−1·min−1 are obtained at S/C = 3 and W/F = 390 g·min·molEtOH−1.

  11. Acetaldehyde behavior over platinum based catalyst in hydrogen stream generated by ethanol reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Lima, Adriana F.F. [Laboratorio de Catalise, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82/507, 20081-310 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica e INOG (Instituto Nacional de Oleo Gas), UERJ-CNPq, FAPERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colman, Rita C. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e de Petroleo, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Passos da Patria, 156/bl E/240, 24210-240 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Instituto de Quimica e INOG (Instituto Nacional de Oleo Gas), UERJ-CNPq, FAPERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); CETEM-MCT, Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-908 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Appel, Lucia G. [Laboratorio de Catalise, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82/507, 20081-310 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Due to the greenhouse effect, hydrogen production from bioethanol reforming is a very important subject in heterogeneous catalysis research. Pt based catalysts are employed in H{sub 2} purification processes and also as electrocatalysts of PEM (''Proton Exchange Membrane'') fuel cells. Hydrogen obtained from ethanol reforming may contain, as contaminants, acetaldehyde and small amounts of CO. This aldehyde can be decarbonylated on Pt based catalysts generating carbon monoxide and methane, rendering the hydrogen purification more challenging. Moreover, acetaldehyde might also change the electrocatalyst behavior. Therefore, this contribution aims at studying the acetaldehyde behavior in the presence of platinum based catalysts in hydrogen atmosphere. The Pt/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/USY catalysts and an electrocatalyst were characterized by n-butylamine, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption, ATG/DTG measurements and cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction. It was observed that the acid-basic properties of the supports promote condensation reactions. When in contact with Pt based catalysts, acetaldehyde undergoes C-C and C=O bond scissions. The former occurs at a wide range of temperatures, whereas the latter only at low temperatures (<200 C). The C-C bond scission (decarbonylation) produces methane and CO. The C=O bond scission generates carbon residues on the catalyst as well as oxygen species, which in turn is able to eliminate CO from the catalytic surface. The data also show that decarbonylation is not a structure-sensitive reaction. (author)

  12. MECHANISTIC KINETIC MODELS FOR STEAM REFORMING OF CONCENTRATED CRUDE ETHANOL ON NI/AL2O3 CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. OLAFADEHAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  13. Standalone ethanol micro-reformer integrated on silicon technology for onboard production of hydrogen-rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, D; Salleras, M; Morata, A; Garbayo, I; Gerbolés, M; Sabaté, N; Divins, N J; Casanovas, A; Llorca, J; Tarancón, A

    2016-08-07

    A novel design of a silicon-based micro-reformer for onboard hydrogen generation from ethanol is presented in this work. The micro-reactor is fully fabricated with mainstream MEMS technology and consists of an active low-thermal-mass structure suspended by an insulating membrane. The suspended structure includes an embedded resistive metal heater and an array of ca. 20k vertically aligned through-silicon micro-channels per square centimetre. Each micro-channel is 500 μm in length and 50 μm in diameter allowing a unique micro-reformer configuration that presents a total surface per projected area of 16 cm(2) cm(-2) and per volume of 320 cm(2) cm(-3). The walls of the micro-channels become the active surface of the micro-reformer when coated with a homogenous thin film of Rh-Pd/CeO2 catalyst. The steam reforming of ethanol under controlled temperature conditions (using the embedded heater) and using the micro-reformer as a standalone device are evaluated. Fuel conversion rates above 94% and hydrogen selectivity values of ca. 70% were obtained when using operation conditions suitable for application in micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs), i.e. 750 °C and fuel flows of 0.02 mlL min(-1) (enough to feed a one watt power source).

  14. Nickel-carbon nanocomposites prepared using castor oil as precursor: A novel catalyst for ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Neftalí L. V.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Krolow, Mateus; Santos, Cláudia C. G.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    A novel and simple method to prepare nickel-based catalysts for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. The present method was developed using castor oil as a precursor. The results clarify that the nickel-carbon (Ni/C) catalyst has a high activity for ethanol steam reforming. It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be modified according to the experimental conditions employed. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the increase in the catalytic activity of the Ni/C nanocomposite over time, at 500 and 600 °C of reaction temperature, may be associated with the formation of filamentous carbon. The preliminary results indicate that the novel methodology used, led to the obtainment of materials with important properties that can be extended to applications in different catalytic process.

  15. Steam reforming of ethanol over Ni-based catalysts: Effect of feed composition on catalyst stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effects of steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C), and addition of H2 or O2 to the feed on the product yields and carbon deposition in the steam reforming (SR) of ethanol over Ni/MgAl2O4, Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2, and Ni/CeO2 at 600 °C have been investigated. Increasing the S/C-ratio from 1.6 to 8.......3 over Ni/MgAl2O4 increased conversion of ethanol as well as the yield of H2, while the carbon deposition and yield of hydrocarbons decreased. Oxygen addition at S/C-ratio of 6 over Ni/MgAl2O4, Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2, and Ni/CeO2 increased conversion, decreased the yield of hydrocarbons, and led to a decrease...... in the carbon deposition. Carbon deposition was almost eliminated over Ni/MgAl2O4 and Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 at an O/C-ratio of roughly 0.8 or higher. The penalty of adding O2 was a decrease in the yield of H2 from 70% at O/C = 0 to 50% at O/C = 0.8–1.A 90 h test at O/C = 1.1, S/C = 6, and 600 °C over Ni/MgAl2O4...

  16. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr5-Ce-Co and Pr10-Ce-Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr10-Ce-Co-H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH4.

  17. Influence of Gold on Ce-Zr-Co Fluorite-Type Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Pitchon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gold presence on carbon monoxide oxidation and ethanol steam reforming catalytic behavior of two Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides catalysts with a constant Co charge and different Ce/Zr ratios was investigated. The Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides were obtained by the pseudo sol-gel like method, based on metallic propionates polymerization and thermal decomposition, whereas the gold-supported Ce-Zr-Co mixed oxides catalysts were prepared using the direct anionic exchange. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, TPR, and EDXS-TEM. The presence of Au in doped Ce-Zr-Co oxide catalyst decreases the temperature necessary to reduce the cobalt and the cerium loaded in the catalyst and favors a different reaction pathway, improving the acetaldehyde route by ethanol dehydrogenation, instead of the ethylene route by ethanol dehydration or methane re-adsorption, thus increasing the catalytic activity and selectivity into hydrogen.

  18. Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production over Cu/Co-Mg-Al-based catalysts prepared by hydrotalcite route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Doris; Rached, Jihane Abou; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Dahdah, Eliane; Estephane, Jane; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Aboukaïs, Antoine; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2016-08-23

    The performances of different 5Cu/CoxMg6-xAl2 (x = 0; 2; 4; 6) catalysts prepared by the wet impregnation method were investigated in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction (ESR) at 450 °C during 4 h under a steam/ethanol ratio of 3 (S/E = 3). The best catalyst among the prepared solids was 5Cu/Co6Al2 as it showed a complete ethanol conversion and the highest hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivities. However, following 50 h of aging, the catalyst deactivated due to the formation of a high amount of carbonaceous products detected by differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry. On the other hand, the 5Cu/Co2Mg4Al2 catalyst showed a much lower quantity of coke deposition with no deactivation due to the basic character conferred by the magnesium oxide phase.

  19. Efficient hydrogen production from ethanol and glycerol by vapour-phase reforming processes with new cobalt-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Evandro Brum; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramírez; Homs, Narcís

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate biohydrogen production from biofuel-reforming processes using new multi-component bulk-type cobalt-based catalysts. The addition of different components to improve the catalytic performance was studied. Monometallic cobalt catalyst and catalysts containing Ru (ca. 1%) and/or Na (ca. 0.5%) were characterized and tested in the 623-673 K temperature range in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) with a steam/carbon ratio (S/C) of 3. The catalysts showed a high performance for hydrogen production and, except for H(2) and CO(2), only small amounts of by-products were obtained, depending on the temperature and the catalyst used. The catalyst containing both Ru and Na (Co-Ru(Na)) showed the best catalytic behavior in ESR. It operated stably for at least 12 days under cycles of oxidative steam reforming of glycerol/ethanol mixtures (S/C=2) and activation under O(2).

  20. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol over Ni/MgO-CeO_2 catalyst at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秋杰; 刘承伟; 谌伟庆

    2009-01-01

    MgO,CeO2 and MgO-CeO2 with different mole ratio of Mg:Ce were prepared by solid-phase burning method.Catalysts Ni/MgO,Ni/CeO2 and Ni/MgO-CeO2 were prepared by impregnation method.The catalytic properties were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming(ESR) reaction.Specific surface areas of the supports were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K,and the catalysts were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),temperature programmed reduction(TPR) and thermogravimetric(TG).The results showed that well...

  1. Steam reforming of bio-ethanol over Ni on Ce-ZrO2 support: Influence of redox properties on the catalyst reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol over Ni on Ce-ZrO2 support, (Ni/ Ce-ZrO2 were studied. The catalyst provides significantly higher reforming reactivity and excellent resistance toward carbon deposition compared to Ni/Al2O3 under the same conditions. At the temperature above 800ºC, the main products from the reforming processes over Ni/Ce-ZrO2 were H2, CO, and CO2 with small amount of CH4 depending on the inlet ethanol/steam and oxygen/ethanol ratios, whereas high hydrocarbon compounds i.e., C2H4 and C2H6 were also observed from the reforming of ethanol over Ni/Al2O3 in the range of conditions studied (700- 1000ºC.These excellent ethanol reforming performances of Ni/Ce-ZrO2 in terms of stability, reactivity and product selectivities are due to the high redox property of Ce-ZrO2. During the ethanol reforming process, in addition to the reactions on Ni surface, the gas-solid reactions between the gaseous components presented in the system (C2H5OH, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, and H2 and the lattice oxygen (Ox on Ce-ZrO2 surface also take place. Among these redox reactions, the reactions of adsorbed surface hydrocarbons with the lattice oxygen (Ox (CnHm + Ox → nCO + m/2(H2 + Ox-n can eliminate the formation of high hydrocarbons (C2H6 and C2H4, which easily decompose and form carbon species on Ni surface (CnHm→ nC + m/2H2.

  2. Reactors for Hydrogen Production by Bio-Ethanol Reforming%生物乙醇重整制氢反应器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 郎林; 阴秀丽; 吴创之

    2011-01-01

    Bio-ethanol reforming is a type of promising technology for hydrogen production,which is focused on current low-carbon energy research.The key of ethanol reforming is to develop novel reforming catalysts with high activity and high selectivity at low temperature, and new efficient catalytic reactors.The effects of reactors on ethanol reforming process are focused in this paper, and ethanol reforming reactors at home and abroad are reviewed, such as fixed-bed reactors, microchannel reactors and membrane reactors.Based on the extensive discussion of the advantages and weaknesses of various catalytic reactors, the trends in the manufacture and application of bio-ethanol reforming reactors are also prospected.In our opinions, the following aspects need to be studied systematically: (1) strengthening basic theoretical researches, especially the reaction mechanisms of bio-ethanol reforming and the principles of mass/heat transfer, (2) developing novel low-temperature reforming catalysts with high activity, high stability, and low cost, (3) designing highly integrated catalytic reactors for bio-ethanol reforming.%生物乙醇重整制氢是一种具有良好应用前景的制氢技术,是当前低碳能源领域的研究热点.发展生物乙醇重整制氢技术的关键是研发在低温下具有高活性和高选择性的新型重整催化剂,以及开发新式高效的催化反应器.本文着眼于反应器对生物乙醇重整制氢过程的影响,综述了国内外固定床反应器、微通道反应器和膜反应器等生物乙醇重整制氢反应器的研究现状及其动态,并对生物乙醇重整制氢反应器的研制与应用的发展趋势进行了展望.

  3. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  4. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal↔Oxide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Zhou, G.; Barrio, L.; Agnoli, S.; Senanayake, S.D.; Evans, J.; Kubacka, A.; Estrella, M.; Hanson, J.C.; Martínez-Arias, A.; Fernández-García, M.

    2010-12-10

    Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the O-H bonds in ethanol and water.

  5. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  6. Effect of Ce and Zr Addition to Ni/SiO2 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Calles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni/Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalysts with different Zr/Ce mass ratios were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\, Ni/CeO\\(_{2}\\ and Ni/ZrO\\(_{2}\\ were also prepared as reference materials to compare. Catalysts' performances were tested in ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production and characterized by XRD, H\\(_{2}\\-temperature programmed reduction (TPR, NH\\(_{3}\\-temperature programmed desorption (TPD, TEM, ICP-AES and N\\(_{2}\\-sorption measurements. The Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalyst led to a higher hydrogen selectivity than Ni/CeO\\(_{2}\\ and Ni/ZrO\\(_{2}\\, but it could not maintain complete ethanol conversion due to deactivation. The incorporation of Ce or Zr prior to Ni on the silica support resulted in catalysts with better performance for steam reforming, keeping complete ethanol conversion over time. When both Zr and Ce were incorporated into the catalyst, Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\ solid solution was formed, as confirmed by XRD analyses. TPR results revealed stronger Ni-support interaction in the Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\-modified catalysts than in Ni/SiO\\(_{2}\\ one, which can be attributed to an increase of the dispersion of Ni species. All of the Ni/Ce\\(_{x}\\Zr\\(_{1-x}\\O\\(_{2}\\/SiO\\(_{2}\\ catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and stability after 8 h of time on stream at 600°. The best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen selectivity was achieved when the Zr/Ce mass ratio was three.

  7. Response Surface Methodology and Aspen Plus Integration for the Simulation of the Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol (SRE on a bimetallic RhPt/CeO2 catalyst was evaluated by the integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Aspen Plus (version 9.0, Aspen Tech, Burlington, MA, USA, 2016. First, the effect of the Rh–Pt weight ratio (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 on the performance of SRE on RhPt/CeO2 was assessed between 400 to 700 °C with a stoichiometric steam/ethanol molar ratio of 3. RSM enabled modeling of the system and identification of a maximum of 4.2 mol H2/mol EtOH (700 °C with the Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 catalyst. The mathematical models were integrated into Aspen Plus through Excel in order to simulate a process involving SRE, H2 purification, and electricity production in a fuel cell (FC. An energy sensitivity analysis of the process was performed in Aspen Plus, and the information obtained was used to generate new response surfaces. The response surfaces demonstrated that an increase in H2 production requires more energy consumption in the steam reforming of ethanol. However, increasing H2 production rebounds in more energy production in the fuel cell, which increases the overall efficiency of the system. The minimum H2 yield needed to make the system energetically sustainable was identified as 1.2 mol H2/mol EtOH. According to the results of the integration of RSM models into Aspen Plus, the system using Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 can produce a maximum net energy of 742 kJ/mol H2, of which 40% could be converted into electricity in the FC (297 kJ/mol H2 produced. The remaining energy can be recovered as heat.

  8. Optimization of Hydrogen Production by Ethanol Steam Reforming Using Maximization of H2/CO Ratio with Taguchi Experimental Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eliassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of some different factors on ceria (CeO2 catalytic activity for ethanol steam reforming (ESR to produce high H2/CO ratio were investigated. The considered factors were sonication time in three durations (0, 15 and 30 minutes, calcination temperature at three temperatures (500, 650 and 800°C, mole ratio of H2O/ethanol in three ratios (3, 5 and 8 and reactor temperature at three temperatures (300, 350 and 400°C. The Taguchi L9 experimental design method was used to investigate the effect of these parameters on maximization of H2/CO. To identify the catalyst characteristics XRD, SEM, EDS, BET and TGA analysis were done. It was established that a face centered cubic crystal forms of nano particles of CeO2 were formed. Also the obtained results showed that by increasing calcination temperature or reducing the sonication time, the nano particle size was increased. The reactor tests showed that the optimum conditions for maximization of H2/CO ratio were: sonication time zero, calcination temperature 800°C, H2O/ethanol ratio 3 and reactor temperature 300°C. The mole percent of H2 and CO in these conditions were 64.46 and 0.011%, respectively.

  9. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.

    2013-05-03

    Co3O4, Fe2O3 and a mixture of the two oxides Co-Fe (molar ratio of Co3O4/Fe 2O3 = 0.67 and atomic ratio of Co/Fe = 1) were prepared by the calcination of cobalt oxalate and/or iron oxalate salts at 500 C for 2 h in static air using water as a solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high, underwent fast deactivation. In comparison, over the Co-Fe catalyst both the H2 yield and stability were higher than that found over the pure Co3O4 or Fe 2O3 catalysts. DRIFTS-MS studies under the reaction feed highlighted that the Co-Fe catalyst had increased amounts of adsorbed OH/water; similar to Fe2O3. Increasing the amount of reactive species (water/OH species) adsorbed on the Co-Fe catalyst surface is proposed to facilitate the steam reforming reaction rather than decomposition reactions reducing by-product formation and providing a higher H2 yield. © Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reforming of oxygenates for H2 production: correlating reactivity of ethylene glycol and ethanol on Pt(111) and Ni/Pt(111) with surface d-band center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoplyak, Orest; Barteau, Mark A; Chen, Jingguang G

    2006-02-02

    The dehydrogenation and decarbonylation of ethylene glycol and ethanol were studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on Pt(111) and Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces, as probe reactions for the reforming of oxygenates for the production of H2 for fuel cells. Ethylene glycol reacted via dehydrogenation to form CO and H2, corresponding to the desired reforming reaction, and via total decomposition to produce C(ad), O(ad), and H2. Ethanol reacted by three reaction pathways, dehydrogenation, decarbonylation, and total decomposition, producing CO, H2, CH4, C(ad), and O(ad). Surfaces prepared by deposition of a monolayer of Ni on Pt(111) at 300 K, designated Ni-Pt-Pt(111), displayed increased reforming activity compared to Pt(111), subsurface monolayer Pt-Ni-Pt(111), and thick Ni/Pt(111). Reforming activity was correlated with the d-band center of the surfaces and displayed a linear trend for both ethylene glycol and ethanol, with activity increasing as the surface d-band center moved closer to the Fermi level. This trend was opposite to that previously observed for hydrogenation reactions, where increased activity occurred on subsurface monolayers as the d-band center shifted away from the Fermi level. Extrapolation of the correlation between activity and the surface d-band center of bimetallic systems may provide useful predictions for the selection and rational design of bimetallic catalysts for the reforming of oxygenates.

  11. Characterization of Ni and W co-loaded SBA-15 catalyst and its hydrogen production catalytic ability on ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kwak, Byeong Sub; Min, Bong-Ki; Kang, Misook

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the application of advanced bimetallic catalytic species of Ni and W to effectively produce hydrogen gases from ethanol steam reforming. The highest reactivity was achieved using the Ni0.95W0.05/SBA-15 catalyst. The maximum H2 production and ethanol conversion of 90% and 85%, respectively, were obtained for 0.4 g catalyst at 600 °C after 10 h with a EtOH:H2O ratio of 1:3 and a gas hourly space velocity of 6000 h-1. This highlights a synergy between the Ni and W loading on SBA-15 during ethanol steam reforming that occurs through the inhibition of Ni particle agglomeration and consequent decrease in catalytic deactivation. Additionally, the supplied W ingredients promoted CO2 selectivity, which was generated from the CO-water gas shift reaction.

  12. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by direct synthesis and impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A.; Vizcaino, A.J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia (ESCET), c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen selectivity and the CO{sub 2}/(CO + CO{sub 2}) molar ratio. The best catalytic performance was achieved at 600 C. Products distribution was the result of the combined effects of metal particles size, metal content and Ni/Cu ratio on the catalyst. In addition, two catalysts were prepared by the method of direct insertion of Ni and Cu in the initial stage of the SBA-15 synthesis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2}- adsorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) results evidenced that SBA-15 materials with long range hexagonal ordering were successfully synthesized in the presence of copper and nickel salts with the (Cu + Ni) contents around 4-6 wt.%. However, lower hydrogen selectivity as well as ethanol and water conversions were obtained with catalysts prepared by direct synthesis in comparison with those prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. Particularly, the best catalytic results were achieved with a sample impregnated with 2 and 7 wt.% of copper and nickel, respectively. (author)

  13. Effects of Catalysts and Membranes on the Performance of Membrane Reactors in Steam Reforming of Ethanol at Moderate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Miyamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam reforming of ethanol in the membrane reactor using the Pd77Ag23 membrane was evaluated in Ni/CeO2 and Co/CeO2 at atmospheric pressure. At 673 K, the H2 yield in the Pd77Ag23 membrane reactor over Co/CeO2 was found to be higher than that over Ni/CeO2, although the H2 yield over Ni/CeO2 exceeded that over Co/CeO2 at 773 K. This difference was owing to their reaction mechanism. At 773 K, the effect of H2 removal could be understood as the equilibrium shift. In contrast, the H2 removal kinetically inhibited the reverse methane steam reforming at low temperature. Thus, the low methane-forming reaction rate of Co/CeO2 was favorable at 673 K. The addition of a trace amount of Ru increased the H2 yield effectively in the membrane reactor, indicating that a reverse H2 spill over mechanism of Ru would enhance the kinetical effect of H2 separation. Finally, the effect of membrane performance on the reactor performance by using amorphous alloy membranes with different compositions was evaluated. The H2 yield was set in the order of H2 permeation flux regardless of the membrane composition.

  14. Nickel and cobalt as active phase on supported zirconia catalysts for bio-ethanol reforming: Influence of the reaction mechanism on catalysts performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R.; Rodriguez, L.; Serrano, A.; Munoz, G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Benito, M.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production was investigated on Co/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts promoted with lanthana. Catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by XRD and TPR. TPD-R experiments were also carried out to determine the role of active phase on reaction mechanism. The results suggest that adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Then, the adsorbed acetaldehyde may evolve by different mechanisms, depending on the nature of active phase. On one hand, in cobalt-based catalyst, acetaldehyde could be reformed directly. By acetaldehyde thermal decomposition, methyl and formaldehyde groups are obtained. By coupling of methyl groups, ethane can be obtained. At medium temperature range, WGS reaction contribution is noteworthy. On the other hand, in nickel-based catalyst, acetone was detected in a higher temperature range as the main intermediate reaction product, which indicates that acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone by decarbonylation of acetaldehyde leading to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} formation. In addition, acetone can also be reformed to give both H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Contrary to cobalt-based catalyst, ethylene was detected at intermediate range temperature which suggests that it was formed by ethanol dehydration reaction. Ethylene polymerization could easily explain coke formation, which must be avoided. Steam reforming reaction was studied at S/C ratio of 4.84 and 700 C, to verify the activity, selectivity and stability of the catalysts. Ethanol conversion reached 100% and catalysts were very stable for almost 50 h on stream. No significant differences were detected in both catalysts. Nevertheless, TPO experiments performed on used samples demonstrate a higher carbon production on nickel based catalyst that can be correlated to ethanol dehydration contribution on it reaction pathway. (author)

  15. Low Temperature and H2 Selective Catalysts for Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Wang, Yong; King, David L.; Platon, Alex; Chin, Ya-Huei

    2006-04-01

    Supported Rh catalysts have been developed for selective H2 production at low temperatures. Ethanol dehydration is favorable over either acidic or basic supports such as γ-Al2O3 and MgAl2O4, while ethanol dehydrogenation is more favorable over neutral supports. A series of CeO2-ZrO2 supports with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios were prepared by a co-precipitation method and Rh was impregnated on the as-synthesized support to achieve a strong metal to support interaction (SMSI). 2%Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst exhibited the highest H2 yield at 450oC among the various supported Rh catalysts evaluated in this study. This is mainly due to a favored reaction pathway via ethanol dehydrogenation to form the acetaldehyde intermediate, and both the strong interaction between Rh and Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 and the high oxygen storage capacity of Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 which favors oxidation of acetaldehyde decomposition products

  16. Development of robust Co-based catalysts for the selective H{sub 2}-production by ethanol steam-reforming. The Fe-promoter effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Pena O' Shea, Victor A.; Nafria, Raquel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of iron promoter on cobalt-based catalysts, active in the ethanol steam-reforming, was studied. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}(0{<=} x{<=}0.60) oxides prepared by co-precipitation and an Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} prepared by wetness impregnation are analysed. The activation process of the oxides under reaction conditions was studied by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD); the activation depended on the iron content of the oxides. The systems were characterized by means of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), XRD and tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at 623-673 K. An optimal iron loading that gives rise to a high H{sub 2}selectivity and catalyst stability was determined. (author)

  17. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  18. Hydrogen production by photocatalytic ethanol reforming using Eu- and S-doped anatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskelova, Jarmila [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Michal, Robert [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Caplovicova, Maria [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Center STU for Nanodiagnostics, University Research Park, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, 812 43 Bratislava (Slovakia); Antoniadou, Maria [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Caplovic, Lubomir [Institute of Materials Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Paulínska 16, Trnava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Lianos, Panagiotis, E-mail: lianos@upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2014-06-01

    Pure or S- and Eu-doped nanocrystalline titania has been synthesized by precipitation in aqueous solutions of TiSO{sub 4} in the presence of urea. Spherical aggregates were formed made of nanoparticles of size ranging between 33 and 46 nm. The samples were calcined at 700–750 °C and this allowed for making materials with high degree of crystallinity. Doping preserved the anatase phase and allowed for a substantial value of specific surface in spite of the high temperature annealing. The photocatalytic capacity of doped and undoped samples was monitored by photocatalytic alcohol reforming and hydrogen production. Only samples co-doped with Pt nanoparticles produced hydrogen. Doping with either S, Eu or both gave much more efficient photocatalysts than the undoped samples. The superiority of doped samples is assigned to a larger specific surface and to the impeding of electron–hole recombination in that case.

  19. High yield hydrogen production from low CO selectivity ethanol steam reforming over modified Ni/Y 2O 3 catalysts at low temperature for fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Luo, Dingfa; Xiao, Pu; Jigang, Li; Yu, Shanshan

    Ethanol-water mixtures were converted directly into H 2 with 67.6% yield and >98% conversion by catalytic steam reforming at 350 °C over modified Ni/Y 2O 3 catalysts heat treated at 500 °C. XRD was used to test the structure and calculate the grain sizes of the samples with different scan rates. The initial reaction kinetics of ethanol over modified and unmodified Ni/Y 2O 3 catalysts were studied by steady state reaction and a first-order reaction with respect to ethanol was found. TPD was used to analyze mechanism of ethanol desorption over Ni/Y 2O 3 catalyst. Rapid vaporization, efficiency tube reactor and catalyst were used so that homogeneous reactions producing carbon, acetaldehyde, and carbon monoxide could be minimized. And even no CO detective measured during the first 49 h reforming test on the modified catalyst Ni/Y 2O 3. This process has great potential for low cost H 2 generation in fuel cells for small portable applications where liquid fuel storage is essential and where systems must be small, simple, and robust.

  20. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts Derived from Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds Precursors for Synthesis Gas Production via Methane or Ethanol Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a favorably clean fuel, syngas (synthesis gas production has been the focus of concern in past decades. Substantial literatures reported the syngas production by various catalytic reforming reactions particularly in methane or ethanol reforming. Among the developed catalysts in these reforming processes, Ni-based catalysts from hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLcs precursors have drawn considerable attention for their preferable structural traits. This review covers the recent literature reporting syngas production with Ni-based catalysts from HTLc precursors via methane or ethanol reforming. The discussion was initiated with catalyst preparation (including conventional and novel means, followed by subsequent thermal treatment processes, then composition design and the addition of promoters in these catalysts. As Ni-based catalysts have thermodynamic potential to deactivate because of carbon deposition or metal sintering, measures for dealing with these problems were finally summarized. To obtain optimal catalytic performances and resultantly better syngas production, based on analyzing the achievements of the references, some perspectives were finally proposed.

  1. Non-Catalytic Ignition System for High Performance Advanced Monopropellant Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima Technologies, Inc. is developing a non-catalytic ignition technology for advanced green ionic salt monopropellants such as HAN-based monopropellant AF-M315E....

  2. Preparation, structural characterization and catalytic properties of Co/CeO2 catalysts for the steam reforming of ethanol and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovón, Adriana S. P.; Lovón-Quintana, Juan J.; Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Valença, Gustavo P.; Bernardi, Maria I. B.; Araújo, Vinícius D.; Rodrigues, Thenner S.; Robles-Dutenhefner, Patrícia A.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, Co/CeO2 catalysts, with different cobalt contents were prepared by the polymeric precursor method and were evaluated for the steam reforming of ethanol. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance, temperature programmed reduction analysis (TPR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be influenced by the experimental conditions and the nature of the catalyst employed. Physical-chemical characterizations revealed that the cobalt content of the catalyst influences the metal-support interaction which results in distinct catalyst performances. The catalyst with the highest cobalt content showed the best performance among the catalysts tested, exhibiting complete ethanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity close to 66% and good stability at a reaction temperature of 600 °C.

  3. Low CO content hydrogen production from oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over CuO-CeO2 catalysts at low-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue; Han; Yunbo; Yu; Hong; He; Jiaojiao; Zhao

    2013-01-01

    CuO-CeO2 catalysts were prepared by a urea precipitation method for the oxidative steam reforming of ethanol at low-temperature.The catalytic performance was evaluated and the catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,temperature-programmed reduction,field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis.Over CuOCeO2 catalysts,H2 with low CO content was produced in the whole tested temperature range of 250–450 C.The non-noble metal catalyst 20CuCe showed higher H2production rate than 1%Rh/CeO2 catalyst at 300–400 C and the advantage was more obvious after 20 h testing at400 C.These results further confirmed that CuO-CeO2 catalysts may be suitable candidates for low temperature hydrogen production from ethanol.

  4. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

    2006-08-01

    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  6. NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalysts prepared by citric acid method for steam reforming of ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jilei; WANG Yang; LIU Yuan

    2008-01-01

    NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2catalysts were prepared by citrate method and used for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol (SRE). The effect of nickel content and space velocity on the catalytic performance was investigated. The prepared catalysts were character-ized with XRD and thermal analysis techniques. 20%NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst was very active and selective for hydrogen production via SRE, in which ethanol conversion of 100% could be obtained with feed component of 20% (H2O+EtOH) and 80% N2, water/ethanol of 3/1 in molar ratio at 350 ℃. Also, the catalyst showed good stability for anti-sintering and carbon-resistance. The XRD illuminated that both NiO and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 crystal sizes were very small in NiO-Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst, and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid solution was formed.

  7. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electro-catalysts for application as SOFC anodes. XRD and TPR characterization, and evaluation in ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Electro-catalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared using physical mixture and modified Pechini methods; they were supported on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia Doped Ceria (GDC). The composites had compositions of 35% metal load and 65% support (70% wt. YSZ and 30% wt. GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for six hours and in the temperature range 300 - 900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in spinel structure; after reducing the sample in hydrogen, Ni-Fe alloys were formed. The presence of Ni decreased the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of Fe to Ni anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibits the carbon deposition. The bimetallic 30Fe5Ni samples reached an ethanol conversion of about 95%, and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, the ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electro-catalyst. However, the substitution of Ni for Fe significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the electro-catalyst: 74, 31 and 9 wt. % in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (orig.)

  8. A grain size distribution model for non-catalytic gas-solid reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A new model to describe the non-catalytic conversion of a solid by a reactant gas is proposed. This so-called grain size distribution (GSD) model presumes the porous particle to be a collection of grains of various sizes. The size distribution of the grains is derived from mercury porosimetry measur

  9. Analysis and development of an ethanol compact reformer for hydrogen production for fuel cell; Analise e modelagem de reformador compacto de etanol para obtencao de hidrodenio para celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, P.R.F.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: renzo@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact and modular reforming unit designed for the generation of 1 kw of electrical power. For this, initially the thermodynamic limits for the steam reforming of ethanol are calculated in order to assess the limits in the production of hydrogen and other by-products and to select the best values of process stoichiometry, temperature and pressure for maximum hydrogen selectivity and minimum coke formation. In the following, a First and second Laws analysis is performed to analyze the equilibrium conditions of the main chemical reactions and to estimate the magnitude of the heat transfer required by the heating, evaporation, superheating and reforming of ethanol. Then, the catalytic reformer reactor is analyzed and sized, basing the analysis into the application of the equation for the conservation of mass of the chemical species and a model for the chemical kinetics. A basic reactor design is then proposed accompanied by the corresponding sizes and operating conditions. (author)

  10. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  11. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electrocatalysts for application as SOFC anodes: XRD and TPR characterization and evaluation in the ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Paz Fiuza, Raigenis; Aurelio da Silva, Marcos; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [Energy and Materials Science Group - GECIM, Institute of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 41170290 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Electrocatalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared by means of modified Pechini and physical mixture methods and using on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia-Doped Ceria (GDC) as support. The former method was based on the formation a polymeric precursor that was subsequently calcined; the later method was based on the mixture of NiO and the support. The resulting composites had 35 wt.% metal load and 65 wt.% support (70 wt.% YSZ and 30 wt.% GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were then characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in the ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for 6 h in the temperature range of 300-900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with a spinel structure, which, after reduction in hydrogen, formed Ni-Fe alloys. The presence of Ni was observed to decrease the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of iron to the nickel anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibited carbon deposition. The resulting bimetallic 30Fe5Ni sample reached an ethanol conversion of about 95% and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electrocatalyst. However, the substitution of nickel for iron significantly reduced carbon deposition on the electrocatalyst: 74, 31, and 9 wt.% in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (author)

  12. A kinetic study on non-catalytic reactions in hydroprocessing Boscan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Marafi; E. Kam; A. Stanislaus [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center

    2008-08-15

    Non-catalytic hydrothermal cracking reactions are known to associate with catalytic hydrocracking reactions. In a recent study on hydroprocessing of Boscan crude over a specific catalyst system containing three distinct catalysts, it was found that hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetallation (HDM) reactions continued even when the catalyst is severely deactivated. Since the reactor was packed with considerable amount of inert material besides the three catalysts, it will be advantage to determine if the inert materials can also facilitate hydroprocessing reactions. A series of kinetic experiments for the inert particles was undertaken under different space velocity and temperature conditions. The extent of catalytic and non-catalytic hydroprocessing reactions was assessed. Through statistical analysis, the initial reaction rate constant, reaction order and activation energy for various hydroprocessing reactions were then determined. The absolute average deviations (AAD) of the kinetics values obtained for inert materials are less than 10%. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Ethanol steam reforming over Rh/Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} catalysts. Impact of the CO-CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} interconversion reactions on the H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birot, Anne; Epron, Florence; Duprez, Daniel [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), UMR 6503 CNRS and University of Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Descorme, Claude [IRCELYON, UMR 5256 CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2008-02-21

    Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} mixed oxide-supported 1 wt.% Rh catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation using Rh nitrate as a precursor and calcined at 900 C. They were characterized by BET surface area, XRD, CO{sub 2} chemisorption and H{sub 2} chemisorption at -85 C and tested in the ethanol steam reforming at 600 C under atmospheric pressure, with water to ethanol molar ratio equal to 4, without carrier gas. The best performances, i.e. the highest hydrogen yield and the lowest coke deposition, were obtained over Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, i.e. 3.63 mol H{sub 2}/mol{sub ethanol}. This catalyst was subsequently evaluated under various reaction conditions. Whatever the temperature and the water to ethanol ratio, the ethanol steam reforming yielded a large amount of methane, which tends to reduce the H{sub 2} production. To elucidate the origin of the methane production, CO/CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} interconversion reactions were studied. It was shown that such catalyst favours the formation of methane via CO hydrogenation. The direct hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} was not observed. In parallel, the catalyst was active in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, leading CO and H{sub 2}O. (author)

  14. The role of metal-support interaction for CO-free hydrogen from low temperature ethanol steam reforming on Rh-Fe catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Catherine K S; Chen, Luwei; Du, Yonghua; Schreyer, Martin; Daniel Ong, S W; Poh, Chee Kok; Hong, Liang; Borgna, Armando

    2017-02-08

    Rh-Fe catalysts supported on Ca-Al2O3, MgO and ZrO2 were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 623 K and compared to Rh catalysts on the same supports without iron promotion. The metal-support interaction among the three entities, i.e. Rh ↔ Fe2O3 ← support (ZrO2, MgO and Ca-Al2O3) was investigated using H2-chemisorption, TEM, XPS and in situ techniques such as DRIFTS, temperature-resolved XRD and XAS. As compared to the unpromoted Rh catalysts on the same supports, the CO selectivity is depressed in the presence of iron on Rh/MgO and Rh/Ca-Al2O3, the latter being significantly superior. The role of metal-support interaction for CO-free hydrogen generation was unravelled using a combination of techniques. It was found that the reducibility of iron oxide determines the extent of the strong metal support interaction between Rh and Fe2O3 and the reducibility of iron oxide was affected by the support. On Rh-Fe/Ca-Al2O3, a good balance of the interaction between Rh, Fe2O3 and Ca-Al2O3 prevents strong metal support interaction between Rh and Fe2O3 and thus promotes CO elimination via water-gas-shift reaction on Rh-FexOy sites.

  15. The non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and microtubule-disassembly activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle D Grode

    Full Text Available Microtubule severing is a biochemical reaction that generates an internal break in a microtubule and regulation of microtubule severing is critical for cellular processes such as ciliogenesis, morphogenesis, and meiosis and mitosis. Katanin is a conserved heterodimeric ATPase that severs and disassembles microtubules, but the molecular determinants for regulation of microtubule severing by katanin remain poorly defined. Here we show that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and activity in living cells. Our data indicate that the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT domain and adjacent linker region of the Drosophila katanin catalytic subunit Kat60 cooperate to regulate microtubule severing in two distinct ways. First, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 decrease its abundance by enhancing its proteasome-dependent degradation. The Drosophila katanin regulatory subunit Kat80, which is required to stabilize Kat60 in cells, conversely reduces the proteasome-dependent degradation of Kat60. Second, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 augment its microtubule-disassembly activity by enhancing its association with microtubules. On the basis of our data, we propose that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin serve as the principal sites of integration of regulatory inputs, thereby controlling its ability to sever and disassemble microtubules.

  16. Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol to Produce Hydrogen over Co/CeO2 Catalysts Derived from Ce1−xCoxO2−y Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyong Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were prepared by homogeneous precipitation using urea as a precipitant. The Co/CeO2 catalysts obtained from the Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were used for the steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen. Co ions could enter the CeO2 lattices to form Ce1−xCoxO2−y mixed oxides at x ≤ 0.2 using the homogeneous precipitation (hp method. CeO2 was an excellent support for Co metal in the steam reforming of ethanol because a strong interaction between support and metal (SISM exists in the Co/CeO2 catalysts. Because Co/CeO2 (hp prepared by homogeneous precipitation possessed a high BET surface area and small Co metal particles, Co/CeO2 (hp showed a higher ethanol conversion than the Co/CeO2 catalysts prepared using the co-precipitation (cp method and the impregnation (im method. The selectivity of CO2 over Co/CeO2 (hp increased with increasing reaction temperature at from 573 to 673 K, and decreased with increasing reaction temperature above 673 K due to the increase of CO formation. The carbonaceous deposits formed on the catalyst surface during the reaction caused a slow deactivation in the steam reforming of ethanol over Co/CeO2 (hp. The catalytic activity of the used catalysts could be regenerated by an oxidation-reduction treatment, calcined in air at 723 K and then reduced by H2 at 673 K.

  17. Microscopic characterization of changes in the structure of KCo/CeO{sub 2} catalyst used in the steam reforming of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Słowik, Grzegorz, E-mail: Grzegorz.Slowik@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl; Greluk, Magdalena; Machocki, Andrzej

    2016-04-15

    The cobalt catalyst with a support of CeO{sub 2} and potassium promoted (KCo/CeO{sub 2}) was prepared by an impregnation method and used in the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE). The catalyst was characterized in its initial oxide form and after its work in the SRE by electron microscopy and EDS methods. Microscopic characterization of the catalyst allowed for identification of the active phase (in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} form) and the CeO{sub 2} support phase (O-terminated), existing in the fresh catalyst, and also the active phase (at various forms, Co and CoO), support phase as well as various carbonaceous phases in the used catalyst. STEM-EDS studies allowed to determine the distribution of constituent elements in the catalyst before reaction and besides of them - also carbon deposit after the SRE. Microscopic studies of used catalyst proved that it was largely covered with carbonaceous deposit which was the main reason of deactivation of the catalyst. Carbon deposit growing during the reaction causes destruction of the support and the active phase into smaller particles which are sunked in the carbonaceous structures. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} and K promoter do not prevent cobalt catalyst from carbon formation in the SRE. • Carbon deposit was present in three forms: fibrous, encapsulates, partly surrounding. • Two types of carbon deposit structures: amorphous and hexagonal graphite were found. • Metallic cobalt and ceria support crystallites are present with K in fibrous carbon. • Cobalt active phase is present under SRE conditions as metallic Co and CoO.

  18. Biodiesel production through non-catalytic supercritical transesterification: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inconveniences of the conventional method for biodiesel production by alkaline catalysis suggests research towards alternative methods, with the non-catalytic transesterification using an alcohol at supercritical conditions proposed as a promising technique for biodiesel production. The so-called supercritical method (SCM has powerful advantages over conventional techniques, such as fast reaction rates, feedstock flexibility, production efficiency and environmentally friendly benefits. However, application of this methodology has some limitations, like operating conditions (elevated temperature and pressure and higher amounts of alcohol, which result in high energy costs and degradation of the products generated. In this review paper the state of the art in relation to the use of the SCM for biodiesel production is reported and discussed, describing the characteristics of the method, the influence of operational parameters on the ester yield, patents available in the field and the perspectives for application of the technique.

  19. Effects of adding lanthanum to Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts on ethanol steam reforming; Efeito da adicao de lantanio em catalisadores de Ni/ZrO{sub 2} aplicados na reacao de reforma a vapor de etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto [Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Alegre, ES (Brazil); Habitzheuter, Filipe; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira, E-mail: eassaf@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The catalytic performance of Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts loaded with different lanthanum content for steam reforming of ethanol was investigated. Catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction, and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Results showed that lanthanum addition led to an increase in the degree of reduction of both NiO and nickel surface species interacting with the support, due to the higher dispersion effect. The best catalytic performance at 450 deg C was found for the Ni/12LZ catalyst, which exhibited an effluent gaseous mixture with the highest H{sub 2} yield. (author)

  20. An experimental study of diffusion and convection of multicomponent gases through catalytic and non-catalytic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1994-01-01

    Diffusion of binary and ternary gases through catalytic and non-catalytic membranes has been studied experimentally at atmospheric pressure. These experiments were conducted in a modified Wicke-Kallenbach diffusion cell consisting of two continuously stirred gas volumes separated by a membrane. The

  1. Hydrogen production through allothermal ethanol reforming for fuel cells application: first generation prototype; Producao de hidrogenio atraves da reforma-vapor do etanol para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel: prototipo de primeira geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Energia do Hidrogenio, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained with the allothermal ethanol reforming system for synthesis gas (syn-gas) production and hydrogen upgrading and purification for fuel cell applications. The system was designed to supply hydrogen to a 500 W PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell, with an electrical efficiency of 45%, which requires approximately 0.45 m3.h-1 of hydrogen, with a maximum carbon monoxide concentration of 20 {mu}mol.mol-1 (ppm). The study was performed changing the operation temperature and analyzing the resulting syn-gas through gas chromatography for a specific catalyst. This catalyst was tested up to 700 deg C, 1 bar and fixed stoichiometric steam to carbon ratio. The syn-gas, before carbon monoxide shift reactor implementation, was submitted to a two-bed-three-segments purification step composed of chemical and physical molecular sieves for hydrogen purification. The carbon monoxide shift reactor (water gas shift reactor) is under development to improve the efficiency-to-hydrogen and maximize the life of the purification bed. The final results also include a discussion about possible reactions involved in ethanol steam-reforming for such catalyst. (author)

  2. Structural determinants of APOBEC3B non-catalytic domain for molecular assembly and catalytic regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Hanjing; Arutiunian, Vagan; Fang, Yao; Besse, Guillaume; Morimoto, Cherie; Zirkle, Brett; Chen, Xiaojiang S. (USC)

    2017-05-30

    The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types. The molecular basis of how the N-terminal non-catalytic CD1 regulates the catalytic activity and consequently, biological function of A3B remains relatively unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a soluble human A3B-CD1 variant and delineate several structural elements of CD1 involved in molecular assembly, nucleic acid interactions and catalytic regulation of A3B. We show that (i) A3B expressed in human cells exists in hypoactive high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes, which can be activated without apparent dissociation into low-molecular-weight (LMW) species after RNase A treatment. (ii) Multiple surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 mediate the HMW complex assembly and affect the catalytic activity, including one tryptophan residue W127 that likely acts through regulating nucleic acid binding. (iii) One of the highly positively charged surfaces on CD1 is involved in RNA-dependent attenuation of A3B catalysis. (iv) Surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 are involved in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) binding to A3B. The structural and biochemical insights described here suggest that unique structural features on CD1 regulate the molecular assembly and catalytic activity of A3B through distinct mechanisms.

  3. Nitrogen oxides from waste incineration: control by selective non-catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandaryaa, S; Gavasci, R; Lombardi, F; Fiore, A

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process was carried out to determine the efficiency of NOx removal and NH3 mass balance, the NOx reducing reagent used. Experimental tests were conducted on a full-scale SNCR system installed in a hospital waste incineration plant. Anhydrous NH3 was injected at the boiler entrance for NOx removal. Ammonia was analyzed after each flue-gas treatment unit in order to establish its mass balance and NH3 slip in the stack gas was monitored as well. The effective fraction of NH3 for the thermal NOx reduction was calculated from measured values of injected and residual NH3. Results show that a NOx reduction efficiency in the range of 46.7-76.7% is possible at a NH3/NO molar ratio of 0.9-1.5. The fraction of NH3 used in NOx removal was found to decrease with rising NH3/NO molar ratio. The NH3 slip in the stack gas was very low, below permitted limits, even at the higher NH3 dosages used. No direct correlation was found between the NH3/NO molar ratio and the NH3 slip in the stack gas since the major part of the residual NH3 was converted into ammonium salts in the dry scrubbing reactor and subsequently collected in the fabric filter. Moreover, another fraction of NH3 was dissolved in the scrubbing liquor.

  4. Kinetics of Non-Catalytic Esterification of Free Fatty Acids Present in Jatropha Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Rani, Karna Narayana; Ramana Neeharika, Tulasi Sri Venkata; Kumar, Thella Prathap; Satyavathi, Bankupalli; Sailu, Chintha

    2016-05-01

    Non-catalytic esterfication of free fatty acids (FFA) present in vegetable oils is an alternative pretreatment process for the biodiesel production. Biodiesel, consists of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fat. This study presents kinetics of thermal esterification of free fatty acids present in jatropha oil with methanol. The effect of process parameters like reaction time (1-5 h), temperature (170-190°C) and oil to methanol ratio (1:3-1:5) at constant pressure was investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be oil to methanol ratio of 1:4, 190°C, at 27.1 bar and 5 h which gave a maximum conversion of 95.1%. A second order kinetic model for both forward and backward reactions was proposed to study the reaction system. A good agreement was observed between the experimental data and the model values. The activation energy for forward reaction and the heat of reaction were found to be 36.364 Kcal/mol and 1.74 Kcal/mol respectively.

  5. Targeting Non-Catalytic Cysteine Residues Through Structure-Guided Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Turner, David M; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of non-catalytic cysteine residues with small molecules is drawing increased attention from drug discovery scientists and chemical biologists. From a biological perspective, genomic and proteomic studies have revealed the presence of cysteine mutations in several oncogenic proteins, suggesting both a functional role for these residues and also a strategy for targeting them in an 'allele specific' manner. For the medicinal chemist, the structure-guided design of cysteine- reactive molecules is an appealing strategy to realize improved selectivity and pharmacodynamic properties in drug leads. Finally, for chemical biologists, the modification of cysteine residues provides a unique means to probe protein structure and allosteric regulation. Here, we review three applications of cysteinemodifying small molecules: 1) the optimization of existing drug leads, 2) the discovery of new lead compounds, and 3) the use of cysteine-reactive molecules as probes of protein dynamics. In each case, structure-guided design plays a key role in determining which cysteine residue(s) to target and in designing compounds with the proper geometry to enable both covalent interaction with the targeted cysteine and productive non-covalent interactions with nearby protein residues.

  6. Thermodynamical simulation for solid oxide (SOFC) type fuel cells with ethanol direct internal reforming; Simulacao termodinamica para celulas a combustivel do tipo SOFC com reforma interna direta do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aline Lima da; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Heck, Nestor Cezar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM)]. E-mail: als14br2000@yahoo.com.br; Mello, Celso Gustavo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica (PPGEQ); Halmenschlager, Cibele Melo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2008-07-01

    In SOFC, high operative temperature allows the direct conversion of ethanol into H{sub 2} to take place in the electrochemical cell. Direct internal reforming of ethanol, however, can produce undesirable products that diminish system efficiency and, in the case of carbon deposition over the anode, may occur the breakdown of the electrode. In this way, thermodynamic analysis is fundamental to predict the product distribution as well as the conditions favorable for carbon to precipitate inside the cell. Equilibrium determinations are performed by the Gibbs energy minimization method, using the GRG algorithm. Thermodynamic conditions for carbon deposition were analyzed, in order to establish temperature ranges and H{sub 2}O/ethanol ratios where carbon precipitation is not feasible. A mathematical relationship between Lagrange multipliers and carbon activity is presented, unveiling the carbon activity in atmosphere. The effect of the type of solid electrolyte (O{sup 2-} or H{sup +} conducting) on carbon formation is also investigated. The results of this work are in agreement with previous results reported in literature using the stoichiometric method. (author)

  7. A non-catalytic vapor growth regime for organohalide perovskite nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Waleed, Aashir; Gu, Leilei; Zhang, Daquan; Tavakoli, Rouhollah; Lei, Bingbing; Su, Wenjun; Fang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2017-05-11

    In this work, a novel and facile synthesis process to fabricate single crystalline organometal halide perovskite nanowires has been successfully developed. Nanowires were grown in a high density ordered array from metal nanoclusters inside anodic aluminum oxide templates using a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Specifically, perovskite NWs were grown as a result of the reaction between methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the Pb/Sn (Pb or Sn) metal in anodic aluminum oxide templates under optimal conditions. The characterization results show that there is a reaction zone at the interface between the perovskite material and metal, at the bottom of the anodic aluminum oxide nanochannels. In order to sustain perovskite NW growth, MAI molecules have to diffuse downward through the perovskite NWs to reach the reaction zone. In fact, the reaction is facilitated by the formation of an intermediate product of the metal iodide compound. This suggests that the Pb/Sn metal is converted to PbI2/SnI2 first and then perovskite NWs are formed as a result of the reaction between MAI and PbI2/SnI2 through a vapor-solid-solid process. The optical characterization results demonstrate that the as-synthesized NWs with an ultra-high nanostructure density can serve as ideal candidates for optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting didoes, photodetectors, etc. And the reported growth approach here is highly versatile combining the merits of excellent controllability, cost-effectiveness and tunability on material composition and physical properties.

  8. 来自自然界的可再生能源-生物质乙醇重整制氢%Renewable Energy from Nature-Hydrogen Production from Bio-ethanol Steam Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 董中朝; 邓小芝; 王岩; 闵延琴; 邱新平

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol and ethanol-water mixture were converted directly into H2 with ~60% selectivity and ~100% conversion by a catalytic reforming on nickle lanthanide oxide catalysts. The catalysts were optimized and the refroming reaction were performed at temperatures sufficiently low that the water gas shift(WGS) reaction can be combined to decrease CO .This process has great potential for low-cost H2 generation in fuel cells for small portable applications while where liquid fuel storage is essential and where systems must be small, simple, and robust.%在镧系金属氧化物载镍催化剂上通过催化重整乙醇和乙醇水溶液可以直接转化为H2,H2的选择性达到60%,乙醇的转化率达到100%.优化催化剂及降低重整反应的温度以使水汽转化反应同时发生来降低产物气中CO的含量.该过程对于生产小型燃料电池的低成本燃料H2,以及便携燃料电池系统需要液态燃料存储的应用具有巨大的潜在价值.

  9. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor.

  10. Characterization of catalysts Rh and Ni/Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} for hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming; Caracterisation de catalyseurs Rhodium et Nickel/ Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} pour la production d'hydrogene par vaporeformage de l'ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birot, A

    2005-07-01

    This work concerned a study on catalytic behaviour of metallic catalysts (Rh or Ni) supported on earth rare oxides Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} in ethanol steam reforming in order to produce hydrogen. Catalyst 1%Rh/Ce0,50Zr0,50O{sub 2} showed a good activity with a good hydrogen yield. We turned a study onto understanding inter-conversion reaction between H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} which lead to CH{sub 4} formation. We also studied intrinsic properties of catalysts. We confirmed basic character of catalysts and a good hydrogenation activity. A good activity in CO hydrogenation allowed to evidence a necessity to use a catalyst which is less active in hydrogenation reaction and with a basic character in order to improve hydrogen yield. (author)

  11. Biodiesel production with continuous supercritical process: non-catalytic transesterification and esterification with or without carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ho-mu; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2013-10-01

    The non-catalytic transesterification of refined sunflower oil with supercritical methanol, in the presence of carbon dioxide, was conducted in a tubular reactor at temperatures from 553.2 to 593.2K and pressures up to 25.0 MPa. The FAME yield can be achieved up to about 0.70 at 593.2 K and 10.0 MPa in 23 min with methanol:oil of 25:1 in molar ratio. The effect of adding CO2 on the FAME yield is insignificant. The kinetic behavior of the non-catalytic esterification and transesterification of oleic acid or waste cooking oil (WCO) with supercritical methanol was also investigated. By using the supercritical process, the presence of free fatty acid (FFA) in WCO gives positive contribution to FAME production. The FAME yield of 0.90 from WCO can be achieved in 13 min at 573.2K. The kinetic data of supercritical transesterification and esterifaication were correlated well with a power-law model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of SiO2 non-catalytic nucleation coating for the solidification of undercooled melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    SiO2 non-catalytic nucleation films were coated onto a ceramic substrate and the inner surface of a ceramic crucible by the Sol-Gel method. The surface morphology of the coatings was characterized with an atomic force microscope and a scanning electronic microscope. The non-catalytic effect of the coating on the heterogeneous nucleation of metal melts was tested through measuring the nucleation undercooling. Investigation results indicated that the prepared coating could act as a baffle-wall to prevent the metal melt from nucleating heterogeneously on the inner surface of the crystalline crucible. The tiny holes with a diameter below 2 μm and heaves on the coating surface have no evident effect on the undercooling of metal melts. For a poly-layer coating, the super-layer can cover the cracks in the sub-layers, which prevents the cracks in the coating from spreading in the direction vertical to the coating layers and thus eliminates the effect of cracks on the coating.

  13. 低镍/ZnO-TiO2催化剂的乙醇水蒸气重整制氢%Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over Low Nickel Content Ni/ZnO-TiO2 Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利平; 张鹏; 马晓建; 韩秀丽

    2011-01-01

    为考察低镍负载量对乙醇水蒸气重整制氢催化剂性能的影响,利用沉积-沉淀法(DP)制备了镍负载最质量分率为0.5%~5.0%的Ni/ZnO-TiO2催化剂,并在内径14 mm的固定床管式反应器中对低镍催化剂进行了性能评价.结果表明,低镍/ZnO-TiO2催化剂具有较好的乙醇水蒸气重整制氢性能.在水醇物质的量比为13:1及反应温度为400~550℃时,乙醇转化率均达到了90%以上,其中镍负载量为2%的催化剂有最好的催化性能.对镍负载量2%的2.ONi/ZnO-TiO2催化剂进行了X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)表征,分析结果表明,复合载体ZnO-TiO2负载的Ni基催化剂的晶体粒径为68~240 mm,活性组分Ni分散良好,反应后的催化剂上有积炭生成.%In order to explore the influence of low nickel loading on the characteristics of hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming, Ni/ZnO-TiO2 catalysts in the nickel loading range 0.5%-5.0% were prepared by deposition-precipitation ( DP ) method, and the catalytic performances were evaluated in a φ14 mm fixed bed tube reactor. The results showed that Ni/ZnO-TiO2 catalysts have better catalytic performance for hydrogen production of ethanol steam reforming. Ethanol conversion was beyond 90% under the conditions of the molar ratio of water to ethanol of 13:1 and the reaction temperature of 400-550 ℃. The catalyst with 2% nickel loading showed the best catalytic performance comparatively. Catalyst with the nickel loading of 2% was by means of BET, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results characterized by XRD and SEM indicated that the crystal sizes of Ni-based catalyst supported on composite support of ZnO-TiO2 were 68-240 nm, the active component nickel was dispersion well, and formation of carbon could found on used catalyst surface.

  14. Effect study of the support in nickel and cobalt catalysts for obtaining hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming; Estudo do efeito do suporte em catalisadores de cobalto e niquel para obtencao de hidrogenio a partir da reforma a vapor do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sirlane Gomes da

    2013-09-01

    A range of oxide-supported metal catalysts have been investigated for the steam reforming of ethanol for the production of hydrogen and subsequent application in fuel cells. The catalysts were synthesized by the co-precipitation and internal gelification methods using cobalt and nickel as active metals supported on aluminum, zirconium, lanthanum and cerium oxides. After prepared and calcined at 550 C Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator the solids were fully characterized by different techniques such as X-rays diffraction(DRX), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption (B.E.T), temperature-programmed reduction in H2 (TPR-H2) and thermogravimetric analysis. The catalytic tests were performed in a monolithic quartz reactor and submitted to different thermodynamic conditions of steam reforming of ethanol at temperatures varying from 500 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator C to 800 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator C. The product gas streams from the reactor were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph. The cobalt/nickel catalyst supported on a ceria-lanthania mixture (Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) showed good catalytic performance in hydrogen selectivity reaching a concentration greater than 65%, when compared to other catalytic systems such as: Co{sub 10%} / Ni5% - CeO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}ZrO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - ZrO{sub 2}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Co{sub 10%} / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K{sub 2%}; Co{sub 10}% / Ni{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3} / Na{sub 2%}; Ni{sub 10%} / Co{sub 5%} - CeO{sub 2}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} e Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}CeO{sub 2}. (author)

  15. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol on Rh-Pt Catalysts: Influence of CeO2, ZrO2, and La2O3 as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-, ZrO2-, and La2O3-supported Rh-Pt catalysts were tested to assess their ability to catalyze the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE for H2 production. SRE activity tests were performed using EtOH:H2O:N2 (molar ratio 1:3:51 at a gaseous space velocity of 70,600 h−1 between 400 and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. The SRE stability of the catalysts was tested at 700 °C for 27 h time on stream under the same conditions. RhPt/CeO2, which showed the best performance in the stability test, also produced the highest H2 yield above 600 °C, followed by RhPt/La2O3 and RhPt/ZrO2. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by TEM, XPS, and TGA. The higher H2 selectivity of RhPt/CeO2 was ascribed to the formation of small (~5 nm and stable particles probably consistent of Rh-Pt alloys with a Pt surface enrichment. Both metals were oxidized and acted as an almost constant active phase during the stability test owing to strong metal-support interactions, as well as the superior oxygen mobility of the support. The TGA results confirmed the absence of carbonaceous residues in all the aged catalysts.

  16. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition to 290 °C (the supercritical state in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the reaction were determined by employing a simple method, with the overall chemical reaction followed the pseudo-first–order reaction. Based on the results, the rate constants of vegetables oil were significantly influenced by reaction temperature, which were gradually increased at subcritical temperature, but sharply increased in the supercritical state. However, the rate constants of soybean oil were slightly higher than that of palm oil. The activation energy for transesterification of soybean oil was 89.32 and 79.05 kJ/mole for palm oil. Meanwhile, the frequency factor values of both oils were 72462892 and 391210 min-1, respectively. The rate reaction for both of oil were expressed as -rTG = 72462892 exp(-89.32/RTCTG for soybean oil and -rTG = 391210 exp(-79.05/RTCTG for palm oil. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 18th October 2012; Revised: 14th December 2012; Accepted: 16th December 2012[How to Cite: N.P. Asri, S. Machmudah, W. Wahyudiono, S. Suprapto, K. Budikarjono, A. Roesyadi, M. Goto, (2013. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 215-223. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223 ] View in  |

  17. Structural and functional perturbation of Giardia lamblia triosephosphate isomerase by modification of a non-catalytic, non-conserved region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Hernández-Alcántara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed triosephosphate isomerase of Giardia lamblia (GlTIM as a target for rational drug design against giardiasis, one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Since the enzyme exists in the parasite and the host, selective inhibition is a major challenge because essential regions that could be considered molecular targets are highly conserved. Previous biochemical evidence showed that chemical modification of the non-conserved non-catalytic cysteine 222 (C222 inactivates specifically GlTIM. The inactivation correlates with the physicochemical properties of the modifying agent: addition of a non-polar, small chemical group at C222 reduces the enzyme activity by one half, whereas negatively charged, large chemical groups cause full inactivation. RESULTS: In this work we used mutagenesis to extend our understanding of the functional and structural effects triggered by modification of C222. To this end, six GlTIM C222 mutants with side chains having diverse physicochemical characteristics were characterized. We found that the polarity, charge and volume of the side chain in the mutant amino acid differentially alter the activity, the affinity, the stability and the structure of the enzyme. The data show that mutagenesis of C222 mimics the effects of chemical modification. The crystallographic structure of C222D GlTIM shows the disruptive effects of introducing a negative charge at position 222: the mutation perturbs loop 7, a region of the enzyme whose interactions with the catalytic loop 6 are essential for TIM stability, ligand binding and catalysis. The amino acid sequence of TIM in phylogenetic diverse groups indicates that C222 and its surrounding residues are poorly conserved, supporting the proposal that this region is a good target for specific drug design. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit species-specifically a ubiquitous, structurally highly conserved enzyme by

  18. Ethanol reformation combined with CO{sub 2} absorption for the production of hydrogen; Reformacion de etanol combinada con absorcion de CO{sub 2} para produccion de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Pina, B.B.; Delgado-Vigil, M.D.; Salinas-Gutierrez, J.M.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; Collins-Martinez, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: bogdan.beltran@cimav.edu.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work studied the ethanol reforming reaction combined with carbonatation of a metallic oxide to produce hydrogen with CO{sub 2} capture in one single step. A catalyst mixture was used composed of 10 %wt Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a CO{sub 2} absorbent material such as calcined dolomite (CaO*MgO) and sodium zirconate (Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}). The materials synthesized were characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), sweep electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area (BET isotherma). A catalyst with a very dispersed active phase and surface area of 170 m{sup 2}/gr was obtained. The evaluation of the ethanol steam reforming reaction was conducted considering a transient system and a stainless steel fixed-bed reactor where catalyst mixtures and CO{sub 2} absorbents were introduced. The reaction was carried out at a temperature of 600 degrees Celsius, with a water/alcohol ratio of 6:1. The quantification of the gases produced during the reaction (H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4}) was performed with gas chromatography. An increase was observed in the hydrogen selectivity when adding absorbent to the catalytic bed from 85% to 98% with dolomite and 97% with sodium zirconate. In addition, a considerable decrease was observed in the selectivity to by-products such as CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. The amount of carbon deposited on the surface of the materials was determined. This increase in the production of hydrogen is attributable to a shift in the thermal dynamic equilibrium of the reforming reaction, according to the Chatelier's principle. [Spanish] Se ha estudiado la reaccion de reformacion de etanol combinada con la carbonatacion de un oxido metalico para la produccion de hidrogeno con captura de CO{sub 2} en un solo paso. Se utilizo una mezcla de un catalizador compuesto de 10 %wt Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} con un material absorbente de CO{sub 2}, tal como: CaO*MgO (dolomita calcinada) y Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} (zirconato de sodio). Los materiales sintetizados fueron

  19. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  20. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  1. Life cycle assessment of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Munk, Bjarne; Crillesen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator was investigated using LCA. The relationship between NOx-cleaning and ammonia dosage was measured at the plant. Un-reacted ammonia – the ammonia slip – leaving the flue-gas cleaning system......-removal in flue-gas cleaning from waste incineration....

  2. Montmorillonite supported Ni-Fe catalysts for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol%Ni-Fe/蒙脱土催化剂催化乙醇水蒸气重整制氢的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝茹; 殷雪梅; 吴旭; 安霞; 谢鲜梅

    2016-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备了一系列Ni-Fe/蒙脱土( MMT)催化剂,并应用于乙醇水蒸气重整制氢反应( ESR)。采用X射线衍射( XRD)、N2吸附脱附分析和H2-程序升温还原( H2-TPR)表征手段对催化剂的物理化学性质、还原性能、碳沉积等进行了研究。结果表明,Ni-Fe/MMT催化剂中,Ni、Fe高度分散在载体MMT层间及表面,而且Fe的加入降低了Ni颗粒的粒径,增强了Ni2+与载体的相互作用力。以10Ni5Fe/MMT为催化剂,在反应温度为500℃、水醇比为3:1、空速为12 h-1,反应进行30 h后,乙醇转化率为100%,氢气选择性仍保持72%,副产物CO和CH4含量明显降低。这是因为催化助剂Fe的引入,一方面,提高了Ni的分散度,使得ESR低温活性较好;另一方面,减小了Ni颗粒粒径,小颗粒的Ni有利于抑制甲烷的生成,并且Fe的加入加强了甲烷重整和水煤气变换反应,提高产物中氢气的选择性。%Ni-Fe/montmorillonite ( MMT ) catalysts were prepared by impregnation method for hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, and N2 adsorption-desorption . It was found that Ni-Fe bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher activities and stability than single metallic catalysts due to the well dispersed Ni-Fe, small nickel crystallites and stronger interaction between Ni2+ and carrier. The conversion and selectivity were affected by the ratio of Ni to Fe. The 10Ni5Fe/MMT catalyst showed the optimum catalytic performance, its ethanol conversion was 100%, the selectivity of hydrogen gas remained at 72%, and selectivity of CO and CH4 were significantly decreased at 500℃ during 30 h testing. This could be attributed to the promoter Fe, which improves the dispersion of Ni and results in a good ESR activity at low reaction temperature. Small Ni particles can suppress methane formation and Fe addition can enhance the methane reforming with water and water gas shift reaction, resulting in higher

  3. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 μM for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 μM and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 μM. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands.

  4. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek;

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... distillation fractions of technical 2nd generation bioethanol, produced in a pilot plant, influence the performance of nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts during steam reforming, and we discuss what is required to obtain high activity and long catalyst lifetime. We conclude that the use of technical...

  5. Non-ionic Surfactants and Non-Catalytic Protein Treatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Donghai; Jenkins, Bryan

    Our previous research has shown that saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides, has a great potential to be used for bioethanol production because of its high fermentable sugar yield, up to 85% cellulose conversion of pretreated CWR. However, the high cost of enzyme is still one of the obstacles making large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol production economically difficult. It is desirable to use reduced enzyme loading to produce fermentable sugars with high yield and low cost. To reduce the enzyme loading, the effect of addition of non-ionic surfactants and non-catalytic protein on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated CWR was investigated in this study. Tween 20, Tween 80, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as additives to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute sulfuric-acid-pretreated CWR. Under the loading of 0.1 g additives/g dry solid, Tween 20 was the most effective additive, followed by Tween 80 and BSA. With the addition of Tween 20 mixed with cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g cellulose, the cellulose conversion increased 14% (from 75 to 89%), which was similar to that with cellulase loading of 30 FPU/g cellulose and without additive addition. The results of cellulase and BSA adsorption on the Avicel PH101, pretreated CWR, and lignaceous residue of pretreated CWR support the theory that the primary mechanism behind the additives is prevention of non-productive adsorption of enzymes on lignaceous material of pretreated CWR. The addition of additives could be a promising technology to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the enzyme activity loss caused by non-productive adsorption.

  6. A catalytic and non-catalytic role for the Yen1 nuclease in maintaining genome integrity in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Aström, Stefan U

    2012-10-01

    Yen1 is a nuclease identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that cleaves the Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate formed during homologous recombination. Alternative routes to disjoin HJs are performed by the Mus81/Mms4- and Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1-complexes. Here, we investigate the role of the Yen1 protein in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We demonstrate that both yen1 mus81 and yen1 sgs1 double mutants displayed negative genetic interactions in the presence of DNA-damaging chemicals. To test if these phenotypes required the catalytic activity of Yen1, we introduced point mutations targeting the catalytic site of Yen1, which abolished the nuclease activity in vitro. Remarkably, catalytically inactive Yen1 did not exacerbate the hydroxyurea sensitivity of the sgs1Δ strain, which the yen1Δ allele did. In addition, overexpression of catalytically inactive Yen1 partially rescued the DNA damage sensitivity of both mus81 and sgs1 mutant strains albeit less efficiently than WT Yen1. These results suggest that Yen1 serves both a catalytic and non-catalytic role in its redundant function with Mus81 and Sgs1. Diploids lacking Mus81 had a severe defect in sporulation efficiency and crossover frequency, but diploids lacking both Mus81 and Yen1 showed no further reduction in spore formation. Hence, Yen1 had no evident role in meiosis. However, overexpression of WT Yen1, but not catalytically inactive Yen1 partially rescued the crossover defect in mus81/mus81 mutant diploids. Yen1 is a member of the RAD2/XPG-family of nucleases, but genetic analyses revealed no genetic interaction between yen1 and other family members (rad2, exo1 and rad27). In addition, yen1 mutants had normal nonhomologous end-joining efficiency. We discuss the similarities and differences between K. lactis Yen1 and Yen1/GEN1 from other organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CH(4) and pulverized coal on selective non-catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Cai, Ningsheng; Yang, Jingbiao; Xu, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide using ammonia combined with methane and pulverized coal additives has been studied in a drop tube furnace reactor. Simulated flue gas with 1000 ppm NO(x) and 3.4% excess oxygen was generated by cylinder gas. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 700-1200 degrees C to investigate the effects of additives on the DeNO(x) performance. Subsequently, a kinetic mechanism was modified and validated based on experimental results, and a computational kinetic modeling with CHEMKIN was conducted to analyze the secondary pollutants. For both methane and pulverized coal additives, the temperature window is shifted towards lower temperatures. The appropriate reaction temperature is shifted to about 900 and 800 degrees C, respectively with 1000 ppm methane and 0.051 g min(-1) pulverized lignite coal. The addition of methane and pulverized coal widens the temperature window towards lower temperature suggesting a low temperature application of the process. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction rate is accelerated evidently with additives and the residence time to complete the reaction is shortened distinctly. NO(x) reduction efficiency with 80% is achieved in about 0.3s without additive at 1000 degrees C. However, it is achieved in only about 0.2s with 100 ppm methane as additive, and only 0.07 and 0.05s are needed respectively for the cases of 500 and 1000 ppm methane. The modified kinetic modeling agrees well with the experimental results and reveals additional information about the process. Investigation on the byproducts where NO(2) and N(2)O were analyzed by modeling and the others were investigated by experimental means indicates that emissions would not increase with methane and pulverized coal additions in SNCR process and the efficacious temperature range of SNCR reaction is widened approximately with 100 degrees C.

  8. Knoevenagel condensation of α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid under non-catalytic and solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An efficient route for the synthesis of 5-(arylpropenylidine)-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione 3 from an appropriate α,β-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes 1 and barbituric acid 2 under both non-catalytic and solvent-free microwave irradiation conditions was described. In this way, a range of biologically important compounds 3 was obtained in good to excellent yields (86-98 %) in a very short reaction time (30-80 s).

  9. Boosting the value of biodiesel byproduct by the non-catalytic transesterification of dimethyl carbonate via a continuous flow system under ambient pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2014-10-01

    Transformation of coconut oil into biodiesel by using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) via a non-catalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this study. The non-catalytic transformation to biodiesel was achieved by means of a heterogeneous reaction between liquid triglycerides and gas phase DMC. The reaction was enhanced in the presence of porous material due to its intrinsic physical properties such as tortuosity and absorption/adsorption. The numerous pores in the material served as micro reaction chambers and ensured that there was enough contact time between the liquid triglycerides and the gaseous DMC, which enabled the completion of the transesterification. The highest fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yield achieved was 98±0.5% within 1-2min at a temperature of 360-450°C under ambient pressure. The fast reaction rates made it possible to convert the lipid feedstock into biodiesel via a continuous flow system without the application of increased pressure. This suggested that the commonly used supercritical conditions could be avoided, resulting in huge cost benefits for biodiesel production. In addition, the high value of the byproduct from the transesterification of the lipid feedstock with DMC suggested that the production biodiesel using this method could be more economically competitive. Finally, the basic properties of biodiesel derived from the non-catalytic conversion of rapeseed oil with DMC were summarised.

  10. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    of the ethanol steam reformer.  Based on the model predictions, a detailed investigation of the processes controlling the hydrogen production rates is presented. It was found that efficient heat transfer from the flue gas to the endothermic steam reforming reactions is critical and represents a limiting factor...... a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...

  11. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  12. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  13. Ni/CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts promoted with noble metals for the hydrogen production by ethanol vapor reforming; Catalisadores de Ni/CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} promovidos com metais nobres para a producao de hidrogenio por reforma a vapor de etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profeti, Luciene P.R.; Ticianelli, Edson Antonio; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: eassaf@iqsc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The catalytic activity of Ni/CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts modified with noble metals (Ru, Ir, Pt and Pd) was investigated in the steam reforming of ethanol. The catalysts were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction-X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES). The results showed that the formation of inactive nickel aluminate was avoided due to the presence of a CeO{sub 2} dispersed on the alumina. The promoting effect of noble metals included a decrease of the reduction temperatures of NiO species interacting with the support due to the hydrogen spillover effect, leading to an increase of the reducibilities of the promoted catalysts The better catalytic performance for the ethanol steam reforming was obtained for the NiPd/CeAl catalyst, which presented an effluent gaseous mixture with the highest H{sub 2} yield. (author)

  14. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  15. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2...

  16. Use of biofuels to produce hydrogen (reformation processes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcís

    2008-11-01

    This tutorial review deals with the catalytic reformation of ethanol and glycerol to produce hydrogen that can be used as an energy carrier in a fuel cell. Both the worldwide production of ethanol in large amounts to be used as a biofuel and that of glycerol as a by-product in biodiesel manufacture are presented. The catalytic reformation processes of both ethanol and glycerol are contemplated, including thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Catalysts are analyzed as a function of operation conditions, selectivity and stability.

  17. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  18. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience...

  19. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...

  20. Enhanced thermal stability and hydrolytic ability of Bacillus subtilis aminopeptidase by removing the thermal sensitive domain in the non-catalytic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxing Gao

    Full Text Available Besides the catalytic ability, many enzymes contain conserved domains to perform some other physiological functions. However, sometimes these conserved domains were unnecessary or even detrimental to the catalytic process for industrial application of the enzymes. In this study, based on homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we found that Bacillus subtilis aminopeptidase contained a thermal sensitive domain (protease-associated domain in the non-catalytic region, and predicted that deletion of this flexible domain can enhance the structure stability. This prediction was then verified by the deletion of protease-associated domain from the wild-type enzyme. The thermal stability analysis showed that deletion of this domain improved the T50 (the temperature required to reduce initial activity by 50% in 30 min of the enzyme from 71 °C to 77 °C. The melting temperature (Tm of the enzyme also increased, which was measured by thermal denaturation experiments using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Further studies indicated that this deletion did not affect the activity and specificity of the enzyme toward aminoacyl-p-nitroanilines, but improved its hydrolytic ability toward a 12-aa-long peptide (LKRLKRFLKRLK and soybean protein. These findings suggested the possibility of a simple technique for enzyme modification and the artificial enzyme obtained here was more suitable for the protein hydrolysis in food industry than the wild-type enzyme.

  1. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  2. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  3. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways.

  5. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  6. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  7. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  8. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance ... April - June 2009 . 9. NIGERIA'S BANKING SECTOR REFORMS: THE JOURNEY SO FAR ..... implementation of a code of sound corporate governance in ...

  9. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  10. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1111, , , , 2222 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ... emissions Ethanol fuel is anhydrous ethanol with high ... contain between 8 and 21 carbon atoms per molecules. [5]. ..... Performance of Ethanol as a transportation Fuel,.

  11.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    -directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear......This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  12. Hydrogen Production by Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2 Composite Catalyst%复合催化剂Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化乙醇水蒸气重整制氢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利平; 李静; 马晓建; 陈俊英

    2012-01-01

    利用共沉淀法制备了Ni/TiO2,Ni/ZnO,Ni/ZnO-TiO2,Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化剂,活性组分Ni及Cu含量均为2%(w);对催化剂进行了BET,H2-TPR,XRD,SEM-EDS表征及乙醇水蒸气重整制氢性能评价.实验结果表明,在水与醇摩尔比13、反应温度300 ~ 550℃、液态空速23.8 h-1的反应条件下,ZnO及ZnO-TiO2负载的Ni催化剂有较好的催化性能,当反应温度高于450℃时,乙醇转化率均达90%以上.在450 ~ 550℃,Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化剂的氢产率最高、CO选择性较低且稳定性良好,550 ℃时Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化剂上最大氢产率为3.49 mol/mol(每mol反应乙醇生产的H2的物质的量).表征结果显示,Ni/ZnO,Ni/ZnO-TiO2,Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化剂的活性组分分散良好;采用复合载体ZnO-TiO2及添加第二种活性组分Cu,改善了Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2催化剂的性能;反应后4种催化剂上均有丝状炭生成,但未出现明显的烧结与团聚现象.%Ni/TiO2, Ni/ZnO, Ni/ZnO-TiO2 and Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2 catalysts with 2%(w) of Ni and 2%(w) of Cu were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and characterized by means of BET, H2-TPR, XRD and SEM-EDS. The catalytic performances of the catalysts in the steam reforming of ethanol(EtOH) for hydrogen production were evaluated. ZnO and ZnO-TiO2 supported Ni-based catalysts exhibited good catalytic performances under the conditions of n(H2O) : n(EtOH) 13, reaction temperature 300-500 ℃ and LHSV 23.8 h-1, the ethanol conversion can reach more than 90% at temperature highter than 450 ℃. The performance of Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2 catalyst is the best among the prepared catalysts, with low selectivity to CO, high hydrogen yield(H2 amount produced from 1 mol reacted EtOH) and stability in the temperature range of 450-550 ℃. The maximum hydrogen yield of 3.49 mol/mol can be achieved over the Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2 catalyst at 550 ℃. The active species on Ni/ ZnO, Ni/ZnO-TiO2 and Ni-Cu/ZnO-TiO2 catalysts disperse well, and the application of the composite support and

  13. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  14. Comparison of conversion and deposit formation of ethanol and butane under SOFC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav K.; Dean, Anthony M.; Ahn, Kipyung; Gorte, Raymond J.

    This paper explores the gas-phase kinetics of butane and ethanol conversion as well as the propensity for molecular-weight growth and deposit formation in the non-catalytic regions of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Experiments are done where the fuel flows through a quartz reactor heated by a furnace. The primary observables are the extent of fuel conversion and the amount of deposit formed on a YSZ disk placed at the end of the furnace. Experiments are performed at 700, 750 and 800 ° C. The residence times in the hot zone varied from 2 to 4 s. Ethanol is more reactive than butane, and almost all the ethanol is reacted at 750 ° C whereas butane is completely reacted at 800 ° C. Deposit formation is much larger for butane. These results are compared to predictions of a detailed kinetic model. Model predictions for the extent of fuel conversion and molecular-weight growth are in good agreement with the data for both fuels. Butane is predicted to be converted to the lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethylene, propylene and ethane. Hydrogen is also a significant product, especially at higher temperatures. For ethanol, the product distribution is different with lower amounts of hydrocarbons while substantial quantities of water, ethylene, CO and H 2 are predicted. In ethanol pyrolysis there is no significant production of species with more than two carbon atoms, whereas propylene production is significant in butane pyrolysis. Modeling results suggest this is a major reason for increased deposit formation with butane. Equilibrium calculations demonstrate that both the butane and ethanol systems are far removed from equilibrium.

  15. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  16. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  17. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  18. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  19. The Development of Materials for the Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pilar; Ramírez; de; la; Piscina; Narcís; Homs

    2007-01-01

    1 Results There is an increased interest in the hydrogen production from renewable sources. In this context, recently, numerous studies which use ethanol for hydrogen production have appeared. Ethanol is easily handled, non-toxic, and it can be obtained from biomass. The steam-reforming of bioethanol has been shown to beeffective for hydrogen production:C2H5OH + 3 H2O  6 H2 + 2 CO2. Six moles of hydrogen can be yielded for each mole of ethanol reacted. However, depending on the catalyst used, other und...

  20. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  1. Comments on UN Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangHongxi; ZhangYaowu

    2004-01-01

    On October 9-13 2004, United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan paid an official visit to China.During his stay, he had discussions with Chinese leaders on UN reform and changes in the international situation and etc. In recent 59th UN General Assembly Session, UN reform was also one of the hot topics.

  2. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  3. An African Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 is the year in which the Reformation, started by Martin Luther, is celebrating its 500th birthday. This depicts a milestone in the life of the Church of the Reformation and also in the life of Christians worldwide. This is a good time to ponder on the epistemological question of the validity and necessity of the (European Reformation (i.e. improvement, renovation or change. If this question is answered in a positive way, then it could bring us to the realisation that the time is ripe for an African Reformation. This article will argue that this is indeed the case. A reformation, transformation and change is needed for the African Christian context. However, the question could well be asked: Who will be the ‘second Luther?’

  4. 微管内环己烷无催化氧化工艺条件对产物分布影响研究%Effects of Process Conditions on Products Distribution of Cyclohexane Non-Catalytic Oxidation in Microcapillary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿; 朱明乔; 王磊; 陈新志; 卢建刚

    2016-01-01

    环己醇、环己酮是生产己内酰胺的原料,环己烷通过氧化反应制备上述原料的反应过程在安全性和时空收率等方面仍有挑战。今利用微通道的优异的安全和传热传质性能,采用氧气作为氧化剂,考察内径1 mm,长度5 m的不锈钢微管内环己烷无催化氧化反应的性能,重点考察了不同工艺条件,包括反应温度、反应压力、气液摩尔比和反应停留时间对环己烷氧化性能的影响。在180℃,压力1.5 MPa,氧气与环己烷的摩尔比为0.3:1,停留时间为1.5 min时,环己烷的转化率为3.93%,环己醇的选择性为23.39%,环己酮的选择性为35.95%,己二酸的选择性为26.71%,环己基过氧化氢选择性为4.78%。实验表明,微管内环己烷无催化氧化是可行的,且有一定的效果,尤其是反应时间短且安全性高,为慢反应在微管内的反应提供了借鉴。%Cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol are important raw materials for caprolactam production, and their production from non-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane still has problems in safety and time space yield. In this paper, non-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane was investigated in a microcapillary reactor which was made by a stainless steel tube with diameter of 1 mm and length of 5 m. Such tubes have good safety records and excellent mass and heat transfer properties. Effects of temperature, pressure, gas-liquid molar ratio and residence time on catalytic performance were studied. When the reaction is couducted under conditions of temperature 180℃, pressure 1.5 MPa, gas-liquid molar ratio 0.3 and residence time 1.5 min, the results show that the conversion of the non-catalytic cyclohexane oxidation is 3.93%, and the selectivities of cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, adipic acid and CHHP are 23.39%, 35.95%, 26.71% and 4.78%, respectively. This study indicates that cyclohexane non-catalytic oxidation in microcapillary tubes to produce KA oil is

  5. 湿法烟气脱硫环境下亚硫酸钙的非催化氧化%NON-CATALYTIC OXIDATION KINETICS OF CALCIUM SULFITE IN WET LIMESTONE-GYPSUM FGD PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜谦; 吴少华; 朱群益; 秦裕琨

    2003-01-01

    A study on non-catalytic oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite is presented under typical conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD)in this paper. A laboratory-scale mechanically stirred tank reactor is used with continuous feed of both gas and liquid phase. The results show that increasing CaSO3 load from a lower value, the reaction rate increases and is limited by solid sulfite dissolution. The oxidation rate limitation is observed at loads exceeding certain concentration. The rate limitation is possibly caused by solid sulfite solubility or oxygen gas-liquid diffusion. The experimental conclusions are useful for design and operation of the holding tank in forced-oxidation wet FGD.

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  9. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  10. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-products...... decreased with temperature in the SR of the investigated compounds. The yield of H2 approached the thermodynamic limit at the highest temperatures investigated. No significant differences in conversion as a function of temperature among the different model compounds were observed. However, the product...... distribution depended on the model compound, and C-3-oxygenates produced a larger fraction of by-products compared to C-2-oxygenates. Temperatures of 600 degrees C or above were generally needed to minimize the fraction of by-products and obtain a syngas containing mainly CO, CO2, H-2, and H2O with only traces...

  11. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  13. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  14. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  15. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the

  16. Reformer Fuel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  17. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  18. Ethanol Sensitization during Adolescence or Adulthood Induces Different Patterns of Ethanol Consumption without Affecting Ethanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara-Nascimento, Priscila F.; Hoffmann, Lucas B.; Contó, Marcos B.; Marcourakis, Tania; Camarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol preexposure may increase ethanol consumption in both adolescent and adult mice, in a two-bottle choice model. We now questioned if ethanol exposure during adolescence results in changes of consumption pattern using a three-bottle choice procedure, considering drinking-in-the-dark and alcohol deprivation effect as strategies for ethanol consumption escalation. We also analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as a measurement of ethanol metabolism. Adolescent and adult Swiss mice were treated with saline (SAL) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) during 15 days (groups: Adolescent-SAL, Adolescent-EtOH, Adult-SAL and Adult-EtOH). Five days after the last injection, mice were exposed to the three-bottle choice protocol using sucrose fading procedure (4% + sucrose vs. 8%–15% ethanol + sucrose vs. water + sucrose) for 2 h during the dark phase. Sucrose was faded out from 8% to 0%. The protocol was composed of a 6-week acquisition period, followed by four withdrawals and reexposures. Both adolescent and adult mice exhibited ethanol behavioral sensitization, although the magnitude of sensitization in adolescents was lower than in adults. Adolescent-EtOH displayed an escalation of 4% ethanol consumption during acquisition that was not observed in Adult-EtOH. Moreover, Adult-EtOH consumed less 4% ethanol throughout all the experiment and less 15% ethanol in the last reexposure period than Adolescent-EtOH. ALDH activity varied with age, in which older mice showed higher ALDH than younger ones. Ethanol pretreatment or the pattern of consumption did not have influence on ALDH activity. Our data suggest that ethanol pretreatment during adolescence but not adulthood may influence the pattern of ethanol consumption toward an escalation in ethanol consumption at low dose, without exerting an impact on ALDH activity.

  19. The ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D; Bandara, A; Fraser, S; Chambers, P J; Stanley, G A

    2010-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production; however, its performance during fermentation is compromised by the impact of ethanol accumulation on cell vitality. This article reviews studies into the molecular basis of the ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae; such knowledge can facilitate the development of genetic engineering strategies for improving cell performance during ethanol stress. Previous studies have used a variety of strains and conditions, which is problematic, because the impact of ethanol stress on gene expression is influenced by the environment. There is however some commonality in Gene Ontology categories affected by ethanol assault that suggests that the ethanol stress response of S. cerevisiae is compromised by constraints on energy production, leading to increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis and mitochondrial function, and decreased gene expression in energy-demanding growth-related processes. Studies using genome-wide screens suggest that the maintenance of vacuole function is important for ethanol tolerance, possibly because of the roles of this organelle in protein turnover and maintaining ion homoeostasis. Accumulation of Asr1 and Rat8 in the nucleus specifically during ethanol stress suggests S. cerevisiae has a specific response to ethanol stress although this supposition remains controversial. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Hydrogen production by partial oxidation of ethanol at supported Ni and Co catalysts; Wasserstofferzeugung durch Partialoxidation von Ethanol an getraegerten Ni und Co Katalysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraleva, E.; Ehrich, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V.

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen for SOFC fuel cells is produced by catalytic partial oxidation of ethanol in an internal reformer of the fuel cell system. Experiments with low-cost metals like nickel and cobalt on different supports showed great promise for ethanol conversion. The catalysts have been prepared by a new sol-gel method using citric acid as a chelating agent. This efficient low-cost method for the synthesis of mixed metal oxides resulted in catalysts with higher surface areas than impregnated catalysts. (orig.)

  1. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , that biomass substitutes gas in the heat & power sector and gas substitute oil in the transport sector. By taking this path, we overall achieve almost twice as high a CO2 reduction and save almost twice as much oil, as if we want to substitute the oil via car engines through conversion to ethanol. We must...... acknowledge that society will use natural gas and other fossil fuels for heat & power production for the next 40 years ahead. Throughout this period of time, therefore, we can save them more efficiently there, and we will only lose on CO2 and oil dependency, if we use our scarce biomass for ethanol. After...... this period of time, when we are facing a world without oil and gas, it is, moreover, very dubious if we can accept the very low efficiency of the combustion engine of say 25% energy efficiency and a conversion efficiency in ethanol fermentation of up to say 50% resulting in an overall energy conversion of 10...

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  3. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  4. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  5. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One unique characteristic of this system is that it utilizes the waste heat rejected from a power plant to vaporize the ethanol, thus it saves a significant amount of energy and at the same time reduces the pollution to the environment.

  6. 碳酸钠促进选择性非催化还原脱硝的动力学模型与模拟%Kinetic Model and Simulation of Promoted Selective Non-catalytic Reduction by Sodium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩奎华; 路春美

    2007-01-01

    The detailed kinetic model of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitric oxide, including sodium species reactions, was developed on the basis of recent studies on thermal DeNOx mechanism, NOxOUT mechanism and promotion mechanism of Na2CO3. The model was validated by comparison with several experimental findings, thus providing an effective tool for the primary and promoted SNCR process simulation. Experimental and simulated results show part-per-million level of sodium carbonate enhances NO removal efficiency and extend the effective SNCR temperature range in comparison with use of a nitrogen agent alone. The kinetic modeling, sensitivity and rate-of-production analysis suggest that the performance improvement can be explained as homogeneous sodium species reactions producing more reactive OH radicals. The net result of sodium species reactions is conversion of H2O and inactive HO2 radicals into reactive OH radicals, i.e. H2O+HO2=3OH, which enhances the SNCR performance of nitrogen agents by mainly increasing the production rate of NH2 radicals. Moreover, N2O and CO are eliminated diversely via the reactions Na+N2O=NaO+N2, NaO+CO=Na+CO2 and NaO2+CO-NaO+CO2, in the promoted SNCR process, especially in the NOxOUT process.

  7. Rorty the Reformer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Cormier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rorty should be read as a reformer, rather than a revolutionary transformer. While the reformer aims to improve what is already good, the revolutionary transformer seeks to dispense with the merely good in a quest for the absolutely best. For Rorty this choice was a bad choice. In order to make the case that Rorty was a reformer,we explicate Rorty’s views on truth. These views argue that we can obtain consensus about what is worth preserving and improving without reference to either rightness, truth, or objectivity. For after all, there is no way for philosophers to get outside the circle of language within which we debate about what we take to be authoritative and aceptable.

  8. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  9. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  10. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  11. Liquid fuel reforming using microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotk, Robert; Hrycak, Bartosz; Czylkowski, Dariusz; Dors, Miroslaw; Jasinski, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most promising energy carriers. Due to the growing interest in hydrogen production technologies, in this paper we present the results of experimental investigations of thermal decomposition and dry reforming of two alcohols (ethanol and isopropanol) in the waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave (915 MHz) plasma source (MPS). The hydrogen production experiments were preceded by electrodynamics properties investigations of the used MPS and plasma spectroscopic diagnostics. All experimental tests were performed with the working gas (nitrogen or carbon dioxide) flow rate ranging from 1200 to 3900 normal litres per hour and an absorbed microwave power up to 5 kW. The alcohols were introduced into the plasma using an induction heating vaporizer. The ethanol thermal decomposition resulted in hydrogen selectivity up to 100%. The hydrogen production rate was up to 1150 NL(H2) h-1 and the energy yield was 267 NL(H2) kWh-1 of absorbed microwave energy. Due to intense soot production, the thermal decomposition process was not appropriate for isopropanol conversion. Considering the dry reforming process, using isopropanol was more efficient in hydrogen production than ethanol. The rate and energy yield of hydrogen production were up to 1116 NL(H2) h-1 and 223 NL(H2) kWh-1 of microwave energy used, respectively. However, the hydrogen selectivity was no greater than 37%. Selected results given by the experiment were compared with the results of numerical modeling.

  12. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  13. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  14. Tailor-made Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Few people imagined how China would change when the country initiated its reform and opening-up policies almost 28 years ago. Without previous experience, the Chinese are following a trial-and-error approach in pressing ahead with the reform process, exploiting a method of development that seemed suitable to national conditions at the time. In an article published in the 21st Century Business Herald,Lou Jiwei, Vice Minister of Finance, looks back at China's path to revitalize its long-isolated economy. E...

  15. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China's reforms have limited their focus to changes in China's economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions.

  16. Stepping Forward In Political Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the bulk of foreign media reports about China’s reforms have limited their focus to changes in China’s economic setup with little mention paid to its political reform.Actually,since China carried out the reform and opening-up policy in 1978,it has not only made fundamental changes to its economic system but also implemented a series of important reforms to its political institutions

  17. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  18. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  19. Efeito do teor metálico em catalisadores Co/Al2O3 aplicados à reação de reforma a vapor de etanol Effect of metal load in Co/Al2o3 catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudye K. S. Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cobalt catalysts to produce hydrogen from ethanol is the goal of this investigation. Co/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by impregnation and characterized by atomic absorption, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction and carbon analysis. The catalysts contained Co3O4 oxide and Co3+ and Co2+ species interacting with alumina. The cobalt load affects the crystal size and the crystalline structure and higher Co loads influence the reaction mechanism, changing the selectivity of the catalysts, decreasing the amount of CO produced and avoiding the formation of products catalyzed by the support. The ethanol conversion was 50-70% with 10-<1% of CO in the hydrogen.

  20. The Stuttgart Reform Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

  1. The buzz on reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, E A

    1994-01-01

    Mr. Bouchard bravely travels through the maze of lingo and anagrams spawned by recent attempts at healthcare reform. This comprehensive list of terminology and definitions, which provides considerable detail and analysis, will be invaluable to anyone trying to understand current trends.

  2. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  3. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  4. Telecommunication reform in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Haggarty, Luke; Mary M. Shirley; Wallsten, Scott

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 Ghana privatized its incumbent telecommunications firm by selling 30 percent of Ghana Telecom to Telekom Malaysia, licensing a second network operator, and allowing multiple mobile firms to enter the market. The reforms yielded mixed results. Landline telephone penetration increased dramatically while the number of mobile subscribers surpassed even this higher level of fixed line s...

  5. Educational Reforms in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    Yugoslavia's educational system had to be completely rebuilt after World War II to ensure the nation's full and rapid competition in the postwar world. The reforms are discussed in light of the political, social, and economic structure of Yugoslavia. (Author/LBH)

  6. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  7. China Launched VAT Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to boost domestic demand,reduce the tax burden on companies,encourage technological upgrades and push for industrial restructuring,China decided to extend its value-added tax(VAT) reform to all industries nationwide beginning January 1,2009.

  8. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  9. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  10. Energy Price Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  11. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  12. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  13. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodríguez, L.; Brey, J. J.; Daza, L.

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 °C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2 per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 °C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming.

  14. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Brey, J.J. [Hynergreen Technologies, Av. Buhaira 2, 41018 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H{sub 2} per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming. (author)

  15. Application of Selective Non-catalytic Reduction Denitration Technology in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler%选择性非催化还原脱硝技术在循环流化床锅炉中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳振

    2016-01-01

    针对中国石化上海石油化工股份有限公司(以下简称上海石化)620 t/h循环流化床锅炉效率偏低及氮氧化物排放质量浓度不能达到环保排放标准的现状,在炉内燃烧脱硝技术的基础上,通过实施锅炉尾部烟气脱硝改造,采用当前先进的选择性非催化还原(SNCR)脱硝技术,进一步提该锅炉的脱硝水平。同时通过设计、模拟和应用的对比研究,总结出SNCR脱硝技术在循环流化床锅炉上使用的适应性和进一步提高效率的必要性。%In view that the productivity and concentration of NOx emission of the 620 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler in SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Co.,Ltd.(hereinafter referred to as SPC ) cannotmeet the environmental protection emission standards,the denitration performance of the boiler was improved though denitration process transformation of increasing the boiler flue gas,adopting the state-of-the-art selective non -catalytic reduction (SNCR ) technology on the basis of thedenitration technologyof in -boiler combustion.Meanwhile,through study of the technology in 7#boiler of Thermal Power Station of SPC,the adaptability of SNCR denitration technology in circulating fluidized bed boiler and the necessity of further improving efficiency were summarized.

  16. Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  17. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  18. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs......The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...

  19. Ready for RMB Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Now that the global recovery has taken hold and with the Chinese economy gaining ground,China's central bank-the People's Bank of China-has decided to proceed with reform of the renminbi(yuan)exchange rate regime and improve the flexibility.The central bank's spokesman on June 20 addressed a number of concerns over the issue in a statement posted on its website.Edited excerpts follow:

  20. Ready for RMB Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Now that the global recovery has taken hold and with the Chinese economy gaining ground,China’s central bank—the People’s Bank of China—has decided to proceed with reform of the renminbi(yuan) exchange rate regime and improve the flexibility.The central bank’s spokesman on June 20 addressed a number of concerns over the issue in a statement posted on its website.Edited excerpts follow:

  1. The Finish Municipal Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kettunen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at evaluating the municipal amalgamation process as a way of reforming local government, by two criteria – efficiency in service provision and level of democracy. Those issues are applied onto a Finnish case study, as amalgamation is more common in Northern Europe. The author gives a review of amalgamation studies in the world and of the extensive evaluation reports of amalgamation reform in Finland. The paper examines amalgamation policy from two perspectives – from the instrumental or goal-oriented view and from the process aspect. The findings on the relatively high number of instances of amalgamation in Finland are the following: the main process-driving factors were political parties that mostly supported the reform and the underlying urge to construct larger entities which made municipalities take part in the process. The level of efficiency in the New, amalgamated municipalities is not necessarily higher, as efficient service provision can be found both in small and large municipalities. Efficiency is more determined by the dynamics of a municipal economy while the size of a municipality alone does not make a difference. As amalgamations change the nature of local political life they affect democracy both positively and negatively.

  2. Political Reform at Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    How to promote the reform of political institutions is one of the thorny issues facing China.The recent publication of the first book systematically illustrating the overall plan of the reform of China’s political institutions,Storming the Fortress:A Research Report on the Reform of China’s Political Institutions After the 17th Party Congress (abbreviated as Storming the Fortress) has attracted a lot of public attention.Besides the sensitive topic,the identities of the authors also con- tribute to the book’s bestselling.Most authors of the book are from the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC),an important think tank of the CPC.Because of this many people believe that the book represents the official standpoint.Beijing Review reporter Feng Jianhua conducted an interview with Professor Zhou Tianyong,Chief Compiler of the book and Deputy Director of the Research Office of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.

  3. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  4. Ethanol production from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was designed for ethanol production using corn andother organic waste material containing starch contents andcellulosic material while barely used for diastase and acidicdigestion methods. The effect of temperature, yeast, barely diastaseand various dilutions of acid (sulfuric acids were investigated onethanol production. The result showed that corn yielded highamount of ethanol (445ml as compared to cellulosic material whichproduced 132ml of ethanol from one kg of weight. It was also notedthat with the increase of barely and yeast amount in a proper mannercan increase ethanol production from different starch sources. It wasalso noted that acid dilutions affected cellulose digestion where highyield of reducing sugar was noted at 0.75% of sulfuric acid dilution.It was concluded from the present experiment that economicalsources of starch and various dilutions of acids should be tried oncellulose digestion for bio-fuel production to withstand in thisenergy crisis time.

  5. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  6. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  7. Reaction kinetics of non-catalytic peroxidation of liquid phase isopropyl benzene%非催化条件下异丙苯液相过氧化反应动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明鑫; 许志美; 孙伟振; 张明华; 赵玲

    2015-01-01

    Both main and side reaction kinetics of non-catalytic peroxidation of liquid phase isopropyl benzene (IPB) were investigated, including byproduct formation such asα-methyl benzyl alchohol (MBA) and acetophenone (ACP), and decomposition pathway of ROOR (DCP). Based on free radical chain reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed, in which IPB hydroperoxide (IPBHP), MBA, ACP and DCP were considered. The prediction by this kinetic model is agreed well with the experimental data, if the rate constants were used which were obtained by fitting of the experimental data at 373—404 K. The activation energies estimated were larger for all side reactions than for the main reaction. DCP decomposition requires the presence of oxygen. These data obtained could be helpful for deep understand of the reaction mechanism of liquid phase of alkyl aromatics and could be used as the fundamental data for design and optimization of industrial liquid phase oxidation of IPB.%研究了非催化条件下异丙苯(IPB)液相氧化主副反应动力学,包括主要副产物α-甲基苄醇(MBA)和苯乙酮(ACP)生成规律以及重要链终止产物ROOR (DCP)的分解反应路径。基于烃类链式自由基反应机理,建立了包含反应物IPB、主产物过氧化氢异丙苯(IPBHP)、副产物MBA、ACP以及链终止产物DCP的反应动力学模型。动力学模型预测结果与实验数据吻合良好。通过对373~404 K下实验数据的拟合,得到了不同温度下各基元反应速率常数和活化能。模拟计算表明,两个副反应活化能均大于主反应;链终止产物DCP的分解反应通过氧气的参与进行。研究结果可为异丙苯液相氧化工业反应过程的设计和优化提供基础参数,并且有利于深化对烷基芳烃液相氧化反应机理的认识。

  8. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  10. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  11. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  12. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  13. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...

  14. TAX REFORM IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Rup Khadka

    1998-01-01

    Globalization has forced many governments to change their economic policies, including tax policies, in the recent years. It has had an even greater impact on Singapore’s economy due to the high degree of its openness with respect to trade and investment. In this context, Singapore undertook a major restructuring of its tax system in the early 1990s. The introduction of a modern value added tax system (goods and services tax) was a part of the overall tax reform package. This paper examines h...

  15. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  16. Ageing-Driven Pension Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    2016-01-01

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common characteri

  17. Ageing-driven pension reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    2017-01-01

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common characteri

  18. Higher Education and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shirley M.

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has related asynchronously to recent cycles in social movements affecting school reform. Current efforts in Oregon illustrate this pattern in public colleges. Although higher education is not likely to overcome its skepticism of reform dynamics, there is both reason and potential for promising alliances with schools. (Author/MSE)

  19. Student Attitudes and Calculus Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Jack; Friedman, Charles P.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the attitudes about mathematics of students from traditionally taught calculus classes and those taught in a "reformed" calculus course. Reports that one to two years after, reform students felt significantly more that they understood how math was used and that they had been required to understand math rather than to memorize formulas.…

  20. Green tax reform in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    In June 1993, the new Danish coalition government introduced a comprehensive tax reform that includes a substantial package of new green taxes. The tax reform, which became effective on 1 January 1994, will gradually phase in new green taxes worth approximately 12 billion DKK (1.6 billion ECU) to substitute for decreased income taxes.

  1. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  2. The Other Face of Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Ursula M.; Compton, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    According to William Spady's "Beyond Counterfeit Reforms," politically driven, mechanistic "reforms" box educators into smaller, limiting ways of thinking and running schools. Donald McAdams's book "Fighting to Save Our Urban Schools...and Winning!" shows the salubrious effects of high expectations and community…

  3. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  4. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  5. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  6. Chile's health sector reform: lessons from four reform periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Jara, J J; Bossert, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the process of health reform in four significant periods in Chilean history: (1) the consolidation of state responsibility for public health in the 1920s, (2) the creation of the state-run National Health Service in the 1950s, (3) the decentralization of primary care and privatization of health insurance in the 1980s, and (4) the strengthening of the mixed public-private market in the 1990s. Building on the authors' separate disciplines, the paper examines the epidemiological, political and economic contexts of these reforms to test simple hypotheses about how these factors shape reform adoption and implementation. The analysis underlines: (1) the importance of epidemiological data as an impetus to public policy; (2) the inhibiting role of economic recession in adoption and implementation of reforms: and (3) the importance of the congruence of reforms with underlying political ideology in civil society. The paper also tests several hypotheses about the reform processes themselves, exploring the role of antecedents, interest groups, and consensus-building in the policy process. It found that incremental processes building on antecedent trends characterize most reform efforts. However, interest group politics and consensus building were found to be complex processes that are not easily captured by the simple hypotheses that were tested. The interdisciplinary approach is found to be a promising form of analysis and suggests further theoretical and empirical issues to be explored.

  7. Design of Multiple Metal Doped Ni Based Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Bio-oil Reforming at Mild-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xia Yuan; Fang Ding; Jian-ming Yao; Xiang-song Chen; Wei-wei Liu; Jin-yong Wu; Fei-yan Gong

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of multiple metal (Cu,Mg,Ce) doped Ni based mixed oxide catalyst,synthesized by the co-precipitation method,was used for efficient production of hydrogen from bio-oil reforming at 250-500 ℃.Two reforming processes,the conventional steam reforming (CSR) and the electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR),were performed for the bio-oil reforming.The catalyst with an atomic mol ratio of Ni∶Cu∶Mg∶Ce∶Al=5.6∶1.1∶1.9∶1.0∶9.9 exhibited very high reforming activity both in CSR and ECR processes,reaching 82.8% hydrogen yield at 500 ℃ in the CSR,yield of 91.1% at 400 ℃ and 3.1 A in the ECR,respectively.The influences of reforming temperature and the current through the catalyst in the ECR were investigated.It was observed that the reforming and decomposition of the bio-oil were significantly enhanced by the current.The promoting effects of current on the decomposition and reforming processes of bio-oil were further studied by using the model compounds of biooil (acetic acid and ethanol) under 101 kPa or low pressure (0.1 Pa) through the time of flight analysis.The catalyst also shows high water gas shift activity in the range of 300-600 ℃.The catalyst features and alterations in the bio-oil reforming were characterized by the ICP,XRD,XPS and BET measurements.The mechanism of bio-oil reforming was discussed based on the study of the elemental reactions and catalyst characterizations.The research catalyst,potentially,may be a practical catalyst for high efficient production of hydrogen from reforning of bio-oil at mild-temperature.

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  11. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  12. An analysis of an ethanol-based, whole-crop refinery system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Zhang; Shanying Hu; Dingjiang Chen; Bing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Bio-fuel can be used to help transition from a petroleum-based society to a bio-based society. Ever since the China Development and Reform Commission suspended the approval of crop processing programs, second-generation bio-ethanol research and industrialization processes have attracted significant attention. In 2020, bio-ethanol production is predicted to reach 10 million tons. Currently, there are a few domestic enterprises that have established different scaled pilot or demonstration bases for cellulosic ethanol, which reduce the cost of ethanol by continuously improving pretreatment and hydrolysis techniques. In the next three years, these enterprises will realize large-scale commercial production. Given the practical problems in cellulosic ethanol plant construc-tion and operation (e.g., marketing price variation and difficulties in feedstock col ection), this paper began with the concept of a“whole-crop refinery”and presented a solution to the integration of industry and agriculture as well as multi-crop refining. This paper then took the whole-crop refining system of corn as an example and pre-sented an analysis of the logistics, energy flow, and economical efficiency of the system. The results demonstrated that the integrated system could properly reduce the required fixed investments in production equipment, shared utilities, and wastewater treatment facilities, as wel as reduction of energy consumption. Although the proposed system has several problems, it brings the long-term goal of large-scale commercial application closer than ever.

  13. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential ... bacteria for ethanol production, yeast is still the primary choice for ..... who reported high invertase activity with S. cerevisiae.

  14. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykawad, S.S.; Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this.

  15. Letters to a Young Education Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Education Reformer," Frederick M. Hess distills knowledge from twenty-five years of working in and around school reform. Inspired by his conversations with young, would-be reformers who are passionate about transforming education, the book offers a window into Hess's thinking about what education reform is and…

  16. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  17. A Cornerstone of Health Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to ensure fair and affordable health services for all Chinese citizens and to set up a healthcare system that covers both urban and rural residents, the Chinese Government put forward a strategic task of deepening the healthcare system reform. The major objective of this reform is to provide medical service as a public service. In an interview with Beijing-based Guangming Daily, Li Weiping, a fellow researcher at the Institute of Medicine and Economy under the Ministry of Health, says that public hospitals are key to making this reform work and medical workers will need to drive this process forward.

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  19. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  20. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living.

  1. Ethanol-water separation by pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.H.V.; Oude Hendrickman, J.; Hegeman, H.; Smolders, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The separation of ethanol-water mixtures is of great importance for the production of ethanol from biomass. Both ultrafiltration and pervaporation processes can be used for the continuous processing of fermentation and separation, The removal of ethanol from the ultrafiltration permeate can be

  2. Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.

  3. Hydrogen production by thermal partial oxidation of ethanol: Thermodynamics and kinetics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamamre, Z. [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Jordan, 11942 Amman (Jordan); Hararah, M.A. [Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an (Jordan)

    2010-06-15

    In this study thermodynamics and kinetics analysis of the thermal partial oxidation (TPOX) of ethanol for producing hydrogen is performed. Equilibrium and kinetics calculations are performed in order to find the limiting parameters for the thermal partial oxidation. The effects of air ratio {lambda} (the ratio of the oxidizer -to- fuel ratio to the stoichiometric oxidizer -to- fuel ratio) and mixture inlet temperatures (T{sub mix-in}) on the reforming efficiency, the H{sub 2} mole number, the reaction progress, the equilibrium time and the ignition delay time are investigated. Furthermore, the analysis is performed using different kinetics schemes and the results are compared. The optimum practical operating conditions of the partial oxidation process of ethanol are identified. In this way, the results of this work can be useful as a guideline in experimental work. It is found that the reforming efficiency increases with increasing the process temperature for {lambda} < 0.3 and remains nearly constant elsewhere. The efficiency reaches a maximum value of 90% at {lambda} = 0.20 and T{sub mix-in} {>=} 1000 K. The kinetics simulations suggest that three different regions exist during the partial oxidation process of ethanol: the oxidation region, the water gas shift reaction- reforming region and the reforming region. The reforming reactions in the 3rd region are the reaction process limiting step. Additionally, it is found that the equilibrium concentration of a given species is not affected by the pressure when the process temperature lies outside the range of 500 K < T{sub process} < 1700 K. However, the minimum time required for a given species to reach the equilibrium is affected when pressures higher than 1 atm are employed. Pressures higher than 1 atm shift this minimum time towards lower values. Due to preheating limitations (self ignition and reactor material stability) and the kinetics behavior of the TPOX process of ethanol, practical operating conditions

  4. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  5. What Next in School Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

  6. Nitrate absorption through hydrotalcite reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Musumeci, Anthony W

    2006-10-01

    Thermally activated hydrotalcite based upon a Zn/Al hydrotalcite with carbonate in the interlayer has been used to remove nitrate anions from an aqueous solution resulting in the reformation of a hydrotalcite with a mixture of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer. X-ray diffraction of the reformed hydrotalcites with a d(003) spacing of 7.60 A shows that the nitrate anion is removed within a 30 min period. Raman spectroscopy shows that two types of nitrate anions exist in the reformed hydrotalcite (a) nitrate bonded to the 'brucite-like' hydrotalcite surface and (b) aquated nitrate anion in the interlayer. Kinetically the nitrate is replaced by the carbonate anion over a 21 h period. Two types of carbonate anions are observed. This research shows that the reformation of a thermally activated hydrotalcite can be used to remove anions such as nitrate from aqueous systems.

  7. New Lessons for Districtwide Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Micheal; Bertani, Al; Quinn, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Successful district level institutions share ten principles for successful reforms. The crucial components of change for effective leadership include a collective moral purpose, capacity building, ongoing learning, and demanding culture among others.

  8. Green, Reform, Win-Win

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Boao Forum for Asia this year enjoys three high lights, namely "Green, Reform and Win-Win".The old but hot topics attracted accumulated attention from the whole world, and more fresh ideas were ushered in.

  9. Refuelling stations for hydrogen or reformate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    A prestudy concerning refuelling stations for reformate gas/hydrogen has been performed on the request of Swedish Gas Centre. The plan is to build a small-scale fuel processor for said application during 2006 as a continuation of the RandD programme in the fuel processing area. Catator has designed and evaluated small-scale fuel processors in a series of SGC-projects. The fuel processor system was abbreviated 'Stur-unit' and contained reactors for steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxidation, tied together in a single train unit. The STUR-unit is operated at atmospheric conditions and will produce reformate gas of fuel cell quality (normally less than 20 ppm of CO). Catator has designed and delivered a number of Stur-units ranging from 1 nm{sup 3} to 50 nm{sup 3}/hr of hydrogen. Different fuels have been evaluated, both gases and liquids. Catator has also designed a pressurised system together with Intelligent Energy (abbreviated 'Hestia-unit'). This unit operates at 5-10 bar(a) and utilizes physical purification by means of fast-cycle PSA to provide essential pure hydrogen. Both units have been subjected to successful long-term testing. The hydrogen demand in Malmoe (the proposed location for the refuelling station) is presently low and irregular since only two buses utilize Hythane (a mixture between natural gas and hydrogen) at the moment. The interest for hydrogen and hydrogen containing fuels is, however, expected to increase in a near future. E.ON Gas (the owner of the existing refuelling station) has forwarded a number of specifications for the fuel processor system. The unit shall operate on natural gas and biogas. Bio-derived liquid fuels (bio ethanol and E85 - a mixture between ethanol and gasoline) could also be interesting alternatives. Depending on the low demand for hydrogen (average of about 1 nm{sup 3}/hr), the production capacity can be rather low - 5-10 nm{sup 3}/hr is probably more than enough for the time being

  10. Green tax reform and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Schöb, Ronnie; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a small open economy that produces an export good with domestic labour and imported energy and is stuck in an unemployment situation resulting from an excessive fixed net-of-tax wage rate. We study a revenue-neutral green tax reform that substitutes energy for wage taxes. A moderate green tax reform will boost employment, improve welfare, and increase the economy's competitiveness. The driving force behind these results is the technological substitution process ...

  11. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  12. Low temperature hydrogen production from ethanol over cerium and nickel based oxyhydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirez, Cyril; Jalowiecki-Duhamel, L.; Capron, M.; Dumeignil, F. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (France). UCCS Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide

    2010-07-01

    In theory, hydrogen production from biomass or biomass derived liquids can be a carbon emission free process since all carbon dioxide produced can be recycled back to plants using solar energy. Besides, ethanol is also safe, simple to handle, transport and store, so ethanol lends itself very well to a distributed-production strategy. A very interesting use of hydrogen is based on its conversion into power in fuel cell systems. The wide-spread application of fuel cells becomes closer to reality, so increased attention is focused on hydrogen production technology. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are under development as energy production devices, they allow the use of carbon-monoxide resistant nickel anodes and the use of fuels different from hydrogen at the anode, in the so-called direct internal reforming SOFC. However the high operating temperatures undergo catalytic deactivation due to sintering of nickel crystallites and carbon deposition. Hence, worldwide efforts are in progress to discover novel, more active and more stable catalysts. Performing the reaction at lower temperature than 600 C is a challenging goal. C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + 3 H{sub 2}O {yields} 2 CO{sub 2} + 6 H{sub 2} (1). Hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming (H{sub 2}O/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH = 3) was investigated over cerium nickel CeNi{sub X}O{sub Y} and (0 < x {<=} 5) mixed oxide catalysts. The influence of different parameters was analysed, such as reaction temperature, Ni content and in-situ pre-treatment in H{sub 2}. While an ethanol conversion of 100 % is reached at 400 C, a stable activity i.e. ethanol conversion, and H{sub 2} selectivity can be obtained at very low temperature (200 C) when the solid is previously in-situ treated in H{sub 2} in a temperature range between 200 C and 300 C. In the present study, we report on H{sub 2} formation activity over CeNi{sub X}O{sub Y} catalysts for reforming of ethanol. The aim of this work was to develop a highly active, selective, stable and

  13. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ethanol....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ethanol....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/ethanol....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  14. The global atmospheric budget of ethanol revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. V. Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is an important biogenic volatile organic compound, which is increasingly used as a fuel for motor vehicles; therefore, an improved understanding of its atmospheric cycle is important. In this paper we use three sets of observational data, measured emissions of ethanol from living plants, measured concentrations of ethanol in the atmosphere and measured hydroxyl concentrations in the atmosphere (by methyl chloroform titration, to make two independent estimates related to the rate of cycling of ethanol through the atmosphere. In the first estimate, simple calculations give the emission rate of ethanol from living plants as 26 (range, 10–38 Tg yr−1. This contributes significantly to the total global ethanol source of 42 (range, 25–56 Tg yr−1. In the second estimate, the total losses of ethanol from the global atmosphere are 70 (range, 50–90 Tg yr−1, with about three-quarters of the ethanol removed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the gaseous and aqueous phases of the atmosphere, and the remainder lost through wet and dry deposition to land. These values of both the source of ethanol from living plants and the removal of atmospheric ethanol via oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (derived entirely from observations are significantly larger than those in recent literature. We suggest that a revision of the estimate of global ethanol emissions from plants to the atmosphere to a value comparable with this analysis is warranted.

  15. Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis

    2010-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not well known. With developments of genome sequencing and genomic technologies, our understanding of yeast biology has been revolutionarily advanced. More evidence of mechanisms of ethanol tolerance have been discovered involving multiple loci, multi-stress, and complex interactions as well as signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. Transcription dynamics and profiling studies of key gene sets including heat shock proteins provided insight into tolerance mechanisms. A transient gene expression response or a stress response to ethanol does not necessarily lead to ethanol tolerance in yeast. Reprogrammed pathways and interactions of cofactor regeneration and redox balance observed from studies of tolerant yeast demonstrated the significant importance of a time-course study for ethanol tolerance. In this review, we focus on current advances of our understanding for ethanol-tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae including gene expression responses, pathway-based analysis, signal transduction and regulatory networks. A prototype of global system model for mechanisms of ethanol tolerance is presented.

  16. Graduate Quantum Mechanics Reform

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, L D

    2008-01-01

    We address four main areas in which graduate quantum mechanics education in the U.S. can be improved: course content; textbook; teaching methods; and assessment tools. We report on a three year longitudinal study at the Colorado School of Mines using innovations in all four of these areas. In particular, we have modified the content of the course to reflect progress in the field in the last 50 years, use modern textbooks that include such content, incorporate a variety of teaching techniques based on physics education research, and used a variety of assessment tools to study the effectiveness of these reforms. We present a new assessment tool, the Graduate Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey, and further testing of a previously developed assessment tool, the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS). We find that graduate students respond well to research-based techniques that have previously been tested mainly in introductory courses, and that they learn a great deal of the new content introduced in each ve...

  17. Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, B M; Torres, C; Franca, A S; Oliveira, L S; Oliveira, E S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Batch fermentation studies were performed employing whole and ground coffee husks, and aqueous extract from ground coffee husks. It was observed that fermentation yield decreased with an increase in yeast concentration. The best results were obtained for the following conditions: whole coffee husks, 3 g yeast/l substrate, temperature of 30 degrees C. Under these conditions ethanol production was 8.49 +/- 0.29 g/100 g dry basis (13.6 +/- 0.5 g ethanol/l), a satisfactory value in comparison to literature data for other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (5-11 g ethanol/l). Such results indicate that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production.

  18. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  19. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically.

  20. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  1. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Xu

    2017-01-24

    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  2. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia Xu

    2017-01-24

    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  3. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders.

  5. Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, John F.

    2003-07-01

    Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2-based power generation, via reforming, is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2-enriched product stream, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC's). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2-rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

  6. Dimensions of health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J

    1994-01-31

    During recent years there has been a growth of worldwide interest in health system reform. Countries at all levels of economic development are engaged in a creative search for better ways of organizing and financing health care, while promoting the goals of equity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Together with economic, political, and ideological reasons, this search has been fueled by the need to find answers to the complexities posed by the epidemiologic transition, whereby many nations are facing the simultaneous burdens of old, unresolved problems and new, emerging challenges. In order to better understand reform attempts, it is necessary to develop a clear conception of the object of reform: the health system. This paper presents the health system as a set of relationships among five major groups of actors: the health care providers, the population, the state as a collective mediator, the organizations that generate resources, and the other sectors that produce services with health effects. The relationships among providers, population, and the state form the basis for a typology of health care modalities. The type and number of modalities present in a country make it possible to characterize its health system. In the last part, the paper proposes that health system reform operates at four policy levels: systemic, which deals with the institutional arrangements for regulation, financing, and delivery of services; programmatic, which specifies the priorities of the system, by defining a universal package of health care interventions; organizational, which is concerned with the actual production of services by focusing on issues of quality assurance and technical efficiency; and instrumental, which generates the institutional intelligence for improving system performance through information, research, technological innovation, and human resource development. The dimensions of reform offer a repertoire of policy options, which need to be enriched by cross

  7. Tungsten effect over co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce hydrogen from bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Ortiz, M.A.; Luna, R.; Nuno, L. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapozalco, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Energia; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de IPH; Salmones, J.; Zeifert, B. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The use of bioethanol has been considered for generating hydrogen via catalytic reforming. The reaction of ethanol with stream is strongly endothermic and produces hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, undesirable products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}) may also form during the reaction. This paper reported on the newly found stabilization effect of tungsten over the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts to produce H{sub 2} from ethanol in steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen (N{sub 2}) physisorption (BET area), X-ray diffraction, Infrared, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. Catalytic evaluations were determined using a fixed bed reactor with a water/ethanol mol ratio of 4 at 450 degrees C. The tungsten concentration studied was from 0.5 to 3 wt percent. The intensity of crystalline reflections of the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts decreased as tungsten concentration increased. Infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the superficial chemical groups, notably -OH, H{sub 2}O, Al-OH, Mg-OH, W-O-W and CO{sub 3}{sup 2.} The highest H{sub 2} production and the best catalytic stability was found in catalysts with low tungsten. The smallest pore volume of this catalyst could be related with long residence times of ethanol in the pores. Tungsten promoted the conversion for the Co-hydrotalcite catalysts. The reaction products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and the catalysts did not produce CO. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Can ICT Reform Public Agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Arild; Løvdal, Einar

    This study examines the reorganisation of the administration of admission to higher education in Norway, which has also included the development of a nationwide, ICT-based case handling system. This reform process was initiated out of the need to provide politicians with information for control and regulatory purposes, and the reform resulted in a centralised management information system. This system, however, has evolved into a coordinated but also partly locally delegated decision-making instrument which processes most of the applications for admission to higher education in Norway.

  9. Central bank conservatism and labor market reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordahl, Henrik; Laséen, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    How does central bank conservatism affect labor market reform? In this paper we examine the economic forces at work. An increase in conservatism triggers two opposite effects. It reduces the inflation bias of discretionary monetary policy and hence the benefits of a reform. It also increases unemployment variability, which increases the precautionary benefits of a reform. In combination, the two effects produce a u-shaped relation between conservatism and labor market reform. An empirical inv...

  10. Prospects for Corn Ethanol in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Miguel Carriquiry

    2012-01-01

    Countries that export biofuel feedstocks such as grain or sugar and that are also importers of motor fuels will have a natural competitive advantage over other countries in the production of biofuels. Argentina is one of a very few countries that both export potential feedstocks and import gasoline and diesel. This combination means that an Argentine ethanol plant will pay less for feedstock and receive a higher price for ethanol than an ethanol plant located in a country that imports feedsto...

  11. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  12. Catching a conserved mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lovely, Charles Ben; Eberhart, Johann Karl

    2014-01-01

    Due to its profound impact on human development, ethanol teratogenicity is a field of intense study. The complexity of variables that influence the outcomes of embryonic or prenatal ethanol exposure compels the use of animal models in which these variables can be isolated. Numerous model systems have been used in these studies. The zebrafish is a powerful model system, which has seen a recent increase in usage for ethanol studies. Those using zebrafish for alcohol studies often face two quest...

  13. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.

  14. An Evolving List of School Reform Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Pedro R.; Lindahl, Lois T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses educational reform efforts that will change the school culture and improve instructional programs and includes a list of terms that represent the language of school reform. Understanding these terms might serve to influence the change process in schools that are thinking about or are actually engaged in systemic reform initiatives.…

  15. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new credit...

  16. The Danish structural reform of government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The reform of the three-tier system of government that the Danish society is about to implement is in accordance with the Danish tradition of structural reforms in the pre-war period. The agenda of the current reform derives naturally from the political debates and analyses that have taken place...

  17. General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Scott M., Jr.; Mitchell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    General education reform provides strategic opportunities for departments. This article analyzes reform at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, illustrating how departments could use the reform process to clarify their strategic planning, align with institutional goals, and steer the university closer to departmental objectives. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Reform of China's Pension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanzhongWang

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes development and reform of China's pension system. It introduces the evolution of China's pension system reform and discusses its strengths and problems.The paper then proposes some suggestions on the direction of China's pension reform. The last section is devoted to a discussion of China's corporate occupational pension, which is a fast-developing area of the pension system.

  19. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  20. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  1. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  2. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  3. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  4. Changes in Chinese Standard for Ethanol Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Zhang Yongguang

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the tests on application of ethanol gasoline in 2001, Chinese government promulgated a national standard, GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles". The standard specifies three kinds of ethanol gasoline, namely E10 (90 RON), E 10 (93 RON) and E10(95RON). There were ethanol gasoline grades (90 RON and 93 RON) and conventional unleaded gasoline(97 RON) available in the areas where tests were carried out. Vehicle owners were worried about the harmful action of ethanol to their vehicles because of lack of knowledge regarding ethanol fuel,and they only refueled their cars with conventional 97 RON unleaded gasoline. This idea might cause unnecessary costs to customers and could bring about difficulty to the tests as well. Besides, some other technical questions emerged during the experimental application of ethanol gasoline, such as water content, ethanol content in gasoline, etc. Based on the experiences accumulated during the application tests, the national standard GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles" was revised. The revised edition is designated as GB 18351-2004.

  5. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  6. Reforming European Universities and Reforming European Welfare States: Parallel Drivers of Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    We are discussing here links between reform agendas and their rationales in higher education and in the welfare state. Lessons learnt from welfare state reforms can be useful in understanding higher education reforms, and we see the links between the two under-­‐researched. Assuming that higher education services have traditionally been state-­‐funded welfare state services in postwar Continental Europe, welfare state reforms debates as a background to higher education reforms debates are ...

  7. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  8. Educational Reform: Issues and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Reviews trends in different countries regarding educational reform at the primary and secondary levels in terms of educational quality, funding, teacher salaries, class size, and decentralization. Suggests that, even in Japan and other industrialized nations, there is movement away from the constraints of a uniform system. (SK)

  9. Complexity Theory and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that assess the influence of communication in facilitating educational change. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of communication for high school principals in the implementation of education reform. Overall, the study found that top-down communication strategy was more prevalent in high schools. These…

  10. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  11. Celestin Freinet, the Unknown Reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William B.

    1983-01-01

    Although unknown in the United States, Celestin Freinet founded in France an influential educational reform movement, Ecole Moderne, based on four principles: (1) democratic values, (2) empiricism, (3) interaction with nature and life, and (4) work as a basic human need. (SK)

  12. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  13. When School Reform Goes Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2007-01-01

    In this much-needed volume, Nel Noddings uses her extensive experience at every level of schooling to challenge the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Noddings invites readers to think critically about the ideas underlying NCLB, the reform movement that shaped it, and the processes it has put into play. She considers such questions as: Is money the…

  14. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China's western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.It will also change resource tax rates on crude oil and natural gas.

  15. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  16. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  17. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  18. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a fuel flexible micro-reformer fully integrated in silicon for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, D.; Salleras, M.; Garbayo, I.; Morata, A.; Sabaté, N.; Divins, N. J.; Llorca, J.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-05-01

    A novel design of a fuel-flexible micro-reactor for hydrogen generation from ethanol and methane is proposed in this work. The micro-reactor is fully fabricated with mainstream MEMS technology and consists of an array of more than 20000 through-silicon vertically aligned micro-channels per cm2 of 50 μm in diameter. Due to this unique configuration, the micro-reformer presents a total surface per projected area of 16 cm2/cm2 and per volume of 320 cm2/cm3. The active surface of the micro-reformer, i.e. the walls of the micro-channels, is homogenously coated with a thin film of Rh- Pd/CeO2 catalyst. Excellent steam reforming of ethanol and dry reforming of methane are presented with hydrogen production rates above 3 mL/min·cm2 and hydrogen selectivity of ca. 50% on a dry basis at operations conditions suitable for application in micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs), i.e. 700-800ºC and fuel flows of 0.02 mLL/min for ethanol and 36 mLG/min for methane (corresponding to a system able to produce one electrical watt).

  20. Ethanol production from bread residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Roodpeyma, Shapoor [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Isfahan Center for the Research of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-50190 Boraas (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    Bread residues were converted into a suitable fermentation feed via a two-step starch hydrolysis using amylolytic enzymes. Wheat flour hydrolysis was also carried out at the same conditions for comparison. For the first stage, namely liquefaction, effects of temperature (50-85{sup o}C) and substrate concentration (20% and 35%) were investigated. The 3-h liquefaction of the 20% bread suspension made 70% of initial dry matter soluble regardless of the temperature. The liquefaction of the 35% bread suspension had to be carried out by a fed-batch method due to the pasty behavior of the suspension. It resulted in a 65% dissolution of the suspended bread at 85{sup o}C. Saccharification of the latter product led to a fermentation feedstock having a dextrose equivalent (DE) of more than 95 and almost 80% dissolution of the initial dry matter. The prepared feedstock was then cultivated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which resulted in an overall yield of 350 g ethanol per kg of initial bread dry matter. Staling of the bread for a week had no effect on liquefaction, saccharification and ethanol yield. (author)

  1. The Impact of Ethanol and Ethanol Subsidies on Corn Prices: Revisiting History

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2011-01-01

    The rapid rise in corn prices that began in the fall of 2006 coincided with exponential growth in U.S. corn ethanol production. At about the same time, new ethanol consumption mandates were added to existing ethanol import tariffs and price subsidies. This troika of subsidies leads critics to view the ethanol industry as being beholden to subsidies, which then leads to the conclusion that ethanol subsidies lead to high corn prices. But droughts, floods, a severe U.S. recession, and two genera...

  2. Ethanol precipitation analysis of thymus histone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvoet, P.

    1957-01-01

    An analytical ethanol precipitation technique, similar to 's salting-out procedure, was used for the characterisation of whole thymus histone and the products obtained by preparative ethanol fractionation. The analysis was carried out at —5° C and pH 6.5. Whole histone prepared according to et al.,

  3. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  4. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  5. Antidepressant Effect of Aminophylline After Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Soares, Paula Matias; Almeida, Anália Barbosa; de Freitas Guimarães Lobato, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Dayane Pessoa; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the association of acute ethanol and aminophylline administration on behavioral models of depression and prefrontal monoamine levels (i.e. norepinephrine and dopamine) in mice. The animals received a single dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) or aminophylline (5 or 10 mg/kg) alone or in association. Thirty minutes after the last drug administration, the animals were assessed in behavioral models by the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. After these tests, the animals were sacrificed and the prefrontal cortices dissected to measure monoamine content. Results showed that ethanol presented depression-like activity in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. These effects were reversed by the association with aminophylline in all tests. Norepinephrine and dopamine levels decreased, while an increase in the dopamine metabolite, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid (DOPAC), after ethanol administration was observed. On the contrary, the association of ethanol and aminophylline increased the norepinephrine and dopamine content, while it decreased DOPAC when compared to the ethanol group, confirming the alterations observed in the behavioral tests. These data reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system on ethanol effects, highlighting the importance of the norepinephrine and dopamine pathways in the prefrontal cortex to the effects of ethanol. PMID:23641339

  6. Hydrogen production by reforming of hydrocarbons and alcohols in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Belen; Brey, J. Javier; Viera, Inmaculada G. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A. Avda. de la Buhaira, 2. 41018 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose; Rico, Victor J. [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University Sevilla), Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    This work reports about the use of plasmas to obtain hydrogen by reforming of hydrocarbons or alcohols in mixtures with CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O. The plasma is activated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor working at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures (i.e., about 100 C). The reactor presents a great versatility in operation and a low manufacturing cost. Results are presented for the reforming of methane, methanol and ethanol. Methane transforms up to a 70% into CO and H{sub 2} without formation of any kind of superior hydrocarbon. For the two alcohols 100% conversion into the same products is found for flows much higher than in the case of methane. The work reports a description of the reactor and the operational conditions of the power supply enabling the ignition of the plasma and its steady state operation. (author)

  7. An integrative analysis of transcriptomic response of ethanol tolerant strains to ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasavi, Ceyda; Eraslan, Serpil; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Kirdar, Betul

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation of ethanol is one of the main environmental stresses that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to in industrial alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production processes. Despite the known impacts of ethanol, the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance are still not fully understood. Novel gene targets leading to ethanol tolerance were previously identified via a network approach and the investigations of the deletions of these genes resulted in the improved ethanol tolerance of pmt7Δ/pmt7Δ and yhl042wΔ/yhl042wΔ strains. In the present study, an integrative system based approach was used to investigate the global transcriptional changes in these two ethanol tolerant strains in response to ethanol and hence to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the observed tolerant phenotypes. In addition to strain specific biological processes, a number of common and already reported biological processes were found to be affected in the reference and both ethanol tolerant strains. However, the integrative analysis of the transcriptome with the transcriptional regulatory network and the ethanol tolerance network revealed that each ethanol tolerant strain had a specific organization of the transcriptomic response. Transcription factors around which most important changes occur were determined and active subnetworks in response to ethanol and functional clusters were identified in all strains.

  8. Genetic correlations with ethanol withdrawal severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, J C; Young, E R; Kosobud, A

    1983-01-01

    A major goal of pharmacogenetic research on alcoholism remains the identification of some "marker" that could predict the liability of a particular individual for a genetic susceptibility to develop alcoholism. The present paper presents evidence that the severity of withdrawal from physical dependence on ethanol varies widely among inbred strains of mice, and that withdrawal severity is negatively genetically correlated with initial sensitivity and magnitude of tolerance to ethanol hypothermia. These correlations are supported by differences in hypothermic response between replicate lines of mice genetically selected for susceptibility and resistance to ethanol withdrawal seizures. The genetic relationships reported suggest that the effects of ethanol on thermoregulation in mice may offer a predictive marker for susceptibility to ethanol physical dependence.

  9. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  10. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  11. Electrocatalysts the basis of nickel and iron supported YSZ and GDC for SOFC with direct reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.P.; Silva, M.A.; Boaventura, J.S. [Inst. de Quimica, Salvador (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This study discussed the use of nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) supported yttria-stabilized zircon (YSZ) and GDC for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The Pechina method was used to prepare the electrocatalysts, which were then calcined at 900 degrees C. Ethanol steam reforming at a molar ethanol-water ratio of 1:3 at temperatures ranging between 300 and 900 degrees C as well as at a fixed temperature of 650 degrees C. The catalysts were monitored continuously. Results of the study showed that ethanol conversion and selectivity of the Ni YSZ samples was 80 per cent, while the GDC sample was 30 per cent at temperatures of 900 degrees C. Ethanol conversion rates for the Ni-Fe YSZ sample was 95 per cent. The Ni-Fe sample also showed improved resistance to carbon formation with less than 10 per cent carbon deposition. It was concluded that the improved resistance to carbon deposits can be attributed to lower iron catalyst activity and the lower acid character of the iron electrocatalyst.

  12. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  13. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  14. Hydrocarbon reforming catalysts and new reactor designs for compact hydrogen generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Schwab, E.; Urtel, H. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Farrauto, R. [BASF Catalysts LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A hydrogen based future energy scenario will use fuel cells for the conversion of chemically stored energy into electricity. Depending upon the type of fuel cell, different specifications will apply for the feedstock which is converted in the cell, ranging from very clean hydrogen for PEM-FC's to desulfurized methane for SOFC and MCFC technology. For the foreseeable future, hydrogen will be supplied by conventional reforming, however operated in compact and dynamic reformer designs. This requires that known catalyst formulations are offered in specific geometries, giving flexibility for novel reactor design options. These specific geometries can be special tablet shapes as well as monolith structures. Finally, also nonhydrocarbon feedstock might be used in special applications, e.g. bio-based methanol and ethanol. BASF offers catalysts for the full process chain starting from feedstock desulfurization via reforming, high temperature shift, low temperature shift to CO fine polishing either via selective oxidation or selective methanation. Depending upon the customer's design, most stages can be served either with precious metal based monolith solutions or base metal tablet solutions. For the former, we have taken the automobile catalyst monolith support and extended its application to the fuel cell hydrogen generation. Washcoats of precious metal supported catalysts can for example be deposited on ceramic monoliths and/or metal heat exchangers for efficient generation of hydrogen. Major advantages are high through puts due to more efficient heat transfer for catalysts on metal heat exchangers, lower pressure drop with greater catalyst mechanical and thermal stability compared to particulate catalysts. Base metal tablet catalysts on the other hand can have intrinsic cost advantages, larger fractions of the reactor can be filled with active mass, and if produced in unconventional shape, again novel reactor designs are made possible. Finally, if it comes to

  15. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, L; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  16. In an Era of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith Rotabi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Intercountry adoption (ICA is a relatively common practice. Since its contemporary conception during the Second World War, approximately one million children have been adopted internationally. Controversy surrounding ICA includes ideas about human rights and notions of child rescue in the context of major reform to prevent child sales and abduction under the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. Social work, as a discipline, is a central player in ICA practices, and at least, one historian asserts that social work academic literature is scant on the topic of problematic practice and reforms. A review of the social work literature was conducted, and four thematic areas emerged in the 87 manuscripts reviewed: (a social policy; (b exploitation, social justice, ethics, and human rights; (c clinical perspectives to include identity, child development, and family transition; and (d child welfare practices. Results indicate a small but robust body of social work literature, and highlights are presented as well as analysis indicating methodical trends.

  17. The Politics of Military Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    choices for ayq CWagsm. DoD umratards that it is to its advntage to let Ontracts in as many Cogressional districts as possible. The chArt below...believe that alternative (e.g., social spending, debt reduction measures , or foreign aid) avenues for defense dollars should be pursued. Our research...underbudgeting and underfunding of new systems and their corresponding operation and maintenance accounts . 1 0 Reformers are convinced that DoD realizes

  18. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  19. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China plans to increase resource tax to curb waste,but the plans raise fears of inflation After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China’s western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.

  20. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    events ranging from the contamination of the Love Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Loma ... Prieta Earthquake, and Hurricane Andrew. In 1993, during the Clinton Administration, FEMA initiated reforms that both streamlined disaster and relief...deploy teams and resources to maximize the speed and effectiveness of the anticipated federal response and, when necessary, performs preparedness and

  1. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of methanol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Kikuchi, Ryuji; Eguchi, Koichi

    Thermodynamic equilibrium of methanol steam reforming (MeOH SR) was studied by Gibbs free minimization for hydrogen production as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C = 0-10), reforming temperature (25-1000 °C), pressure (0.5-3 atm), and product species. The chemical species considered were methanol, water, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon (graphite), methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, n-butane, ethanol, propanol, i-butanol, n-butanol, and dimethyl ether (DME). Coke-formed and coke-free regions were also determined as a function of S/C ratio. Based upon a compound basis set MeOH, CO 2, CO, H 2 and H 2O, complete conversion of MeOH was attained at S/C = 1 when the temperature was higher than 200 °C at atmospheric pressure. The concentration and yield of hydrogen could be achieved at almost 75% on a dry basis and 100%, respectively. From the reforming efficiency, the operating condition was optimized for the temperature range of 100-225 °C, S/C range of 1.5-3, and pressure at 1 atm. The calculation indicated that the reforming condition required from sufficient CO concentration (<10 ppm) for polymer electrolyte fuel cell application is too severe for the existing catalysts (T r = 50 °C and S/C = 4-5). Only methane and coke thermodynamically coexist with H 2O, H 2, CO, and CO 2, while C 2H 6, C 3H 8, i-C 4H 10, n-C 4H 10, CH 3OH, C 2H 5OH, C 3H 7OH, i-C 4H 9OH, n-C 4H 9OH, and C 2H 6O were suppressed at essentially zero. The temperatures for coke-free region decreased with increase in S/C ratios. The impact of pressure was negligible upon the complete conversion of MeOH.

  3. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  4. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  5. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy.

  6. The effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ethanol withdrawal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L

    2008-10-01

    Physical dependence on ethanol results in an ethanol withdrawal (ETX) syndrome including susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rodents after abrupt cessation of ethanol. Chronic ethanol administration and ETX induce functional changes of neurons in several brain regions, including the amygdala. Amygdala neurons are requisite elements of the neuronal network subserving AGS propagation during ETX induced by a subacute "binge" ethanol administration protocol. However, the effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ETX seizure behaviors are unknown. In the present study ethanol (5g/kg) was administered intragastrically in Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 28days [chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) protocol]. One week later the rats began receiving ethanol intragastrically three times daily for 4days (binge protocol). Microwire electrodes were implanted prior to CIE or on the day after CIE ended to record extracellular action potentials in lateral amygdala (LAMG) neurons. The first dose of ethanol administered in the binge protocol following CIE treatment did not alter LAMG neuronal firing, which contrasts with firing suppression seen previously in the binge protocol alone. These data indicate that CIE induces neuroadaptive changes in the ETX network which reduce LAMG response to ethanol. LAMG neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli prior to AGS were significantly decreased during ETX as compared to those before ethanol treatment. LAMG neurons fired tonically throughout the tonic convulsions during AGS. CIE plus binge treatment resulted in a significantly greater mean seizure duration and a significantly elevated incidence of death than was seen previously with the binge protocol alone, indicating an elevated seizure severity following chronic ethanol administration.

  7. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  8. Ethanol tolerance of immobilized brewers' yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S; Watson, K; D'Amore, T

    1995-04-01

    A method based on the survival of yeast cells subjected to an ethanol or heat shock was utilized to compare the stress resistance of free and carrageenan-immobilized yeast cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase of yeast survival against ethanol for immobilized cells as compared to free cells, while no marked difference in heat resistance was observed. When entrapped cells were released by mechanical disruption of the gel beads and submitted to the same ethanol stress, they exhibited a lower survival rate than entrapped cells, but a similar or slightly higher survival rate than free cells. The incidence of ethanol- or heat-induced respiratory-deficient mutants of entrapped cells was equivalent to that of control or non-stressed cells (1.3 +/- 0.5%) whereas ethanol- and heat-shocked free and released cells exhibited between 4.4% and 10.9% average incidence of respiration-deficient mutants. It was concluded that the carrageenan gel matrix provided a protection against ethanol, and that entrapped cells returned to normal physiological behaviour as soon as they were released. The cell growth rate was a significant factor in the resistance of yeast to high ethanol concentrations. The optimum conditions to obtain reliable and reproducible results involved the use of slow-growing cells after exhaustion of the sugar substrate.

  9. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  10. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanmuyi Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1, and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6. UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Huntington’s disease (HD, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  12. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  13. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  14. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  15. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  16. Use of clinoptilolite in ethanol dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tihmillioglu, F. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey); Ulku, S. [Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

    1996-12-01

    Clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite, which exists in various regions of Turkey, has been experimentally studied. For the ethanol-water-local clinoptilolite system, uptake and breakthrough curves were determined under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. In adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies, the effects of particle size, temperature and, amount of zeolite on the uptake rate have been investigated. The breakthrough curves for four different flow rates of ethanol and three different bed heights were determined in dynamic column studies. The results of the experiments show that intraparticle diffusion is the main resistance. The local clinoptilolite is a promising adsorbent for water adsorption from aqueous ethanol.

  17. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  19. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  20. One pot synthesis of N-ethylaniline from nitrobenzene and ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoNian; ZHANG JunHua; XIANG YiZhi; MA Lei; ZHANG QunFeng; LU ChunShan; WANG Hong; BAI Ying

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for the one pot synthesis of N-alkyl arylamines from nitro aromatic compounds and alcohols is proposed through the combination of the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohol for hydrogen production, the reduction of nitro aromatic compounds for the synthesis of aromatic amine and the N-alkylation of aromatic amine for the production of N-alkyl arylamine over an identical catalyst under the same conditions of temperature and pressure in a single reactor. In this process, hydrogen gener-ated from the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohols was used in-situ for the hydrogenation of nitro aromatic compounds for aromatic amine synthesis, followed by N-alkylation of aromatic amine with alcohols to form the corresponding N-alkyl arylamines at a low partial pressure of hydrogen. For the system composed of nitrobenzene and ethanol, under the conditions of 413 K and PN2=1 MPa, the conversion degrees of nitrobenzene and aniline were 100%, the selectivity to N-ethylaniline and N, N-diethylaniline were 85.9% and 0%-4%, respectivity, after reaction for 8 h at the volumetric ratio of nitrobenzene: ethanol :water = 10:60: 0. The selectivity for N, N-diethylaniline production is much lower than that through the traditional method. In this process, hydrogen and aromatic amines generated from the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohols and hydrogenation of nitro aromatic compounds, re-spectively, could be promptly removed from the surface of the catalyst due to the occurrence of in-situ hydrogenation and N-alkylation reactions. Thus, this may be a potential approach to increase the se-lectivity to N-alkyl arylamine.

  1. One pot synthesis of N-ethylaniline from nitrobenzene and ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for the one pot synthesis of N-alkyl arylamines from nitro aromatic compounds and alcohols is proposed through the combination of the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohol for hydrogen production, the reduction of nitro aromatic compounds for the synthesis of aromatic amine and the N-alkylation of aromatic amine for the production of N-alkyl arylamine over an identical catalyst under the same conditions of temperature and pressure in a single reactor. In this process, hydrogen generated from the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohols was used in-situ for the hydrogenation of nitro aromatic compounds for aromatic amine synthesis, followed by N-alkylation of aromatic amine with alcohols to form the corresponding N-alkyl arylamines at a low partial pressure of hydrogen. For the system composed of nitrobenzene and ethanol, under the conditions of 413 K and PN2 = 1 MPa, the conversion degrees of nitrobenzene and aniline were 100%, the selectivity to N-ethylaniline and N, N-diethylaniline were 85.9% and 0%-4%, respectivity, after reaction for 8 h at the volumetric ratio of nitrobenzene:ethanol:water = 10:60:0. The selectivity for N, N-diethylaniline production is much lower than that through the traditional method. In this process, hydrogen and aromatic amines generated from the aqueous-phase reforming of alcohols and hydrogenation of nitro aromatic compounds, respectively, could be promptly removed from the surface of the catalyst due to the occurrence of in-situ hydrogenation and N-alkylation reactions. Thus, this may be a potential approach to increase the selectivity to N-alkyl arylamine.

  2. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  3. Chinese Military Reforms: A Pessimistic Take

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    JFQ 83, 4th Quarter 2016 Cliff 53 Chinese Military Reforms A Pessimistic Take By Roger Cliff O n the evening of May 21, 1941, the German battleship...behind, May 11, 2015 (U.S. Navy/Conor Minto) 54 Commentary / Chinese Military Reforms: A Pessimistic Take JFQ 83, 4th Quarter 2016 headquarters of...area of responsibility, February 10, 2015 (U.S. Navy/Matthew Dickinson) 56 Commentary / Chinese Military Reforms: A Pessimistic Take JFQ 83, 4th

  4. Third Round of Tax Reforms Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYIYI

    2004-01-01

    China's third round of tax reform is underway.Premier Wen Jiabao declared the three main lpoints of this tax reform in this year's 'state-of-the-art' government working report:to shift gradually from production-oriented value added tax(VAT) to consumption-oriented,the reform of export tax rebate system and to eliminate the agricultural tax in five yeaars.

  5. Roadblocks to Reform: Beyond the Usual Suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Grignon Michel

    2012-01-01

    Real reforms attempt to change how health care is financed and how it is rationed. Three main explanations have been offered for why such reforms are so difficult: institutional gridlock, path dependency and societal preferences. The latter posits that choices made regarding the health care system in a given country reflect the broader societal set of values in that country and that, as a result, public resistance to real reform may more accurately reflect citizensÕ personal convictions, self...

  6. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police refor...

  7. Electro-catalysts for hydrogen production from ethanol for use in SOFC anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt catalysts, supported on YSZ, were prepared by wet impregnation, with and without citric acid; the metal load was 10 and 35% by weight. The catalyst composition was studied by XRF, XPS and SEM-EDS. At low metal concentration, the results of these techniques presented comparables figures; at high concentration, SEM-EDS suggested a non-uniform distribution. The analysis showed that the solids were mixed oxides and formed an alloy after reduction. The surface passivation was possible under controlled conditions. The catalytic test with the steam reforming of ethanol indicated that the metal load had almost no effect on the catalytic activity, but decreased its selectivity. Afterwards, a unitary SOFC was prepared with deposition of the cathode layer. AFM and EIS were used for the characterization of SOFC components. They showed that the electro-catalyst surface was almost all covered with the metal phase, including the large pore walls of the anode. The YSZ phase dominates the material conductance of the complete SOFC assembly (anode/electrolyte/cathode). The unitary SOFC was tested with hydrogen, gaseous ethanol or natural gas; the SOFC operating with ethanol and hydrogen fuel presented virtually no over-potential. (orig.)

  8. Survey of U.S. fuel ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ethanol industry is progressively growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so too ...

  9. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  10. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  11. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  12. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  13. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  14. Efficiency enhancement in gasoline reforming through the recirculation of reformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RBP/AS, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Sommer, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RTC/A, 70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Diezinger, S.; Trimis, D.; Durst, F. [FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg, LSTM, 91031 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-03-21

    Fuel processors for on-board hydrogen production have to meet numerous technical demands. They should be efficient, compact and lightweight, capable of different loads and able to perform cold start ups. In this paper, the recirculation of reformate is proposed as a means of efficiency enhancement. Different system configurations based on this idea are introduced and simulated. The resulting effect on the system's efficiency, the water balance as well as the impact of recirculation on the system's volume and weight are discussed. (author)

  15. Development, investigation and modelling of a micro reformer as part of a system for off-grid power supply with PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlitz, Lisbeth

    2008-11-18

    In this thesis a micro reformer fuel cell system ({mu}RFCS) for 300 Wel off-grid power supply, fuelled with bioethanol, was simulated, designed, developed and investigated in a test-rig. First a literature study was carried through to point out the specific characteristics of micro reforming, the most important being heat transfer, and present the systems currently under research and already on the market. As a next step, the processes of the RFCS were simulated with the commercial simulation tool CHEMCAD. This comprised thermodynamic equilibrium simulations for the separate reactions of steam reforming, water gas shift and selective methanation. It also included a simulation of the complete {mu}RFCS with thermodynamic equilibrium for all reactors and assumed values for heat loss and fuel cell efficiency. The resulting net electrical efficiency was 24%. As a third step, a reaction pathway scheme with parallel and serial reactions for the steam reforming reaction of ethanol was simulated, developed, evaluated and proven plausible by matching the simulation to experimental results obtained in the {mu}RFCS test rig. The equilibrium simulations were used to evaluate the catalyst screening carried through for reformer, water gas shift and selective methanation catalysts. The catalysts for the {mu}RFCS were chosen and the optimum operating conditions determined by the screening tests. Having accomplished the simulation and design of the system, the largest proportion of this work was spent on the construction, set-up, testing and evaluation of the complete {mu}RFCS. The focus for the evaluations lay on the reformer side of the system. The technical feasibility was demonstrated for an ethanol/water mix of 3 ml/min at S/C 3. The first tests without optimized heat and water management between the reformer system and the fuel cell system resulted in power output of around 115 W{sub el}, at a total electrical efficiency of 31%. (orig.)

  16. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  17. Application of quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit to measure ethanol concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y

    2001-12-27

    In this paper, the applicability of the quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit for screening of ethanol concentrations in blood samples was investigated. The pretreatment of blood using the sulfosalicylic acid solution and the three-way stopcock followed by membrane filtration gave satisfactory results. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood samples (n=61) determined by QED correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficient indicated 0.990. Because a high correlation coefficient (0.928) was also confirmed in trial by investigators, QED test should be highly considered for ethanol screening in forensic praxis.

  18. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism.

  19. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 yeast strains using 500 ml ... provides recovery of up to 90% of fermentable sugars ..... ethanol production in the clarified broth of sugarcane juice.

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane juice with yeasts that ... yeast strains using 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with 180 ml of must prepared ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ...

  2. Ethanol consumption as inductor of pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; A; Tapia; Ginés; M; Salido; Antonio; González

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major cause of pancreatitis, a condition that can manifest as both acute necroinflammation and chronic damage (acinar atrophy and f ibrosis). Pancreatic acinar cells can metabolize ethanol via the oxidative pathway, which generates acetaldehyde and involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and possibly cytochrome P4502E1. Additionally, ethanol can be metabolized via a nonoxidative pathway involving fatty acid ethyl ester synthases. Metabolism of ethanol by acinar and other pancreatic cells and the consequent generation of toxic metabolites, are postulated to play an important role in the development of alcohol-related acute and chronic pancreatic injury. This current work will review some recent advances in the knowledge about ethanol actions on the exocrine pancreas and its relationship to inflammatory disease and cancer.

  3. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...... fermentation product was obtained by further inactivating the phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and the native alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE)....

  4. Responding to reform: 5 strategies for reinventing the revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Among of the biggest challenges that will affect hospital revenue cycles in an era of reform, five are related to the following concerns: Reduced payment, Compliance reforms, Quality improvement initiatives, Payment reform, Expansion of insurance coverage.

  5. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  6. Use of clinoptilolite in ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda; Ülkü, Semra

    1996-01-01

    Clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite, which exists in various regions of Turkey, has been experimentally studied. For the ethanol-water-local clinoptilolite system, uptake and breakthrough curves were determined under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. In adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies, the effects of particle size, temperature and, amount of zeolite on the uptake rate have been investigated. The breakthrough curves for four different flow rates of ethanol and three different b...

  7. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  8. Tris(3-aminophenylphosphine oxide ethanol solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Han

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound crystallized as an ethanol solvate, C18H18N3OP·C2H6O. It is the reduction product of tris(3-nitrophenylphosphine oxide. In the crystal, there are intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds between neighbouring tris(3-aminophenylphosphine oxide molecules and O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the ethanol solvent molecule.

  9. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  10. Low temperature hydrolysis for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1982-12-01

    Hydrolysis of corn was compared at two temperatures of 100/sup 0/C and 75/sup 0/C. Starch conversion to dextrose and then ethanol were determined. Yields were 10.69% ethanol in the fermented beer for 100/sup 0/C and 9.89% for 75/sup 0/C. The 75/sup 0/C hydrolysis required about 100 MJ less thermal energy than the 100/sup 0/C hydrolysis. The effects of contamination and respiration were also assessed.

  11. Cellulose ethanol is ready to go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladik, M. [Iogen Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ottawa-based Iogen Corporation is a leader in industrial biotechnology with a focus on cellulose-based enzyme technology. The company designed and operates the world's first and largest cellulose ethanol demonstration facility making ethanol from biomass. This presentation described Iogen's cellulose ethanol demonstration facility and outlined the innovative process in which enzymes prepare the plant fibres for fermentation, distillation and finally conversion to cellulose ethanol fuel. Hydrolysis and fermentation are achieved using a multi-stage hydrolysis process. It is anticipated that biorefineries will use the residues from locally grown agriculture to produce the ethanol, but stakeholder alliances will have to be built in order to form the elements of commercialization. Feedstocks, government policy, infrastructure issues, investment climate and ethanol sales all contribute to the success of a commercial plant. An assessment of preliminary global feedstock availability was presented with reference to total wheat, coarse grains, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, rice straw and sugar cane production. To date, the use of cellulose ethanol fuel has been demonstrated in vehicle trials in Bonn, Germany, as well as fleet vehicles operated by Natural Resources Canada and Agriculture Canada. Sample feedstock basins in Germany, Canada and the United States were highlighted. The supply of cellulose feedstock is large enough to contribute significantly to reductions in fossil fuel consumption. The United States Department of Energy claims that cellulose ethanol could displace over 30 per cent of the current petroleum consumption in the United States, and that land resources in the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass. However, technology, financing and government policies are the factors which currently affect the commercialization of emerging technologies. tabs., figs.

  12. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  13. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  14. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.

    1991-01-01

    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  15. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  16. Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Jayaprakash

    2010-04-01

    This article concerns the 20th century saga of Ayurvedic Education up to the current situation, based on a general appreciation of knowledge in Ayurveda. In this light, it considers how to improve quality of teaching and teachers. This is most important, because in education, teachers are the custodians of tradition and knowledge. As those most responsible for maintaining or restoring quality, teachers have very important roles to play. The article also treats 'learning and teaching': who should learn Ayurveda, and how to teach Ayurveda so that it continues from generation to generation, leading to the final area of onsideration, reforms in teaching Ayurveda, and future prospects.

  17. Next Round of Enterprise Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's decades of rapid growth has led some to hail the success of "state capitalism." Others say the state's hand is less important. Researcher Zhang Wenkui at the State Council's Development Research Center is in the second camp. State companies and industrial administrators have had roles to play in leading the economy. But more recentlyhe said, they've yielded to a rising private sector. Zhang suggests it's time to launch a new round of state-run enterprise reform by selling small companies and introducing private investors for big ones, thus helping China maintain high economic growth.

  18. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  19. Reforming "Time" in Danish Schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2017-01-01

    , and kept haunting them and the schools for the following years (Bjerg & Vaaben 2015; Bjerg & Vaaben n.d.).Secondly, it also had organizational implications. During the article I will argue, that the struggle was in a sense not really about time, but about power, about different understandings of value....... København: Samfundslitteratur.Bjerg, H. & Vaaben, N., The Danish School as a Haunted House - Reforming time, work and fantasies of teaching in the Danish public school. Ephemera.Glynos, J. & Howarth, D., 2007. Logics of Critical Explanation in Social and Political Theory, Abingdon, New York: Routledge...

  20. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  1. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size.

  2. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  3. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  4. Studies of the Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides in the Reaction of Ethanol with Propylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reaction of ethanol with propylene oxide over calcined layered double hydroxides(CLDH) was investigated. The results show that CLDH has a good activity and a good selectivity, but the activity and the selectivity of CLDH decrease when CLDH reforms LDH- the so called "memory effect". The influence of the "memory effect" on the CLDH returning to LDH was studied by the hydration reaction. It is shown that the "memory effect" is not complete, and the decreases of the Mg/Al molar ratio of LDH and the crystallite size due to the increase of the hydration reaction time result in the drop of the activity and the selectivity.Keyworcds Ethanol, Propylene oxide, Calcined layered double hydroxide, "Memory effect", Hydration

  5. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming : optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D. [Poitiers Univ., Poitiers (France). Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of raw ethanol impurities on catalytic performance during ethanol steam reforming processes. An Rh/MgAI{sub 2}O{sub 4} reference catalyst was used. Steam reforming was conducted in a fixed bed reactor. The study showed that aldehyde, amine, and methanol have no negative impacts on catalytic performance. Deactivation is caused by coke formation as a result of the presence of the impurities in the feed. The composition of the support and metallic phases of the catalyst formulation were then modified in order to improve the stability of the catalyst in the presence of deactivating impurities. Rare earth elements were used to replace magnesium and decrease strong and medium acid sites. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield were both increased when the dehydration reaction was disfavoured. The metallic phase was modified by the addition of a second metal. It was concluded that the Rh-NiY-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst has the highest hydrogen yield, and is more stable than the reference catalyst. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  7. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  8. Buildingon Success,Carrying on with Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Over the last 20 years, China has been undergoing a long period of reform in its financial system, an important part of the country's overall economic reform, and an area where many remarkable achievements has been made. This has also been a period during which China's financial sector has gradually become commercialized and market-oriented.

  9. Differences Between Two Foreign Exchange Reforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ying

    2010-01-01

    @@ Differences from that in July 2005,this reform foreign exchange system happens with different economic environment,historical background and expected,historical background and expected appreciation.Participants in the industry said frankly that China central bank started the reform again due to pressure from international markets,but it is not possible for RMB to appreciate greatly in a term.

  10. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of

  11. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal w

  12. Higher Education Reforms in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisut, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Early steps in the higher education reform process in the Slovak Republic since 1989 are outlined, difficulties are noted, and suggestions for possible forms of encouragement are listed. Suggestions focus on international cooperation, particularly within the European Community, interinstitutional collaboration, and internal reforms in governance,…

  13. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  14. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  15. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  16. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  17. Teacher Management and Educational Reforms: Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2009-01-01

    In the past 15 years, numerous reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region have aimed to change education and promote new learning to prepare the new generation for the future. Unfortunately, despite good intentions and huge investments of resources, many of these reforms have been found to be ineffective and…

  18. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    . This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...

  19. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates recent reforms of the Greenland coastal fisheries in order to contribute to the general lessons on reform and policy networks in the context of a changing Arctic stakeholdership. It analyses participation in fisheries governance decision-making by examining the emergence...

  20. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of th

  1. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  2. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  3. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  4. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  5. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa

  6. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  7. New Policy for Power Tariff Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Yongsheng; Jin Wen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The "Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period" (referred to as "Opinions" below for short) finally unveiled and appeared clearly in the vision of the public on April 6th, 2007. Being the core of the power institutional reform, the "route map" of power tariff reform in the 11th Five-Year Plan period has also been clearly oriented. However, on the whole, the power tariff reform is no drastic as one imagines. With this doubt, the Journalist discussed this issue with Mr. Huang Shaozhong, deputy director of the Department of Price & Financial Supervision under the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, also a member of the Working Group of Power Institutional Reform.

  8. Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Jurgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014. This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

  9. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  10. Development of an ethanol model using social insects: III. Preferences for ethanol solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Kandolf, Andreja; Sheridan, Audrey; Donohue, Darius; Bozic, Janko; Meyers, Julia E; Benbassat, Danny

    2004-02-01

    Experiments are designed to assess whether free-flying honey bees have an aversion to an ethanol solution when given a choice between targets containing an ethanol solution in sucrose or sucrose only. Animals given a choice between a 1% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no aversion to the ethanol solution either in acquisition or extinction. Honey bees given a choice between a 5% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no differences in the initial choice of targets but some ees do switch over to the sucrose-only target. Performance during extinction indicates that bees landed on the previously reinforced sucrose-only target more than the target previously containing the 5% ethanol solution. An experiment in which bees were given a single 5%, ethanol target showed that of 20 bees, 11 returned for the entire 12 trials of the experiment. All bees returned at least 6 times to the 5% ethanol target. Additional experiments were run on harnessed foragers in a palatability study of alcoholic beverages consumed by humans. The results of the palatability experiment indicate that in general, bees prefer more sweet drinks with less alcohol.

  11. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-08-21

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  13. Neurosteroid effects on sensitivity to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa M Helms

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Harrison and Simmonds (1984 provided the first clear evidence that neuroactive steroids act at specific neurotransmitter receptors, investigating the potentiation of muscimol-induced GABAA responses by alphaxalone (3α-hydroxy 5α -pregnane l l,20-dione in cortical slices. Within 2 years, a progesterone metabolite (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone and a deoxycorticosterone metabolite (3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THDOC, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, THDOC were shown to be positive modulators of GABAA receptors (Majewska et al., 1986. That same year, publications showed that ethanol has direct action at GABAA receptors (Allan and Harris, 1986, Suzdak et al., 1986. Thus, the GABAA receptor complex was identified as a membrane-bound target providing a pharmacological basis for shared sensitivity between neurosteroids and ethanol. The common behavioral effects of ethanol and neuroactive steroids were compared directly using drug discrimination procedures (Ator et al., 1993. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor complex, a membrane-bound ionophore important for excitatory glutamate neurotransmission, was shown to be antagonized by low concentrations of ethanol (Lovinger et al., 1989. Since data were emerging for neurosteroid activity at NMDA receptors (Wu et al., 1991, the stage was set for the suggestion that neurosteroids, and physiological states that alter circulating neuroactive steroids, could affect sensitivity to alcohol (Grant et al., 1997. The unique interface of ethanol and neurosteroids encompasses molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral processes. This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including metabolic pathways, physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to

  14. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.

  15. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  16. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  17. Zirconia supported catalysts for bioethanol steam reforming: Effect of active phase and zirconia structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanz, J.L.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Three new catalysts have been prepared in order to study the active phase influence in ethanol steam reforming reaction. Nickel, cobalt and copper were the active phases selected and were supported on zirconia with monoclinic and tetragonal structure, respectively. To characterize the behaviour of the catalysts in reaction conditions a study of catalytic activity with temperature was performed. The highest activity values were obtained at 973 K where nickel and cobalt based catalysts achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited the highest hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol EtOH fed. The influence of steam/carbon (S/C) ratio on product distribution was another parameter studied between the range 3.2-6.5. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia at S/C = 3.2 operated at 973 K without by-product production such as ethylene or acetaldehyde. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term reaction experiment was performed at 973 K, S/C = 3.2 and atmospheric pressure. After 60 h, nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. (author)

  18. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  19. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  20. Autophagy and ethanol-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terrence M Donohue Jr

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ethanol metabolism occurs in the liver. Consequently, this organ sustains the greatest damage from ethanol abuse. Ethanol consumption disturbs the delicate balance of protein homeostasis in the liver, causing intracellular protein accumulation due to a disruption of hepatic protein catabolism.Evidence indicates that ethanol or its metabolism impairs trafficking events in the liver, including the process of macroautophagy, which is the engulfment and degradation of cytoplasmic constituents by the lysosomal system. Autophagy is an essential, ongoing cellular process that is highly regulated by nutrients,endocrine factors and signaling pathways. A great number of the genes and gene products that govern the autophagic response have been characterized and the major metabolic and signaling pathways that activate or suppress autophagy have been identified. This review describes the process of autophagy, its regulation and the possible mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts the process of autophagic degradation. The implications of autophagic suppression are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury.

  1. Survey of US fuel ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J A; Rosentrater, K A

    2009-07-01

    The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to alter current drying time and temperature if it could result in a higher quality coproduct. Other managers indicated hesitation, based on lack of economic incentives, potential cost and return, and capital required. Respondents also reported the desire to use their coproducts in some of the following products: fuels, extrusion, pellets, plastics, and human food applications. These results provide a snapshot of the industry, and indicate that operational changes to the current production of DDGS must be based upon the potential for positive economic returns.

  2. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  3. Batchwise ethanol fermentation with shochu distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S.; Teramoto, Y.; Oba, R.; Ueki, T.; Kimura, K. (Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)); Shiota, S. (Tohi Jozo Co. Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan))

    1991-10-25

    In order to produce a shochu with a mild aroma, a new vacuum distillation precedure at low temperature of 35 to 40 centigrade was applied to shochu distillation. The resulting rice shochu distillery waste contained a large amount of viable yeast glucoamylase activity, acid protease activity, and neutral protease activity. About 10% of ethanol was produced in the fermented mash at 30 centigrade within three days. In contrast, distillery waste discharged by conventional distillation at high temperature of 55 to 60 centigrade could not be used for secondary ethanol fermentation at all. It was provided that the filtrate of secondarily-fermented distillery waste, which is containing ethanol and possessing a fine aroma fortified with higher alcohols and volatile esters during ethanol fermentation, can be useful for the production of a mirin-like liquor for cooking, Akazake,'' a characteristic red-colored, sweet alcoholic beverage produced in Kumamoto prefecture only, and a bath additive containing ethanol, a fine aroma, and enzymes. 15 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  5. Epigenetic effects of ethanol on liver and gastrointestinal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivendra D Shukla; Annayya R Aroor

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes cellular injury. Recent developments indicate that ethanol induces epigenetic alterations, particularly acetylation, methylation of histones, and hypo- and hypermethylation of DNA. This has opened up a new area of interest in ethanol research and is providing novel insight into actions of ethanol at the nucleosomal level in relation to gene expression and patho-physiological consequences. The epigenetic effects are mainly attributable to ethanol metabolic stress (Emess), generated by the oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol, and dysregulation of methionine metabolism. Epigenetic changes are important in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, carcinoma and gastrointestinal injury. This editorial highlights these new advances and its future potential.

  6. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  7. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  8. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  9. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  10. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N. [Lawyer - Legal Department of PPC S.A., 28, Halkokondili Street, GR-10432 Athens (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  11. Reform in teaching preclinical pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff in Chinese Departments of Pathophysiology generally consists of full-time instructors or lecturers who teach medical students. These lecturers are sometimes lacking in clinic knowledge and experiences. To overcome this, in recent years, we have been trying to bring new trends in teaching pathophysiology into our curriculum. Our purpose in writing this article was to share our experiences with our colleagues and peers worldwide in the hope that the insights we have gained in pathophysiology teaching will be of some value to educators who advocate teaching reform in medical schools.

  12. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... and demands for employment related skills and competencies in efficient Danish courses for adult foreigners have been introduced. Thus, a tremendous discursive transformation in the understanding of education in comparison with previous legislation has taken place within this specific area of adult teaching...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related...

  13. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... and demands for employment related skills and competencies in efficient Danish courses for adult foreigners have been introduced. Thus, a tremendous discursive transformation in the understanding of education in comparison with previous legislation has taken place within this specific area of adult teaching...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related...

  14. Euthanasia: a need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Janis

    Recent high profile right-to-die cases have served to heighten the confusion surrounding euthanasia, particularly in relation to active and passive euthanasia. It is apparent that the underlying philosophical basis of the active-passive distinction has led to distortions in the law surrounding this issue, which further compounds the confusion. It is time for a more honest approach to assistance in dying. In the long-term, reform is inevitable and may involve reclassifying passive and active euthanasia as life-terminating acts. Nurses need to have an understanding of the ethical and legal basis of euthanasia to acknowledge and define their possible future role in relation to the provision of life-terminating acts.

  15. ICT and Public Administration Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new ICTs brought a lot of new assumptions about radical changes in our society. In the context of the arrival of a new society, public administration was supposed to witness (and to address or implement changes at different levels, such as:• citizenship (citizens becoming participants in governance or even a shift to e-democracy;• the nature of public service jobs (in terms of skills, work processes and job design;• organizational changes (from a hierarchical to a more horizontal structure, to network or even virtual organizations; and• the entire government (from classic bureaucracy to New Public Management and to network and digital governance. Technological change cannot be judged outside the social, economic and political frameworks. The massive change in our society cannot be explained only by technological (especially ICT factors. Excluding other factors may help us predict easier (but not more accurately future evolutions but as a scientific effort it is a bad practice. Much of the assumptions about technological change came from hasty generalizations. The changing nature of some collective actions, jobs in certain areas of the economy or organizations were considered as optimal (and necessary paths for the entire society (from individual to national levels. Public administration reforms are far from being a consequence of new technologies. Moreover public administration reforms do not embed ICTs and do not have a happy marriage with e-government.

  16. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  17. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R. [SWAN Biomass Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Permeability of cork for water and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Luisa; Brazinha, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Crespo, Joao G; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2013-10-01

    Transport properties of natural (noncompressed) cork were evaluated for water and ethanol in both vapor and liquid phases. The permeability for these permeants has been measured, as well as the sorption and diffusion coefficients. This paper focuses on the differences between the transport of gases' relevant vapors and their liquids (water and ethanol) through cork. A transport mechanism of vapors and liquids is proposed. Experimental evidence shows that both vapors and liquids permeate not only through the small channels across the cells (plasmodesmata), as in the permeation of gases, but also through the walls of cork cells by sorption and diffusion as in dense membranes. The present study also shows that cork permeability for gases was irreversibly and drastically decreased after cork samples were exposed to ethanol or water in liquid phase.

  20. Formation mechanism of ethanol-water excimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Hua Shao; Xiaowu Ni; Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent spectrum and the excitation spectrum were used to present the cluster molecular structure feature in ethanol-water solutions.Through analyzing the fluorescent characteristics of an excimer,it is proposed that the excimers are formed between the ethanol-water cluster molecules in the excited state and in the ground state.The fluorescent lifetime and the fluorescent intensity decay process give information about the photo-physical and photo-chemical processes of the formation and the dissociation of an excimer.The theoretical calculation and physical analysis coincide with the experimental results.The preliminary conclusion about the structure feature of ethanol-water cluster molecule is that it has a planar one like a sandwich.

  1. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-02-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravenous pyridoxine in acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardel, S; Phair, I; O'Dwyer, F; Henry, J A

    1994-05-01

    Intravenous pyridoxine was evaluated as an agent for the reversal of ethanol-induced central nervous depression in a randomised double blind controlled study of 108 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of acute ethanol intoxication to two accident and emergency departments. Level of consciousness, measured by a modified Glasgow coma scale, showed no significant change after a single 1 g dose of intravenous pyridoxine when compared to controls given saline. The mean fall in blood alcohol concentration after one hour was 33 mg dl-1 (7.2 mmol l-1) in both groups suggesting that pyridoxine has no antidotal action and no short term effect on the rate of metabolism of ethanol.

  3. Reform Trend of China Natural Gas Price Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Wei; Liu Xinping

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas price policy reform lags behind refined oil price reform comparatively, and current natural gas price policy could not adapt to the new situation of large scale import of foreign natural gas. Natural gas price reform could refer to the reform mode of refined oil price.

  4. Japanese University Reform--Hybridity in Governance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University reforms around the world reflect many of the ideas and measures associated with the New Public Management (NPM) reform wave that emerged in Australia and New Zealand in the early 1980s. However, they also display features of the post-NPM reforms introduced in the last decade. In this article I focus on university reforms in Japan,…

  5. Genome shuffling to improve thermotolerance, ethanol tolerance and ethanol productivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-jian; Wang, Chang-lu; Wang, Kui-ming

    2009-01-01

    Genome shuffling is a powerful strategy for rapid engineering of microbial strains for desirable industrial phenotypes. Here we improved the thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance of an industrial yeast strain SM-3 by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol productivity. The starting population was generated by protoplast ultraviolet irradiation and then subjected for the recursive protoplast fusion. The positive colonies from the library, created by fusing the inactivated protoplasts were screened for growth at 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 degrees C on YPD-agar plates containing different concentrations of ethanol. Characterization of all mutants and wild-type strain in the shake-flask indicated the compatibility of three phenotypes of thermotolerance, ethanol tolerance and ethanol yields enhancement. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain, F34, which could grow on plate cultures up to 55 degrees C, was obtained. It was found capable of completely utilizing 20% (w/v) glucose at 45-48 degrees C, producing 9.95% (w/v) ethanol, and tolerating 25% (v/v) ethanol stress.

  6. Education Reform From An International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Levin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of comparative work on education reform is now being done, but this work often lacks a clearly articulated conceptual frame. This paper, based on a study of change in five jurisdictions in four countries, develops a model of reform based on four interactive elements - origins, adoption, implementation, and outcomes. Within each of these elements, questions and concepts from the relevant literature are developed with the intent of building a more comprehensive approach to the analysis of reform from political, organizational and educational perspectives.

  7. The Research of Software Engineering Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Li-Qun; Han, Xie

    With the problem that software engineering training can't meet the needs of the community, this paper analysis some outstanding reasons in software engineering curriculum teaching, such as old teaching contents, weak in practice and low quality of teachers etc. We propose the methods of teaching reform as guided by market demand, update the teaching content, optimize the teaching methods, reform the teaching practice, strengthen the teacher-student exchange and promote teachers and students together. We carried out the reform and explore positive and achieved the desired results.

  8. Curriculum reform in China: Challenges and reflections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Qi-quan

    2006-01-01

    With the implementation of the New Curriculum,conflicts between new and old ideas axe bound to arise.Voices supporting and protesting the reform will accompany the whole process.We have to expound our idea that quality education is an established policy that cannot be reverted,that curriculum reform must be carried out,and that any attempt to return to old curriculums may end in failure.The present paper explores the challenges to the basic curriculum reform and the relevant strategies through the analysis of educational phenomena of mainland China in recent years.

  9. Evaluating Pension System Reform in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the reform to the system of pensions in Uruguay through these variables: coverage, fiscal impact, accumulation of funds, yield, and costs associated to the operation of the Administradoras de Fondos de Ahorro Previsional (AFAPS. The reform is evaluated positively, even though elements are identified, that must be considered in the future: to extend the reform to the rest of the system that was not included before, generate the correct structure to regulate and supervise the system, fit the age of retirement to accede to benefits, and offer alternatives for investments of the AFAPS.

  10. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Hydrogen gas or hydrogen rich gas is today used in many different applications, i.e. as fuel in fuel cells or additive in vehicle fuel (i.e. hythane) and as reagent or reducing agent in different industrial product lines. The majority of the hydrogen is produced either via electrolysis or reformation, where this work has entirely been focused on the latter alternative. The overarching aims of this project have been to demonstrate the need for reformate purification for different applications, and then, to investigate different available methods that can be used in order to enable the requested gas clean-up. The different purification methods have been examined with respect to parameters such as operating conditions (temperature, pressure), impurity tolerance, size, weight and cost. Another goal of the project has been to investigate how the reformer fuel type used influences the reformate gas quality and hence, the need for gas purification before the reformate can be fed to e.g. a low temperature polymer membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). For this reason, some experimental work has been performed. First, analysis of the reformate gas composition when natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, kerosene (low and high S-concentration (i.e. JP8)) and ethanol have been processed. The reformation tests were carried out in a small scale reformer unit ({approx} 1 kW H{sub 2}) including Catator's catalyst formulations developed for the steam reforming, the water gas shift and the preferential oxidation reaction, respectively. Verification tests, with synthetic gas blends, including different potential reformate impurities, and with real reformate gas were thereafter performed with a commercial 4-cell PEMFC stack (3-5 W). Finally, some examination and also to some extent further development of Catator's existing gas purification units were made, i.e. chemical (WGS, PROX) and physical (regenerative adsorption). The Pd-alloy membrane seems to be the obvious choice of purification

  11. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of bio-butanol over novel supported Co-based bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez; Homs, Narcis

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the hydrogen production through the steam reforming of a bioresource-derived butanol mixture (butanol:acetone:ethanol=6:3:1 mass ratio) over supported cobalt-based catalysts. The support plays an important role for the catalytic behavior and Co/ZnO exhibits the best catalytic performance compared to Co/TiO(2) and Co/CeO(2). Moreover, a higher hydrogen yield is obtained over bimetallic Co-Ir/ZnO, which shows an increase in H(2) selectivity and a decrease in CH(4) selectivity under steam reforming conditions, compared to Co/ZnO. Raman results of the used catalysts indicate that the addition of Ir could prevent the coke formation to prolong the catalyst stability.

  12. Hydrogen production from oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol over CoIr-based catalysts: effect of the support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; Piscina, Pilar Ramírez de la; Gabrowska, Klaudia; Homs, Narcís

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the support on the behavior of bimetallic CoIr-based catalysts (6.5 wt.% Co, 0.4 wt.% Ir) for hydrogen production from the oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol raw mixture (butanol/acetone/ethanol = 6/3/1 mass ratio). Catalytic tests were carried out at 500 °C for 60 h with raw mixture/water/air/Ar = 1/10/7.5/12 molar ratio and GHSV = 7500 h(-1). Over CoIr/18CeZrO(2) and CoIr/ZnO the main process which took place was the oxidative steam reforming of the raw mixture. CoIr/18CeZrO(2) showed the better catalytic performance. Characterization of the used catalysts indicated that both active metal sintering and coke formation was prevented on the CoIr/18CeZrO(2) catalyst.

  13. Steam reforming of cyclic model compounds of bio-oil over Ni-based catalysts: Product distribution and carbon formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of furfural, 2-methylfuran, and guaiacol have been investigated in the temperature range 400-800°C at a steam to carbon (S/C)-ratio of 5 and oxygen to carbon (O/C)-ratio of 0.2-1.4 over Ni/CeO2-K/MgAl2O4. Carbon oxides and H2 were the major...... products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural, while the by-products were methane, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. Temperatures of 500°C or above were needed to minimize the formation of by-products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Phenolics, like benzenediols and phenol, were produced in high...

  14. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  15. DARPP-32 and Akt regulation in ethanol-preferring AA and ethanol-avoiding ANA rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Saara; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Panula, Pertti

    2011-09-26

    Ethanol and other addictive drugs affect many intracellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. These cascades are thought to be highly important in the regulation of neuronal activity. The present experiments characterized the regulation of three key signaling molecules, DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein, 32kDa), Akt kinase and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and ethanol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rat lines. Radioactive in situ hybridization was used in drug naïve animals and Western blotting after acute ethanol administration in striatum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The mRNA levels of DARPP-32 in striatal areas were higher in ANA rats than in AA rats. There was no difference in the striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP61), the downstream target of DARPP-32 expression between the rat lines. Ethanol (1.5g/kg) increased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at threonine 34 in both AA and in ANA rats indicating that acute ethanol activates DARPP-32 similarly in these rat lines. The expression of Akt kinase was higher in the CA1 of hippocampus in ANA than in AA rats and acute ethanol activated Akt in hippocampus in ANA but not in AA rats. No significant alterations in the regulation of ERK1/2 were found in either rat line. Our findings suggest that DARPP-32 and Akt are regulated by ethanol and differences in the regulation of these molecules might contribute to the dramatically different ethanol drinking patterns seen in AA and ANA rats.

  16. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  17. Non-Catalytic Self Healing Composite Material Solution Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber reinforce polymer (FRP) composite materials are seeing increasing use in the construction of a wide variety of aerospace structures. However, uncertainties...

  18. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  19. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

  20. The fairy tale of bio-ethanol. Het sprookje van de bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverloo, W.A. (Vakgroep Levensmiddelentechnologie, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01

    Agricultural products can be converted into bio-ethanol. Proponents of the bio-ethanol production however use inaccurate arguments with regard to the comparison of the prices per liter for bio-ethanol and petrol instead of using the net heating value of the fuels. Also their basic assumptions concerning the energy efficiency or the energy balances or the carbon dioxide emissions are incorrect. The production of biomass for energy does not serve any other societal interest than subsidized employment for agricultural farmers. 4 tabs., 9 refs.

  1. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  2. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, ewll-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisation process. Policy change on a large sca...

  3. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer; Freytag, Andreas; Plantenga, Janneke; GALASSO, VINCENZO

    2014-01-01

    WWWforEurope Policy Brief No. 3, 14 pages Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, well-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-orga...

  4. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  5. Norepinephrine-induced diuresis in chronically ethanol-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A. (Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from this laboratory indicated that noradrenergic mechanisms might mediate ethanol diuresis. Experiments described here examined changes in sensitivity of noradrenergic mechanisms in animals chronically treated with ethanol. Norepinephrine hydrochloride (0-12 ug intracerebroventricularly) produced dose-dependent diuresis in control and ethanol treated rats on the first day of treatment. Tolerance to ethanol diuresis was present after 10 day of ethanol treatment. Lack of responsiveness to norepinephrine-induced diuresis was evident only on the 20th day of treatment in both the ethanol and dextrin-maltose groups of rats. These results indicate a temporal dissociation between the tolerance to ethanol-induced and norepinephrine-induced diuresis and suggest that norepinephrine may not play a primary role in the development of tolerance to the diuretic action of ethanol.

  6. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of sugar. ... Key words: Ethanol, sweet sorghum, stalk juice, medium ..... production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a.

  7. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Angela [BBI International, Cotopaxi, CO (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  8. Pervaporation : membranes and models for the dehydration of ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Johannes Wilhelmus Franciscus

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the dehydration of ethanol/water mixtures by pervaporation using homogeneous membranes is studied. Both the general transport mechanism as well as the development of highly selective membranes for ethanol/water separation are investigated.

  9. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie organique, Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex (France)], E-mail: florence.epron.cognet@univ-poitiers.fr

    2009-07-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  10. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  11. Effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and cholesteryl esters on pancreatic lysosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J S; Apte, M V; Thomas, M. C.; Haber, P S; Pirola, R C

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that altered lysosomal function may be involved in the early stages of pancreatic injury. Chronic consumption of ethanol increases rat pancreatic lysosomal fragility. The aim of this study is to determine whether the lysosomal fragility observed after chronic ethanol consumption is mediated by ethanol per se, its oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde or cholesteryl esters (substances which accumulate in the pancreas after ethanol consumption). Pancreatic lysosomes from cho...

  12. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amore, T; C.J. Panchal; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

  13. The Education of Women in the Reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lowell

    1979-01-01

    Seventeenth Century Reformation leaders played an important role in establishing universal education in Germany. Their work created new opportunities for the individual, raised social conditions of countless people, and laid the foundation for modern science and learning. (Author/KC)

  14. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  15. Consumer-oriented monitoring and environmental reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring of environmental flows is usually considered an important first step in realising environmental reform of production and consumption. When citizen-consumers are involved, monitoring is frequently associated with surveillance and social control by the powerful (governmental and

  16. China's Economic System Reform: Unprecedented and Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hu Yun

    2009-01-01

    China's economic reform is aimed at realizing a transformation from a planned economy to a socialist market economic system.Establishing and improving the socialist market economic system is an urgent requirement of political,economic and cultural development.

  17. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva

    2013-12-01

    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  18. National Reform Programs in Local Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    . In particular, we emphasize the practices in which national strategic formulations are legitimized and accepted or abandoned by the actors involved. Building on a case study conducted over a two-year time span, we show how a local actor engages with and promotes a national reform program by evoking a discourse...... with strategic intentions. First we present how the national reform program is translated into a local government by the evoking of historically produced and context dependent discourses. Next we show that locally produced discourses need to be evoked and re-attached to the national reform program in order...... to enable new local practices. Our study shows that formal reform programs and strategies are never stable and firm objects; rather, they are constantly enacted and changed as part of discursive practices. Thus individuals enter a discursive space from where to engage strategically with the creation of new...

  19. The Real Issue: Need for Tax Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David

    1973-01-01

    The Rodriguez decision simply points up the fact that the answer to unequal educational opportunity is not to be found in the federal constitution but in the reform of property assessment and property taxation. (Author/JN)

  20. The international financial system: crisis or reform?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. PARBONI

    2013-01-01

    ... handled by international banks. After becoming seemingly obsolete, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have regained prominence and the issue of reform of the international financial system has returned to the centre of debate...