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Sample records for nomads southern iran

  1. Food Pattern of Non-Anemic Nomadic Women Living in Fars Province, Southern Iran as a Vegetarian

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    Mousa Salehi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Qashqa’i form approximately 500000 Turkish-speaking ethnic nomadic pastoralist tribal people, living in Fars province, southern Iran. People choosing macrobiotic diets are frequently identified as following a vegetarian diet. Despite that plant foods contain only non-heme iron, which is more sensitive than heme iron to both inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption, surprisingly, we noted that the mean values of hemoglobin and serum ferritin in the group under investigation were significantly higher than the same population living in the south of Iran. So we aimed to investigate the food basket of Qashqa’I people in an attempt to find out the reason behind this observation. Methods: Dietary information was collected using the mean of 3-day recall and food frequency methods. Dieticians, with long experience in nutrition surveillance explained the purpose of the dietary information and instructed the girls on how to report quantities using food basket. Iranian food processor was used to enter and analyze nutrient intakes. Weig hts and heights were measured using established equipment and techniques and body mass index(BMI values were calculated. Results: Mean value of hemoglobin was 12.31±1.51 gr/dL, ferritin 23.59±4.2 μg/L, albumin 4.27±1.1 gr/dL, and total protein 7.72±1.3 gr/dL. BMI of 81% of the women was between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Conclusion: The mean serum albumin, total protein, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of this population show that vegetarian diet can meet protein and Iron requirements by using the variety of plant foods.

  2. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

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    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  3. Seroepidemiology of human brucellosis in nomads in a rural area of Iran

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    Ali Sharafi Chegeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the seroprevalence of brucellosis among nomads in Shoulabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 5 847 person took part by randomized cluster sampling and 312 of them with clinical feature of brucellosis were selected. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made with a standard tube agglutination test (STAT, Coombs test, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME test, and the results with titers equal 1:80 or more were considered positive. Results: The seroprevalnce of anti-Brucella titer was 29.5% for STAT, 29.9% for Coombs test and 21.1% for 2ME test. Overall, 92, 93 and 66 patients had titers of 1:80 or higher in STAT, Coombs test and 2ME test, respectively. Seroprevalence was more among males (54.3% than females (45.7%. There is statistical difference between seroprevalence of infection and age (P<0.05. Based on age group, 10-19 years age group was more affected (37%. Conclusions: This results confirmed the necessity of conducting comprehensive and scheduled program of seroprevalence survey, particularly in nomad area, which aims at reducing the incidence of brucellosis as well as to guide planning programs by decision makers to improve community health.

  4. Brucellosis as a neglected disease in a neglected population: a seroepidemiological study of migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran.

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    Honarvar, B; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B; Davarpanah, M A; Ataolahi, M; Farbod, A; Eskandari, E; Panahi, M; Ghorbani, A; Zahiri, Z; Tabrizi, R; Pourjafar, M; Heidari, S M M

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT brucellosis was detected in 54 cases, indicating a prevalence of 10% (95% confidence interval 8-12). In conclusion, we determined that brucellosis is a prevalent yet neglected disease in this nomadic population. Brucellosis control is not possible as long as these high-risk populations remain neglected.

  5. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  6. Seroprevalence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children up to 12 Years old Among Nomadic Tribes from Rural Areas of Pars Abad, Northwestern Iran: an Observational Study in 2015

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    Hasan Ebrahimzade-Parikhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since Pars Abad district had been known as a focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Ardabil Province but the prevalence of the disease in nomadic tribes has not been determined, thus, this study was conducted. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on children up to 12yr old of nomadic tribes from Pars Abad County, Ardabil Province, Iran in 2015. For each individual, a questionnaire including age, sex, clinical manifestations, history of disease, and contact with reservoir hosts of VL were completed, separately. To determine VL seroprevalence, blood samples were collected from the children and after centrifugation, the plasma samples were tested using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS16.Results: From 776 children up to 12yr old, 2 (0.25% showed anti-L. infantum antibodies at titers 1:1600 and only one case (0.13% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers 1:3200. The child with anti-L. infantum antibodies titers of 1:3200 showed mild fever for more than 2 months period, paleness, weakness and mild splenomegaly. After physical examination and confirmation of VL (kala-azar, the patient was treated with antileishmanial drugs.Conclusion: The findings indicated that L. infantum infection is being circulated with low prevalence in nomadic tribes of Pars Abad but it is necessary that the surveillance system is regularly monitored among physicians and pub­lic health managers in the studied areas.

  7. The provision of modern medical services to a nomadic population: a review of medical services to the Bedouins of southern Sinai during Israeli rule 1967-1982.

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    Romem, Pnina; Reizer, Haya; Romem, Yitzhak; Shvarts, Shifra

    2002-04-01

    Southern Sinai, a mountainous desolated arid area, is inhabited by Bedouin nomad tribes composed of Arabic-speaking Moslems. Until the Six Day War between Egypt and Israel in 1967, healthcare services in the region were based on traditional medicine performed by the Darvish, a local healer. Over the course of Israeli rule (1967-1982) an elaborate healthcare service was established and maintained, providing modern, up to date, comprehensive medical services that were available to all free of charge.

  8. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  9. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

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    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  10. Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    2012-01-01

    Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental

  11. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

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    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  12. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  13. Nomad_Scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I investigate the concept of nomad_ scape in relation to the Kounta nomadic pastoralists, inhabiting the arid Hodh Ech Chargui province in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Through the application of Ingold’s dwelling perspective and Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of nomadology,...

  14. Influence of southern oscillation on autumn rainfall in Iran (1951-2011)

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    Roghani, Rabbaneh; Soltani, Saeid; Bashari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between southern oscillation and autumn (October-December) rainfall in Iran. It also sought to identify the possible physical mechanisms involved in the mentioned relationships by analyzing observational atmospheric data. Analyses were based on monthly rainfall data from 50 synoptic stations with at least 35 years of records up to the end of 2011. Autumn rainfall time series were grouped by the average Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and SOI phase methods. Significant differences between rainfall groups in each method were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric tests. Their relationships were also validated using the linear error in probability space (LEPS) test. The results showed that average SOI and SOI phases during July-September were related with autumn rainfall in some regions located in the west and northwest of Iran, west coasts of the Caspian Sea and southern Alborz Mountains. The El Niño (negative) and La Niña (positive) phases were associated with increased and decreased autumn rainfall, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated the persistence of Southern Pacific Ocean's pressure signals on autumn rainfall in Iran. Geopotential height patterns were totally different in the selected El Niño and La Niña years over Iran. During the El Niño years, a cyclone was formed over the north of Iran and an anticyclone existed over the Mediterranean Sea. During La Niña years, the cyclone shifted towards the Mediterranean Sea and an anticyclone developed over Iran. While these El Niño conditions increased autumn rainfall in Iran, the opposite conditions during the La Niña phase decreased rainfall in the country. In conclusion, development of rainfall prediction models based on the SOI can facilitate agricultural and water resources management in Iran.

  15. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

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    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of southern Iran, with description of a new species.

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    Ameri, Ali; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Beyarslan, Ahmet; Kamali, Karim

    2014-12-23

    A faunistic survey of Euphorinae (Hym., Braconidae) in southern Iran, as well as an updated checklist of the genera and species in Iran, are presented. Sampling was performed using Malaise traps at different locations of Hormozgan province and Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf during 2011-2013. In total, 38 species belonging to 10 genera are listed from Iran. The recorded species belong to the following genera: Allurus Forster, 1862 (two species), Chrysopophthorus Goidanich 1948 (one species), Dinocampus Forster, 1862 (one species), Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 (one species), Leiophron Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (10 species), Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (12 species), Perilitus Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (five species), Syntretus Forster 1862 (three species), Wesmaelia Foerster, 1862 (one species) and Zele Curtis, 1832 (two species). Allurus lituratus (Haliday 1835), Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802), Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892), Meteorus rubens (Nees, 1811) and Wesmaelia petiolata (Wollaston, 1858) are new records for Hormozgan province and Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892) is recorded for the first time from Iran. In addition, Meteorus breviterebratus Ameri, Talebi & Beyarslan sp. n. is newly described and illustrated. 

  17. Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Fallahi, Soghra; Mahmudi, Forugh; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Taghavi, Mohsen; Fereydooni Asl, Marjan

    2015-07-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  19. Failure rate of no-scalpel vasectomy in prevention of pregnancy in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    S Shakeri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral vasectomy is the most effective method of male contraception but there are still some reports on its failure. This study was undertaken to determine the failure rate of the no-scalpel vasectomy in Shiraz Vasectomy Center, Southern Iran. METHODS: From 2001 to 2003, 3900 no-scalpel vasectomies were done in Nader Kazemi Health Center. The records were studied for any failure in the method. Presence of any live sperm 6 months after surgery or any report of pregnancy post-vasectomy were considered as vasectomy failure. RESULTS:Among 3900 cases, 2928 patients had a complete follow up file while failure in the method was visible among 109 (3.72% cases. CONCLUSION: The low failure rate of no-scalpel method indicated its high efficacy to control the fertility in males but there is still need of performance by expert surgeons in well organized centers. KEYWORDS: Iran, no-scalpel vasectomy, failure rate.

  20. Six-fold difference in the stomach cancer mortality rate between northern and southern Iran.

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    Zendehdel, Kazem; Marzban, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Jafari, Nahid

    2012-12-01

    Stomach cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. A multi-ethnic population and wide variation in the environmental risk factors may lead to variations in cancer risk within this country. We have designed an ecological study and evaluated geographical variation regarding mortality from stomach cancer and its established risk factors in Iran.  We used the Iranian National Causes of Death Registry and estimated the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of stomach cancer in 29 Iranian provinces, stratified by sex and area of residence (rural/urban).  The average ASMR of stomach cancer among Iranian males was 15 per 100,000 and for females it was 8.1 per 100,000. The highest and lowest mortality rates were observed in Kurdistan with an ASMR of 29.1 per 100,000 in northwestern Iran and Hormozgan that had an ASMR of 5.0 per 100,000 in southern Iran. Males had approximately a two-fold higher ASMR compared to females, as did rural residents when compared with urban residents. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was about 90% in the province of Ardabil (a high-risk area) and 27% in the province of Sistan-Baluchistan (a low-risk area).  The wide geographical variation and high mortality rate of stomach cancer in Iran is likely due to differences in the exposure to the environmental risk factors among people living in the high- and low-risk areas, particularly H. pylori infection, a well-established risk factor of stomach cancer.

  1. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  2. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  3. Relationship between religion and school students' road behavior in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Akbari, Maryam; Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Masoudi, Alireza; Shams, Amir Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Moalemi, Saba; Mehr, Maryam Mahmoodi; Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Peymani, Payam

    2017-10-01

    Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire. The results showed that a decrease in dangerous behaviors on the road resulted in an increase in respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Also, engagement in unsafe crossing behavior in the road decreased with increasing respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Another finding showed that female students were less involved in dangerous play and planned protective behaviors on the road. Findings clearly indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant role in reducing the risky road behaviors of students. Hence, religion may improve road safety in school students' road behavior in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between religion and school students' road behavior in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tabrizi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ, Duke University Religious Index (DUREL, as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire. Results: The results showed that a decrease in dangerous behaviors on the road resulted in an increase in respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Also, engagement in unsafe crossing behavior in the road decreased with increasing respondents' intrinsic religiosity. Another finding showed that female students were less involved in dangerous play and planned protective behaviors on the road. Conclusion: Findings clearly indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant role in reducing the risky road behaviors of students. Hence, religion may improve road safety in school students' road behavior in Iran. Keywords: Religion, Traffic accidents, Road behaviors, Students

  5. Frequency of afterload homocysteinemia in normal population of Southern Iran: a pilot study.

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    Akbari, A; Dehbozorgian, J; Afrasibi, A R; Gafari, H; Gerdabi, J; Karimi, M

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the present pilot study were to investigate the effect of an oral methionine load on plasma homocysteine in healthy subjects southern Iran. We studied 50 peoples (10 men, 40 women, median age 27.5, range 20-37) referred to screening center for marriage since different part of southern Iran. Methionine (0.1 g kg(-1) b.wt.) was immediately administrated orally in 200 mL of orange juice and a second blood was obtained 4 h later. Plasma level of homocysteine was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography and flumetric detection. A homocysteine level above 15 mmol L(-1) was considered high. The mean fasting and afterload homocysteine were 15.28 and 31.29 micromol L(-1), respectively. Fasting hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol L(-1)) was detected in 12% of male and 8% in female which significantly higher in men than women (p homocysteine levels (> 31 micromol L(-1)) was detected in 16% of male and 14%in female which higher in men than women. Notably 80% of participants had normal total homocystein concentration (homocystein levels (p = 0.000), in 8% of those normal homocystein level, methionine afterload homocystein levels became abnormal. In conclusion, based on results, we recommend the methionine afterload homocystein levels in high risk cases with normal fasting level in order to unmissed some cases with normal basal homocystein level.

  6. A survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in Southern Iran

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    Majid Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk samples from farms was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that in samples from collection centers and pasteurized milk. The concentration of AFM1 was not influenced by season, location, or type of farm. The concentrations of AFM1 in all samples were lower than the Iranian national standard limit (100 ng/L, but in 30% of raw cow milk samples they were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/L; therefore, more effort is needed to control AFM1 levels in milk produced in Southern Iran.

  7. Mound No. 24 of the Alebastrovo I Burial Ground and the Problem of Succession Among the Early Nomadic Cultures of the Southern Urals in the 6th – 4th and 3rd – 1st Centuries BC

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    Denis V. Maryksin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the burial mounds – Alebastrovo I, which is situated in the middle reaches of the Ural river. The analysis of the burial rite and grave goods reveals the combination of features peculiar of the culture of early nomads from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC and later features typical for the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. The collective nature of the burial in a large square pit (burial no. 2 relates to early features. Such burials are typical for the 5th and 4th centuries BC. But a dagger with a direct crosshair and a crescent-shaped pommel found in the burial belongs to the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. Findings of a mirror, a spoon and a whorl also deserve special attention. On formal grounds a mirror belongs to the type “Skripkin 1.6” – with a flat disk without roll and stick in the form of a triangular stem. They appeared in Sauromatian time, but were not widespread. Most of these mirrors refer to the turn of the eras – the first centuries AD. However, in our view the mirror from Alebastrovo I has the greatest similarity with the mirror disks of the so-called “musical” mirrors, which date back to the 2nd half of the 4th century BC. The bone spoon belongs to the type I, peculiar of the Sauromatian-time things of the 6th – 4th centuries BC. However, the pattern is similar to that on the handle of the bone products of later time – the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC. Clay whorl has a pattern in the form of 4 sectors, decorated with grooves and pits. Analogies are available on this ornament spindles from the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC of the Kara-Abyz culture in the Southern Urals. According to the set of attributes, this burial mound dated to the second half of the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. The finds from this burial mound confirm the conclusion of the first explorer B. F. Zhelezchikov about continuity of the development of the early nomadic culture of this region in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC.

  8. Final NOMAD results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; Krasnoperov, A V

    2001-01-01

    Results from the nu_tau appearance search in a neutrino beam using the full NOMAD data sample are reported. A new analysis unifies all the hadronic tau decays, significantly improving the overall sensitivity of the experiment to oscillations. The "blind analysis" of all topologies yields no evidence for an oscillation signal. In the two-family oscillation scenario, this sets a 90% C.L. allowed region in the sin^2(2theta)-Delta m^2 plane which includes sin^2(2theta)nu_tau oscillation hypothesis results in sin^2(2theta)<1.5 x 10^{-2} at large Delta m^2 and Delta m^2 < 5.9 eV^2/c^4 at sin^2(2theta)=1. We also derive limits on effective couplings of the tau lepton to nu_mu or nu_e.

  9. Understanding nomadic collaborative learning groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    -term collaborations within the frame of Problem and Project Based Learning. By analysing the patterns of nomadic collaborative learning we identify and discuss how the two groups of students incorporate mobile and digital technologies as well as physical and/or non-digital technologies into their group work......The paper builds on the work of Rossitto et al. on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long....... Specifically, we identify the following categories of nomadic collaborative learning practices: “orchestration of work phases, spaces and activities,” “the orchestration of multiple technologies” and “orchestration of togetherness.” We found that for both groups of students there was a fluidity, situatedness...

  10. Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Trend of Suicide in Kermanshah during 11 years (2004 to 2014), Iran ... Suicide is one of the most important health problems which has dedicated a significant part ... interaction with different risk factors (Oliver and ... physical and mental diseases, the researchers used .... Due to the lack of professional ability, illiterates are.

  11. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS. Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  12. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Southern Iran: A molecular, isoenzyme and morphologic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem Asgari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been doubled over the last decade. The present study is about the potential role of rodents in the epidemiology of CL in Kharameh district in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    METHODS: From April 2004 to April 2005, a total of sixteen rodents were collected in live traps from the endemic area of CL in Kharameh district in Shiraz. Evans medium was used for culture. Specific polymerase chain reaction and isoenzyme electrophoresis methods were performed to characterize the parasite.

    RESULTS: The rodent species were Tatera indica. Three samples from Tatera indica were found positive (2 males and 1 female in Kafdehak and Sejel-Abad villages for L. major. Macrophages in the bone marrow of femoral bone were infected with the amastigote form of the parasite.

    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that T. indica is the reservoir host for CL in Kharameh (a district in Shiraz, Southern Iran. It was shown that the bone marrow of the rodents is the tissue of choice for light and ultrastructural studies of

  13. Pêcheurs nomades du fleuve Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    Following Jean Rouch's travel on the Niger river and his first writings on the Sorkawa fishermen of Kebbi, the article documents the trajectory of a group of nomadic fishermen engaged in seasonal campaigns on the Niger river between Nigeria and Mali. The author retraces the evolution of fishermen...... in the process of sedentarisation of these fishermen. Sedentarisation goes hand in hand with impoverishment. Such trajectory is documented by a documentary movie, river Nomads (2016), starting point of a research at the crossroads of circular migrations and an anthropology of citizenship. This research agenda...

  14. The interannual precipitation variability in the southern part of Iran as linked to large-scale climate modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourasghar, Farnaz; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Sari Sarraf, Behrooz [The University of Tabriz, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tozuka, Tomoki [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ghaemi, Hooshang [Iran Meteorological Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Application Laboratory/JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The interannual variation of precipitation in the southern part of Iran and its link with the large-scale climate modes are examined using monthly data from 183 meteorological stations during 1974-2005. The majority of precipitation occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows apparently a significant positive correlation with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anti-cyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. On the other hand, the moisture flux has northerly anomaly over Iran during the negative IOD, which results in reduced moisture supply from the south. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. (orig.)

  15. The NOMAD Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vannucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the experimental apparatus and some physics results fromthe NOMAD(neutrino oscillation magnetic detector) experiment which took data in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam from 1995 to 1998. It collected and reconstructed more than one million charged current(CC)$\

  16. Nomade | Smith | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tydskrif vir letterkunde. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nomade. S Smith. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  17. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  18. A critical ethnography of doctor-patient interaction in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Iman, Mohammad Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Derakhshan, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Doctor-patient interaction is a subject with ethical ramifications, besides being an important issue in medical sociology. The main goal of this critical study is to explore the interactional experience of hospital admitted patients. For this reason, the study, carried out in an educational hospital in southern Iran, entailed 156 recorded clinical consultations, 920 hours of participant observation, and six focus groups consisting of patients and their families. The research method used is Critical Ethnography, which was introduced by PF Carspecken. The results showed that negative interactional experience was common among the participants. Six related themes were: doctors' inattentiveness; weak interaction; violation of patients' privacy; unjustified pain; long waiting period and ambiguity; and faceless physicians. According to the participants' observations, poor interaction with doctors has led to these negative experiences. The findings showed that doctors were inconsiderate about patients' concerns and due to this, patients were dissatisfied. Theoretically, this form of fragmented collaboration has deep roots in the framework of modern medicine, but in the context of this study, the intensity of the fragmentation between doctors and patients was observed to be intolerable. To solve this problem, models of patient-centredness and narrative medicine are recommended. In addition, the health system should monitor and evaluate the observance of ethics by physicians.

  19. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Environmental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, M; Niyyati, M; Salehi, M; Feghhi, M; Makvandi, M; Pourmehdi, M; Farnia, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic keratitis (AK). The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran. Methods In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA). Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Genotypes were identified by Blast search and homology analysis. Results Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6%) of samples of water and 13 (26%) soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%), T2 (6.6%), and T5 (6.6%) genotypes. Conclusion TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture. PMID:23323088

  20. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and E Virus Infections Among Healthy Population in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaei, Sadaf; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Moeini, Mahsa; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-07-01

    Enterically-transmitted acute viral hepatitis is caused predominantly by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV and HAV infections varies in different geographical regions. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HEV and HAV infections among Iranian healthy individuals in southern Iran. Totally, 1030 samples were collected from healthy subjects in schools, those referred to tertiary outpatient clinics and health centers in Shiraz between November 2011 and May 2012. Their ages ranged between six months and 95 years. The presence of total anti-HAV and anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) in plasma was assessed by ELISA. The results showed that 66.2% and 0.6% of the general population in this area were positive for total anti-HAV and IgM antibodies by ELISA, respectively. As seen, 13.4% and 0.9% were positive for total anti-HEV and IgM antibodies, respectively. The difference in total anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies was significant among the age groups (P viruses in the region was high and some high-risk individuals including females at child-bearing age were more susceptible. HAV vaccination could be recommended for antibody-negative adults.

  1. No association of GSTM1 null polymorphism with endometriosis in women from central and southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is a complex trait and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that exposure to environmental contaminants is a risk factor for endometriosis. Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1 is one of the genes involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Objective: Several studies have indicated an association between GSTM1 null mutation and endometriosis. In this study, the possible association between the GSTM1 gene null genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis in woman from central and southern Iran was investigated.Materials and Methods: One hundred and one unrelated premenopausal women with endometriosis and 142 unrelated healthy premenopausal women without endometriosis were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from Peripheral blood in all subjects. GSTM1 null genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Results: There was no significant difference between frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype in case and control groups (50.5% Vs. 52.1%, p=0.804. Furthermore, this genotype was not associated with severity of endometriosis in our sample (p=0.77. Conclusion: further studies involving gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, particularly combination of GSTM1 and other GST gene family polymorphisms are needed.

  2. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  3. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  4. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  5. The Management of Dental Waste in Dental Offices and Clinics in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Danaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental waste can be hazardous to humans and the environment. Objective: To determine the current status of dental waste management in private and public dental clinics and private dental offices in Shiraz, southern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February through June 2013. A stratified random sampling method was used to study 86 private offices, 14 private clinics and 10 public clinics. Types of waste studied included mercury and amalgam, lead foil packets, sharps, infectious tissues and fluids, pharmaceuticals and domestic waste materials. Compliance with established standards by the monitored dental offices and clinics and public clinics were compared. Results: 89.1% of dental offices and clinics disposed their infectious waste with domestic waste. Only 60% of centers used standard method for sharps disposal. None of the dental centers disposed their pharmaceutical waste and x-ray fixer waste by standard methods. Less than 10% of centers recycled the amalgam and lead foil pockets waste to the manufacture. Conclusion: Government agencies should establish monitoring programs for all dental offices and clinics to identify noncompliant activity and enforce recommended regulations.

  6. Completeness and underestimation of cancer mortality rate in Iran: a report from Fars Province in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Dortaj, Eshagh; Bahrampour, Abbas; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2015-03-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. Valid data are needed for measuring the cancer burden and making appropriate decisions toward cancer control. We evaluated the completeness of death registry with regard to cancer death in Fars Province, I. R. of Iran. We used data from three sources in Fars Province, including the national death registry (source 1), the follow-up data from the pathology-based cancer registry (source 2) and hospital based records (source 3) during 2004 - 2006. We used the capture-recapture method and estimated underestimation and the true age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for cancer. We used log-linear (LL) modeling for statistical analysis. We observed 1941, 480, and 355 cancer deaths in sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After data linkage, we estimated that mortality registry had about 40% underestimation for cancer death. After adjustment for this underestimation rate, the ASMR of cancer in the Fars Province for all cancer types increased from 44.8 per 100,000 (95% CI: 42.8 - 46.7) to 76.3 per 100,000 (95% CI: 73.3 - 78.9), accounting for 3309 (95% CI: 3151 - 3293) cancer deaths annually. The mortality rate of cancer is considerably higher than the rates reported by the routine registry in Iran. Improvement in the validity and completeness of the mortality registry is needed to estimate the true mortality rate caused by cancer in Iran.

  7. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...... mobile, place-less and nomadic lifestyles. We furthermore present a number of prototypes that seek to enrich the practices of the modern nomad....

  8. Emergence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in a New Focus of Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Akhavan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports from the health center of Kerman Province, southern Iran showed an increasing of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Orzuieh Rural District, southwest of the province in 2003. The report encouraged the team to carry out an epidemi¬ological survey in the district during 2003-2004. The objectives were to determine the ecology of sand flies, potential reser¬voir hosts and human infection. A total of 1075 sand flies were collected by sticky traps and 7 species of sand flies were identified. They comprised 3 species of the genus Phlebotomus (P. papatasi, P. mongolensis and P. bergeroti and 4 species of the genus Sergentomyia (S. sintoni, S. clydei, S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis. P. papatasi was the predominant species of the genus Phlebotomus in indoors (90.3% and outdoors (50.2%. Susceptibility tests on P. papatasi with DDT 4%. Showed that the species was susceptible to this insecticide. A total of 13 rodents consist of Tatera indica (76.9% and Nesokia indica (23.1% were collected. A study of prevalence among 2441 inhabitants in four villages showed a rate of 1.1% for active lesions and 10.4% for scars during November- December 2003. In a separate study examination of 1662 school children aged 6-12 years old showed 1.14% for ulcers and 14.7% for scars at the same time. The Leishmania parasites were isolated from man and characterized as Leishmania major using RAPD-PCR method. It seems that cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CLM has been prevailed in the district.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ansari-Lari, Maryam; EsalatPanah-Fard Jahromi, Mehdi; Berizi, Enayat; Abdollahi, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been identified as an important foodborne pathogen in recent years. In humans, it most commonly affects pregnant women, neonates, children, elderly people, and persons with a suppressed immune system. It could contaminate both raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Studies regarding prevalence and risk factors of L. monocytogenes in broilers flocks are limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for L. monocytogenes in poultry flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran. During August to September 2009, in total, 100 broiler flocks were selected at slaughter, and 21 specimens were collected from cloacal samples from each flock. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the samples enriched in buffered Listeria enrichment broth (BLEB), using specific primers. Furthermore, enriched samples in BLEB and/or BLEB treated with 5% KOH were subcultured on Palcam medium. Data about farm and flocks were collected using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 7% (95% CI, 2-12%) and 1% using PCR and culture, respectively. Results showed that using antibiotics during rearing period was dramatically reduced the rate of isolation (odds ratio [OR]=0.07, p=0.03), whereas house capacity of more than 10,000 birds (OR=24.03, p=0.04) and number of houses (OR=2, p=0.02) significantly increased the prevalence. The correlation between poor management of large poultry flocks and increasing the risk of contamination was more likely due to the recontamination of cooked poultry/undercooking or cross-contamination of other ready-to-eat foods.

  10. The prevalence of Pediculus capitis among School Children in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Neirami

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in ur­ban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also exam­ined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in win­ter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in ru­ral areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeco­nomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effec­tive management strategies should target this group in the province.

  11. Estimation of daily minimum land surface air temperature using MODIS data in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2017-11-01

    Land surface air temperature (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial daily minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface temperature (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric temperature and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference ( RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons ( RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.

  12. Heavy metals and arsenic content in water along the southern Caspian coasts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mohammad; Zamani, Abbasali; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Khosravi, Younes; Badiee, Hamid

    2018-06-06

    Due to the importance of pollution monitoring in marine ecosystems and lack of a coherent and systematic investigation of heavy metal ions along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the present study, the amount of these metals and As ions in coastal waters along its 780-km-long coast in Iran have been studied. Heavy metals (cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, lead) and a poisonous metalloid (arsenic) were selected in 59 sampling stations and determined using differential pulse polarography method. The multivariate statistical tools were applied to describe and interpret the experimental data. The overall mean concentrations of studied metals (in microgram per liter; μg L -1 ) in the samples were found in the order Zn (10.9) > Ni (7.4) > Cu (5.5) > Pb (1.9) > Hg (1.4) > As (1.3) > Co (1.1) > Cd (0.2). The results when compared with reported international standards confirmed that the sampled waters do contain some of these elements above the suggested maximum permissible limits. Hg and Cu were detected in 54.2 and 72.9% of the samples, almost all above the permissible limits. Ni, Zn, Pb, and Co were detected in 100, 96.6, 93.2, and 88.1%, respectively, while 8.5, 22.0, 3.4, and 1.7% were above the permissible limits. Cd and As were present in 61 and 93% of the samples, and their concentrations were higher than the rate presented by Russian System of Management Chemicals (RSMC). In addition, spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations showed that Gorgan Bay is an ecosystem serving as a filter, trapping natural and anthropogenic materials that are brought from industrial, commercial, and urbanized areas. The multivariate data analysis reveals that Caspian Sea is contaminated by both anthropogenic as well as pedo-geochemical sources.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ansari-Lari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are important food borne pathogens worldwide that frequently infect poultry flocks. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Shiraz (southern Iran and to find the possible association of infection status with some potential risk factors including vaccination program and use of antibiotics. During October 2009 to April 2010, a total of 40 broiler flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacae contents were collected from each flock. Every five cloacae contents were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using appropriate culture methods. The flock was considered positive if any of the pooled samples turned positive in culture. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Nine out of 40 flocks (22.50%, 95% CI: 9-36 were positive for Salmonella spp. colonization. Nearly 75.00% of flock owners reported that they used antibiotics during production period, more frequently fluoroquinolones, combination of trimethoprim-sulfonamides (TMP/SU and tetracycline. Nearly 60.00% of the flocks which had used TMP/SU were positive for Salmonella spp. compared with 10.00% of the flocks which did not use this antibiotic (p = 0.006. Increasing flock age was associated with a decreased chance of Salmonella spp. detection (p = 0.003. In flocks which received infectious bronchitis vaccine, 36.00% were positive for Salmonella spp. whereas this was 15.00% for flocks which did not receive this vaccine (p = 0.08. Careful monitoring of antibiotics use and further studies to determine the most appropriate vaccination program in the field is recommended.

  14. First molecular detection of Leishmania major within naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi from a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K; Fakoorziba, M R; Jalali, M; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2012-03-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major notifiable public health problem in many parts of Iran. It is often caused by the zooflagellate parasite Leishmania major which is mainly transmitted by the bites of female phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). The annual incidence of CL in Fars province, southern Iran, was about 108-144 in 2007. The leishmanial infections of wild sandflies that may act as vectors were thus investigated at an endemic focus in this province. In all 330 female Phlebotomus sandflies were screened for the detection of Leishmania-specific kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A two stage nested PCR protocol was used to establish the identity of Leishmania major species in naturally infected sandflies. The L. major kDNA was detected in 18 (5.5%) individual sandflies which belonged to four different Phlebotomus species (Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus salehi, Phlebotomus sergenti and P. major group). For the first time, one naturally infected P. salehi specimen contained the kDNA of the protozoan parasite, L. major, with a main band of 560 base pairs identified using the nested PCR method. It seems most likely therefore that P. salehi is potentially a rare sylvatic vector of L. major parasites in parts of this province. This is the first combined morphological and molecular studies of P. salehi in Iran.

  15. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  16. Interaction between active tectonics, erosion and diapirism, a case study from Habble-Rud in Southern Central Alborz (Northern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Maryam; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Shayan, Siavosh; Yamani, Mojtaba; Zamanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The Alborz mountain chain is a region of active deformation within the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone. The southern part of central Alborz Mountains, in the north of Iran, represents complex tectonics because it is located at the border of two developing continental sedimentary basins between southern central Alborz and Central Iran. An arid and semi-arid climate, a large extent of Quaternary sediments, rugged topography, salt domes and faults with historical seismicity influence the Habble-Rud River catchment. In the present research, a number of tectonic geomorphologic indices were extracted from satellite imagery and 10 m DEM (digital elevation model) data in order to identify relative tectonic activity within the basin. The indices include: stream length-gradient index (Sl), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf), hypsometric integral (Hi), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), and fault density (Fd). Due to the presence of heterogeneous indices for all sections of the catchment causing large extension of Habble-Rud (3260 km2), all of the variables such as extremely erodible formations, faults and folds and salt tectonics on the Southern part; were put into a matrix table. As a new approach, the variables were put into the SAW (simple additive model) model as one of MADM (multi-attribute decision-making models) techniques. The study area was divided into four regions according to the values of SAW. These classes include very high (%11), high (48.3%), moderate (34.7%), and low activity (3.4%). The result of the model suggests that the study area is located on a changing tectonic trend in central Alborz from NW-SE to NE-SW. The regions with high relative tectonic activity in HR catchment correspond to the active Garmsar and Sorkhe-Kalout faults and diapirs.

  17. Asymptomatic Leishmania Infected Children: A Seroprevalence and Molecular Survey in a Rural Area of Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Layegh Gigloo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic healthy children in a rural area of Fars province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 617 asymptomatic healthy children and serum samples along with buffy coat were separated from the blood. The serum samples were assessed for antibodies against Leishmania infantum by an indirect ELISA and the buffy coats were tested for the presence of L. infantum DNA by molecular method. Of the 617 recruited children, 297 (48.1% were female and 317 (51.4% were male. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 17 (2.8% of the children. From those 17 seropositive cases, 5 (29.4% were male and 12 (70.6% cases were female. Children aged 5–8 years had the highest seroprevalence rate; however, no associations were found between seropositivity to Leishmania and gender or age of the children. Moreover, L. infantum DNA was detected in buffy coat of 8 (1.3% of 617 children. Three of the PCR-positive cases were seropositive whereas 14 of seropositive subjects (82.3% were PCR-negative. Findings of the current study revealed a considerable subclinical leishmanial infection in children in the studied rural area in the south of Iran. Results of the current study could be used for surveillance, prevention, and control of VL in the area.

  18. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  19. Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Different Stages of Disease: A Report From Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Fatemeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Ali Reza

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major blood-borne infection which imposes high economic cost on the patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the total annual cost due to chronic HCV related diseases imposed on each patient and their family in Southern Iran. Economic burden of chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. The current retrospective study evaluated 200 Iranian patients for their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and treatment costs and work days lost due to illness by a structured questionnaire in 2015. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients; while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The human capital approach was used to measure the work loss cost. The total annual cost per patient for chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on purchasing power parity (PPP) were USD 1625.50, USD 6117.2, and USD 11047.2 in 2015, respectively. Chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families and the society. The current study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine use in thalassemia patients in Shiraz, southern Iran: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Bordbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in thalassemia patients in south of Iran. The survey was done using a validated questionnaire which was distributed among 122 thalassemia patients. Only 108 questionnaires were completed and turned back (response rate 88.5%. Patients referred to an outpatient thalassemia clinic in Shiraz, southern Iran for blood transfusion. The mean age of the patients was 22.9 ± 7.9 years (range 4–45 years with female/male ratio 1.84. Seventy four (68.5% of the responders used CAM at least once during their life, and about half of them used it concurrently with their conventional treatments. The most reported CAM product was mint juice (50%. The most common reason of CAM use was increased general health. The most common information source about CAM was physicians who were the most trusted source as well. CAM is frequently being used in thalassemia patients to ensure their sense of well-being and help them overcome the complications of their illnesses.

  1. THE DEMOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS OF NOMADIC HERDSMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    animal husbandry, the increasing crises between farmers and nomadic herdsmen ... The media is also awash with reported cases of clashes between the ..... Mercy Corps 2013 and 2016, a global humanitarian organisation funded by the.

  2. Duean sip, théâtre de l’ethnorégionalisme sud. Les nomades de la mer et le cycle rituel du dixième mois dans la province de Phang Nga (sud de la Thaïlande) Duean sip, Theater of the Southern Ethnoregionalism. The Sea Nomads and the Tenth Lunar Month Ritual Complex in the Phang Nga Province (Southern Thailand)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    La cérémonie bouddhique du dixième mois lunaire, connue comme la fête des morts et des revenants, revêt dans la région de Phang Nga, au sud de la Thaïlande une importance et un rôle qui vont bien au-delà de sa signification religieuse. Il s’agit en effet d’un complexe rituel qui, en s’emboîtant avec les cérémonies du festival végétarien des Sino-Thaïs et avec d’autres cérémonies propres aux nomades de la mer (Moken, Moklen et Urak Lawoi), met en scène les fondements des relations interethniqu...

  3. Results from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, B A

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment has sought nu /sub mu / implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations by looking for the emergence of tau /sup -/ in events from the CERN SPS neutrino beam. With some improvements in the techniques of analysis in relation to the results published previously and with the inclusion of data from the 1998 run, no evidence for the oscillations has been found, which results in an updated limit on the oscillation probability [P( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<0.5* 10/sup -3/ at a 90% C.L.]. The corresponding limit on the oscillation mixing angle is given by sin/sup 2/2 theta /sub mu tau /<1.0*10/sup -3/ for large Delta m/sup 2/. By using a 1% contamination of nu /sub e/ in the neutrino beam, we can also rule out nu /sub e/ implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations and constrain the probability of the relevant transition as P( nu /sub 3/ to nu /sub tau /)<3*10/sup -2/ at a 90% C.L. (sin/sup 2/2Q/sub e tau /<6*10/sup -2/ at large Delta m/sup 2/). (10 refs).

  4. ABO blood groups of residents and the ABO host choice of malaria vectors in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjomruz, Mehdi; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Sedaghat, Mohammad M; Pourfatollah, Ali A; Raeisi, Ahmad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Yeryan, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Hassan; Nikpoor, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidences revealed the higher prevalence of 'O' blood group in the residents of malaria-endemic areas. Also some data indicated preference of mosquitoes to 'O' group. The aim of this study was to determine ABO group ratio in the residents as well as ABO group preference of Anopheles in two malaria endemic areas in south of Iran. Agglutination method was used for ABO typing of residents. Field blood fed Anopheles specimens were tested against vertebrate DNA using mtDNA-cytB PCR-RFLP and then the human fed specimens were tested for ABO groups using multiplex allele-specific PCR. A total of 409 human blood samples were identified, of which 150(36.7%) were 'O' group followed by 113(27.6%), 109(26.7%), and 37(9.0%) of A, B, and AB groups respectively. Analyzing of 95 blood fed mosquitoes revealed that only four Anopheles stephensi had fed human blood with A(1), B(1), and AB(2) groups. Result of this study revealed high prevalence of O group in south of Iran. To our knowledge, it is the first ABO molecular typing of blood meal in mosquitoes; however, due to low number of human blood fed specimens, ABO host choice of the mosquitoes remains unknown. This study revealed that ABO blood preference of malaria vectors and other arthropod vectors deserves future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A solution for future designs using techniques from vernacular architecture in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi, Fatima; Altan, Hasim

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays in modern life, every technology and technique for comfortable life is available. People with low income, in other words, with low levels of economic power, can also have those facilities to stay warm in winter and stay cool in summer. Many years back when there were no advanced systems for human needs, passive strategies played a big role in peoples' lives. This paper concentrates on a small city in Iran that had used special strategies to solve peoples' environmental issues. The city is called Evaz, which is located in the Fars region of Iran with distance around 20 km from Gerash city and 370 km from south east of Shiraz. Evaz receives minimum rainfall, which is the reason why water is limited in this area and therefore, cisterns (water storage) had been used for many years that is studied in more detail in this paper. In summers, the climate is hot and dry, sometimes the external temperatures reaching around 46 °C during the day. Although the winters are typically cold and likewise dry, moderate climate is available in Evaz during autumn and spring. This study identifies some of the past strategies and describes them in detail with analysis for transformation and connections with the modern and traditional fundamentals. Furthermore, the study develops some solutions utilizing a combination of both modern and traditional techniques in design to suggest better and more effective ways to save energy, and at the same time to remain sustainable for the future.

  6. Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Different Stages of Disease: A Report From Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Fatemeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major blood-borne infection which imposes high economic cost on the patients. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the total annual cost due to chronic HCV related diseases imposed on each patient and their family in Southern Iran. Patients and Methods Economic burden of chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. The current retrospective study evaluated 200 Iranian patients for their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and treatment costs and work days lost due to illness by a structured questionnaire in 2015. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients; while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The human capital approach was used to measure the work loss cost. Results The total annual cost per patient for chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on purchasing power parity (PPP) were USD 1625.50, USD 6117.2, and USD 11047.2 in 2015, respectively. Conclusions Chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families and the society. The current study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations. PMID:27257424

  7. Molecular characterization of Torque teno virus and SEN virus co-infection with HIV in patients from Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyar Pirouzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Torque teno virus (TTV and SEN virus are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that cause blood-borne infections. The SEN virus (SEN-V was originally detected in the serum of an injection drug user infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Recently TTV was discovered as a potential causative agent of non-A-E hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the SEN-V-D/H and TTV in HIV patients and healthy blood donors in Iran. Methods One hundred and fifty HIV patients with a mean age of 50.46 ± 18.46 years and 150 healthy blood donors with a mean age of 48.16 ± 13.73 years were included in this study. TTV and SEN-V were detected by the PCR and were quantitatively assayed by competitive PCR (nested and semi-nested PCR. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs were used to determine the heterogeneity of TTV. Results TTV and SEN-V were detected 96 (64% and 84 (56% of 150 HIV patients respectively. These rates were 34% (n=51 and 37.33% (n=56 in healthy blood donors (significant, p<0.05. PCR detected SEN-V/TTV DNA from 32 of the healthy blood donors (21.33%, while 65 (43.33% of HIV patients were positive for SEN-V/TTV DNA. Of 150 HIV patients, 32.66% and 23.33% were positive for SEN-V-H and SEN-V-D, respectively and 18.66% (n=28 were co-infected with SEN-V-D/H. Conclusions The prevalence of SEN-VD/H and TTV is higher in HIV patients than in healthy blood donors in Southern Iran. Our results suggest that TTV and SEN-V might play a role in the development of liver disease in patients with immunodeficiency diseases.

  8. Evaluation of vancomycin therapy in the adult ICUs of a teaching hospital in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazin A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist. Fifteen indexes were considered for evaluation of vancomycin use. Results: Ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (22.6%, sepsis (22.1% and CNS infection (12.6% were found to be the most important indications for vancomycin prescription. Vancomycin was prescribed empirically in 81% of patients. None of the patients received loading dose, and most of the patients received fixed dose. The rate of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy was 68.5% in patients who received vancomycin. The mean score of vancomycin use in the ICUs of Nemazee Hospital was 7.1±0.6 out of 15, implying that the rate of vancomycin use was in accordance with the guideline proposed by the Department of Clinical Pharmacy of Nemazee Hospital based on Infectious Diseases Society of America by 47.3%. Conclusion: Based on our results, the weakness in using vancomycin was related to not administering loading dose, the practice of prescribing fixed-dose vancomycin and prolonged duration of empiric therapy. Efforts to improve the pattern of vancomycin prescription and utilization in these ICUs should be undertaken. Keywords: vancomycin, drug utilization, intensive care units

  9. Essential oil constituents, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Lavandula stricta Delile growing wild in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ardalan; Aghaee, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    Lavandula stricta belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is considered as an endemic medicinal plant in southern Iran. Essential oil composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity from two different populations of L. stricta were studied for the first time. A GC and GC/MS analysis of essential oil isolated from the aerial part of L. stricta identified 31 constituents; the major constituents were α-pinene (58.34-63.52%), linalool (8.85-9.36%), 3-methyl butyl 2-methyl butanoate (7.45-7.70%), sabinene (2.84-3.56%), limonene (2.87-3.21%) and myrcene (2.25%). The total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract and essential oil were determined with the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, respectively. Total phenols varied from 61.05 to 64.45 mg GAE/g dry weight, and IC50 values in the radical scavenging assay ranged from 334.11 to 395.23 μg/mL in methanolic extracts and 420-475 μg/mL in essential oil.

  10. Sequence diversity of the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zahra; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Naddaf, Saeed; Pourfallah, Fatemeh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Feizhaddad, Hossein; Rad, Mina Ebrahimi; Ebrahimi Rad, Mina; Tameemi, Marzieh; Assmar, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a strong vaccine candidate as it is associated with immunity to the parasite. This corresponds approximately to the conserved 17th block of the gene and is composed of two EGF- like domains. These domains exhibit only four single amino acid substitutions which show several potential variants in this region of the gene. As the variations might be important for a regional vaccine design, a study was carried out to determine the variations present in P. falciparum isolates from southern Iran. Besides the usual E-T-S-R-L and the Q-K-N-G-F types, we found Q-T-S-R-L, E-K-N-G-F, E-T-S-G-L, Z-T-S-G-L and Z-T-S-R-L types, where Z was E or Q signifying the presence of mixed clones in single isolates.

  11. The Emergence of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Following the Earthquake in Southern Villages of Bam District, Southeastern Iran, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.Methods: A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Results: Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more signifi­cantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.Conclusion: The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  12. Hepatitis B, C virus co-infection and behavioral risks in HIV-positive patients in southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, M.J.; Moghaddam, S.D.; Abasi, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors and frequency of hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Control of Diseases Centre of Kerman Medical University, southern Iran, between May and December 2011. Demographic features and history of high-risk behaviours were evaluated in 165 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen tests were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of the 165 patients, 136 (82.4%) were male and 29 (17.6%) were female. The mean age of the subjects was 40.4+-9 years. Positive hepatitis C antibody was found in 122 (73.9%) and positive hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 6 (3.6%). Frequency of all three viruses co-infection was 3 (1.8%). History of imprisonment (OR= 17.5; 95% CI: 7.1-43.1) and drug injection addiction (OR= 15.3; 95% CI: 6.4-36.1) were the most significant risk factors involved in hepatitis C virus co-infection. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection was high and it was strongly related to history of imprisonment and drug injection addiction. (author)

  13. Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazin A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Afsaneh Vazin,1 Zahra Zamani,1 Nahid Hatam2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Abstract: This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5% MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2% and antimicrobial (23.6% medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6% and wrong time error (4.4% were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04, higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017, and the morning shifts (P=0.035 were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction

  14. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  15. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in Southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475

  16. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2014-07-27

    Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.

  17. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  18. "Becoming" Learners/Teachers in Nomadic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a conjunction between the learning space of educational edge community (EEC) and the Deleuzeguattarian thought regarding the nature of teachers' "becoming." It attends to the emerging subjectivities of teachers/learners within an EEC, a nomadic, open, and smooth space of learning. It is suggested that autonomous…

  19. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  20. The rate of rise, fall and gravity spreading at Siahou diapir (Southern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftabi, P.; Roustaie, M.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR imaging can be used for extracting three dimensional information of the diapirs surface by using the phase part of the radar signal. We used InSAR to examine the cumulative surface deformation between 920706 to 060518, in a 10×10 km region surrounding the salt diapir at Kuh-e-Namak Siahou. The interferograms span periods was between 35-70 and 1248 days. Images acquired in 12 increments provided by ESA. This technique used here involves computation and subsequent combinations of interferometric phase gradient maps were used for mapping the salt flow deformation in the Zagros. Kuh-e-Namak Siahou is one of the salt extrusions currently active in the Zagros range in Iran. Salt rises from a mother salt horizon about 4 km deep and extruded as a dome with glacier on the surface. The geometry and inferred flow pattern of the salt changed between the increments, emphasizing that the extrusion rate and gravity spreading is not steady. Elevations in the salt mountain range from 1000 to 1640 meters and the displacements exceed to 20cm per year . Our InSAR study(Fig1) suggest that the dimensions and velocity of the salt movements are changing between 2 to 20mm per year(-0.7 to0.59 mm per day).The rate of surface dissolution changed between 2 to 4 cm a-1, and its rate of rise out of its orifice at 0 to 200 mm per year. The InSAR study suggest that the vigorous salt extrusion in Siahou is probably active.The deep source probably rise at a similar rates in the past but it fall in the time of InSAR study. The rate of fall was 260 mm per year(for 14 years). The InSAR images suggest that salt extrusion in Siahou flow laterally at rate 20-25 mm per year and the namakiers felt at -2 mm per month. The InSAR results indicated concentric and radial flow in the diapir from a central point at summit and spreading glaciers in sideways.Phase differences measured in our interferograms generally in the range of 0-260 mm/yr(-260 mm) within the studied period, with exceptional high rates

  1. The frequency of hypothyroidism and its relationship with HCV positivity in patients with thalassemia major in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Jelodari, Shohreh; Karamifar, Hammdollah; Saki, Forough; Rahimi, Rahil; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Karimi, Mehran

    2018-03-27

    Hypothyroidism is one the most complication due to iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM). On the other hand these patients are prone to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that can cause  thyroid dysfunction by itself or as the side effect of treatment with interferon (INF) or IFN plus ribavirin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of hypothyroidism with HCV positivity and serum ferritin levels in patients with TM. In this cross-sectional study, 201 randomly selected patients with TM who were registered at the Thalassemia Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran were investigated. Thyroid function tests and serologic screening assays for HCV seropositivity (HCV Ab and HCV-RNA) were conducted for all patients. Frequency of hypothyroidism was 22.9% including 19.9% subclinical hypothyroidism, 2% primary overt hypothyroidism and 1% central hypothyroidism. Eighty six patients (42.8%) were HCV Ab positive and 60 patients (29.9%) were HCV RNA positive. No significant relationship was found between hypothyroidism and HCV positivity or receiving IFN-α (P>0.05). Hypothyroidism showed a borderline significant association with high serum ferritin levels in TM patients (P=0.055). Our results showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and HCV infection in TM patients. It seems that the main mechanism of hypothyroidism in our patients is iron overload; however, for better evaluation a larger multicenter study is recommended.  Also due to the importance of consequences of HCV infection, more careful pre-transfusional screening of blood should be considered in TM patients.

  2. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  3. The Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection among Free-Ranging Chickens in Southern Iran Using IFA and Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Hatam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens (Gallus gallus domesti­cus in Shiraz, southern Iran. "nMethods: Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster ran­dom sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The re­sults were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically sig­nificant. "nResults: Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 (1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver (27 out of 29 and the lowest was the heart (16 out of 29 (α=0.05, P=0.002. None of the seronegative chick­ens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 (as cut off point were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. "nConclusion: Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be impor­tant sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations.

  4. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  5. Concerning the Nomadic Culture of the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers consider nomadic and sedentary cultures as evolutionary stages. The nomadic phase precedes a settled one as an inferior stage of civilization. The evolutionary view does not explain the combination of nomadic and settled cultures in the Golden Horde and the preservation of many features of nomadism in the future, up to the present day. A number of experts, in particular, Thomas Barfield believes that nomadic societies exist by levying tribute from the settled state, which raises doubts. The Eurasian nomadic civilization is associated with the organization of vital activity in the conditions of steppe climate zone requiring constant migrations aimed at producing a sufficient amount of livestock. Robbery and receiving tribute from other societies is not its main characteristic. More important for it is a specific arrangement of humans, animals, and vehicles allowing the movement of large numbers of people over long distances. The nomads were not so strongly tied to the land as sedentary people. The structure of society was not built according to a vertical hierarchy but on the clan system. The nomads provoked the Great Migration and created a number of nomadic empires as well as the Golden Horde, the top of nomadic civilization. The ability to integrate different peoples in the uniform State was associated with openness and toleration of nomadic culture. The nomads took advantage of warfare methods through mobility, effective combinations of weapons, horses, vehicles, and skills training of combat operations. Their army was not hired or regular but represented the people-army. The ability to effective warfare contributed to the nomadic expansion and exploration of the Eurasian space. The nomadic culture of the Golden Horde had its own characteristics associated with the conjunction of nomadic and settled population in the uniform State. Nomadism does not disappear as a culture and mentality over time. Large spaces and lack of

  6. Nomadic concepts in the history of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Jan; Stráner, Katalin; Haslinger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The history of scientific concepts has firmly settled among the instruments of historical inquiry. In our section we approach concepts from the perspective of nomadic concepts (Isabelle Stengers). Instead of following the evolution of concepts within one disciplinary network, we see them as subject to constant reification and change while crossing and turning across disciplines and non-scientific domains. This introduction argues that understanding modern biology is not possible without taking into account the constant transfers and translations that affected concepts. We argue that this approach does not only engage with nomadism between disciplines and non-scientific domains, but reflects on and involves the metaphoric value of concepts as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health and nomadism: territory and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how territory and linking notions articulate with the health field in Brazil, in view of the relations that are established between health staff and certain social groups who see in the movement a logic of life, survival and resistance: the nomads. The concept of territory is an important organizer of Brazilian’s public policies, and is closely related to inclusion. The data were collected through participant observation of the daily work of two teams of Family Health Strategy, in a medium-sized city located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For these services, nomadism is seen as a nuisance. On the other hand, include not only acquires a sense of attachment and population control, but the demarcation of belonging territories, from the investment of the relation of users with health services.

  8. Social networking and ecomobility through nomadic devices

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Widespread among population of sophisticated nomadic devices such as smart phones is a possibility to be connected to social networks 'Anytime', 'Anywhere'. It can constitute a potential to support ecomobility with information on real time of location of danger/risky zones identified by drivers belonging to community members: potential to avoid traffic jams and to optimise the trip, ridesharing through connections between drivers and travellers belonging to the same community: potential to de...

  9. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  10. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autiero, D; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Barichello, G; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V; Bobisut, F; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Conta, C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Lella, L; Ferrari, R; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Guglielmi, A; Iacopini, E; Kovzelev, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Lazzeroni, C; Livan, M; Mezzetto, M; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Pennacchio, E; Petti, R; Polesello, G; Renzoni, G; Rimoldi, A; Roda, C; Sconza, A; Sobczynski, C; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vascon, M; Vercesi, V; Visentin, L; Volkov, S A [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); [Institute of Nuclear Research, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.).

  11. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V.; Bobisut, F.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Conta, C.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Lella, L.; Ferrari, R.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.N.; Guglielmi, A.; Iacopini, E.; Kovzelev, A.V.; La Rotonda, L.; Lanza, A.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Livan, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Petti, R.; Polesello, G.; Renzoni, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Roda, C.; Sconza, A.; Sobczynski, C.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vascon, M.; Vercesi, V.; Visentin, L.; Volkov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.)

  12. NOMAD - more than a simple sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutti, P.; Cecillon, F.; Elaazzouzi, A.; Le Goc, Y.; Locatelli, J.; Ortiz, H.; Ratel, J.

    2012-01-01

    NOMAD is the new instrument control software of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). A highly shareable code among all the instruments' suite, a user oriented design for tailored functionality and the improvement of the instrument team's autonomy thanks to a uniform and ergonomic user interface are the essential elements guiding the software development. NOMAD implements a client/server approach. The server is the core business containing all the instrument methods and the hardware drivers, while the GUI (Graphical User Interface) provides all the necessary functionalities for the interaction between user and hardware. All instruments share the same executable while a set of XML configuration files adapts hardware needs and instrument methods to the specific experimental setup. Thanks to a complete graphical representation of experimental sequences, NOMAD provides an overview of past, present and future operations. Users have the freedom to build their own specific work-flows using intuitive drag-and-drop technique. A complete drivers' database to connect and control all possible instrument components has been created, simplifying the inclusion of a new piece of equipment for an experiment. A web application makes available outside the ILL all the relevant information on the status of the experiment. A set of scientific methods facilitates the interaction between users and hardware giving access to instrument control and to complex operations within just one click on the interface. (authors)

  13. "Grey nomads" in Australia: are they a good model for successful aging and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul F D; Quirk, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Lifestyle factors have been identified as being very important in determining health in later life. Nutrition, exercise, and social environment all interact to promote, or to limit, opportunities for an active and healthy post-working life. Not only are rates of chronic illness and disability reduced through the promotion of healthy lifestyles, but also quality of life is maintained through the compression of morbidity. Governments in Australia, as in the European Union and North America, have highlighted the importance of behavioral change in health promotion strategies with the aim of having an impact on the health-related lifestyles of their populations. This paper examines the example of a group of older Australians, the "grey nomads," who may present opportunities for examining health-related lifestyle changes. The term grey nomad refers to a portion of the older population in Australia who choose to use their later years and retirement as opportunities for travel and leisure, mainly within the confines of the Australian continent. As such, they are similar to groups in North America, such as the "snow birds," who travel to the southern United States to escape the colder winters of more northerly latitudes. Similar seasonal migrations occur from Northern to Southern Europe. What all share in common is an active culture/lifestyle of attempting to "age successfully." Grey nomads also participate in the creation of what can be termed postmodern communities, where they and other regular travelers may develop a sense of community feeling with others who are also regularly returning to the same spot year after year. Social support is highly predictive of health outcomes and such mobile communities may prove a positive factor in promoting good health. In this paper we examine whether the "grey nomads" represent a good model for improving health-related lifestyles in later life.

  14. Modelling spatial relationship between climatic conditions and annual parasite incidence of malaria in southern part of Sistan&Balouchistan Province of Iran using spatial statistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Halimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To model spatial relationship between climatic conditions and annual parasite incidence (API of malaria in southern part of Sistan&Balouchistan Province of Iran using spatial statistic models . Methods: A geographical weighted regression model was applied for predicting API by 3 climatic factors in order to model the spatial API of malaria in Sistan&Baluchistan Province of Iran. Results: The results indicated that most important climatic factor for explaining API in Sistan&Baluchistan was annual rainfall being of more importance in southern part of study area such as Chabahar, and Nikshar. The temperature and relative humidity are of the second and third priority respectively. The importance of these two climatic factors is higher in northern part of the studied region. The spatial autocorrelation (Moran ’s I for standard residual of applied geographical weighted regression model is -0.022 which indicated no spatial patterns. Conclusions: This model explained only 0.51 of API spatial variation (R2=0.51. Thus, the nonclimatic factors such as socioeconomic, lifestyle and the neighborhood position of this province with Afghanistan, and Pakistan also should be considered in epidemiological survey of malaria in Sistan&Baluchistan.

  15. Significant spread of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii genotypes of clonal complex 92 among intensive care unit patients in a university hospital in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Monsen, Tor; Karmostaji, Afsaneh; Azimabad, Fahimeh Bahadori; Widerström, Micael

    2017-11-01

    Infections associated with Acinetobacter baumannii represent an increasing threat in healthcare settings. Therefore, we investigated the epidemiological relationship between clinical isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients in a university hospital in Bandar Abbas in southern Iran. Sixty-four consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates collected during 2014-2015 were subjected to susceptibility testing, clonal relationship analysis using PFGE, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and examined for the presence of carbapenemases and integrons. Almost all A. baumannii isolates were extensively drug-resistant (XDR; 98 %) and carried an OXA carbapenemase gene (blaOXA-23-like; 98 %) and class 1 integrons (48 %). PFGE and MLST analysis identified three major genotypes, all belonging to clonal complex 92 (CC92): sequence type 848 (ST848) (n=23), ST451 (n=16) and ST195 (n=8). CC92 has previously been documented in the hospital setting in northern Iran, and ST195 has been reported in Arab States of the Persian Gulf. These data suggest national and global transmission of A. baumannii CC92. This report demonstrates the occurrence and potential spread of closely related XDR genotypes of A. baumannii CC92 within a university hospital in southern Iran. These genotypes were found in the majority of the investigated isolates, showed high prevalence of blaOXA-23 and integron class 1, and were associated with stay in the intensive care unit. Very few treatment options remain for healthcare-adapted XDR A. baumannii, and hence effective measures are desperately needed to reduce the spread of these strains and resultant infections in the healthcare setting.

  16. Gallex, Nomad and Antares. A decade of neutrino research; Gallex, nomad, antares. Une decennie de neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarczyk, Th

    2003-02-01

    This report presents 10 years of research concerning the neutrino through the experiments Gallex, Nomad and Antares to which the author has contributed. For each experiment the author gives the physic principles on which the detection is based, presents the equipment and the detection systems, details his contribution and reports the main results.

  17. The Role of Nomadic Education in Achieving the First Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Nomadic Education in Achieving the First Millennium Development Goal in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The paper further reviews the current awareness about nomadic education policy ... education towards sustainable livestock development as well as economic ...

  18. An Impact Evaluation of Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the extent of the realization of the objectives of nomadic education programme in the northeast sub-region of Nigeria. The study showed that the programme performed satisfactorily and the impact on the nomads is significant. There are however some major problems militating against effective ...

  19. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a research project, Mobile Home Center, about home and mobility in relation to transnational HCI. The project concerns design for mobile life and it is an investigation, through user studies and prototypes, of how to support the act of home making away from the primary home. We...... bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...

  20. Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Moosa; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sharafi, Mehdi; Rafat-Panah, Azam

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran. This research performed on all CL patients as that were registered into special forms by physicians and experts during the study period 2006-2013 in the county town of Fasa, Iran. Data were analyzed by Chi square test using SPSS 17 statistics software. Overall, 1,908 patients (59.18 %) lived in rural and 1,316 (40.82 %) lived in urban areas. All ages were between 1 and ≥30 year. The most frequent age group was ≥20 years (54.6 %). Sex ratio of patients was almost 1:1 (1,561; 48.42 % male vs. 1,663; 51.58 % female). Most of them (66.84 %) had wet lesions and those with dry lesions were less frequent (33.16 %). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of these two groups (P counties in Iran showed that it was most likely an endemic disease in this region.

  1. Effectiveness of Educational Program Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action to Decrease the Rate of Cesarean Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Fasa, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan-Jeihooni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cesarean section is considered as a major surgery accompanied by several complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of reasoned action to reduce the rate of cesarean section among pregnant women in Fasa, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 100 (50 participants in each of the control and intervention groups primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to health centers of Fasa city, Fars province, Iran. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables and the theory of reasoned action structures. After the pretest, the intervention group underwent exclusive training based on the theory of reasoned action. Then, after 3 months, both groups took part in the posttest. Data was analyzed by paired T-test, independent T-test and chi-square using SPSS-18 software. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups regarding knowledge, evaluations behavioral outcomes, Behavioral beliefs and intention (P<0.001. Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding their performance (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present intervention was effective in increasing the pregnant women’s knowledge, evaluation of outcomes, attitude and strengthening their intention as well as performance. Therefore, it is suggested to use this model and other systematic straining for pregnant women to decrease the rate of cesarean section.

  2. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

    2012-10-01

    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. OceanNOMADS: Real-time and retrospective access to operational U.S. ocean prediction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J. M.; Cross, S. L.; Bub, F.; Ji, M.

    2011-12-01

    Nowcast/Forecast System over the Gulf of Mexico from 2004-Mar 2011, the operational Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) regional USEast ocean nowcast/forecast system from early 2009 to present, and the NAVOCEANO operational regional AMSEAS (Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean) ocean nowcast/forecast system from its inception 25 June 2010 to present. AMSEAS provided one of the real-time ocean forecast products accessed by NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration from the NGI/NCDDC developmental OceanNOMADS during the Deep Water Horizon oil spill last year. The developmental server also includes archived, real-time Navy coastal forecast products off coastal Japan in support of U.S./Japanese joint efforts following the 2011 tsunami. Real-time NAVOCEANO output from regional prediction systems off Southern California and around Hawaii, currently available on the NCEP ftp server, are scheduled for archival on the developmental OceanNOMADS by late 2011 along with the next generation Navy/NOAA global ocean prediction output. Accession and archival of additional regions is planned as server capacities increase.

  4. Epidemiology of Malignant Melanoma over a Thirty-two Year Period (1981-2013 in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Handjani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Malignant melanoma, one of the most deadly skin cancers, is a skin tumor that arises from the epidermal melanocytes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographic and clinical data of malignant melanoma patients in a referral dermatology center in the south of Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, we have reviewed files of 116 patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma at hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from March 1981 to March 2013. Results: There was a total 116 malignant melanoma patients (79 male and 37 female with the mean age of 54.7 (SD=13.9 years old for men and 51.7 (SD=12.4 years old for women. The male to female ratio of malignant melanoma was approximately two, as was the male to female mortality ratio. The most common clinical form was acral lentiginous melanoma. We have identified the most common site to be the sole of the foot. Malignant melanoma mostly presented as a mass and it was most common in farmers. Conclusion: The national health system should improve the quality and quantity of cancer registry offices so that better and more complete data can be collected for further research and possible implementation of preventive measures with respect to this cancer.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SHIRAZ, SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Robab; Chan, Yoke Mun; Khor, Geok Lin; Rahman, Hejar Abul; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Wong, Teck Wee

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its individual components with socio-economic factors among 14-18 year-old adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. Using a multistage random sampling, a total of 538 (289 males and 249 females) adolescents consented to the study. Socio-economic status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire while presence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components was ascertained using NCEP-ATP III criteria. The relationships between the participants' socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its components were determined using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Approximately 6% of the adolescents had metabolic syndrome, with significantly more males than females (9.3% vs 2.4%, p Metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent in obese participants (44.4%) than those with normal body weight (2.0%) or overweight (9.3%). There were positive associations between the components of metabolic syndrome and parental education, school location and household monthly income. Having a family history of obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for other variables (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.9-5.2, p = 0.042). Overweight and obese subjects were approximately 8 times and 15 times more likely to develop metabolic syndrome, respectively (overweight: OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 3.6-17.2; obese: OR = 15.4; 95% CI: 4.8-43.7). In conclusion, a positive association exists between socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the studied participants. An intervention program to prevent metabolic syndrome needs to be developed for this young generation, especially among those who are overweight or obese and those with a family history of obesity. Keywords: adolescents, metabolic syndrome, components of metabolic syndrome, socio-economic status, Iran

  6. Digital Nomads: Employment in the Online Gig Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Yuen Thompson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, Tsugio Makimoto and David Manners published their future-looking manifesto Digital Nomad that, decades later, would present as a manifesto for a lifestyle movement. At the time, businesses and the US government were interested in looking at tele-commuting, productivity, and work-family balance. Critiques of a neoliberal economy provide insight into understanding the context of freelance and online, piecemeal employment. This article examines the types of employment that digital nomads engage in, based on in-depth interviews with thirty-eight self-identified digital nomads. The participants mostly originate from wealthy, industrialized nations, and have many class privileges, but are underemployed compared to what their socio-economic status would historically suggest. As most participants are in the Millennial Generation, an overview of the shifting socio-economic status of this age-cohort is examined in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and the European Union – notably their high educational achievements and increasingly precarious employment status. Many of the nomads were working part-time with their own micro-business, with few able to maintain full-time employment. Few have benefits such as healthcare, retirement, unemployment insurance, or family leave. While “freedom” is touted as the benefit of gig-work, by both industry management and digital nomad enthusiasts, this lifestyle marks a shift towards precarious employment – itself not a basis for economic freedom, nor security.

  7. Human Visceral Leishmaniasis: a Serological Survey in Rural Areas of Dashti District of Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gorgipoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. Mediterranean type of the disease is endemic in some parts of Iran and more than 95% of cases were reported in children up to 12 years of age. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of VL in the rural areas of the Dashti district from Bushehr province.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a randomized cluster sampling method was used for the collection of blood samples from children up to 12 years old from rural areas of Dashti district. Before sampling; a questionnaire was filled out for each case. All the collected blood samples were examined after the serum separating by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The cutoff titers of ≥1: 3200 with specific clinical features were supposed to be considered as VL.Results: Altogether, 24 out of 1221 (1.96% blood samples showed titers between 1:800 and 1:1600 which considered as suspicious cases. None of the suspicious cases had a history of kala-azar. None of 1221 collected blood samples showed anti Leishmania infantum (L. infantum at titer ≥1:3200.Conclusion: This study confirms the circulation of L. infantum in Dashti district and highlights the sporadic pattern of VL in the studied areas which necessitates the surveillance system to be monitored by health authorities.

  8. Impact of documentation errors on accuracy of cause of death coding in an educational hospital in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mohammad Hosein Hayavi; Dehghani, Mohammad; Teshnizi, Saeid Hoseini; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Accurate cause of death coding leads to organised and usable death information but there are some factors that influence documentation on death certificates and therefore affect the coding. We reviewed the role of documentation errors on the accuracy of death coding at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital (SMH), Bandar Abbas, Iran. We studied the death certificates of all deceased patients in SMH from October 2010 to March 2011. Researchers determined and coded the underlying cause of death on the death certificates according to the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization in Volume 2 of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems-10th revision (ICD-10). Necessary ICD coding rules (such as the General Principle, Rules 1-3, the modification rules and other instructions about death coding) were applied to select the underlying cause of death on each certificate. Demographic details and documentation errors were then extracted. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi square tests. The accuracy rate of causes of death coding was 51.7%, demonstrating a statistically significant relationship (p=.001) with major errors but not such a relationship with minor errors. Factors that result in poor quality of Cause of Death coding in SMH are lack of coder training, documentation errors and the undesirable structure of death certificates.

  9. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations in Rutilus frisii kutum on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine products, especially fish, play an increasingly significant role in human diets and health. This research evaluated the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum along the Caspian Sea coasts of northern Iran. Methods: Thirty samples of fishes were taken from five stations (Astara, Rezvanshahr, Anazali, Ramsar, and Tonekabon during fishing season. An ICP-OES spectrophotometer was used to determine concentrations of the studied metals. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistical index, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA test; P Ni>Pb>Cd. The results showed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of these metals in liver and muscle tissues (P < 0.05, but no significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Based on calculations, the estimated permissible tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs of cadmium (0.042 and 0.567 mg and lead (0.0021 and 0.027 mg in this study are lower than the levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO (0.455 mg for cadmium and 1.625 mg for lead.

  10. Field evalution of controling methods of mango fruit flies bactrocera zonata (Biptera:Tephritidae in the southern part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bactrocera zonata (Diptera, Tephritidae, is considered as a dangerous pest of mango in the south of Iran, which its control is one of the main concerns of farmers who are facing numerous problems. To assay the different methods for controlling B. zonata, this study was carried out. Method: The treatments were, A spraying 7% methyl eugenol+7% technical malathion on trunk and tree branches, B soaking 8-10 layers of jute sacks with previous treatment that were attached to tree branches, C bucket trap along with chipboard that was saturated with 6 ml of methyl eugenol, D spraying 3% protein hydrolysate+3 ppm malathion (EC 57% on the trunk and tree branches, E spraying 3% sugar permit+3 ppm malathion on the trunk and tree branches, and F control (no treatment. The experiments were repeated at two consecutive years. Results: The results confirmed that the differences among treatments and the effect of the year on the treatments were significant (p>1%. The treatment D captured the highest numbers of fruit flies in both years of replications. The treatments had significant effect on percentage of fruit infestation. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that treatments C and B had the greatest impact on pest control.

  11. Late Pleistocene dust dynamics and pedogenesis in Southern Eurasia - Detailed insights from the loess profile Toshan (NE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Stefan; Kehl, Martin; Rolf, Christian; Franz, Sven Oliver; Lauer, Tobias; Lehndorff, Eva; Frechen, Manfred; Khormali, Farhad

    2018-01-01

    In southern Eurasia recurrent phases of aridization, dust source extension and enhanced Aeolian sedimentation alternated with moister intervals, promoting reduced deflation areas and dust accumulation in the context of late Pleistocene climate changes. Weathering and soil forming intensity in this greater region are, hence, mainly governed by fluctuations in the balance between dust supply and moisture availability. Among the hitherto known sections, the Toshan loess-soil sequence (LPS) represents a key site due to the quality of the record and the multitude of available data giving detailed insights into the timing and magnitude of dust accumulation and soil formation of the region. To elucidate these dynamics for much of the past 130.000 years bulk mineralogical and geochemical data are presented supplemented by a high resolution magnetic susceptibility record and by the results of a detailed micromorphological study of loess at Toshan. The last interglacial Luvisol/Phaeozem-like (∼MIS 5e) and the early glacial interstadial steppic palaeosols (∼MIS 5 c and a) are characterized by gradually increasing grain-size and decreasing degrees in decomposition of micaceous and mafic minerals. Pronounced feldspar weathering is detected in the last interglacial and modern soils only, which formed under reduced or absent dust deposition on penultimate and last glacial loess, respectively (postsedimentary). The overall pedosedimentary conditions correspond to large scale trends of increasing drought, dust accumulation and wind strength in southern Eurasia in relation to decreasing moisture availability towards the early Pleniglacial (∼MIS 4), causing soil formation under ongoing dust deposition (synsedimentary). Similar intervals of synsedimentary soil formation are recorded during the interglacial/interstadial-stadial transitions of the early glacial and during pleniglacial (∼MIS 4 to 2) interstadials. The latter are marked by gradual increases in magnetic

  12. Search for the exotic $\\Theta^+$ resonance in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylov, O; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R; Chukanov, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; De Santo, A; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; Di Lella, L; Dignan, T; Do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gosset, J; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gössling, C; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C; Juget, F; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Linssen, L; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V; Lévy, J M; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, M; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Méchain, X; Naumov, D; Nefedov, Yu; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nédélec, P; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A; Touchard, A M; Tovey, S N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V; Vannucci, F; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2007-01-01

    A search for exotic Theta baryon via Theta -> proton +Ks decay mode in the NOMAD muon neutrino DIS data is reported. The special background generation procedure was developed. The proton identification criteria are tuned to maximize the sensitivity to the Theta signal as a function of xF which allows to study the Theta production mechanism. We do not observe any evidence for the Theta state in the NOMAD data. We provide an upper limit on Theta production rate at 90% CL as 2.13 per 1000 of neutrino interactions.

  13. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Feridoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year. This system performs the forcing in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, dominates the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  15. Anatomical Variations of the Biliary Tree Found with Endoscopic Retrograde Cholagiopancreatography in a Referral Center in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Niknam, Ramin; Alavi, Seyed Ehsan; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND Anatomical variations in the biliary system have been proven to be of clinical importance. Awareness of the pattern of these variations in a specific population may help to prevent and manage biliary injuries during surgical and endoscopic procedures. Knowledge of the biliary anatomy will be also of great help in planning the drainage of adequate percentage of liver parenchyma in endoscopic or radiological procedures. METHODS All consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from April 2013 to April 2015 at Nemazee Hospital, a referral center in the south of Iran, were included in this cross-sectional study. The patients with previous hepatic or biliary surgery, liver injury or destructive biliary disease were excluded from the study. All ERCPs were reviewed by two expert gastroenterologists in this field. The disagreed images by the two gastroenterologists were excluded. Huang classification was used for categorizing the different structural variants of the biliary tree, and the frequency of each variant was recorded. RESULTS Totally, 362 patients (181 men and 181 women) were included in the study. 163 patients (45%) had type A1 Huang classification (right dominant), which was the most prevalent type among our patients. 55% of them had non-right dominant anatomy. The result of the Chi-square test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the men and women regarding the anatomical variations (p = 0.413). CONCLUSION The anatomical variation in the biliary system among Iranian patients is comparable to other regions of the world. Significant proportions of our patients are non-right dominant and may need bilateral biliary drainage.

  16. Environmental education for survival: the use of radio among nomads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Unesco/UNEP project using radio as a medium of environmental education among nomads is described and evaluated. The project, conducted among the Rendille of northern Kenya, aimed inter alia at creating awareness of environmental problems, specifically desertification, fostering positive attitudes towards ...

  17. An Interview with Cynthia L. Selfe: "Nomadic Feminist Cyborg Guerilla."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of Cynthia Selfe's philosophy concerning virtual landscapes as discursive spaces. Defines the "nomadic feminist cyborg guerilla" as a kind of English teacher-activist who uses computer technology as a medium for effecting political and educational change and for extending democracy. (NH)

  18. Designing Pervasive Computing Technology - In a Nomadic Work Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis

    2002-01-01

    In my thesis work I am investigating how the design of pervasive/ubiquitous computing technology, relate to the flexible and individual work practice of nomadic workers. Through empirical studies and with an experimental systems development approach, the work is focused on: a) Supporting...

  19. Mobile Performance and Nomadic Theory : Staging Movement, Thinking Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Nibbelink, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses the nomadic not so much in terms of mobile existence or physical displacement, but primarily in connection with the concept as a type of movement that disturbs the notion of territory, and that is intrinsically related to processes of deterritorialization and

  20. Radio listening habits of pupils of Nomadic Pastoralists and Migrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to integrate Nigeria with other nations in the world that have achieved landmark results in Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) innovation necessitated this study on radio listening habits of pupils of nomadic pastoralists and migrant fisherfolks in Nigeria. The study was carried out in four pastoralists' states of Borno, ...

  1. A magnet takes a nomadic journey to Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A CERN magnet originally built for the UA1 detector and later used by the NOMAD experiment has just set sail for a new life in Japan. Spotlight on an incredible voyage by land and sea. See the video at the end of the article!

  2. The demographic implications of nomadic herdsmen and farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the demographic implications resulting from nomadic herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria. Relevant published texts across the country and the Malthusian theory provided the leverage for the study. It revealed that the Nigeria's population is dynamic and growing at a very rapid rate compared to ...

  3. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  4. environmental education for survival: the use of radio among nomads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ally desertification, fostering positive attitudes towards con- servation of resources ... life is however changing for the Rend ill e, as it is for other nomadic ... In recent years two changes in particular have been ... scientific basis for the rehabilitation and rational ... and so on~ In this manner, a message may travel 30 kilometers ...

  5. Nutritional Status and Its Related Factors among 6-24 Month-Old Children Referring to Health Care Centers in Arsanjan City, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Faghih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that children are major part of most populations and also considering the fact that childhood nutrition affects the health status in adulthood, we aimed to assess the nutritional status and its related factors among 6-24-month-old children referring to health care centers in Arsanjan city, southern Iran, in 2011. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 310 children aged 6-24 months. Weight and height were measured and data regarding demographic status, type of feeding, and birth order, were gathered by face to face interview with mothers of the children. Exact age of the children was recorded according to their birth certificate. Z-scores of weight and height were calculated using Epi-info software. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. Results: 27.2% of the studied children were mildly underweight, 2-6% were moderately underweight, and 0.3% were severely underweight. Also 15.6%, 1.6%, and 0.3% had mild, moderate, and severe stunting, respectively. According to weight for age index 7.4% were mildly overweight and 1.6% were moderately overweight. The prevalence of underweight was significantly more among 6-month-old children compared with the older children (P=0.019. There were no correlations between underweight and stunting and parents’ education or breast feeding. Conclusion: Our results indicated that although the prevalence of malnutrition is less than previous decade, it is still substantial. On the other hand it seems that the prevalence of overweight among children younger than 2 years is increasing. As childhood obesity is a risk factor for adulthood obesity and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, prevention of obesity among children is of importance.

  6. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  7. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  8. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    The Neo-Tethyan basin closure in Iran is characterized by the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), formed by north-eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust during the Alpine orogeny. This belt also coincides with the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran, which hosts many porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (PCDs) and prospects, such as Sungun (NW Iran) and Sarcheshmeh (central Iran). The Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (PMD) is the first discovered porphyry molybdenum deposit on this belt, which is located 10 km west of Mianeh (NW Iran), with 39.2 Mt proved reserves @ 539 ppm Mo and 66.4 Mt probable reserves @ 266 ppm Mo. The host porphyry stock has quartz-monzonitic composition, which intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age. Re content of molybdenites is about 10.44-41.05 ppm which, considering the several tens of ppm concentration, is comparable with porphyry Mo deposits (e.g., Climax in USA), being clearly distinguished from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from this PMD has given model ages between 28.1±0.15 to 29.06±0.2 Ma, and isochron age of 28.0±2.1 Ma, corresponding to the middle Oligocene (upper part of Rupelian). Comparing the ages determined for Siah Kamar PMD with porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Lesser Caucasus indicates that it is younger than most of the dated PCDs and prospects there, especially those of upper Eocene, while it is a little older than Paragachay and first-stage Kadjaran PCDs [1]. In a regional scale of NW Iran, it shows a narrow overlap with vein-type Cu-Mo-Au mineralizations in Qarachilar (Qaradagh batholith) and is nearly coeval with Haftcheshmeh PCD, indicating that mineralization in the Siah Kamar PMD corresponds to the second porphyry mineralization epoch in NW Iran, proposed by [2]. Meanwhile, mineralization in Siah Kamar is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations along the central and SE parts of the UDMA, except the Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone, which nearly

  9. Psychological Factors of Innovativeness among Nomadic Micro-Entrepreneurs for Achieving Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.

  10. A new deployable structure for the nomad art

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Y; ZHANG, Q

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a project of the international archtecture and structure competition preparing the annual conference of the IASS 2004 at Montpellier in France. A new kind of depolyable structure is designed to fit the requirements of the nomad art. With a poetical implication and a good assemblage and dismantling, this deployable structure needs an ordered construction procedure. During structure analysis, two phases have been distinguished : the construction phase and the working phase. ...

  11. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  12. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  13. FORMELE DE TURISM PRACTICATE ÎN CADRUL TURISMULUI NOMAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina CAVCALIUC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La nivel mondial există multe forme turistice, aferente turismului nomad, dezvoltate independent sau complementar care promovează toleranţa şi înţelegerea turistică. Aceste forme apar ca rezultat al individualizării serviciilor turistice, determinate atât de motivaţiile, cât şi de comportamentul diferit al turiştilor faţă de fiecare component al produsului turistic oferit. O asemenea individualizare devine tot mai obiectivă, reclamând eforturi considerabile de adaptare a ofertei turistice la cererea actuală şi la cea potenţială. FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE NOMAD TOURISMThere are many forms of tourism related to grey nomad tourism, developed independently or complementary, in order to promote tourism tolerance and understanding. These forms appear as a result of personalization of tourism services, determined by different motivations and tourist behavior to each element of tourism product. Such individualization of tourism products is becoming more objective in order to adjust efforts of tourism supply to the potential demand. 

  14. Study of dimuons in Nomad experience at the CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns the study of the production of the first dimuons events in the NOMAD experience (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector). This study is necessary to improve our knowledge about the charmed quark and allows to secure ourselves about the well functioning of our detector and about the reliability of our analysis tools. The two first chapters concern the understanding of physical phenomenons. The physic of neutrinos is described, known and unknown, with a lot of open questions. The second chapter, more specially, gives a theoretical and experimental look concerning the production of dimuons by the neutrinos; the chapter three is devoted to the presentation of the NOMAD detector and its characteristics. The chapter number four concerns the method used by the NOMAD collaboration (drift chambers and their functioning); the chapter five is devoted to the muons identification; the data selection is described at the chapter six; a first preliminary oscillation analysis is studied in the chapter seven; the conclusion ends on questions to deepen the entered upon studies in this thesis. (N.C.). 78 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs

  15. Prediction of Neutrino Fluxes in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T.M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.

    2003-01-01

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for nu(mu) and nu(e), 10% for antinu(mu), and 12% for antinu(e). The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the R(e, mu) prediction needed for a nu(mu)->nu(e) oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  16. Study of dimuons in Nomad experience at the CERN; Etude des dimuons dans l`experience Nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, M K

    1996-06-04

    This thesis concerns the study of the production of the first dimuons events in the NOMAD experience (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector). This study is necessary to improve our knowledge about the charmed quark and allows to secure ourselves about the well functioning of our detector and about the reliability of our analysis tools. The two first chapters concern the understanding of physical phenomenons. The physic of neutrinos is described, known and unknown, with a lot of open questions. The second chapter, more specially, gives a theoretical and experimental look concerning the production of dimuons by the neutrinos; the chapter three is devoted to the presentation of the NOMAD detector and its characteristics. The chapter number four concerns the method used by the NOMAD collaboration (drift chambers and their functioning); the chapter five is devoted to the muons identification; the data selection is described at the chapter six; a first preliminary oscillation analysis is studied in the chapter seven; the conclusion ends on questions to deepen the entered upon studies in this thesis. (N.C.). 78 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    the Central Bank assets discussed above could be used to pay the terrorism judgements —a decision that resulted in Iranian threats to sue the United...legislation that might affect Iran’s behavior might also be inconsistent with the JCPOA. See also CRS Report R43333, Iran Nuclear Agreement, by Kenneth...against Iran have multiple objectives and address multiple perceived threats from Iran simultaneously. This report analyzes U.S. and international

  18. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Mars Co. (candy manufacturer); Kraft Foods; Wrigley’s (gum); and McCormick and Co. ( spices ). Some previously licensed U.S. goods have been sold through...that deliveries had begun. India India is implementing international sanctions against Iran but its cultural , economic, and historic ties—as well...September 2012. • Barring Iran from International Sporting Events. A further option is to limit sports or cultural exchanges with Iran, such as

  19. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S...the Treasury Department, saw business opportunity by picking up the transactions business from a competitor who had, in accordance with U.S...and South Korea announced that their automakers Toyota , Hyundai, and Kia Motors would cease selling automobiles to Iran. • Attorneys for BNP

  20. Forum on Flexible Education. Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alba

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the Forum on Flexible Education: Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa, which was held in Garissa, Kenya, from 20-23 June 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to share experiences and best practices, create linkages and encourage collaboration in order to make education more accessible to nomadic communities.…

  1. 77 FR 37730 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7928] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan...

  2. 77 FR 7229 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7794] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan...

  3. Concept of digital nomad: fundamental risks of digital economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lyudvigovna Iakovleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the key risks of the digital economy development. Methods abstractlogical and dialectical methods. Results a modern individual cannot imagine their life without digital devices which facilitate their functioning and enable them to be included into the virtual space. The role of digital economy in the changes in all spheres of human life is analyzed in the article. With the growing role of the digital economy the approaches to business models formation are changing as well as the role of digital assets. This also leads to the transformation of human behavior the new risks of the digital economy accelerated development. In this regard the article characterizes an individual as a digital nomad defines the features of their behavior in the socioeconomic environment and highlights the main risks that arise in connection with digital nomadism. It is determined that one of the most characteristic features of a modern person is hypermobility eparkourism. In addition the paper describes the problems of anonymity in virtual space and the emergence of systems that provide anonymity of the individual as well as the risks arising in connection with that. The problem of lack of culture and value systems in the virtual space is highlighted as well the problem of developing contradictions in information leading to the alienation of people from the real world. It was determined that the informatization of economy on the one hand leads to faster business processes reduced transaction costs saving of variable costs due to robotization of production and on the other hand it leads to the transformation of competition growth of tension in society in connection with the job cuts. Another problem is personal and national security associated with the development of social networks the developers of which are other countries and also with the emergence of mechanisms of influence on mass consciousness. Scientific novelty it is shown that the risks

  4. Long-term relationship between climate change and nomadic migration in historical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between a 2000-year history of nomadic migration and climate change in historical China. By using updated data and statistical methods, the study solved several unanswered questions from past research about the relationship between climate change and the nomadic migration, especially over the long term and on a large spatial scale. The study used correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and Granger causality analysis to quantitatively verify the following causal pathway: climate change â†' nomadic migration â†' conflicts between pastoralists and agriculturalists. In the long term, precipitation was a statistically more influential factor on nomadic migration than temperature in historical China. How climate change affects the migration of nomadic minorities in the long term is theoretically explained based on the Push-Pull model as well as statistical evidence.

  5. Disco’s Revenge: House Music’s Nomadic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillegonda C. Rietveld

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of house music as a nomadic archival institution, constituted by the musical history of disco, invigorating this dance genre by embracing new production technologies and keeping disco alive through a rhizomic assemblage of its affective memory in the third record of the DJ mix. This exploration will be illustrated through a close analysis of a specific DJ set by a Chicago house music producer, Larry Heard, in the setting of Rotterdam, 2007, in which American house music is recontextualised. Refining the analysis through close attention to one of the tracks played during that particular set, Grand High Priest’s 2006 “Mary Mary”, the analysis shows how DJ and music production practices intertwine to produce a plurality of unstable cultural and musical connections that are temporarily anchored within specific DJ sets. The conceptual framework draws on the work of Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as Baudrillard’s sense of seduction, with the aim to introduce a fluid notion of mediated nomadic cultural memory, a type of counter-memory, enabled by the third record and thereby to playfully re-imagine the dynamic function of a music archive. Keywords: house music, DJ practices, third record, cultural memory, nomadology

  6. Radiation exposure with the NOMAD portable X-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, A D; Bonvento, M; Biernacki, J; Colosi, D C

    2008-02-01

    A new hand-held battery-operated portable X-ray system was tested for possible leakage radiation through the existing heavy metal compounds surrounding the X-ray tube, backscatter radiation through the lead-filled acrylic shield attached at the end of the exit tube and patient exposure. Dose measurements were conducted using a DXTRR phantom and a water phantom. All measurements were recorded using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), calibrated Unfors Model 583L dosemeter, and a calibrated Radcal MDH model 1015 dosemeter. The settings for all exposure were 60 kVp, 2.3 mA and 0.25 s using Kodak Insight (Class F) film. All backscatter measurements, in front of the shield, behind the shield, at the finger of the operator, the operator's chest, eyes and gonads were significantly below the maximum permissible radiation leakage as per the United States Food and Drug Administration regulations (100 mR h(-1)). Our measurements indicate that the exposure would be well within the occupational maximum permissible dose for an occupationally exposed person. Film dose was consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. As a result of our measurements, the State of New York Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection granted us a variance to use the NOMAD on a case-by-case basis. Our data have shown that the NOMAD presents risks that are no greater than with standard dental radiographic units to the patient or operator and the measured doses are well below recommended levels.

  7. Nomad devices for interactions in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Kemeny, Andras; Merienne, Frédéric; Chardonnet, Jean-Rémy; Thouvenin, Indira Mouttapa; Posselt, Javier; Icart, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Renault is currently setting up a new CAVE™, a 5 rear-projected wall virtual reality room with a combined 3D resolution of 100 Mpixels, distributed over sixteen 4k projectors and two 2k projector as well as an additional 3D HD collaborative powerwall. Renault's CAVE™ aims at answering needs of the various vehicle conception steps [1]. Starting from vehicle Design, through the subsequent Engineering steps, Ergonomic evaluation and perceived quality control, Renault has built up a list of use-cases and carried out an early software evaluation in the four sided CAVE™ of Institute Image, called MOVE. One goal of the project is to study interactions in a CAVE™, especially with nomad devices such as IPhone or IPad to manipulate virtual objects and to develop visualization possibilities. Inspired by nomad devices current uses (multi-touch gestures, IPhone UI look'n'feel and AR applications), we have implemented an early feature set taking advantage of these popular input devices. In this paper, we present its performance through measurement data collected in our test platform, a 4-sided homemade low-cost virtual reality room, powered by ultra-short-range and standard HD home projectors.

  8. Geopolitics. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters

  9. Geopolitics. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-09-15

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters.

  10. Nomadity beyond contemporaneity: Prelude to the indisciplinary rigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muoz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When addressing notions of nomadism in relation to knowledge production, it seems unavoidable to delve upon Gilles Deleuze’s Treatise on Nomadology as a triggering potential unfolding. Through his treatise, Deleuze underlines the flow sustained by the unsettled distinctions between strategy (generally attributed to the mechanisms of royal knowledges, in conflictual opposition to the tactics (as the productive tool pertaining to those subordinated categories of knowledge. His proposition unfolds by a manifested distinction —a becoming, that emerges outside the limits of these relations. The body of a war machine in antagonist relation to the State Apparatus, a constantly contested processes of territorialization and deterritorialization. Complementing this argument from what has become a returning historical materialist position, could be said that the borders between knowledges, and discourses of categorization (noology that distinguish hierarchies between “free”, “pure” and “applied” knowledges; are based on attributing a position of centrality to the State or other institutionalised monopolies. A simulacrum violently imposed, serving the regulation of flows between exchanges in order to capitalize knowledges’ creative potentials, to govern their productive and reproductive capacities, and speculative tendencies. Through the configurations that shape these particular conflicts, is where the actuality of knowledge seems to acquire its disciplinary character, together with its financial possibility. Even to the point of been mistakenly rendered as an unavoidable dependency; turning attributions of centrality into a paradoxical situation, or —in the most critical cases, an infrastructural horizon. The necessity for a continuous fight against renewed forms of coloniality, the persistent recovery of what belongs to collectivity (what can not be divided, the exercise of practical means to keep oneself alert, and the cultivation of

  11. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  12. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  13. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  14. Foreword of Special Issue on “Nomadic Services and Applications”

    OpenAIRE

    Jason C. Hung

    2011-01-01

    Nomadic Service has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm that offers a challenging model of cyber-physical services and poses fascinating problems regarding distributed resource management, ranging from information sharing to cooperative computing. This special issue is intended to foster state-of-the-art research in the area of nomadic services and related applications, cloud computing technologies and services, including the topics of collaboration environment, implementation and exe...

  15. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Control does not place a valuation on such real estate holdings, but public sources assess these assets at a value of about $500 million. There have...Development in Iran Completed,” Total/ Bow Valley (Canada)/ENI $300 million 40,000 bpd 97 Khajehpour

  16. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Quantity and Quality of Sleep Among Elderly People Referring to Health Centers of Lar City, Southern of Iran; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Seddigh, Maryam; Jahanbin, Iran; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep. 50% of senior citizens living in the community and 70% of those living in nursing homes suffer from sleep disorders. Moreover, insomnia increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in older adults. We aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on quantity and quality of sleep among the elderly people referring to health centers of Lar city, southern Iran. We enrolled 60 elderly people whose age range was 60-75 years and (mean ±SD) age was (64.8±5.2). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 each (case group= 30 and control group=30). The patients in the case group participated in exercise trainings consisted of three one-hour sessions per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Sleep quantity and quantity in the participants was evaluated before and after intervention using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Independent t-test showed that sleep quality score was improved by 44.46% in the case group (pelderly. It could also be used as a cost effective and long lasting method of therapy with no side effect which could be used for the treatment of insomnia in older people.

  17. NOMAD: a nodal microscopic analysis method for nuclear fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed assembly homogenization techniques made possible very efficient global burnup calculations based on modern nodal methods. There are two possible ways of modeling the global depletion process: macroscopic and microscopic depletion models. Using a microscopic global depletion approach NOMAD (NOdal Microscopic Analysis Method for Nuclear Fuel Depletion), a multigroup, two- and three-dimensional, multicycle depletion code was devised. The code uses the ILLICO nodal diffusion model. The formalism of the ILLICO methodology is extended to treat changes in the macroscopic cross sections during a depletion cycle without recomputing the coupling coefficients. This results in a computationally very efficient method. The code was tested against a well-known depletion benchmark problem. In this problem a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor is depleted through two cycles. Both cycles were run with 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 nodes per assembly. It is obvious that the one node per assembly solution gives unacceptable results while the 2 x 2 solution gives relative power errors consistently below 2%

  18. The SPS Target Station for CHORUS and NOMAD Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S; Zazula, J M

    1996-01-01

    A new SPS target station, T9, has been constructed for the CHORUS and NOMAD neutrino experiments at CERN. The heart of the station is the target box : 11 beryllium rods are aligned in a cast aluminium box ; they are cooled by a closed circuit helium gas with adjusted flow to each rod. The box is motorised horizontally and vertically at both ends, to remotely optimise the secondary particle production by aligning the target with the incident proton beam. Radiation protection around the station is guaranteed by more than 100 tons of shielding material (iron, copper, marble). This presentation describes briefly the various components of the target station ; it emphasises particularly the thermal and mechanical calculations which define a safe maximum beam intensity on the beryllium rods. Over the first two years of successful operation, the station has received more than 2€1019 protons at 450 GeV/c, with intensity peaks of 2.8€1013 protons per machine cycle.

  19. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  20. A Wideband Channel Model for Intravehicular Nomadic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bellens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electronic entertainment equipments within vehicles has rendered the idea of replacing the wired links with intra-vehicle personal area networks. Ultra-wideband (UWB seems an appropriate candidate technology to meet the required data rates for interconnecting such devices. In particular, the multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM is able to provide very high transfer rates (up to 480 MBps over relatively short distances and low transmit power. In order to evaluate the performances of UWB systems within vehicles, a reliable channel model is needed. In this paper, a nomadic system where a base station placed in the center of the dashboard wants to communicate with fixed devices placed at the rear seat is investigated. A single-input single-output (SISO channel model for intra-vehicular communication (IVC systems is proposed, based on reverberation chamber theory. The model is based on measurements conducted in real traffic conditions, with a varying number of passengers in the car. Temporal variations of the wireless channels are also characterized and parametrized. The proposed model is validated by comparing model-independent statistics with the measurements.

  1. Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

    2007-09-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin.

  2. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Taheri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical

  3. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Laleh; Chahian, Golshan

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical comparison of children

  4. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Transshipment and Brokering. The ITRs prohibit U.S. transshipment of goods across Iran and ban any activities by U.S. persons to broker commercial ...accordance with the JCPOA, the United States has relaxed restrictions on sales of parts for commercial aircraft and licensing of sales of whole commercial ...tuition payments for Iranian students abroad (paid directly to the educational institutions). The waiver of Section 1245(d)(1) of IFCA allowed those

  5. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    from the international banking system , caused a sharp drop in the value of Iran’s currency, the rial; raised inflation to over 50%; and cut off...Congressional Research Service 8 international banking system . Prior to September 2013, all NGOs that sought to perform relief efforts in Iran... barter arrangements with neighboring countries, virtually all of Iran’s oil exports flow through the Strait of Hormuz, which carries about one-third of

  6. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    general license. The list was expanded in July and November 2013 to include electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, dialysis machines, MRI ...accept India’s local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its oil sales to India, which Iran mostly used to buy Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals , rice...services for hydroelectric, oil, and gas services. However, GE subsidiary sales of medical diagnostic products such as MRI machines, marketed through

  7. Health Risk Assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in Drinking Water in some Wells and Springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current study,the hazard quotient, the hazard index (HI and spatial variations of Fe,Mn,Cu and Cr in drinking water sources of Andimesk-Shush, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iranaquifer were assessed. Methods: We compared theconcentrations of aforementioned heavy metals in wells and springs inAndimeshk and Shush regions. The non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals was implemented usingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA index.The spatial maps in the area were developed by geostatistical methods. Results: Mean concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater sources of the study area in decreasing order was as follows: Cu >Mn> Fe> Cr. Except for iron,mean heavy metal concentrations were higher than the standard levels. Manganese concentration in 41.5% of the samples exceeded the permissible limits. Copper was higher than the safety limit in 74% of the samples, and chromium in 54% of the cases. The spatial pattern of heavy metals concentrations indicated higher concentrations in the southern parts of the region. The mean hazard quotients of most samples for the four heavy metals were lower than one, indicating that there was no immediate threat due to the exposure to these heavy metals. The calculated accumulated hazards of these heavy metals produced different results, with hazard indices of higher than one. Conclusion: The accumulated hazard indicesfor the evaluated metals were higher than one, indicating that chronic ingestion of these waters threatens the health of local consumers on the long run.

  8. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  9. Species Composition of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Main Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Azizi, Kourosh; Aghaei Afshar, Abbas; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Fekri, Sajjad; Safari, Reza

    2018-02-28

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main neglected vector-borne diseases in the Middle East, including Iran. This study aimed to map the spatial distribution and species composition of sand flies in Hormozgan Province and to predict the best ecological niches for main CL vectors in this area. A database that included all earlier studies on sand flies in Hormozgan Province was established. Sand flies were also collected from some localities across the province. Prediction maps for main vectors were developed using MaxEnt model. A total of 27 sand fly species were reported from the study area. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Parrot, Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, Sergentomyia sintoni Pringle, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, Sergentomyia tiberiadis Adler, and Sergentomyia baghdadis Adler (Diptera: Psychodidae) had the widest distribution range. The probability of their presence as the main vectors of CL was calculated to be 0.0003-0.9410 and 0.0031-0.8880 for P. papatasi and P. sergenti s.l., respectively. The best ecological niches for P. papatasi were found in the central south, southeast, and a narrow area in southwest, whereas central south to northern area had better niches for P. sergenti s.l. The endemic areas are in Bandar-e Jask, where transmission occurs, whereas in Bastak, the cases were imported from endemic foci of Fars province. In conclusion, proven and suspected vectors of CL and VL were recorded in this study. Due to the existence of endemic foci of CL, and favorite ecological niches for its vectors, there is potential risk of emerging CL in new areas.

  10. Association between opium use and metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Southern Iran: Results of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factor Study (KERCADRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid; Eslami, Mahmood; Salehi, Farank

    2015-01-01

    Along with the established effects of opium on metabolic parameters, stimulatory or inhibitory effects of opium on metabolic syndrome are also predictable. This study aimed to examine the association of opium use with metabolic syndrome and its components. This study was conducted on 5332 out of 5900 original sample participants enrolled in a population-based cohort entitled the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study in Iran from 2009 to 2011. The subjects were divided into three groups of "non-opium users" (NOUs = 4340 subjects), "former opium users" (FOUs = 176 subjects), and dependent and occasional people named "current opium users" (COUs = 811 subjects). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to two International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) definition criteria. The overall prevalence of IDF defined-metabolic syndrome among NOUs, FOUs, and COUs was 36.4%, 27.3%, and 39.0%, respectively; which was significantly higher in the COUs group (P = 0.012). However, no significant difference was revealed across the three groups in prevalence of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome (NOUs = 37.2%, FOUs = 30.1%, and COUs = 39.6%, P = 0.058). The odds for IDF defined-metabolic syndrome was higher in both COUs [odd ratio (OR) = 1.28, P = 0.028)] and FOUs (OR = 1.57, P = 0.045) compared with NOUs as the reference adjusting gender, age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. However, the appearance of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome could not be predicted by opium use. Opium use can be associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and thus preventing the appearance of metabolic syndrome by avoiding opium use can be a certain approach to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  11. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  12. Association between opium use and metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Southern Iran: Results of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factor Study (KERCADRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Yousefzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Along with the established effects of opium on metabolic parameters, stimulatory or inhibitory effects of opium on metabolic syndrome are also predictable. This study aimed to examine the association of opium use with metabolic syndrome and its components. METHODS: This study was conducted on 5332 out of 5900 original sample participants enrolled in a population-based cohort entitled the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study in Iran from 2009 to 2011. The subjects were divided into three groups of “non-opium users” (NOUs = 4340 subjects, “former opium users” (FOUs = 176 subjects, and dependent and occasional people named “current opium users” (COUs = 811 subjects. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to two International Diabetes Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IDF defined-metabolic syndrome among NOUs, FOUs, and COUs was 36.4%, 27.3%, and 39.0%, respectively; which was significantly higher in the COUs group (P = 0.012. However, no significant difference was revealed across the three groups in prevalence of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome (NOUs = 37.2%, FOUs = 30.1%, and COUs = 39.6%, P = 0.058. The odds for IDF defined-metabolic syndrome was higher in both COUs [odd ratio (OR = 1.28, P = 0.028] and FOUs (OR = 1.57, P = 0.045 compared with NOUs as the reference adjusting gender, age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. However, the appearance of NCEP defined-metabolic syndrome could not be predicted by opium use. CONCLUSION: Opium use can be associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and thus preventing the appearance of metabolic syndrome by avoiding opium use can be a certain approach to preventing cardiovascular disease.   

  13. Search for νμ→νe oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperov, A.

    2000-06-01

    The NOMAD experiment is looking for ν μ →ν τ and ν→ν e oscillations in a predominantly ν μ beam at the CERN SPS. Neutrino oscillations are closely related with the existence of non-zero neutrino mass and mixing between different flavours. This document describes the search for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample accumulated during four years of data-taking (1995-98). The search for ν e appearance was performed by studying the charged current (CC) interactions with in the NOMAD detector. The selection of ν e CC and ν μ interactions with the help of different particle identification algorithms, as well as using the event kinematic criteria, is described here in detail. We show that the NOMAD experiment is sensitive to the LSND allowed region of oscillation parameters with the squared mass difference larger than 10 eV 2 /C 4 . An upper limit on the probability of ν μ →ν e oscillations, based on a fraction of the NOMAD data, is given. (author)

  14. Rediscovery of Acorus calamus (Acoraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gholipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acorus calamus has already been reported based on a single specimen collected from Guilan province. Yet, this species has not been reported during last 50 years in Iran and thus, its herbarium specimen is not available. A sample of the species was collected from southern area of Sari during a study on aquatic plants of Mazandaran province. According to the new finding, the natural occurrence of the species was confirmed in Iran. Complementary botanical description, photographs of plant habitat and distribution map of the species were presented. Although, according to the Flora Iranica and Flora of Iran Acorus was considered as a genus of Araceae the recent phylogenetic study considered its taxonomic position in Acoraceae as a distinct family. Therefore, Acoraceae is introduced as a new family to the Flora of Iran with a single representative i. e. Acorus calamus.

  15. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  16. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  17. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  18. Almajiri education: Policy and practice to meet the learning needs of the nomadic population in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Sunday Olawale

    2018-02-01

    This article explores the provision of education opportunities to a disadvantaged group in Nigeria known as Almajiris. The word Almajiri derives from the Arabic word Almuhajirun, meaning emigrant. The nomadic pastoralists of northern Nigeria constitute a major socio-economic group. According to a recent report released by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Almajiris own more than 90 per cent of Nigeria's estimated 15.3 million heads of cattle. Beef from their herds constitutes over 45 per cent of the animal protein consumed by Nigerians. However, despite the Almajiris' immense contributions to the economy of Nigeria, these nomads are highly disadvantaged in terms of access to education. To respond to the educational needs of this group, the Nigerian government established the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989 to coordinate programmes aimed at improving the lives and livelihood of the Almajiris. This article examines the strategies employed by the NCNE towards making education accessible to nomads. It also highlights some of the challenges facing the Almajiris, and suggests remedies to prioritise education for this and other disadvantaged groups.

  19. A Measurement of Coherent Neutral Pion Production in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kullenberg, C T

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of exclusive neutral pion production in neutrino-nucleus Neutral Current interactions using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS. The data correspond to $1.44 \\times 10^6$ muon-neutrino Charged Current interactions in the energy range $2.5 \\leq E_{\

  20. Becoming Artist, Becoming Educated, Becoming Undone: Toward a Nomadic Perspective of College Student Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Keefe, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I place my ethnographic project among undergraduate university art students and their professor in dialog with Rosi Braidotti's figuration of the nomadic subject and her reflections on the importance of creating theoretical alternatives for mapping the embedded and embodied social positions that we inhabit. As educational…

  1. South Asian Nomads--A Literature Review. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This review of literature on South Asian nomads is part of a series of monographs on educational access published by the Consortium for Research on Educational Access Transitions and Equity (CREATE). In the context of India, most recent work has focused on access to the education system for the poor. CREATE research in India has focused on …

  2. Robotic health assistant (Feverkit) for the rational management of fevers among nomads in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akogun, Oladele

    2011-06-01

    The innovation described in this paper was motivated by concern that in Africa, parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs is associated with irrational drug use where health facilities are inaccessible. However, advancement in digital technology, simple diagnostic devices and smart drug packaging inspire innovative strategies. The combination of communication technology, rapid diagnostic tools, and antibiotic and antimalarial medicines can increase access to evidence-based malaria management, reduce mortality and slow the development of resistance to drugs. The author initiated development of a solar-powered device (Feverkit) programmed with user-interactive capabilities and equipped with a detachable laboratory and dispensary for community management of fevers. The operational performance of 10 units of the device was evaluated among 20 nomadic Fulani communities in northeastern Nigeria. A brief introduction to its parts and functions was sufficient for community-selected nomadic caregivers to use it competently for managing 207 fever cases in eight weeks, with a 97% (p=.000) recovery rate. The Feverkit guided the nomads to distinguish between malaria and non-malaria-induced fevers, and thus selectively treat them. Camp communities accepted the device and were willing to pay between US$33 and $334 (mean, $113; mode, $67) to keep it. Public-private sector collaboration is essential for sustaining and scaling up production of the Feverkit as a commercial health device for the management of fevers among nomads.

  3. Provision of Education to the "Hard to Reach" amidst Discontinuity in Nomadic Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiro, Laban P.; Sang, James K.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores why nomadic children in the counties of Turkana and West Pokot are left behind in the primary education process despite free primary education (FPE), and considers the variables that contribute to high dropout rates, low enrollment, poor attendance, and unsatisfactory academic achievement with a view of bringing out possible…

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Bendif, Hamdi; Ait Hammou, Mohammed; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2018-06-12

    This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts. Through this, the study strives to evaluate processes of transmission of knowledge among this population, for whom written sources have been largely unavailable. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out during two years (2015-2017). In total, 73 informants from nomadic populations were interviewed in several steppe regions including areas in the administrative departments of Tiaret, Saida, Naama, Djelfa and M'sila. Structured interviews about medicinal plant knowledge were combined with guided tours with the informants. Prior informed consent was always obtained. The surveys allowed for the collection of sociodemographic data and traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses. Informant Consensus Factor (F IC ) was calculated to evaluate agreement among informants. Results were compared to existing literature to evaluate similarities between this nomadic medicinal flora, that of neighbouring communities and historical texts and identify new plant citations and uses. Among Algerian nomadic communities, herbal remedies are used mostly by women and elders, who are often illiterate. We identified 97 taxa of medicinal plants belonging to 42 botanical families, importantly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae, like in neighbouring communities. The most common plant parts and method of preparation are also shared with neighbouring populations. New uses are described for 25

  5. Applications For Real Time NOMADS At NCEP To Disseminate NOAA's Operational Model Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.; Rutledge, G.

    2007-05-01

    A wide range of environmental information, in digital form, with metadata descriptions and supporting infrastructure is contained in the NOAA Operational Modeling Archive Distribution System (NOMADS) and its Real Time (RT) project prototype at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). NOMADS is now delivering on its goal of a seamless framework, from archival to real time data dissemination for NOAA's operational model data holdings. A process is under way to make NOMADS part of NCEP's operational production of products. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development. In the National Research Council's "Completing the Forecast", Recommendation 3.4 states: "NOMADS should be maintained and extended to include (a) long-term archives of the global and regional ensemble forecasting systems at their native resolution, and (b) re-forecast datasets to facilitate post-processing." As one of many participants of NOMADS, NCEP serves the operational model data base using data application protocol (Open-DAP) and other services for participants to serve their data sets and users to obtain them. Using the NCEP global ensemble data as an example, we show an Open-DAP (also known as DODS) client application that provides a request-and-fulfill mechanism for access to the complex ensemble matrix of holdings. As an example of the DAP service, we show a client application which accesses the Global or Regional Ensemble data set to produce user selected weather element event probabilities. The event probabilities are easily extended over model forecast time to show probability histograms defining the future trend of user selected events. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit only the data necessary for their tasks. Data sets are served by OPeN-DAP allowing commercial clients such as MATLAB or IDL as well as freeware clients

  6. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Barnes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection.Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle.The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a animal contact, b food preparation and diet, and c household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat.Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate

  7. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  8. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran and Kermanshah (western Iran provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  9. Cyclostratigraphy across a Mississippian carbonate ramp in the Esfahan-Sirjan Basin, Iran: implications for the amplitudes and frequencies of sea-level fluctuations along the southern margin of the Paleotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet-Goll, Aram; Esfahani, Fariba Shirezadeh; Daraei, Mehdi; Monaco, Paolo; Sharafi, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Amir Akbari

    2018-03-01

    The Tournaisian-Visean carbonate successions of the Esfahan-Sirjan Basin (ESB) from Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran, have been used to generate a sequence stratigraphic model that enhances facies characterization and improves paleoenvironmental interpretation of shallow marine successions deposited along the southern margin of the Paleotethys. Detailed facies analysis allowed to differentiate seven facies, which, in order of decreasing abundance, are: (1) shaly and marly, F1; (2) peloidal mudstones/wackestones, F2; (3) peloidal/bioclastic packstones, F3; (4) intraclastic/bioclastic packstones/grainstones, F4; (5) oolitic/bioclastic packstone/grainstone, F5; (6) sandy intraclastic/bioclastic grainstones, F6; (7) sandy oolitic/bioclastic grainstones, F7. The different facies can be grouped into three facies associations that correspond to different environments of a carbonate platform with ramp geometry (homoclinal), from outer ramp (F1 and F2), mid-ramp (F3, F4 and F6) to inner ramp areas (F5 and F7). Meter-scale cycles are the basic building blocks of shallow marine carbonate successions of the Tournaisian-Viséan ramp of the ESB. Small-scale cycles are stacked into medium-scale cycles that in turn are building blocks of large-scale cycles. According to the recognized facies and the stacking pattern of high-frequency cycles across the ramp, five large-scale cycles in the southeastern outcrops (Tournaisian-Viséan) and three large-scale cycles in the northwest outcrops (Viséan) related to eustatic sea-level changes can be recognized. The overall retrogradational nature of the carbonate ramp, illustrated by both vertical facies relationships and the stacking patterns of high-frequency cycles within the third-order cycles, implies that the deposition of the Tournaisian-Viséan successions mainly took place under a long-term transgressive sea-level trend. The stratigraphic architectural style of the sequences, characterized by the lack of lowstand deposits and exposure

  10. Silver Tableware from the Nomad Burials of 13th –14th Centuries on the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chkhaidze Victor N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers 31 nomad burials of 13th – 14th cc. containing prestigious silverware (waist bowls, ladles and goblets discovered in the territory of nine regions of the East European Plain (Trans-Volga, Volga, Don, Cis-Caucasus, Kuban, Donets, Dnieper, Ob, Bug and Trans-Dniester regions. It is one of the most informative and expressive groups of nomadic burial inventories only available for the the representatives of the ruling elite and included in the attributes of nomadic aristocracy of 13th – 14th cc. The description of each finding is provided together with the aggregate data concerning the dating of the burials, their type and the gender of the deceased. The authors consider the role of tableware in burial rites and its correspondence the representatives of family and tribal nomadic Golden Horde aristocracy.

  11. Malaria prevalence, prevention and treatment seeking practices among nomadic pastoralists in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Mame Cheikh; Thwing, Julie; Fall, Fatou Ba; Gomis, Jules Francois; Deme, Awa; Ndiaye, Yaye Die; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K; Ndiop, Medoune; Ba, Mady; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-10-13

    Malaria transmission in Senegal is highly stratified, from low in the dry north to moderately high in the moist south. In northern Senegal, along the Senegal River Valley and in the Ferlo semi-desert region, annual incidence is less than five cases per 1000 inhabitants. Many nomadic pastoralists have permanent dwellings in the Ferlo Desert and Senegal River Valley, but spend dry season in the south with their herds, returning north when the rains start, leading to a concern that this population could contribute to ongoing transmission in the north. A modified snowball sampling survey was conducted at six sites in northern Senegal to determine the malaria prevention and treatment seeking practices and parasite prevalence among nomadic pastoralists in the Senegal River Valley and the Ferlo Desert. Nomadic pastoralists aged 6 months and older were surveyed during September and October 2014, and data regarding demographics, access to care and preventive measures were collected. Parasite infection was detected using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy (thin and thick smears) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular barcodes were determined by high resolution melting (HRM). Of 1800 participants, 61% were male. Sixty-four percent had at least one bed net in the household, and 53% reported using a net the night before. Only 29% had received a net from a mass distribution campaign. Of the 8% (142) who reported having had fever in the last month, 55% sought care, 20% of whom received a diagnostic test, one-third of which (n = 5) were reported to be positive. Parasite prevalence was 0.44% by thick smear and 0.50% by PCR. None of the molecular barcodes identified among the nomadic pastoralists had been previously identified in Senegal. While access to and utilization of malaria control interventions among nomadic pastoralists was lower than the general population, parasite prevalence was lower than expected and sheds doubt on the perception that they are a

  12. New faunistic records of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadbakhsh Saeed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a faunal study of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Hormozgan province in southern Iran, which was carried out from winter 2015 to winter 2016. A total of 30 species belonging to 18 genera were collected and identified. Two species – Calodromius mayeti and Elaphropus (Tachyura biblis – are reported from Iran for the first time; in addition, the occurrence of several species in Iran was confirmed.

  13. Incidence of Herdsmen Militancy in Southern Nigeria: A Threat-Import Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Simeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the threat implication of the incidence of Fulani herdsmen militancy in Southern Nigeria. Though engaged in nomadic cattle grazing, the militant group in Nigeria otherwise referred to as Fulani Herdsmen were known to be operating predominantly within the Middle Belt region of Northern Nigeria where they have been at daggers drawn with the native settled farmers. In recent times however, these nomadic pastoralists have aggressively expanded the frontiers of their operation to Southern Nigeria, unleashing mayhem against the host communities. Drawing from qualitative analysis of data collected through primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that the unbridled escalation of herders’ belligerence against the communities of Southern Nigeria would not only endanger state security but threaten the corporate existence of Nigeria. It therefore recommends that government at all levels should promulgate legislations outlawing open grazing of cattle while urging herders to establish ranches for their cattle.

  14. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted a participat......This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  15. Out of the Desert: My Journey from Nomadic Bedouin to the Heart of Global Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naimi, Ali Ibrahim

    2017-01-08

    His Excellency Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi, former Ministry of Oil in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, will comment on his forthcoming autobiography "Out of the Desert: My Journey from Nomadic Bedouin to the Heart of Global Oil". Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi is the former Saudi oil minister - and OPEC kingpin - a position he held for the two decades between August 1995 and May 2016. He was born into extreme poverty as a nomadic Bedouin in the 1930s, just as US companies were discovering vast quantities of oil under Arabian deserts. From his first job as a shepherd boy to his appointment to one of the most powerful political and economic jobs in the world, Out of the Desert charts Al-Naimi\\'s extraordinary rise to power.

  16. A study of charm quark production in the NOMAD event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.

    1995-01-01

    Although constructed primarily to aid in the search for neutrino oscillations, NOMAD, a counter experiment exposed to a ν m beam at the CERN SPS, is capable of making significant contributions to the study of charm quark production in ν m Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) processes. The analysis of such events, however, is dependent upon Monte Carlo simulations of the event kinematics and hence it is essential to understand the behaviour of such simulations. This talk compares data on charm production in the dimuon channel generated by the NOMAD Event Generator (NEGLIB) for an anti-neutrino beam with data collected in the CDHS experiment which ran at CERN in the period 1977-1980. Overall the two sets of data compare well, although some marked differences are observed. Several possible reasons are proposed and discussed

  17. mtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to Neighboring Sedentary Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Hájek, Martin; Bromová, Markéta; Čmejla, R.; Diallo, I.; Brdička, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2006), s. 9-27 ISSN 0018-7143 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA404/03/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * HVS-I * Fulani nomads * sub-Saharan populations * Chad * Cameroon * Burkina Faso Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2006

  18. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Singh , Ramanjit; Wood-Harper , Trevor

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical...

  19. Do Social Computing Make You Happy? A Case Study of Nomadic Children in Mixed Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I describe a perspective on ambient, ubiquitous, and pervasive computing called the happiness perspective. By using the happiness perspective, the application domain and how the technology is used and experienced, becomes a central and integral part of perceiving ambient technology....... will use the perspective in a case study on field test experiments with nomadic children in mixed environments using the eBag system....

  20. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.

  1. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock – Experience in North East Zone of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013–2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia. PMID:26365693

  2. A precision measurement of charm dimuon production in neutrino interactions from the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoylov, O.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present our new measurement of the cross-section for charm dimuon production in neutrino–iron interactions based upon the full statistics collected by the NOMAD experiment. After background subtraction we observe 15 344 charm dimuon events, providing the largest sample currently available. The analysis exploits the large inclusive charged current sample – about 9×10 6 events after all analysis cuts – and the high resolution NOMAD detector to constrain the total systematic uncertainty on the ratio of charm dimuon to inclusive Charged Current (CC) cross-sections to ∼2%. We also perform a fit to the NOMAD data to extract the charm production parameters and the strange quark sea content of the nucleon within the NLO QCD approximation. We obtain a value of m c (m c )=1.159±0.075 GeV/c 2 for the running mass of the charm quark in the MS ¯ scheme and a strange quark sea suppression factor of κ s =0.591±0.019 at Q 2 =20 GeV 2 /c 2

  3. Patagonia, Land of Nomads: A Glance at a Territory Shaped by Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chiuminatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the nineteenth century, as global voyages became popular, and transcontinental empires settled, remote corners of the third world such as Patagonia began to be explored and became the subject of European travel literatures. The opening of this region to the global scenario produced profound transformations in its territorial conformation, poetic imaginary, and local culture. As Patagonia became a land of travellers, local nomads which had inhabited this land for centuries became extinguished. The historical context of this re-shaping is conceptualised in literary theory through notions such as nomadism, elaborated by Gilles Deleuze and its aesthetical counterpart, geo-poetics, by Kenneth White. The travel literature about Patagonia, such as that produced by Charles Darwin, Lady Florence Dixie, and Bruce Chatwin, depicts the difficulties these travellers faced in trying to endow their writings of adequate descriptions and images. Instead, they recurred to images from their homeland, and thus created an imaginary of Patagonia through displacement: their own, and that of images brought by themselves to this land. When Chilean poets like Gabriela Mistral and Pablo Neruda begun to write about Patagonia, they found it already populated by strange images, shaped indeed, by nomads, travellers and dis-located identities.

  4. The Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section In NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Jun

    2010-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) was a short baseline neutrino experiment conducted at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle physics) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) with a neutrino beam provided by the super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerator. In this dissertation, we present a measurement of muon-neutrino induced quasi-elastic cross section and its axial-mass off an isoscalar target in the NOMAD detector. The incident neutrino energy in NOMAD experiment spans from 2.5 to 300 GeV. The measurement of cross-section is conducted in two seperate kinematic-based topology, two-track and one-track topologies, where a proton is not properly reconstructed. The QEL cross-section as a function of the incoming neutrino energy is consistent for the two different topologies, and within errors , constant as a function of the neutrino energy. We determine the energy-averaged cross-section. From the shape-comparisons of kinematics of QEL-like events, the parameter of QEL axial mass is estimated. It i...

  5. Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Heršak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors present certain parameters dealing with the nomadic element, or possible indications of it, in Croatian ethnogenesis. First, a comment is given on the ethnogenetic concept itself, and a working definition of ethnogenesis is suggested. Second, the major components that are considered to have had a role in Croatian ethnogenesis are listed. This discussion is followed by an identification of those elements that could somehow be considered nomadic, or else representative of influences from the Eurasian steppe region. Mention is made of historical sources that confirm or imply the presence of Eurasian nomad groups in the Croatian area, and the relative frequency of archaeological material is noted. The authors analise views of previous and present Croatian and foreign authors on Croatian ethnogenesis, especially in regard to the “Eurasian connection”. In this part of the discussion, the Iranian theory of Croat origins is presented in more detail. Finally, the authors briefly address recent genetic (DNA analyses of the contemporary Croatian population.

  6. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program is increasing the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond...

  7. The Combination of Nomadic and Hierarchic Principles within the State Organization in the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the state system of the Golden Horde inherits a number of features from the former political culture of the Turkic states. On the other hand, it brings fundamental changes that determine the characteristics of the Eurasian empire. We introduce the concept of zero-point of history to explain periodization of Tatar history. In the history, the smooth flow of events breaks near the bifurcation point, when society enters into an unstable phase and a radical dismantling of social structures begins. Elements of the past remain as invariants. But they find themselves in the new assembly, which cannot be reduced to the same combinations of social elements. This is essentially new historical phase, in which one coordinate system of space-time is replaced by another and history launches a new countdown. The Golden Horde is the pinnacle of a nomadic civilization. Its prosperity was based on metallurgy, agriculture, and trade. Moreover, its main export was corn. Hundreds of cities and seaports were built in the Golden Horde, which distinguishes it from the Great Steppe. At the same time, despite the increase in sedentary population, the Golden Horde civilization retained its nomadic mentality. Chinese or European models of governance were basically impossible due to the presence of nomadic economy: it was necessary to control precisely the clans occupying certain territories. Clans were able to ensure both the collection of taxes from the mobile population and training of soldiers for the army. The clan system gave stability in the conditions of semi-nomadic life, while also allowing to control the sedentary population. The Golden Horde was a highly developed State with a strong financial system, with the state apparatus divided into two parts, one of which was associated with control of the nomadic population, and the other with the sedentary one. Territory, state structures, traditions, and political culture of the Golden Horde became the

  8. NOMAD on the ExoMars TGO 2016 mission: MAIT and characterisation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Neefs, Eddy; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio; Drummond, Rachel; Patel, Manish; Thomas, Ian; Gissot, Samuel; Depiesse, Cedric; Ben Moussa, Ali; Giordanengo, Boris; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    NOMAD, the “Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery” spectrometer suite has been selected by ESA and NASA to be part of the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission 2016. This instrument suite will conduct a spectroscopic survey of Mars’ atmosphere in the UV, visible and IR regions covering the 0.2-0.65 and 2.2-4.3 μm spectral ranges. NOMAD’s observation modes include solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. The NOMAD instrument is composed of 3 channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of observing nadir, solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. The spectral resolution of SO and LNO surpasses previous surveys in the infrared by more than one order of magnitude. NOMAD offers an integrated instrument combination of a flight-proven concept (SO is a copy of SOIR on Venus Express), and innovations based on existing and proven instrumentation (LNO is based on SOIR/VEX and UVIS has heritage from the ExoMars lander), that will provide mapping and vertical profile information at high spatio-temporal resolution. The three channels have each their own ILS and optical bench, but share the same single interface to the S/C. The NOMAD flight model is due for delivery to ESA in January 2015. We will present results so far of the manufacturing, assembly and especially testing of the various components. The UV CCDs have been characterised in thermal-vacuum; optical fibres have been studied with UV exposure to look at transmission degradation; the IR AOTFs have been tested for their transfer functions; lifetime and vibration testing has been carried out on the flip mirror mechanism. These are all vital inputs to the scientific results from NOMAD. Acknowledgements - The research program was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office and the European Space Agency (ESA PRODEX

  9. Iran - waiting and watching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  10. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton ( Malaysia ), and Chery CRS-22 89 EIU, “Country Profile 2007: Iran,” 2007, p. 45. Prime Vista Research...Background The 1979 Islamic revolution changed Iran’s modern political and economic history . Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters transformed Iran...heating during one of the coldest winters in recent Iranian history . Turkmenistan has since resumed supplying gasoline to Iran. Foreign Involvement in

  11. Where is Iran going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  12. Search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the NOMAD experiment; Recherche des oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l'experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoperov, A

    2000-06-01

    The NOMAD experiment is looking for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in a predominantly {nu}{sub {mu}} beam at the CERN SPS. Neutrino oscillations are closely related with the existence of non-zero neutrino mass and mixing between different flavours. This document describes the search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample accumulated during four years of data-taking (1995-98). The search for {nu}{sub e} appearance was performed by studying the charged current (CC) interactions with in the NOMAD detector. The selection of {nu}{sub e} CC and {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions with the help of different particle identification algorithms, as well as using the event kinematic criteria, is described here in detail. We show that the NOMAD experiment is sensitive to the LSND allowed region of oscillation parameters with the squared mass difference larger than 10 eV{sup 2}/C{sup 4}. An upper limit on the probability of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations, based on a fraction of the NOMAD data, is given. (author)

  13. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  14. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  15. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  16. The prevalence of medical nomadism of the followed patients in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudali, Aziza; Bahiri, Rachid; Hmamouchi, Ihssane; Abouqal, Redouane; Abouqual, Redouane; Hajjaj Hassouni, Najia

    2012-06-01

    The nomads are defined as patients related to multiple practicians of the same speciality or different specialities for the same symptomatology during a certain period. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the prevalence of medical nomadism of the followed patients in rheumatology and compare their profile with those patients followed in neurology and gastroenterology. A multicentric transverse study (September 2009-March 2010) was conducted in three departments of CHU Ibn Sina Rabat-Salé, Morocco; rheumatology, gastroenterology and neurology. Only patients seen in external consultations were included. Patients' socio-economic and demographic background (familial status, instruction level, monthly revenue, social assistance) were recorded, as well as the clinical parameters related to the pathology (pathology, duration of the illness, diagnosis final time). A questionnaire containing variables on the patients' state concerning diagnosis, satisfaction degree of the patients and other variables evaluated the notion of taking medication and the practice of alternative medicine. Medical nomadism has been defined by the consultation for the same symptomatology of three different practicians, either of the same speciality or of different specialities during the study period of 6 months. There were 250 patients included in this study (150 patients in rheumatology, 50 in gastroenterology and 50 in neurology), the mean age was 46 ± 13 years and females dominated (65.6%). The average duration of the evolution was 7 ± 5 years, 35% of the patients were illiterate, 30% had a primary school education, 22% had a secondary school education and 13% had a university-level education. Sixty-two percent of the patients were jobless, 27% were workers, 9% were the functionary and 2% were the based liberal. Fifty-six percent had no social assistance. Rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative pathology were the most frequent diagnoses in rheumatology, being 20% and

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  18. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti)neutrino scattering in he NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (v μ n→μ - p and v-bar μ p→μ + n using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly Carbon) normalizing it to the total v μ (v-bar μ ) charged current cross-section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross-sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are qel >v μ = (0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 and qel >v-bar μ = (0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter MA was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross-section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross-section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of v μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured MA is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  19. Search on neutrino oscillation νμ→νe in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav

    1998-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: ν μ →ν τ and ν μ →ν e . This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations ν μ →ν e with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of ν e by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the ν μ →ν e data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin 2 (2θ) -3 (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for Δm 2 > 15 eV 2 and gives the most constraining world limit on sin 2 (2θ) for Δm 2 > 20 eV 2

  20. Breaking Language Barrier in Rural Awareness Campaign on School Enrolment through Drama among Nomads in Taraba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boh Aondowase

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to formal education is the right of every child, yet the socio-economic circumstances of children of nomadic Fulani may not allow them to fully enjoy such rights due to their itinerant way of life.  The government in response to the need to bridge literacy gap in its population has various agencies in place to cater for the educational needs of nomads but the efforts are not without challenges. This paper considers the practical steps that can be taken to enlighten nomadic Fulani communities on the importance of enrolling their children into formal schools thus working towards realization of government objectives. Drama speaks a universal language by virtue of its action and could be a veritable tool in awareness campaigns among itinerant Fulani population in Nigeria.

  1. Health status and geographic mobility among semi-nomadic pastoralists in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Jérome; Foggin, Peter

    2008-06-01

    This paper sets out to examine the impact on health of a key aspect of the semi-nomadic lifestyle, namely geographic mobility. The relevant literature suggests that seasonal migrations of pastoralists tend to increase the risk of a poor health. Highlighted in this paper is an inverse association between spatial mobility and health status among the herders of rural Mongolia. Two types of mobility are involved in this process. For households, seasonal migration has a significant influence on health. At the level of individuals, however, there is another kind of mobility: that of travelling to meet personal needs. At both of these levels, statistically significant impacts on health were observed.

  2. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  3. Ethical Norms of Traditional Nomadic Culture as Bases for Political Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахыт Даулетхановна Жумакаева

    2011-03-01

    Only by cultivating a sense of community, leader's actions would be viewed as standards to follow. So the collective nature of Kazakh nomadic-age ethics was congruent with Soviet interpretation of Marxism, which accounted for their convergence in the Soviet age. However, as the paper argues these moral bases ceased to reflect the reality of present-day Kazakhstan, which urges reconsidering its ethical norms for political behavior to be grounded on the new societal organization, national character, pursuit of individual wealth as a factor of progress, and the global information age.

  4. The Salvage from Postmodernism: Nomadic Subjectivity in Contemporary Women’s Poetry in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ZAMORANO LLENA

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The nomad’s identity is a map of where s/he has already been; s/he can always reconstruct it a posteriori, as a set of steps in an itinerary. (Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Subjectivity 14 “As a woman I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman my country is the whole world.” This is the quote from Virginia Wolf’s Three Guineas (1938 that Adrienne Rich decided not to use in a talk given at a “Conference on Women, Feminist Identity and Society in the 1980s” held in Utrecht, Holland...

  5. Modern wildlife conservation initiatives and the pastoralist/hunter nomads of northwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Fox

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR of China established the 300 000 km2 Chang Tang Nature Preserve on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, an action precipitated by rapidly diminishing populations of chiru (Tibetan antelope and wild yak. Some 30 000 nomadic pastoralists use areas within this reserve for livestock grazing, with many having traditionally depended in part on hunting for supplementary subsistence and trade. Following a 1997 request from TAR leaders for international assistance in addressing the conservation issues associated with the creation of this reserve, the TAR Forestry Bureau and the Network for University Co-operation Tibet — Norway began a 3-year research collaboration program in 2000 to outline human-wildlife interactions and conservation priorities in the western part of the reserve. To date, four excursions (2-6 weeks each have been made to the western Chang Tang region, and investigations of interactions between pastoralists and wildlife conservation objectives have been initiated in an area of about 5000 km2, including the 2300 km2 Aru basin located at 5000 m elevation at the northern edge of pastoralist inhabitation. The Aru site is unique in that nomads have only recently returned to this previously off-limits basin. But, as in surrounding areas, the people's lives are undergoing changes recently influenced by the introduction of permanent winter houses, changing international trade in shahtoosh and cashmere wool, and a move towards stricter hunting regulations. The northwestern Chang Tang, with the Aru basin as a prime site, represents one of the last strongholds of the endangered chiru and wild yak, as well as home to Tibetan gazelle, kiang, Tibetan argali, blue sheep, wolf, snow leopard and brown bear. In autumn 2000, for example, with approximately 12 000 of the wild ungulates (mostly the migratory chiru within the Aru basin along with some 8000 domestic livestock, issues of land use overlap and possible

  6. Measurement of the {lambda}-bar polarization in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B. E-mail: boris.popov@cern.ch; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.[and others

    2001-07-02

    We present a measurement of the polarization of {lambda}-bar hyperons produced in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions. The full data sample from the NOMAD experiment has been analyzed using the same V{sup 0} identification procedure and analysis method reported in a previous paper [NOMAD Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B 588 (2000) 3] for the case of {lambda} hyperons. The {lambda}-bar polarization has been measured for the first time in a neutrino experiment. The polarization vector is found to be compatible with zero.

  7. Outils numériques nomades : les effets sur l’attention des étudiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guichon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur le numérique en éducation est parvenue à une étape où peut être dressé un portrait plus nuancé des usages des outils numériques en contexte d’apprentissage. S’inscrivant dans une perspective sociocritique (Selwyn, 2007, cet article vise à apprécier les effets éventuellement négatifs résultant de l’utilisation des outils numériques nomades pendant le face-à-face didactique. Une enquête par questionnaire a été conduite auprès d’un échantillon d’étudiants internationaux (n=227 poursuivant leurs études dans un Centre de Langues en France. Cette recherche a permis d’examiner leurs habitudes de connexion en mettant au jour la fréquence et la motivation d’utilisation d’outils numériques pendant et hors le face-à-face avec leurs enseignants. Elle a également donné l’occasion de saisir l’impact ressenti de l’utilisation des outils numériques en classe par les participants sur leur attention. Les résultats de cette recherche permettent, in fine, d’examiner de quelle façon le contrat didactique est questionné par l’usage des outils numériques nomades.

  8. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  9. A Study of charm production by neutrinos in the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    The NOMAD neutrino experiment at the CERN SPS is described and the silicon tracking detector (STAR) that was placed in NOMAD is discussed in detail. An algorithm for the reconstruction of hits, tracks and vertices with the silicon tracker and utilising the Kalman filter method was developed and is also described. The vertex position resolution is determined to be 19um in the Y direction and 781um in the Z direction from Monte Carlo. The impact parameter resolution of STAR is determined to be 28um. From the sample of charged current neutrino interactions, a search is performed for the production and decay of D0 ' n+' Dt' D0 " and n +" mesons. From this analysis, the masses and lifetimes of the D mesons and resonances are determined to be: mno = 1.875 ± 0.075GeV = 145~~~/lnl mn+ = 1.880 ± 0.088GeV = 213_67 /lrn m1J.t = 1.973 ± 0.061GeV = 199~.~~2 /nll rnno• = 1.973 ± 0.046GeV mn+• = 2.072 ± 0.031GeV The production rates (R) per uμ. charged current deep inelastic interaction of D mesons are determin...

  10. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    ... in March 2008, which imposed sanctions on Tehran. Despite this pressure, Iran continues at its Natanz centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, expand the number of operating centrifuges, and conduct research on new types of centrifuges...

  11. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  12. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  13. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions, most recently...

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions which imposed sanctions on Tehran...

  15. Community Tracking in a cMOOC and Nomadic Learner Behavior Identification on a Connectivist Rhizomatic Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Honeychurch, Sarah; Caines, Autumm; Bali, Maha; Koutropoulos, Apostolos; Cormier, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on connectivism, connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs) and rhizomatic learning by examining participant interactions, community formation and nomadic learner behavior in a particular cMOOC, #rhizo15, facilitated for 6 weeks by Dave Cormier. It further focuses on what we can learn by observing Twitter interactions…

  16. Identifying Hot Spots of Critical Forage Supply in Dryland Nomadic Pastoralist Areas: A Case Study for the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; van Wesenbeeck, C.F.A.; Georgis, Kidane; Beyene, Fekadu; Urbano, Ferdinando; Meroni, Michele; Leo, Olivier; Yimer, Merkebu; Abdullatif, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to identify hot spots of critical forage supply in nomadic pastoralist areas, using the Afar Region, Ethiopia, as a special case. It addresses two main problems. First, it makes a spatially explicit assessment of fodder supply and demand extracted from a data poor

  17. The Nomadic Existence of the Eternal Improviser and Diasporic Co-Poiesis in the Era of Mega-Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurze'ev, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    The history of transcendence and nomadism in face of the call for "home-returning" is marked figuratively by four milestones: (1) the "era" of immanence and dwelling in total harmony as a manifestation of self-sustained holiness; (2) the "era" of relating to holiness by mediation of God, especially in the monotheistic religions; (3) the "era" of…

  18. Context-Aware Middleware Support for the Nomadic Mobile Services on Multi-homed Handheld Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, Pravin; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan; Peddemors, Arjan; van Halteren, Aart

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, a variety ofhandheld mobile devices are capable of connecting to the Internet using multiple network interfaces. This is referred to as multi-homing. In addition to this, enriched computation resources allow them to host nomadic mobile services and provide these services to the clients

  19. L'ADN mitochondrial des Peuls nomades, témoin de leur origine en Afrique de l’Ouest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Bromová, Markéta; Čmejla, R.; Diallo, I.; Brůžek, J.; Brdička, R.; Hájek, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, 3/4 (2005), s. 227-228 ISSN 0037-8984. [1830e reunion scientifique de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. 19.01.2005-21.01.2005, Paříž] Keywords : nomads * West Africa Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Les barrières à la demande de service de vaccination chez les populations nomades de Danamadji, Tchad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some interesting themes emerged especially at the end of the individual interviews, focus group discussions as well as after observing the behavior of the nomads during this study. Firstly, among the themes identified is the mistrust towards the vaccinating agents by most simple rescuers or young

  1. Iran's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureston, J.; Marvin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program is discussed, activity of enterprises connected with the nuclear industry of the country is evaluated. IAEA initiated inspection of some industrial sites with the aim of data acquisition about nuclear developments of Iran. Uranium ore mining and reducing to small size, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, production of plutonium: plant of heavy water production, spent fuel reprocessing are discussed [ru

  2. Why Iran proliferates

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Iran and the United States have faced each other across a deep divide ever since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the events of the American Embassy Hostage crisis. The absence of diplomatic relations between the two nations has led to a lack of communication which has resulted in difficulties crafting successful policies to build bridges between the two governments. The specter of Iran's quest for nuclear weapons casts a further pall on the troubled relations. Case studies of historical ex...

  3. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important.

  4. The Contemporary Socio-Economic Crisis Situation and the Implementation of Inclusive Education for Nomadic Children with Disabilities in Nigeria: Implications for Guidance and Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester MwandarYakwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present socio-economic crisis situation in Nigeria has affected so many facets of life of the people generally not least of all the life of nomadic children with disabilities. Presently, a lot of focus is being directed at the provision of educational services for children with special needs (including nomadic children through inclusive education. This paper attempts to identify some of the ways that teaching and learning can be effectively carried out for nomadic children with disabilities in Nigeria with particular emphasis on its implications for guidance and counseling. The paper will attempt to identify the methods that can be used in the nomadic education classroom as well as establish the expected roles that guidance and counselling can play in the provision of such programmes for the enhancement of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities in the Nigerian educational system. Furthermore, it will strive to identify the problems emanating from the socio-economic crisis situation and how it affects nomadic children with disabilities. In particular, it will attempt to identify the counseling strategies that can be used for the insurance of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities generally and make far reaching recommendations to that effect.

  5. Genetic data suggests that the Jinggouzi people are associated with the Donghu, an ancient nomadic group of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Chen, Lu; Ge, Binwen; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Nomadic populations have played a significant role in the history of not only China but also in many nations worldwide. Because they had no written language, an important aspect in the study of these people is the discovery of their tombs. It has been generally accepted that Xiongnu was the first empire created by a nomadic tribe in the 3rd century BC. However, little population genetic information is available concerning the Donghu, another flourishing nomadic tribe at the same period because of the restriction of materials until the Jinggouzi site was excavated. In order to test the genetic characteristics of ancient people in this site and to explore the relationship between Jinggouzis and Donghus, two uniparentally inherited markers were analyzed from 42 human remains in this site, which was located in northern China, dated approximately 2500 years ago. With ancient DNA technology, four mtDNA haplogroups (D, G, C, and M10) and one Y chromosome haplogroup (C) were identified using mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms. Those haplogroups are common in North Asia and East Asia. The Jinggouzi people were genetically closest to the Xianbeis in ancient populations and to the Oroqens among extant populations, who were all pastoralists. This might indicate that ancient Jinggouzi people were nomads. Meanwhile, according to the genetic data and the evidences in archaeology, we inferred that Jinggouzi people were associated with Donghu. It is of much value to trace the history of the Donghu tribe and this might show some insight into the ancient nomadic society.

  6. Phenology of body mass changes during reproduction in a nomadic, tropical waterbird, the Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Gregory A; Frederick, Peter C

    2008-09-01

    In birds, the prereproductive buildup of endogenous energy reserves (e.g. body fat) is highly variable and is often thought to be a strategy evolving in response to either seasonal and/or unpredictable changes in breeding conditions. Nomadic behavior is also thought to be an adaptation to unpredictable resource distribution in both space and time. Because of the difficultly in obtaining a longitudinal time series of body masses for free-living individuals of highly nomadic species, the relationship between nomadism and endogenous energy storage has not been explored. In this study, we investigated prereproductive energy storage in a large free-flighted captive colony of highly nomadic waterbird, the Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber. We used size-corrected body mass as an index of body condition both earlier to and during breeding. We compared both breeders and nonbreeders body condition earlier to nesting. We also prevented a subsample of the birds from gaining mass earlier to nesting and compared their nesting success with a control group that was allowed to feed freely. Although significant differences were found in prereproductive body conditions of breeders and nonbreeders, we were unable to control breeding by manipulating prereproductive condition, most likely because of the ability of some birds to rapidly change body condition within several days or weeks earlier to nesting. We conclude that prereproductive energy storage is important for nesting success in both sexes of this highly nomadic species, however energy stores are highly labile and can be rapidly obtained through prenesting hyperphagia. Zoo Biol 27:360-370, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  8. Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-06

    The mountainous Wakhan and Pamir in northeastern Afghanistan is one of the most isolated yet inhabited places in Asia. It is home to the agropastoralist Wakhi and the last Afghan semi-nomadic Kyrgyz. We present a study of plant names and uses, along with comparisons of plant name etymology, origins of plant resources, intra- and intercultural exchanges and relations, and the relative availability of the known and used plants. The fieldwork was conducted as an expedition in the summer of 2010, and visited settlements and pastures in Upper Wakhan and Big and Little Pamir. Semi-structured group interviews, talks and observations gave initial data on names, uses and the relative availability of used plants, and provided foundation for individual interviews using an interview-herbarium containing vouchers of the 72 most frequently used plants or plant groups. Wakhi and Kyrgyz plant names are recorded in western transcription, the new Wakhi alphabet, phonetically and in Cyrillic. The present study documents a large body of endemic, indigenous plant knowledge; on crops, fuel, fodder, cosmetics, dyes, vegetables, veterinary medicine, traditional medicines and other plant uses which sustain life in Wakhan and Pamir. Overall, the Wakhi use considerably more plants than the Kyrgyz, and their materia medica and use thereof is more complex. Although the Wakhi and Kyrgyz are close neighbours, there are few indications of direct knowledge transfer between them. Most shared plant uses are strictly necessary for survival in the mountains. While there are few differences between genders and cultural subgroups within the two cultures, the Wakhi and Kyrgyz exhibit great differences both in their total number of use-plants and the distance from which they obtain them. The agropastoralist Wakhi appear to have their basic needs for wild natural resources covered within half a days travel, while the relatively plant-derived environment of the high Pamir appears to have necessitated the

  9. Detection of Vibrio spp. in shrimp from aquaculture sites in Iran using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Khamesipour; Esmat Noshadi; Mitra Moradi; Mehdi Raissy

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most important fishery products of the coastal provinces in the Persian Gulf in Iran. Vibriosis has been an important cause of production loss due to bacterial disease in shrimp farms in south Iran in recent years. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp samples from farms in the southern provinces of Iran by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 36 shrimp were caught from south coast of Iran and were stud...

  10. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russillo, Victor

    2003-01-01

    ..., comprehensive policy toward Iran. Iran has concerned the US due to its support for terrorist organizations, its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, its attempts to export the Islamic Revolution...

  11. The Virtual Naval Hospital: the digital library as knowledge management tool for nomadic patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Michael P; D'Alessandro, Donna M; Bakalar, Richard S; Ashley, Denis E; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2005-01-01

    To meet the information needs of isolated primary care providers and their patients in the US Navy, a digital health sciences library, the Virtual Naval Hospital, was created through a unique partnership between academia and government. The creation of the digital library was heavily influenced by the principles of user-centered design and made allowances for the nomadic nature of the digital library's patrons and the heterogeneous access they have to Internet bandwidth. The result is a digital library that has been in operation since 1997, continues to expand in size, is heavily used, and is highly regarded by its patrons. The digital library is dedicated to delivering the right information at the right time to the right person so the right decision can be made, and therefore the Virtual Naval Hospital functions as a knowledge-management system for the US Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.

  12. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  13. Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    names are recorded in western transcription, the new Wakhi alphabet, phonetically and in Cyrillic. The present study documents a large body of endemic, indigenous plant knowledge; on crops, fuel, fodder, cosmetics, dyes, vegetables, veterinary medicine, traditional medicines and other plant uses which......Background The mountainous Wakhan and Pamir in northeastern Afghanistan is one of the most isolated yet inhabited places in Asia. It is home to the agropastoralist Wakhi and the last Afghan semi-nomadic Kyrgyz. We present a study of plant names and uses, along with comparisons of plant name...... etymology, origins of plant resources, intra- and intercultural exchanges and relations, and the relative availability of the known and used plants. Methods The fieldwork was conducted as an expedition in the summer of 2010, and visited settlements and pastures in Upper Wakhan and Big and Little Pamir. Semi...

  14. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-08-02

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6).

  15. Learning through Nomadic Interiors - Villa Rotonda through the lenses of Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    in a series of nomadic interiors allowing the students to travel in time and place; from Palladio to the 14th Architectural Biennale and from Vincenza to Venice. In the paper we use Foucaults concept of Heterotopia to analyze how a window in 1:10 from the south façade of Villa Rotonda now re-designed......The question of the critical role of our built heritage to the complex and interdisciplinary processes that govern the current development of the built environment define a continuous challenge in interior studies and education: Can a study of the fundamental interior elements of Villa Rotonda...... of human geography as elaborated by Foucault and apply it on a project developed and exhibited on the 14th International Architecture Biennale in Venice that focused on the current need to develop Urban Farming strategies. Here an interdisciplinary team of students analyzed fundamental interior elements...

  16. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6). PMID:16270930

  17. A Search for nu_mu to nu_e oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Godley, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a neutrino oscillation experiment. capable of identifying Vμ, -Vμ, Ve, -Ve and Vt for use in oscillation analyses. A search for Vμ --> Ve oscillations is conducted, emphasising the development of two separate beam simulators, to provide the background, (no oscillation), lie signal. Both beam descriptions include fits to the results of the SPY experiment that measured hadron production from a 450 GeV proton beam on beryllium target. An independent analysis of the raw SPY data to produce the particle yield is reported. A series of criteria are described for the selection and classification of neutrino events. These produce the data samples necessary for both tuning the beam simulation and determining the oscillation signal. The development of a GEANT and FLUKA based Monte Carlo beam simulator is presented; providing good agreement to the measured neutrino beam. This simulation method has sizeable variations depending on the beamline geometry, which is not knonm precisely. This causes ...

  18. Respon Iran Terhadap Film Argo

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Nidya; Pakpahan, Saiman

    2017-01-01

    This research discusses Iran's response to the political thriller movie Argo and how the movie represents Iranians. Argo movie was launch in October 2012 focusing on an exfiltration mission in Iran by the CIA, which is based on true events in 1979 when the Islamic Revolution broke in Iran. Iranian in 2012 was shocked by Argo's Iranian depiction that was deem by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ‘anti Iranian' and American propaganda. Iran further their accusation when Argo receive the prestigious...

  19. Nomadic Life on the Steppes: An Ecocinematic Exploration of Tulpan and Cave of the Yellow Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Adelman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecocinema: (1 analyzes the role of visual media in responding to the environmental crisis; (2 has explicit interest in environmental justice; (3 includes a variety of genres and modes of production; (4 informs viewers of issues of ecological importance; (5 promotes ecocentric ways of framing the world; and (6 has an activist agenda. Ecocinema examines films produced by/with historically marginalized communities underrepresented in film. Using Ecocinema and Fourth Cinema (Barclay, I examined two fictional films featuring nomadic peoples of the Central Asian Steppes whose culture and ecologically low impact lifestyle are threatened and fragile in the global order. Tulpan, a 2008 Kazakh/Russian production by Kazakh-born Sergei Dvortsevoy, tells the story of Asa, a young Kazakh man, returning to his home in the Steppes to establish himself as a shepherd with his own flock. Tulpan features the long takes and slow pacing needed to “retrain the perception” of viewers. Tulpan’s biocentric focus on landscape and animals is equivalent to the focus on the human, reconsidering the human/non-human relationship. Tulpan shows one young man dreaming of a meaningful life rooted in his cultural traditions, struggling to locate himself within contemporary economic, political and cultural realities in a region underrepresented in world film. The Cave of the Yellow Dog, 2005, by Mongolian filmmaker Byambasuren Davaa, tells the story of a Mongolian nomadic family. Davaa, similar to Dvortsevoy, works in documentary and fictional films, uses professional and non-professional actors, and relies on Western funding to make her films. These two films suggest that non-commercial fictional films are an important vehicle for addressing global environmental concerns as they present stories of marginalized people and help us imagine solutions to global problems.

  20. Long-distance flights and high-risk breeding by nomadic waterbirds on desert salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Ribot, Raoul F H; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2018-02-01

    Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern. Hitherto, Banded Stilts were hypothesized to have only 1-2 chances to breed during their long lifetime, when flooding rain fills desert salt lakes, triggering mass-hatching of brine shrimp. Over 6 years, we satellite tagged 57 individuals, conducted 21 aerial surveys to detect nesting colonies on 14 Australian desert salt lakes, and analyzed 3 decades of Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery to quantify salt-lake flood frequency and extent. Within days of distant inland rainfall, Banded Stilts flew 1,000-2,000 km to reach flooded salt lakes. On arrival, females laid over half their body weight in eggs. We detected nesting episodes across the species' range at 7 times the frequency reported during the previous 80 years. Nesting colonies of thousands formed following minor floods, yet most were subsequently abandoned when the water rapidly evaporated prior to egg hatching. Satellite imagery revealed twice as many flood events sufficient for breeding-colony initiation as recorded colonies, suggesting that nesting at remote sites has been underdetected. Individuals took risk on uncertain breeding opportunities by responding to frequent minor flood events between infrequent extensive flooding, exemplifying the extreme adaptability and trade-offs of species exploiting unstable environments. The conservation challenges of nest predation by overabundant native gulls and anthropogenic modifications to salt lakes filling

  1. Nuclear cardiology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the most active branches of nuclear medicine and plays important role in diagnosis in treatment of CAD patients. Few nuclear cardiology surveys were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. A nuclear cardiology survey in Iran and analysis of the findings in comparison with other countries may lead to better decision making and improve practice in our country. A questionnaire was sent by mail or e-mail to all nuclear medicine centers in Iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice. Also ownership of the centers, number of gamma cameras and number of cardiac studies in each week were recorded. Some centers were studied using telephone interview. From 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. There was 69 Gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3% with SPECT capability. It is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. This study showed that about 68287 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with Myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99 2% of the studies. Considering population of the country nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.05 study/1000/year. Regarding radiotracers used, about 13.5% of studies were done with T I-201, with some centers using only Tc- 99 m-M I B I

  2. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  3. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  4. Many paths to walk: the political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads...

  5. Digitala nomader : Hur utvecklingen inom digital kommunikation påverkar gränserna för entreprenörer

    OpenAIRE

    Monason, Knut; Sandin, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Working from a distance rather than at the office is getting easier with the rise of current digital technologies, making digital nomadism an alternative to local entrepreneurship. This study investigates 5 digital nomads in their current carrier as geographically unbound entrepreneurs with a qualitative interview method and analyses how they are using digital communications to their advantages, what downsides they might experience and the upsides of working this way which resulted in a frame...

  6. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries.

  7. LDC nuclear power: Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Islamic Revolutionary Government has eliminated what had been an ambitious program to install 23,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 1984, but the program has already become unpopular before the downfall to the Shah for economic reasons. Iran originally planned a domestic nuclear program to diversify its energy base and satisfy Western demands to recycle petrodollars, but substantial commissions for foreign contracts were also a factor. No comprehensive study of a nuclear program has been done to determine if there is a nuclear future for Iran. 8 references

  8. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  9. Search for neutrino oscillations νμ→ντ in the decay channel: τ→ρ of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the τ - issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the τ - decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: τ - → ρ - is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of ρ. (A.C.)

  10. NOMAD-Ref: visualization, deformation and refinement of macromolecular structures based on all-atom normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erik; Azuara, Cyril; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) is an efficient way to study collective motions in biomolecules that bypasses the computational costs and many limitations associated with full dynamics simulations. The NOMAD-Ref web server presented here provides tools for online calculation of the normal modes of large molecules (up to 100,000 atoms) maintaining a full all-atom representation of their structures, as well as access to a number of programs that utilize these collective motions for deformation and refinement of biomolecular structures. Applications include the generation of sets of decoys with correct stereochemistry but arbitrary large amplitude movements, the quantification of the overlap between alternative conformations of a molecule, refinement of structures against experimental data, such as X-ray diffraction structure factors or Cryo-EM maps and optimization of docked complexes by modeling receptor/ligand flexibility through normal mode motions. The server can be accessed at the URL http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/nomad-ref.php.

  11. Foraminiferal-based paleobiogeographic reconstructions in the Carboniferous of Iran and its implications for the Neo-Tethys opening time: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefifard, S.

    2017-01-01

    The biogeographic distribution of foraminifers and their belonging to either the southern or northern margins of the Paleo-Tethys are used here for paleogeographic reconstructions of Iran during the Carboniferous. Lower Carboniferous foraminiferal assemblages from northern and central Iran show a cosmopolitan character and affinities to both the southern and northern borders of the Paleo-Tethys. Hence, in the Early Carboniferous Iran occupied an intermediate southern latitude position, forming part of Gondwana. This conclusion is consistent with the Late Ordovician to Early Carboniferous drift history of Iran based on paleomagnetic data. In the Late Carboniferous, the foraminiferal affinities of northern and central Iran with the northern part of Paleo-Tethys suggest that Iran separated from Gondwana and moved northwards to a lower latitude. This separation is also evidenced by the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing sandstones of the Sardar Formation and sandstones with high degree of chemical weathering, which would indicate warm and humid conditions. Considering the composition of foraminiferal fauna along with the evidence of magmatic activities in northwest Iran, it can be inferred that the commencement of the Neo-Tethys opening and continental break-up in Iran occurred sometime in the Late Carboniferous, which contradicts the previous claims that the separation of Iran from Gondwana occurred in Permian and/or Triassic times.

  12. Foraminiferal-based paleobiogeographic reconstructions in the Carboniferous of Iran and its implications for the Neo-Tethys opening time: a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefifard, S.

    2017-11-01

    The biogeographic distribution of foraminifers and their belonging to either the southern or northern margins of the Paleo-Tethys are used here for paleogeographic reconstructions of Iran during the Carboniferous. Lower Carboniferous foraminiferal assemblages from northern and central Iran show a cosmopolitan character and affinities to both the southern and northern borders of the Paleo-Tethys. Hence, in the Early Carboniferous Iran occupied an intermediate southern latitude position, forming part of Gondwana. This conclusion is consistent with the Late Ordovician to Early Carboniferous drift history of Iran based on paleomagnetic data. In the Late Carboniferous, the foraminiferal affinities of northern and central Iran with the northern part of Paleo-Tethys suggest that Iran separated from Gondwana and moved northwards to a lower latitude. This separation is also evidenced by the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing sandstones of the Sardar Formation and sandstones with high degree of chemical weathering, which would indicate warm and humid conditions. Considering the composition of foraminiferal fauna along with the evidence of magmatic activities in northwest Iran, it can be inferred that the commencement of the Neo-Tethys opening and continental break-up in Iran occurred sometime in the Late Carboniferous, which contradicts the previous claims that the separation of Iran from Gondwana occurred in Permian and/or Triassic times.

  13. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  14. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  15. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  16. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-01-01

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  17. Iran, the crisis situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This book is an updated edition of a previous book by the same author: 'Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments'. The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  18. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  19. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  2. Iran's Sea Power Strategy: Goals and Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the intent of Iran's sea power strategy using a multipart analysis including a historical review of the transition of Iran's naval power through the Iranian Revolution, Iran-Iraq...

  3. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman

    2014-05-01

    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  5. Iran and regional energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics reviewed in these conference proceedings in the first session include domestic imperatives covering the economy, social imperatives - civil society and the rule of law, and the overall investment climate. Session 2 focuses on Iran and the energy sector with papers on oil and gas pipelines, and the effect of sanctions. Session 3 deals with Iran and the Persian Gulf with papers on new developments in Iran and its Arab neighbours, and Iran and Arab attempts to manage oil output. Session 4 concentrates on business and investment perspectives with papers on the low oil and gas prices and the new competition for investment capital, the investment climate, the building of connection with Iran, and identifying the predominant trends. A keynote address by the former deputy Foreign Minister of Iran examines regional energy development

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. Effects of human proximity and nomadic grazing on the diversity of medicinal plants in temperate hindukush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Tariq, A.

    2015-01-01

    Over exploitation and overgrazing are considered major factors for decreasing plant species diversity. However, we do need some more exploration on the types of anthropogenic disturbances responsible for variation in species decline among different regions. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a temperate Hindukush region of Pakistan with the aim to assess human settlements pressure on the diversity of medicinal plants. Field data was collected from 15 plots, of which 5 plots each were randomly selected at three distant locations in derived woodland forest. Near to community plots were heavily disturbed due to natives proximity, 2 kilometer away plots from the native community were moderately disturbed, while 4 kilometer away plots were under the disturbance regime from temporary settlers (Nomads). We have found all 10 studied medicinal plant species at 2 Km distance followed by 8 species found at 4 km distance. Economically important species such as Bergenia ciliata, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were completely absent near village. Similarly, density (8.72 n m-2) and species richness (8.2 n 40 m-2) were found significantly highest at 2 km distance than other locations. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that among forest stand structural variables, slope was the influencing variable related to the density of only Bergenia ciliata. In conclusions, moderate disturbance is associated to increase in the diversity of medicinal plants, while high anthropogenic pressures the otherwise. Hence, effective management strategies may be adopted to conserve such precious eroding flora. (author)

  8. Nomadic lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum revealed by comparative genomics of 54 strains isolated from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Caffrey, Brian E; Wels, Michiel; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Leulier, François

    2016-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to adapt to diverse environmental conditions is well-known. The process of bacterial adaptation to a niche has been linked to large changes in the genome content, showing that many bacterial genomes reflect the constraints imposed by their habitat. However, some highly versatile bacteria are found in diverse habitats that almost share nothing in common. Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of habitat. With the aim of unravelling the link between evolution and ecological versatility of L. plantarum, we analysed the genomes of 54 L. plantarum strains isolated from different environments. Comparative genome analysis identified a high level of genomic diversity and plasticity among the strains analysed. Phylogenomic and functional divergence studies coupled with gene-trait matching analyses revealed a mixed distribution of the strains, which was uncoupled from their environmental origin. Our findings revealed the absence of specific genomic signatures marking adaptations of L. plantarum towards the diverse habitats it is associated with. This suggests fundamentally similar trends of genome evolution in L. plantarum, which occur in a manner that is apparently uncoupled from ecological constraint and reflects the nomadic lifestyle of this species. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechain, X.A.

    1999-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  10. Iran's role in the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enav, Peter

    1999-08-01

    Contains Chapters on: The Central Asian pipeline puzzle; What's at stake - Central Asian oil supply and world oil demand to 2015; Non-Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports - assessing the alternative; Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports; Iran's hydrocarbon development strategy - in conflict with Central Asia? US policy and Iran; Iran and the Russian role in Central Asia; The Iranian impact on Central Asian hydrocarbon development. (Author)

  11. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  12. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  13. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  15. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  16. Calibration and evaluation of the FAO56-Penman-Monteith, FAO24-radiation, and Priestly-Taylor reference evapotranspiration models using the spatially measured solar radiation across a large arid and semi-arid area in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Crop evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main components in calculating the water balance in agricultural, hydrological, environmental, and climatological studies. Solar radiation (Rs) supplies the available energy for ET, and therefore, precise measurement of Rs is required for accurate ET estimation. However, measured Rs and ET and are not available in many areas and they should be estimated indirectly by the empirical methods. The Angström-Prescott (AP) is the most popular method for estimating Rs in areas where there are no measured data. In addition, the locally calibrated coefficients of AP are not yet available in many locations, and instead, the default coefficients are used. In this study, we investigated different approaches for Rs and ET calculations. The daily measured Rs values in 14 stations across arid and semi-arid areas of Fars province in south of Iran were used for calibrating the coefficients of the AP model. Results revealed that the calibrated AP coefficients were very different and higher than the default values. In addition, the reference ET (ET o ) was estimated by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56 PM) and FAO24-radiation methods by using the measured Rs and were then compared with the measured pan evaporation as an indication of the potential atmospheric demand. Interestingly and unlike many previous studies, which have suggested the FAO56 PM as the standard method in calculation of ET o , the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs showed better agreement with the mean pan evaporation. Therefore, the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs was used as the reference method for the study area, which was also confirmed by the previous studies based on the lysimeter data. Moreover, the accuracy of calibrated Rs in the estimation of ET o by the FAO56 PM and FAO24-radiation was investigated. Results showed that the calibrated Rs improved the accuracy of the estimated ET o by the FAO24-radiation compared with the FAO24-radiation using the measured

  17. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  18. Search for neutrino oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the decay channel: {tau}{yields}{rho} of the NOMAD experiment; Recherche d'oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} dans le canal de desintegration {tau}{yields}{rho} aupres de l'experience NOMAD au Cern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, N

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the {tau}{sup -} issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the {tau}{sup -} decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: {tau}{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup -} is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of {rho}. (A.C.)

  19. Search for neutrino oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the decay channel: {tau}{yields}{rho} of the NOMAD experiment; Recherche d'oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} dans le canal de desintegration {tau}{yields}{rho} aupres de l'experience NOMAD au Cern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, N

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the {tau}{sup -} issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the {tau}{sup -} decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: {tau}{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup -} is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of {rho}. (A.C.)

  20. Iran's nuclear lies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Beyond the antiaircraft gun emplacements and the early-warning radar systems, and shortly before you get to the high concrete walls topped with concertina wire that surround Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, there's a large sign announcing that the facility Welcomes guests. Like so much about die Iranian nuclear program, die signals are incongruous, contradictory and more then a little sinister. If Iran is to be believed, then the world has nothing to fear from its nuclear program. The United States, Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia and other oil producers nearby can rest easy, because the ayatollahs have no plans to threaten the region with atomic weapons or put nukes in the hands of terrorists. If Iran is to be believed, its only goal, repeated countless times, ratified in treaties and open to inspections, is to develop a completely independent ability to make nuclear ir fuel and use it to generate electricity. But neither die United States nor Eu rope nor the United Nations is ready simply to believe Iran, at least not easily, and not without verification. Its record of concealment and deceit about its nuclear program goes back at least 20 years. Its extensive uranium-enrichment program was uncovered in detail only two years ago; its promise of 'full disclosure' and 'transparency' since then has been something considerably less. The election of a new hard-line Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, last month raises still more questions about how far Tehran can be trusted about its nuclear programs, if at all. Iran's concealments have been as vast as a secret underground facility at Natanz that was being readied for 50,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium when it was exposed in 2002. They have seemed as small as some undeclared milligrams of plutonium from a research laboratory. In a cat-and-mouse game reminiscent of the lead-up to the Iraq invasion in 2003, the Iranians have claimed to be cooperating while throwing up what often seem to be petty obstacles in front

  1. Search on neutrino oscillation {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} in the NOMAD experiment; Recherches des oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l`experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-07-07

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e}. This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of {nu}{sub e} by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) < 1.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -3} (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 15 eV{sup 2} and gives the most constraining world limit on sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 20 eV{sup 2} 123 refs., 82 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  3. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Najm, Mahdi; Shaker, Morad; Fakhar, Mahdi; Mobedi, Iraj

    2017-09-01

    There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran. Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections. A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3%) were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum , and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109) and spring (21%, 23/109) (paculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

  4. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  5. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  6. The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Valeev, Albert; Litvinov, Sergei; Valiev, Ruslan; Akhmetova, Vita; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Tambets, Kristiina; Fedorova, Sardana; Barashkov, Nikolay; Khidiyatova, Irina; Mihailov, Evelin; Khusainova, Rita; Damba, Larisa; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Kivisild, Toomas; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Villems, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language's expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.

  7. Nomad rover field experiment, Atacama Desert, Chile 1. Science results overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Thomas, G.; Witzke, B.

    2001-04-01

    Nomad was deployed for a 45 day traverse in the Atacama Desert, Chile, during the summer of 1997. During this traverse, 1 week was devoted to science experiments. The goal of the science experiments was to test different planetary surface exploration strategies that included (1) a Mars mission simulation, (2) a science on the fly experiment, where the rover was kept moving 75% of the operation time. (The goal of this operation was to determine whether or not successful interpretation of the environment is related to the time spent on a target. The role of mobility in helping the interpretation was also assessed.) (3) a meteorite search using visual and instrumental methods to remotely identify meteorites in extreme environments, and (4) a time-delay experiment with and without using the panospheric camera. The results were as follow: the remote science team positively identified the main characteristics of the test site geological environment. The science on the fly experiment showed that the selection of appropriate targets might be even more critical than the time spent on a study area to reconstruct the history of a site. During the same operation the science team members identified and sampled a rock from a Jurassic outcrop that they proposed to be a fossil. The presence of paleolife indicators in this rock was confirmed later by laboratory analysis. Both visual and instrumental modes demonstrated the feasibility, in at least some conditions, of carrying out a field search for meteorites by using remote-controlled vehicles. Finally, metrics collected from the observation of the science team operations, and the use team members made of mission data, provided critical information on what operation sequences could be automated on board rovers in future planetary surface explorations.

  8. The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayazit Yunusbayev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language's expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM, an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01 compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.

  9. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti) neutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, V.V.; Popov, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino-quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (ν μ n → μ - p and νbar μ p → μ + n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ (νbar μ ) charged current cross section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are (σ qel )ν μ = (0.92 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 and (σ qel )νbar μ = (0.81 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.08 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. The measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in the previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. These results do not support M A measurements published recently by the K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations, which reported somewhat larger values, which are however compatible with our results within their large errors

  10. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  11. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  12. Dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms and body composition in undernourished pastoralists: An exploration of nutrition indices among nomadic and recently settled Ariaal men of northern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Peter B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food craving. In addition, the 7R minor allele of the DRD4 gene is at a higher frequency in nomadic compared to sedentary populations. Here we examine polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DRD4 genes with respect to body mass index (BMI and height among men in two populations of Ariaal pastoralists, one recently settled (n = 87 and the other still nomadic (n = 65. The Ariaal live in northern Kenya, are chronically undernourished and are divided socially among age-sets. Results Frequencies of the DRD4/7R and DRD2/A1 alleles were 19.4% and 28.2%, respectively and did not differ between the nomadic and settled populations. BMI was higher in those with one or two DRD4/7R alleles in the nomadic population, but lower among the settled. Post-hoc analysis suggests that the DRD4 differences in BMI were due primarily to differences in fat free body mass. Height was unrelated to either DRD2/TaqI A or DRD4/48 bp genotypes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the DRD4/7R allele may be more advantageous among nomadic than settled Ariaal men. This result suggests that a selective advantage mediated through behaviour may be responsible for the higher frequency of the 7R alleles in nomadic relative to sedentary populations around the world. In contrast to previous work, we did not find an association between DRD2 genotypes and height. Our results support the idea that human phenotypic expression of genotypes should be rigorously evaluated in diverse environments and genetic backgrounds.

  13. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  14. Celiac disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekzadeh R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until a few decades ago, celiac disease was considered to be essentially a disease of European people and to be very rare in Middle Eastern countries. During the last two decades, having met the criteria for the WHO general screening, the advent and application of novel serological assays used to screen for celiac disease and the use of endoscopic small bowel biopsy have led to increasing numbers of diagnoses of celiac disease in western countries. With this new data, our knowledge on both the clinical pattern and epidemiology of celiac disease has increased, and is now known to be a relatively common autoimmune disorder. Studies performed in different parts of the developing world have shown that the prevalence of celiac disease in this area is similar to or even higher than that in western countries. In fact, celiac disease is known to be the most common form of chronic diarrhea in Iran. However, contrary to common belief, celiac disease is more than a pure digestive alteration. It is a protean systemic disease, and, with a 95 percent genetic predisposition, has a myriad of symptoms including gastrointestinal, dermatological, dental, neurological and behavioral that can occur at a variety of ages. Monosymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, atypical (without gastrointestinal symptoms, silent and latent forms of celiac disease have been identified. In this study we review the epidemiology of celiac disease based on the studies performed in Iran and discuss its pathogenesis, the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the importance of its diagnosis and treatment in Iran.

  15. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  16. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  17. Russian Scientific Conference with International Participation “Nomadic Peoples of South Russia: Historical Experience and Modernity” (March 16-19, 2016, Elista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komandzhaev Aleksandr N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about the Russian scientific conference with international participation “Nomadic peoples of the South of Russia: historical experience and the present”, which was held in Elista from 16 to 19 March, 2016. The conference was held at Kalmyk State University with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Foundation. Over 80 representatives of Russian, Ukrainian, Kazakhstan and Chinese universities as well as more than 20 employees of scientific institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences took part in this productive conference. For the first time at a high scientific level and with the participation of Russian and foreign scientists, we investigated the issues of socio-economic, administrative, political and cultural development of the nomadic peoples of the South of Russia and their neighbours, ethnic history and contemporary ethnic processes, as well as various aspects of the cultural and spiritual component in a multi-ethnic processes. The article analyzes the work of the plenary session, which included the reports of scientists from Kalmykia, Buryatia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Astrakhan, Stavropol and Kazakhstan (city of Atyrau. The content of these reports represents the characteristics of nomadic economy and the economic development of the region (S.V. Vinogradov, A.N. Komandzhaev, the social composition (D.S. Kidirniyazov, military cooperation of the peoples of Russia (K.N. Maksimov historiographical issues (M.E. Kolesnikova, development of customary rights of nomadic peoples (A.U. Turdaliev, S.Zh. Dugarova and ethno-cultural processes (Kh.B. Mamsirov. Speech by the rector of the Kalmyk State University B.K. Salaeva was devoted to the analysis of the status and prospects of development of higher education in the south of Russia. In this article we analyzed the work of three sections on the example of the most typical reports. Reports of the breakout sessions touched upon various issues that

  18. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  19. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  20. A reward for patience and suffering – Ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Rossi, D.; Dentoni, D.

    2013-01-01

    A Reward for Patience and Suffering: Ethnomycology and Commodification of Desert Truffles among Sahrawi Refugees and Nomads of Western Sahara. This paper reflects on the role of ethnobiological knowledge and practices for refugees’ agency by focusing on the use and commodification of desert truffles

  1. Iran: Illusion, Reality, and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    populist backing to engage in something akin to class warfare. Clerical reformers and the middle class dominated the reform or Green movement. In addition...of the reformers and Green Movement ele- ments agree, making it a very difficult political anchor to give up. 184. Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the... Kegan Paul, 1984): 105. 234. David E. Sanger and William J. Broad, “Atomic Agency Says Iran Is Making Fuel at Protected Site,” The New York Times

  2. Demographic and Socio-Economic Situation of the Nomadic Population of Chervleny Yar Area in the Middle of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Nikitin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to identify the probable number of people who could have lived in the Don-Khoper interfluve in the middle of the 14th century. The results of demographic observations are based on natural resources, historical and archaeological realities of the region, special characteristics of nomadic economy. The area between the Don and the Khoper in the middle of the 14th century was an administrative unit of the ulus of Jochi (the Horde. The information about the territorial entity was preserved in the Metropolitan Charters for Sarai and Ryazan eparchies. Thanks to contemporary archaeological studies of this area, the nomadic and sedentary population can be claimed to have existed in that area in the middle of the 14th century. The nomadic territory of Chervleny Yar was bounded by the Don in the West, by Khoper in the East, by the mouth of the Hopper in the South, and by the most northern nomadic burials of that period. The information about natural resources of the steppes can be the basis of the demographic model designed. The data of ethnology, history, archaeology and ecology are used as a basis. The author analyzes the provision of the nomads with food as biological resources of the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper rivers. To calculate the probable number of the population, the author takes into account the health calorie intake, the average number of livestock per person in nomadic communities, the size of territory under consideration and the availability of forage for livestock. All the data for calculating the number of population are collected in the Table. Possible number of nomadic population of the Chervleny Yar in the middle of the 14th century can make 26,042–69,444 people, on the condition of the minimum possible yield and optimal load on the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper. The indicated number refers to the group of the population that never left the area between the Don and the Khoper and

  3. Search for νμ→ντ neutrino oscillations in the τ-→e-ν-bareντ decay channel in the Nomad experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, B.A.

    1998-05-01

    This work has been done in the framework of the NOMAD experiment at CERN. It is devoted to the ν μ → ν τ oscillation search in the τ - → e - ν-bar e ν τ decay channel. After a brief reminder on the neutrino properties and a short review of the experimental searches for neutrino oscillations, the description of the NOMAD experiment is given. The event reconstruction in the NOMAD experiment is presented with a special emphasis put on the electron identification and reconstruction. The track model used for the charged track reconstruction is described in details. The algorithm developed to treat electron trajectories in the NOMAD setup based on the sub-detector matching technique and the breakpoint search algorithm is presented. The quality of the reconstruction of the kinematics of neutrino interactions is illustrated. It is shown that the currently used detector simulation program cannot reproduce precisely the behaviour of the hadronic jet observed in the NOMAD real data especially in the plane perpendicular to the incoming neutrino direction. To overcome this problem simulations based on the real data are used whenever possible. The method based on the likelihood ratio is developed to discriminate a signal from a background. A selection of ν e CC candidates from the NOMAD '96 data set is performed using this technique. 1842 events are extracted with a selection efficiency of (38.5 ± 0.5%) while the background contamination is estimated to be less than 0.5%. This number of events is compatible with our expectations: 1891 ± 25(stat)± 95(syst). No sign of possible ν μ → ν e oscillation signal corresponding to the LSND solution in the large Δm 2 region is observed in the NOMAD data. Finally, the preliminary analysis of the ν μ → ν τ oscillation search in the τ - → e - ν-bar e ν τ decay channel using the data collected during the '96 run is presented. It is shown that currently the contribution of this decay channel to the sensitivity

  4. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  5. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, imports, demand, taxes. The Southern Oil Company has restored a production capacity of 1.8 Mb per day in the South of Iraq. In Iran, a joint venture between France and Iran (Iranian French Gas Co.) has been created and precedes the establishment of an european consortium for iranian gas import. In Jordan, in the natural gas field of Risha, a new discovery can give 633000 m 3 per day. Informations on petroleum exploration or production in Tunisia (Rhemoura oil field), in Syria (Dez ez Zor Petroleum Company), in Angola are also offered

  6. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  7. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Poostforoushfard

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European ::::union:::: (i.e., 50 μg/L, the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  8. Overcoming the Ulama: Globalizing Iran's Political Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brechbill, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    ..., or to participate more actively in the outside world. The religious establishment or ulama play the most significant role in the dichotomy between Iran's theocratic conservatism and the position Iran takes in globalization...

  9. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  10. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  11. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  12. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S J

    1994-01-01

    Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months. Suckling activity decreases significantly with increasing age of nurslings among both Gainj and Quechua, but not among Turkana. Earlier resumption of menses among Turkana women may be linked to the unpredictable demands of the pastoral system, which increase day-to-day variation in the number of periods of on-demand breast-feeding, although not in suckling patterns. This effect is independent of the age of infants. The short birth intervals of Turkana women, relative to those of the Gainj, may be related to early supplementation of Turkana nurslings with butterfat and animals' milk, which reduces energetic demands on lactating women at risk of negative energy balance.

  13. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or elsewhere in the EAR (See, e.g., § 742.8—Anti-terrorism: Iran... exceptions may be used for exports or reexports to Iran. (d) EAR Anti-terrorism controls. The Secretary of State has designated Iran as a country that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international...

  14. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  15. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun

  16. IAEA Statement After Iran Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Senior International Atomic Energy Agency officials met an Iranian delegation in Vienna today to seek agreement on a structured approach document to resolve outstanding issues relating to Iran's nuclear programme. The following is a statement by IAEA Deputy Director General Herman Nackaerts after the meeting: ''As announced by the Director General earlier this week, we met today to discuss the structured approach paper. The Agency team came to the meeting in a constructive spirit with the desire and intention of finalising the paper. We presented a revised draft which addressed Iran's earlier stated concerns. However, there has been no progress and, indeed, Iran raised issues that we have already discussed and added new ones. This is disappointing. A date for a follow-on meeting has yet to be fixed.'' (IAEA)

  17. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  18. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  19. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  20. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  2. On the relationship between Indian monsoon withdrawal and Iran's fall precipitation onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Iman; Rezazadeh, Parviz

    2017-09-01

    Indian monsoon is the most prominent of the world's monsoon systems which primarily affects synoptic patterns of India and adjacent countries such as Iran in interaction with large-scale weather systems. In this article, the relationship between the withdrawal date of the Indian monsoon and the onset of fall precipitation in Iran has been studied. Data included annual time series of withdrawal dates of the Indian monsoon prepared by the Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology, and time series of the first date of 25 mm accumulated precipitation over Iran's synoptic weather stations in a 10-day period which is the basis for the cultivation date. Both time series were considered in Julian calendar with the starting date on August 1. The studied period is 1960-2014 which covers 55 years of data from 36 meteorological stations in Iran. By classifying the withdrawal dates of the Indian monsoon in three stages of late, normal, and early withdrawals, its relation with the onset of fall precipitation in western, southwestern, southern, eastern, central, and northern regions of Iran was studied. Results demonstrated that in four out of the six mentioned regions, the late withdrawal of the Indian monsoon postpones the onset of fall precipitation over Iran. No significant relation was found between the onset of fall precipitation in central region of Iran and the monsoon's withdrawal date. In the western, southwestern, southern, and eastern regions of Iran, the late monsoon delays the onset of fall's precipitation; while in the south Caspian Sea coastal area, it causes the early onset of autumnal precipitation. The lag in onset of fall precipitation in Iran which is coordinated with the late withdrawal of monsoon is accompanied with prolonged subtropical high settling over Iran's plateau that prevents the southward movement of polar jet frontal systems. Such conditions enhance northerly wind currents over the Caspian Sea which, in turn, increase the precipitation in Caspian

  3. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?; Iran: quel sanctuaire nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-05-15

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  4. Diversity and frequency of Nocardia spp. in the soil of Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Mirnejad, R; Khoobdel, M

    2012-06-01

    To isolate and identify Nocardia spp. from soil in different regions of Isfahan province in the center of Iran. This study was conducted in 32 districts (16 cities and 16 villages) in Isfahan province during two years. A total of 800 soil samples from these regions were studied by using kanamycin. The isolated Nocardia species were examined by gram and acid-fast staining and were identified biochemically and morphologically. The frequency and distribution of Nocardia spp. were determined in relation to different factors such as soil pH and temperate climate. From 153 (19.1%) Nocardia isolates identified, Nocardia asteroids (N. asteroids) complex (45.5%) and Nocardia brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis) (24.7%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (2.2%), Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura actinomadura (each 1.7%) and Nocardia transvalensis (1.1%) and also unknown spp. (23.0%). In this study, most species (54.4%) of Nocardia, especially N. asteroides complex were isolated from soils with pH: 7.01-8, whereas in pH: 8.01-9 more N. brasiliensis was isolated. The most Nocardia spp. was detected from regions with semi-nomadic and temperate climate (41.1%). N. asteroids complex is more prevalent in Isfahan province and soil can be a potential source of nocardiosis infections. It is to be considering that climate and soil pH are involved in the frequency and diversity of aerobic Actinomycetes.

  5. Transition radiation detector of the experience NOMAD for the τ identification in the channel: τ- → e-ν-bare ντ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, T.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a work included in an experiment of research concerning neutrino oscillations in the channel ν μ → ν τ at CERN (NOMAD-WA96). This experiments need several detectors, and particularly a transition radiation detector with specific characteristics. The work consists, in a first part, in the study of neutrino physic and of the NOMAD detector. In a second part, the report presents how was implemented the transition radiation detector and how works the simulation of a such radiation. Then, the detector is optimised by comparing experiments and simulations; the thesis also presents how to control the detector. The last part talks about algorithms of pions-electrons separation. (TEC). 95 refs., 78 figs., 12 tabs

  6. The languages and peoples of the Müller Mountains; A contribution to the study of the origins of Borneo’s nomads and their languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Müller and northern Schwaner mountain ranges are home to a handful of tiny, isolated groups (Aoheng, Hovongan, Kereho, Semukung, Seputan, altogether totaling about 5,000 persons, which are believed to have been forest hunter-gatherers in a distant or recent past. Linguistic data were collected among these groups and other neighbouring groups between 1975 and 2010, leading to the delineation of two distinct clusters of languages of nomadic or formerly nomadic groups, which are called MSP (Müller-Schwaner Punan and BBL (Bukat-Beketan-Lisum clusters. These languages also display lexical affinity to the languages of various major Bornean settled farming groups (Kayan, Ot Danum. Following brief regional and particular historical sketches, their phonological systems and some key features are described and compared within the wider local linguistic setting, which is expected to contribute to an elucidation of the ultimate origins of these people and their languages.

  7. An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shamim; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Rahman, Mohammad Ziaur; Abedin, Jaynal; Zeidner, Nord; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype. The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA. Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tánara Ótó (Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan), a Medicinal Plant Used by the North-Yakutian Nomads

    OpenAIRE

    Olennikov, Daniil; Chirikova, Nadezhda; Okhlopkova, Zhanna; Zulfugarov, Ismayl

    2013-01-01

    Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used by the North-Yakutian nomads. From the crude ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant, 23 compounds (phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes) were isolated. Among these, eight compounds (salvianolic acid B, caftaric acid, cichoric acid, umbelliferone, aesculetin, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, isorhoifolin, and luteolin-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were detected for the first time in the ...

  9. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Political Action and Legitimate Domi- nation in Shi’ite Iran: Fourteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, A.D.," Archives Europ~ennes de Sociologie , Vol. 20, No...139 Archives Europ6ennes de Sociologie Bours, (moderate centrist) weekly in Persian, Tehran Conflict Studies, quarterly in English, London Enghelab

  10. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  11. Electrical connections: Iran's power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Attention is drawn to business opportunities in Iran, a middle-eastern country that is still in the process of rebuilding its power generating capacity in the wake of its eight-year-long war with Iraq. In reviewing opportunities to tap into this market , the article lists a number of factors that must be considered before rushing to follow the current. One of these factors is the U.S. trade embargo against Iran. Under this embargo Canada does not allow the re-export of goods of U.S. origin from Canada to Iran. The complex character of doing business in Iran by foreign companies must also be considered. Nevertheless,, those who are well prepared to face the restrictions and are willing to take the time to learn about the 'Iranian way' may receive considerable help from the Export Development Corporation, including financing and insurance on a case-by-case basis. The Canadian government's program for export market development also offers direct financial assistance to Canadian exporters in an effort to reduce the risk of entering a foreign market. The Canadian Embassy in Tehran can also provide useful advice and assistance. There is also http://exportsource.gc.ca., Team Canada Inc.'s on-line resource that may be consulted for export information

  12. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN; Etude de la production de particules charmees via les interactions de neutrinos dans l'experience nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechain, X.A

    1999-06-25

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  13. Production of strange neutral particles and measurement of the polarization of {lambda} in the NOMAD experiment at CERN; Etude de la production des particules neutres etranges et mesure de la polarisation du {lambda} dans l'experience NOMAD au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, C

    2000-05-01

    The experiment NOMAD (CERN) is dedicated to the study of the neutrino-nucleon interaction. In these interactions many strange particles are produced: particularly K{sub s}{sup 0}, {lambda} and {lambda}-bar that are more easily detectable and this work is dedicated to them. The study of the polarization of {lambda} allows to go back to the measurements of spin transfer that are not well known. The identification of strange particles is difficult, 2 methods have been used in this work: likelihood ratios and {alpha}-asymmetry method. Once neutral strange particles were identified, their production rate (global and differential) have been made out, K{sup *{+-}}, and {sigma}{sup *{+-}} resonances and the decay of {xi} have been revealed. The second part of this work deals with the measurement of {lambda} polarization. The quality of the reconstruction of events and the cumulated statistics data allowed to give an accurate value of {lambda} polarization. A thorough study of the transverse polarization has been made and we see a dependence of the transverse impulse of {lambda} on the hadronic jet similar to that observed in hadronic collisions.

  14. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Darric M

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Iran-Iraq War as a lens through which to examine Iran during a stressful conventional conflict, the research illustrates a number of characteristics and trends still representative of the regime today...

  15. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Iran, 4Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashahd, Iran. * Corresponding .... places such as forest areas, rangelans and roadsides. .... geographical distribution are helpful to conservation ... Iran tourism, a complete source.

  16. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-9/11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  17. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-September 11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  18. Internal Dynamics in Iran. Iran, between Sanctions, Destruction, and Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian-Thiebaut, Azadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian rulers, including reformists and conservatives, are unanimous concerning the priority of obtaining nuclear technology, for the Islamic regime. In this context, the United States wants to contemplate all options, including military action, but they are emphasizing the diplomatic solution, on condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment program. Their position does not favor a way out of the Iranian crisis. However, the proposal for an unconditional negotiation between the United States and Iran would enable Iranian rulers not to lose face vis-a-vis Iranian, Arabic, and Muslim public opinion in light of their declaration to stand their ground and not succumb to Western pressure. This would also pave the way for a solution to avoid nuclear proliferation and instability in the Middle East

  19. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, David

    2014-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program

  20. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the ?-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, ? -chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iran...

  1. The social nature of environmental knowledge among the nomadic WoÉ - aaÉ"e of Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Schareika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral nomads such as West Africa's WoÉ - aaÉ"e are renowned for the impressive environmental knowledge they apply to successfully raise animal herds in arid and variable environments. We looked at such herders' knowledge not as based on individual learning and expertise but as ultimately social in the sense that it is formed, made available, and linked to pastoral decision making in the public and interactive space of permanent talking, discussing, and negotiating among peers. Drawing on theoretical ideas from science and technology studies, a number of concrete social situations of information management and pastoral decision making were explored in detail to reveal the distinctly social character of WoÉ - aaÉ"e knowledge. Special emphasis has been given to the institutional framework of knowledge exchange; the blending of moral values and empirical facts in particular statements of knowledge; the dialogic and collaborative nature of information procurement and assessment; and the contingency of decisions reached after lengthy rounds of discussion among herders.

  2. Production properties of K*(892) vector mesons and their spin alignment as measured in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, A; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; Do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C; Juget, F; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Renò, R; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Samoylov, O; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V; Vannucci, F; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zei, R; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2006-01-01

    First measurements of K*(892) mesons production properties and their spin alignment in nu_mu charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions are presented. The analysis of the full data sample of the NOMAD experiment is performed in different kinematic regions. For K*+ and K*- mesons produced in nu_mu CC interactions and decaying into K0 pi+/- we have found the following yields per event: (2.6 +/- 0.2 (stat.) +/- 0.2 (syst.))% and (1.6 +/- 0.1 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (syst.))% respectively, while for the K*+ and K*- mesons produced in nu NC interactions the corresponding yields per event are: (2.5 +/- 0.3 (stat.) +/- 0.3 (syst.))% and (1.0 +/- 0.3 (stat.) +/- 0.2 (syst.))%. The results obtained for the rho00 parameter, 0.40 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.03 (syst) and 0.28 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.03 (syst) for K*+ and K*- produced in nu_mu CC interactions, are compared to theoretical predictions tuned on LEP measurements in e+e- annihilation at the Z0 pole. For K*+ mesons produced in nu NC interactions the measured r...

  3. Bose-Einstein correlations in charged current muon-neutrino interactions in the NOMAD experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.C.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, B.D.; Zaccone, H.; Zei, R.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2004-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied, with high statistics, in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with the NOMAD detector at CERN. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov-Podgoretskii phenomenological parametrizations. The Goldhaber parametrization gives the radius of the pion emission region R G =1.01±0.05(stat) +0.09 -0.06 (sys) fm and for the chaoticity parameter the value λ=0.40±0.03(stat) +0.01 -0.06 (sys). Using the Kopylov-Podgoretskii parametrization yields R KP =2.07±0.04(stat) +0.01 -0.14 (sys) fm and λ KP =0.29±0.06(stat) +0.01 -0.04 (sys). Different parametrizations of the long-range correlations have been also studied. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal comoving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions is observed. The high statistics of the collected sample allowed the study of the Bose-Einstein correlations as a function of rapidity, charged particle multiplicity and hadronic energy. A weak dependence of both radius and chaoticity on multiplicity and hadronic energy is found

  4. Iran irritates and puzzles the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author analyses political and economic situation in the Iran. Iran is endangered by economic sanctions and military attacks on nuclear facilities, the president threatens by retributive military attacks. Situation in Iran is compared with Iraq. Perspectives of application of political and economic embargo against Iran are discussed. USA and co-adjuster would probably meet the Russian or Chinese veto. On the international markets or on the bilateral level the good volition to disable to Iran the sale of its oil and natural gas would by scarcely expected. Iran exports from 2.5 to 3 million barrels of oil daily. It is impossible to substitute Iran essentially. The country is the fourth biggest exporter of oil in the world and has the second biggest stocks of oil after Saudi Arabia. Iran is endangered by the fact that big question mark will stay to hang above nuclear program. The part of uranium is imported from African countries like Gabon and Niger through France and the sanctions of UN would stop this import. Iran has its own uranium fields, even which belongs to the largest in the world. However, Iran cannot exploit them effectively without help of western companies. Nuclear program, which is supported by big hope and sources from the country, probably collide with unexpected barriers. Even if UN Safety Council would not confirmed anti-Iran sanctions, the seven states that produce nuclear technologies would stop their sale to Iran. It would freeze its civilian and military nuclear program from a few years or some decades

  5. Israel and Iran: A Dangerous Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and Knesset view the Islamic Republic as “a bitter ideological enemy that is deter- mined to bring about the physical annihilation of Israel”; only...entirely different set of values. . . . Iran sends children into mine fields. Iran denies the Holocaust. Iran openly calls for Israel’s destruction...compromise on sovereignty by having U.S. troops deployed here.” Quoted in Barbara Opall -Rome, “U.S. to Deploy Radar, Troops In Israel,” Defense News

  6. Will Iran Give up its Nuclear Project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbert, Simond de

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015 an agreement on Iran's nuclear program was reached. However, the restrictions imposed upon Tehran are less strict than the objectives set by the Security Council. Many analysts have doubts about Iran's sincerity and think that time is on Iran's side. Shifting strategic balances in the Middle East, possible leadership changes within the Iranian regime, and the resolve of the international community will all impact on the program's future

  7. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.

  8. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  9. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  10. Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar Hasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. Methods This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated. Results A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls. There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04–5.97. The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000. Conclusion The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher

  11. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gerber

    2012-01-01

    Iran, once the state which, in the midst of political turmoil and military conflict among its Arab neighbours, enjoyed an era of unprecedented economic prosperity and social stability under the administration of the Shah - was suddenly plunged in 1978 into a cultural crisis whose central theme was the common Islamic faith of otherwise diverse groups with disparate political and ideological aspirations. The Iranian revolution, however, was never a merely regional affair, although it started ag...

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Iran is on the southern flank of the Alpine-Himalayan mountain system and has within its extensive boundaries rocks ranging from crystalline metamorphics and igneous rocks of Precambrian age to sediments of Tertiary - Pleistocene age, some of which could be considered as potentially favourable for uranium deposits. The search for uranium started about 1959 and in the following years some 40 radioactive anomalies and a small number of uranium occurrences were identified. In 1977 the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran greatly expanded its exploration activities and contracted for 895,000 line kilometres to be flown by three contractors in an aerial spectrometric survey designed to cover almost the two fifths of the whole country. The follow-up of this survey will continue for several years. Purely on the basis of its size (1,648,004 km 2 ), its several favourable host rock areas, its location on the flank of the Alpine-Himalayan system and the relatively small amount of systematic exploration coverage completed to date the Speculative Potential could be placed in the 50,000 - 100,000 tonnes category. (author)

  13. Identification of New Aflatoxin B1-Degrading Bacteria from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Sangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. nomius, A. tamari, and A. pseudotamarii. AFB1 biodegradation is the most important strategy for reducing AFB1 in plant tissues. Bacteria can deactivate and biodegrade AFB1 for effective detoxification of contaminated products. The present study investigated the efficiency of AFB1 degradation by soil bacteria from the Southern Khorasan Province in Eastern Iran by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography during 2014–2015. Methods: DNA was extracted from AFB1-degrading isolates by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the 27f and 1492r general bacterial primers and the sequences were used to identify the isolates based on their similarity to Gene Bank sequences of known bacterial species. Results: We isolated five strains from four species of AFB1-degrading bacteria from Birjand plain, including Bacillus pumilus, two isolates of Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloace, which had AFB1-degrading activities of 88%, 78%, 61%, 58%, and 51%, respectively. Conclusion: We provide the first demonstration of AFB1 degradation by B. pumilus in from Iran and the first report identifying O. pseudogrigonens and E. cloace species as having AFB1-degrading activity.

  14. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohebali

    2013-09-01

    northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus, Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero- epidemiologi­cal of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines.

  16. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (? Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early forms of Ancyrodella rotundiloba . It helps to compare our biozones to those of global stratotype in southern France. A new species, Polygnathus hojedki n. sp. is described here. New range is suggested for P. praepolitus .

  17. The state of the environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekavat, S M

    1997-06-01

    This article describes environmental conditions in Iran including air pollution, pesticide pollution, soil depletion and erosion, water pollution, natural resource loss, lack of appropriate waste management, lead poisoning, and desertification. Environmental policy and implementation is described under the Shah and the Islamic Republic. Iran is beset with interrelated problems of environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, and population growth. Sustainability is being undermined at the cost of future generations. In 1995, Iran had a population of 67 million and a growth rate of 3.6%. Population is expected to exceed 100 million by the year 2000. The country is having difficulty in maintaining its current infrastructure, housing, food, and educational facilities. Competition for admission in higher education discourages women. Women with lower levels of education results in continued supremacy of men over women, more polygamy, and a lower quality of life for women. Iran was food self-sufficient in 1970, and exported its surplus. Today, Iran may be permanently dependent on food imports. Iran has abundant oil reserves, natural gas, copper, lead, and marketable items. Exchanging natural resources for food and technology has time and resource limits. Iran needs monetary assistance from wealthy nations. Population growth leads to increased demand for infrastructure and resources. Iran has signed many international environmental agreements and has enacted detailed environmental policies and regulations, but actual enforcement is lacking.

  18. Modernization and Consanguineous Marriage in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Benjamin P.; Hirschman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Used data on 4,667 women from the Iran Fertility Survey to examine trends and social correlates of consanguineous marriage. Found modest increase in proportion of marriages between cousins in Iran from 1940s to 1970s. Results suggest that modernization may be eroding social bases on consanguinity, whereas increased availability of cousins may lead…

  19. Community Tracking in a cMooc and Nomadic Learner Behavior Identification on a Connectivist Rhizomatic Learning Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aras BOZKURT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on connectivism, connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs and rhizomatic learning by examining participant interactions, community formation and nomadic learner behavior in a particular cMOOC, #rhizo15, facilitated for 6 weeks by Dave Cormier. It further focuses on what we can learn by observing Twitter interactions particularly. As an explanatory mixed research design, Social Network Analysis and content analysis were employed for the purposes of the research. SNA is used at the macro, meso and micro levels, and content analysis of one week of the MOOC was conducted using the Community of Inquiry framework. The macro level analysis demonstrates that communities in a rhizomatic connectivist networks have chaotic relationships with other communities in different dimensions (clarified by use of hashtags of concurrent, past and future events. A key finding at the meso level was that as #rhizo15 progressed and number of active participants decreased, interaction increased in overall network. The micro level analysis further reveals that, though completely online, the nature of open online ecosystems are very convenient to facilitate the formation of community. The content analysis of week 3 tweets demonstrated that cognitive presence was the most frequently observed, while teaching presence (teaching behaviors of both facilitator and participants was the lowest. This research recognizes the limitations of looking only at Twitter when #rhizo15 conversations occurred over multiple platforms frequented by overlapping but not identical groups of people. However, it provides a valuable partial perspective at the macro meso and micro levels that contribute to our understanding of community-building in cMOOCs.

  20. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafinejad, Javad; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rassi, Yavar; Nozari, Jamasp; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ranjbar, Abdolmajid; Zeinali, Danial

    2014-06-01

    To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province. This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums of 10 358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn't any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  1. The Status of Human and Animal Fascioliasis in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased during last few decades due to the appearance of new emerging and re-emerging foci in many countries. Iran, as the most important focus of human disease in Asia, has been included among six countries known to have a serious problem with fascioliasis by WHO. Various aspects of the disease in Iran are discussed in this review. Methods: This narrative review covers all information about human and animal fascioliasis in Iran, which has been published in local and international journals from 1960 to 2014 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct. Results: During the period of the study the infection rates of 0.1% to 91.4% was noted in various livestock. Despite the higher infection rates of livestock in southern areas in past decades, human disease has been mostly encountered in northern Provinces especially in Guilan. Recent studies indicate noticeable decrease in prevalence rates of veterinary fascioliasis in Iran, however the prevalence rates of fascioliasis in livestock in northern Provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran seem to remain at a higher level in comparison to other parts. New foci of the disease have also been reported recently. Conclusion: While the prevalence of animal fascioliasis has decreased during last decades, human fascioliasis emerged as a public health problem in the country. The validity of new foci of human fascioliasis needs complementary standard studies. PMID:26622287

  2. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rahimi-Esboei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections. Results: A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3% were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum, and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109 and spring (21%, 23/109 (p<0.05. Conclusion: The high occurrence of Corynosoma infection in G. aculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

  3. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency...

  4. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  5. A critical review of Iran's buyback contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, Willem J.H. van; Mazraati, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Iran's oil and gas industry requires investments of US$ 15 billion in the short term and over US$70 billion in the medium term. Iran tries to interest international oil companies (IOC) in investing in Iran's oil and gas business by offering buyback contracts. Under a buyback contract an IOC invests and when production starts, the field is handed over to the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) or one of its representatives. The IOC gets its costs and an agreed upon profit paid out of the oil and/or gas gross profits, assuming the field produces as agreed upon and the international energy prices are high enough. According to the Iranian government, the buyback contract contains sufficient incentives for an IOC to invest in Iran. The IOCs, however, disagree. They claim that they solely bare the risks in a buyback contract, whereas the Iranian counterpart receives all windfall profits. Furthermore, the IOCs claim that the utilisation of Iran's oil and gas reserves will be sub-optimal if they are not involved in optimising long-term recovery. In this paper, we investigate these claims and show that they are partly correct. Given Iran's need for investment capital, Iran might have to change its policy

  6. First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD SHARIF RANJBAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moradi M, Kamrani E, Shokri MR, Ranjbar MS, Hesni MA (2009 First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 34-37. Two species of hard corals including Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskal 1775 (Faviidae and Coscinaraea monile (Forskal 1775 (Siderastreidae were collected from the south of Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran in the late of 2008. These species were previously reported from southern Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Southeast Africa and Indo-Pacific. The literature review on the distribution of these two species revealed that these species were firstly recorded from the Persian Gulf. These findings further emphasize the high diversity of coral fauna in the Iranian waters of the northern Persian Gulf.

  7. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  8. Patient's rights charter in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of patient's rights in healthcare, special attention has been given to the concept of patient's rights by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian patient's rights charter has been compiled with a novel and comprehensive approach. This charter aims to elucidate rights of recipients of health services as well as observing ethical standards in medicine. This paper presents the Iranian patient's rights charter. Based on a study done from 2007 to 2009, the charter has been finalized through an extensive consultation involving all stakeholders, patients, physicians, nurses, lawyers, patient associations and health policy makers. The developed charter was adopted by the Ministry of Health in December 2009. Iranian patient's rights charter has been formulated in the framework of 5 chapters and 37 articles including vision and an explanatory note. The five chapters concern right to receiving appropriate services, right to access desired and enough information, right to choose and decide freely about receiving healthcare, right to privacy and confidentiality, and finally right to access an efficient system of dealing with complaints which have been explained in 14, 9, 7, 4 and 3 articles, respectively.  The paper concludes that, adopting the patient's rights charter is a valuable measure to meet patient's rights; however, a serious challenge is how to implement and acculturate observing patient's rights in practice in our healthcare system in Iran.

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  10. A model investigation of annual surface ultraviolet radiation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabziparvar, A.-A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some concern regarding solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth,s surface because of its biological hazards affecting living organisms. Although the geographical distribution of ground-based UV network is relatively good in some continents,but over Asia, the number of UV instruments are not sufficient for meteorological and biological purposes. Iran, as an Asian country, is also suffering from the lack of UV monitoring network with the exception of one ground-based UV spectrophotometer site (Brower III) at Esfahan. Using a complex radiative transfer model and various meteorological data (for 8 years) such as total column ozone, cloudiness, surface albedo, surface air pressure, relative humidity, visibility and daily total solar radiation (TSR), the geographical distribution of annual integrated biological surface UV irradiances such as UVB, erythema and cataracts are calculated. The comparison is made for cloud-free and all-sky conditions for eight selected cities distributed from the southern tip of the country (25 N-60 E) to the northern border (39 N-48 E). It is shown that the difference between the annual UV at south and north in all-sky condition is larger than the differences in cloud-free condition. The ratio of some biological UV irradiances at southern cities to the same component at northern cities shows a factor of two and more which is quite significant. The possible reasons which might cause such differences are discussed

  11. Crystal in Iran: Methamphetamine or Heroin Kerack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, methamphetamine use has dramatically increased in Iran while there is a crucial misunderstanding about the colloquial words related to methamphetamine among health providers, policy makers, clinicians, scholars and people in the community. The word Crystal refers to methamphetamine in some parts of Iran while in some other parts of the country, Crystal refers to a high purity street-level heroin which is called Kerack and its abuse is epidemic. Methamphetamine and heroin Kerack are different drugs in Iran. Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug while heroin Kerack is an opioid. Health providers especially clinicians and emergency medicine specialists should consider colloquial words that Iranian drug users apply. Special training courses should be designed and implemented for clinicians in Iran to inform them about methamphetamine and its frequently used colloquial words in the community. This issue has important clinical and health implications.

  12. IAEA Expert Team Returns from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A senior IAEA expert team is returning from Iran after two days of discussions with Iranian officials held on 20 and 21 February 2012. The meeting followed previous discussions held on 29 to 31 January 2012. During both the first and second round of discussions, the Agency team requested access to the military site at Parchin. Iran did not grant permission for this visit to take place. Intensive efforts were made to reach agreement on a document facilitating the clarification of unresolved issues in connection with Iran's nuclear programme, particularly those relating to possible military dimensions. Unfortunately, agreement was not reached on this document. 'It is disappointing that Iran did not accept our request to visit Parchin during the first or second meetings', IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said. 'We engaged in a constructive spirit, but no agreement was reached'. (IAEA)

  13. L'Iran mobilise des scientifiques

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel

    2005-01-01

    An Open Letter to the General Secretary of UNO circulates in the laboratories of CERN. This letter is to protest against the tension between Iran from one part, and USA and Europe on the other part (½ page)

  14. Iran plans world's fourth biggest nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Power requirements of projected power generation to 1992, and fuel reserves, in Iran are submitted. The current nuclear programme is outlined. 34000 MWe of nuclear power is planned for the end of the century. (U.K.)

  15. Iran, the bomb and the nations resignation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Th.

    2006-04-01

    In this book, the author analyzes the dangerous nuclear game that Iran has started with the rest of the international community. The injunctions against Teheran restraining him to cease its secret activities, hidden to international inspectors since 18 years, have never encountered any success. Since spring 2006, the knowledge gained about the Iranian activities leaves no doubt about the military ambitions of Teheran. Everybody is now in the expectation: Iran first hopes to win this political defiance, Europe has to demonstrate that multilateralism is not a good way to always postpone decisions, Russia has to make a clear choice in favour of non-proliferation, and the USA have to adopt a policy which answers Iran's violation of its international commitments. All these actors have their respective vision of the problem but all have also their share of responsibility in this situation with Iran

  16. Iran. Nuclear crisis: towards an overrun?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author first shows that the Iranian crisis is a failure of the struggle against nuclear proliferation as Iran seems to possess the technical and scientific abilities to produce nuclear weapons on a medium term. He also notices that this crisis is characterised by a deadlock of legal mechanisms of control of the Iranian nuclear programme: despite UN resolutions and sanctions, the IAEA will not be able able to visit Iranian facilities until Iran decides to enter negotiations again, and the decision by the UN of military actions seems not very likely, at least because of the opposition of China and Russia. In the second part, the author analyses the strategic and geopolitical stakes of the Iranian crisis: the will of Iran to become a regional leader and to counterbalance the Israeli nuclear deterrence, differences of regional interests between western countries, domestic evolutions in Iran. According to the author, both parties share a common interest in a smooth crisis recovery

  17. Iran's 'Risk-Taking' in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahram, Chubin

    2008-01-01

    Assessing any state's intentions is a difficult undertaking - especially at a specific moment in time. When a state is considered hostile, its behaviour erratic, and its system opaque, what is difficult under normal circumstances becomes nearly impossible. It may thus often seem prudent to attribute the worst of intentions to such states, but this can create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Iran with its revolutionary pretensions, fiery rhetoric and nuclear ambitions, is a case in point, since it is particularly difficult to 'read'. Located in the centre of a geo-politically sensitive and conflict-driven area, Iran is in a position to influence - positively or otherwise - the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus, the Middle East and South Asia. This influence may furthermore be expanding as a result of the weakening of Iraq and Lebanon, divisions among the Palestinians, and the more general rise of the Shi'i across the broader region. Add to this the ambiguous aims of Iran's nuclear programme and the shadow this has already thrown across the region, and the need to assess Iran's intentions accurately appears crucial. Here, Iran's past behavior may provide some help, especially when it comes to Iran's proclivity for risk taking - provided the acquisition of a nuclear capability does not alter Iran's intentions or behavior so as to make the past irrelevant. Some commentators believe that Iran's ideology and past behaviour suggest that a nuclear-capable Iran will be inclined to take on a high level of risk, without concern for the potential costs of this recklessness, and that Iran may perhaps even welcome the risks involved. By contrast, the recent National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), a composite of US intelligence agency estimates, has concluded that Iran's 'decisions are guided by a cost-benefit approach' and therefore 'may be more vulnerable to influence' than they had previously (i.e.2005) judged. These divergent views broadly reflect the division between those who believe

  18. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  19. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as befo...

  20. Geopolitics. Plea for a new Iran policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, K.

    2008-01-15

    According to the author it is time to go to the roots of the US-Iranian crisis: the historical wrongs committed by the West against Iran and the ongoing policy of confrontation the USA is bent on. We must end all sanctions and strive for reconciliation with Iran. It would make the world a safer place, and give a great boost to global oil and gas supplies.

  1. Taxonomic Evaluation of the Greater Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in Iran Inferred from the Mitochondrial D-Loop Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Saeed; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2017-08-01

    To examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop gene of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of Iran. Twenty-two published D-loop sequences from Europe (Switzerland, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, and Tunisia), and Anatolia (south, west, and east Turkey) were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular genetic analyses revealed remarkable variation among populations of R. ferrumequinum. Two major clades with strong support were identified within the greater horseshoe bat. One of these clades consists of individuals of R. ferrumequinum from Iran and eastern Turkey, and is further subdivided into two subclades. A second clade includes samples from western Turkey and Europe. The two subclades from Iran and Turkey and the second clade from western Turkey and Europe represent three diagnosable categories, which most probably warrant three subspecies for the species. Thus, based on genetic differences, it is clear that two subspecific populations are found in Iran: R. f. irani (southern Iran) and R. f. proximus (northern Iran).

  2. Trauma care system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar Moussa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The high burden of injuries in Iran necessitates the establishment of a comprehensive trauma care system. The purpose of this paper is to de- scribe the current status of trauma system regarding the components and function. Methods: The current status of trauma system in all components of a trauma system was described through ex- pert panels and semi-structured interviews with trauma spe- cialists and policy makers. Results: Currently, various organizations are involved in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries, but an integrative system approach to trauma is rather deficient. There has been ongoing progress in areas of pub- lic education through media, traffic regulation reinforcement, hospital care and prehospital services. Meanwhile, there are gaps regarding financing, legislations and education of high risk groups. The issues on education and training stan- dards of the front line medical team and continuing educa- tion and evaluation are yet to be addressed. Trauma regis- try has been piloted in some provinces, but as it needs the well-developed infrastructure (regarding staff, maintenance, financial resources, it is not yet established in our system of trauma care. Conclusions: It seems that one of the problems with trauma care in Iran is lack of coordination among trauma system organizations. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries necessitates an organized approach to prevention and management of trauma in the context of a trauma system. Key words: Emergency medical services; Trauma centers; Wounds and injuries

  3. Search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} neutrino oscillations in the {tau}{sup -}{yields}e{sup -}{nu}-bar{sub e}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay channel in the Nomad experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, B.A

    1998-05-01

    This work has been done in the framework of the NOMAD experiment at CERN. It is devoted to the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation search in the {tau}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{nu}-bar{sub e}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay channel. After a brief reminder on the neutrino properties and a short review of the experimental searches for neutrino oscillations, the description of the NOMAD experiment is given. The event reconstruction in the NOMAD experiment is presented with a special emphasis put on the electron identification and reconstruction. The track model used for the charged track reconstruction is described in details. The algorithm developed to treat electron trajectories in the NOMAD setup based on the sub-detector matching technique and the breakpoint search algorithm is presented. The quality of the reconstruction of the kinematics of neutrino interactions is illustrated. It is shown that the currently used detector simulation program cannot reproduce precisely the behaviour of the hadronic jet observed in the NOMAD real data especially in the plane perpendicular to the incoming neutrino direction. To overcome this problem simulations based on the real data are used whenever possible. The method based on the likelihood ratio is developed to discriminate a signal from a background. A selection of {nu}{sub e} CC candidates from the NOMAD '96 data set is performed using this technique. 1842 events are extracted with a selection efficiency of (38.5 {+-} 0.5%) while the background contamination is estimated to be less than 0.5%. This number of events is compatible with our expectations: 1891 {+-} 25(stat){+-} 95(syst). No sign of possible {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillation signal corresponding to the LSND solution in the large {delta}m{sup 2} region is observed in the NOMAD data. Finally, the preliminary analysis of the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation search in the {tau}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{nu}-bar{sub e

  4. Iran's petrochemical industry : status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazayeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information, current status and prospects for Iran's petrochemical industry with particular reference to Iran's National Petrochemical Company (NPC), one of the fastest growing chemical producers and exporters in the world. According to Chemical Marketing Associates Inc. (CMAI), NPC will become the second largest commodity chemical producer in the world by 2015, ranking only behind Dow Chemical. Product categories include chemicals and aromatics; fertilizers; polymers; feedstocks and gas. Opportunities for cooperation with North America were also identified. Iran's domestic markets were shown to be well developed downstream petrochemical industries producing a broad range of industrial and consumer goods. Iran's foreign markets include Asia (66 per cent), Middle East (25 per cent), and Europe (9 per cent). This presentation examined Iran's comparative advantage in the further development of its petrochemical/chemical industries. Some details of NPC's organizational structure were also provided, along with production, domestic sales, exports and ongoing expansion and development projects. Remarks on the projected and potential growth in NPC's position in the world markets were included with reference to potential for foreign participation and investment into the petrochemical industry in Iran. tabs., figs

  5. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  6. Squalius namak, a new chub from Lake Namak basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaefi, Roozbehan; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-09-19

    Squalius namak, new species, from the endorheic Lake Namak and Kavir basins in Iran, is distinguished from the species of the genus Squalius in the Persian Gulf and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a wide and thick symphysial knob on the lower jaw, a convex posterior anal-fin margin, a bold, dark-grey or brown, roundish or crescent-shaped blotch at the posterior tip of each flank scale and orange caudal-, anal- and pelvic-fin rays in life. Squalius namak is also characterized by four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.

  7. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  8. Nomads and Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    The dissertation describes and analyses Fluxus acivities in Germany, Denmark and Holland during the period 1962-66. Its protagonists are Tomas Schmit, Wolf Vostell and Joseph Beuys (Germany), Arthur Køpcke, Eric Andersen and Henning Christiansen (Denmark) and Willem de Ridder and Wim T. Schippers...... artists and being together as the result of a work of art. Both modes are defined with the help of the alternative organisational form that Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari describe in the Nomadology (1986) as the "War Machine". The word "infrastructure" in the subtitle of the dissertation refers...... to a general tendency in post-World War II art to create infrastructures - in the work of art as well as in other products (communal activity, book projects, various organisational forms) - that link artist and audience in a system of distribution and exchange....

  9. Acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months of the nomadic population in Hadaleala district, Afar region, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Woldu, Wondwoson; Bitew, Bikes Destaw

    2018-02-07

    Acute malnutrition to be a major health burden in the world, particularly in the developing world. Acute malnutrition is associated with more than one third of the global disease burden for children. Malnourished children are physically, emotionally and intellectually less productive and suffer more from chronic illnesses and disabilities. The nature, magnitude and determinants of acute malnutrition are determined among the general populations; however, there is a lack of evidence in the nomadic communities. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude and factors associated with acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Hadaleala district, Afar Region. A total of 591 under-five children were included in this study, and subjects were recruited by the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and a simple anthropometric index so called mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with acute malnutrition on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p malnutrition was 11.8% (95% CI = 9.3, 14.8%). The highest prevalence (50%) of acute malnutrition occurred among children aged between 12.0-23.0 months. Childhood acute malnutrition was associated with the presence of two (AOR = 2.49, p childhood diarrheal disease (AOR = 2.72, p malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months was was higher than the national prevalence. The number of children in each household, drinking water sources, latrine availability, hand washing practice before food preparation and child feeding, childhood diarrheal disease, and child vaccination were identified as factors affecting the childhood acute malnutrition in the nomadic community. Protecting drinking water sources from possible contaminants, improving hand washing practices, utilization of latrine, preventing diarrheal diseases

  10. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Turko-Mongol Traditions in the “State of Nomadic Uzbeks” of Abu al-Khair Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article identifies the daily and political traditions in the Khanate of Abu al-Khair, which researchers traditionally call the “State of nomadic Uzbeks”. This State was created in the south of Western Siberia in the 1430’s and annexed by military means to the land of Shiban’s (the younger brother of Batu descendants. The overwhelming majority of researchers consider it as a Muslim State since its very foundation, substantiating their allegations by indication both on the reading of khutba in honor of Khan after he took the “throne of Sain Khan” and on the presence of the sheikhs and Sufis in his entourage. At the same time, the authority of Abu al-Khair had the strong support of nomadic elite of more than twenty tribes. Precisely this elite, its inquiries and interests, which were advocated on the nobility councils, formed the existing political and daily traditions. These traditions reflect the preservation of Turko-Mongol customs among nomadic populations. We can find analogies of these practices in the earlier customs among the precursors of post-Golden Horde State, i.e., in the Mongol Empire and the ulus of Jochi. Traditions of the Abu al-Khair’s Khanate represented a phenomenon of cultural inertia, which were restored in the conditions of Islamization and could become the adats. This effect is particularly significant in view of the specific attitude of Sufi tariqats to the phenomena of social life. In political terms, of particular importance among these was the restoration of the Toy and the related kurultay that could take place in accordance with the existing steppe (animals calendar. The khans restored the ritual of robes and belts’ distribution as the main mechanism for redeployment of posts and responsibilities among the steppe aristocracy. Military tradition was also focused on samples of the previous time, which was particularly manifested in the selection of wings and avant-garde. In the course

  11. When and where to move: Dynamic occupancy models explain the range dynamics of a food nomadic bird under climate and land cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Downs, Colleen T

    2018-01-01

    Globally, long-term research is critical to monitor the responses of tropical species to climate and land cover change at the range scale. Citizen science surveys can reveal the long-term persistence of poorly known nomadic tropical birds occupying fragmented forest patches. We applied dynamic occupancy models to 13 years (2002-2014) of citizen science-driven presence/absence data on Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus), a food nomadic bird endemic to South Africa. We modeled its underlying range dynamics as a function of resource distribution, and change in climate and land cover through the estimation of colonization and extinction patterns. The range occupancy of Cape parrot changed little over time (ψ = 0.75-0.83) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Yet, there was considerable regional variability in occupancy and detection probability increased over the years. Colonizations increased with warmer temperature and area of orchards, thus explaining their range shifts southeastwards in recent years. Although colonizations were higher in the presence of nests and yellowwood trees (Afrocarpus and Podocarpus spp.), the extinctions in small forest patches (≤227 ha) and during low precipitation (≤41 mm) are attributed to resource constraints and unsuitable climatic conditions. Loss of indigenous forest cover and artificial lake/water bodies increased extinction probabilities of Cape parrot. The land use matrix (fruit farms, gardens, and cultivations) surrounding forest patches provides alternative food sources, thereby facilitating spatiotemporal colonization and extinction in the human-modified matrix. Our models show that Cape parrots are vulnerable to extreme climatic conditions such as drought which is predicted to increase under climate change. Therefore, management of optimum sized high-quality forest patches is essential for long-term survival of Cape parrot populations. Our novel application of dynamic occupancy models to long-term citizen

  12. Tsunami Risk Assessment Modelling in Chabahar Port, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar, M. R.; Mohammadi, H.; Sharifi, M. A.; Pirooz, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The well-known historical tsunami in the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) region was generated by the earthquake of November 28, 1945 in Makran Coast in the North of Oman Sea. This destructive tsunami killed over 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan and India, caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran and Oman. According to the report of "Remembering the 1945 Makran Tsunami", compiled by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO/IOC), the maximum inundation of Chabahar port was 367 m toward the dry land, which had a height of 3.6 meters from the sea level. In addition, the maximum amount of inundation at Pasni (Pakistan) reached to 3 km from the coastline. For the two beaches of Gujarat (India) and Oman the maximum run-up height was 3 m from the sea level. In this paper, we first use Makran 1945 seismic parameters to simulate the tsunami in generation, propagation and inundation phases. The effect of tsunami on Chabahar port is simulated using the ComMIT model which is based on the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST). In this process the results are compared with the documented eyewitnesses and some reports from researchers for calibration and validation of the result. Next we have used the model to perform risk assessment for Chabahar port in the south of Iran with the worst case scenario of the tsunami. The simulated results showed that the tsunami waves will reach Chabahar coastline 11 minutes after generation and 9 minutes later, over 9.4 Km2 of the dry land will be flooded with maximum wave amplitude reaching up to 30 meters.

  13. TSUNAMI RISK ASSESSMENT MODELLING IN CHABAHAR PORT, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Delavar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The well-known historical tsunami in the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ region was generated by the earthquake of November 28, 1945 in Makran Coast in the North of Oman Sea. This destructive tsunami killed over 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan and India, caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran and Oman. According to the report of "Remembering the 1945 Makran Tsunami", compiled by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO/IOC, the maximum inundation of Chabahar port was 367 m toward the dry land, which had a height of 3.6 meters from the sea level. In addition, the maximum amount of inundation at Pasni (Pakistan reached to 3 km from the coastline. For the two beaches of Gujarat (India and Oman the maximum run-up height was 3 m from the sea level. In this paper, we first use Makran 1945 seismic parameters to simulate the tsunami in generation, propagation and inundation phases. The effect of tsunami on Chabahar port is simulated using the ComMIT model which is based on the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST. In this process the results are compared with the documented eyewitnesses and some reports from researchers for calibration and validation of the result. Next we have used the model to perform risk assessment for Chabahar port in the south of Iran with the worst case scenario of the tsunami. The simulated results showed that the tsunami waves will reach Chabahar coastline 11 minutes after generation and 9 minutes later, over 9.4 Km2 of the dry land will be flooded with maximum wave amplitude reaching up to 30 meters.

  14. Geomorphologic Analysis of Drainage Basins in Damavand Volcano Cone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareinejad, M.

    2011-12-01

    Damavand volcanic cone is located in the center of the Alborz chain, in the southern Caspian Sea in Iran. Damavand is a dormant volcano in Iran. It is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Middle East; its elevation is 5619 m. The main purpose of this paper is recognition and appraisement of drainage basins in Damavand cone from geomorphic point of view. Water causes erosion in nature in different forms and creates diverse forms on the earth surface depending on the manner of its appearance in nature. Although water is itself a former factor, it flows under morphological effect of earth surface. The difference of earth surface topography and as a result water movement on it, cause the formation of sub-basins. Identification of region drainage basins is considered as one of the requirements for Damavand cone morphometric. Thereupon, five drainage basins were identified in this research by relying on main criteria including topographic contours with 10 m intervals, drainage system, DEM map, slope map, aspect map and satellite images. (Fig 1) Area, perimeter, height classification for classifying morphological landforms in different levels, hypsometric calculations, drainage density, etc. were then calculated by using ArcGIS software. (Table 1) Damavand cone, with a height more than 5,000 meters from the sea surface, has very hard pass slopes and our purpose in this paper is to identify the effect of drainage basins conditions in the region on erosion and the formation of morphological landforms by using SPOT, ASTER, satellite images as well as papering of data in GIS environment.

  15. Review of the Freshwater Sharks of Iran (Family Carcharhinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian W. Coad

    2015-01-01

    The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology, economic importance and conservation of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) in Iran are described, the species is illustrated, and a bibliography on this fish in Iran is provided.

  16. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at 202-219... sector of Iran and impose sanctions with respect to transport of crude oil from Iran and evasion of...

  17. Review of the Freshwater Sharks of Iran (Family Carcharhinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Coad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology, economic importance and conservation of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas in Iran are described, the species is illustrated, and a bibliography on this fish in Iran is provided.

  18. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  19. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  20. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  1. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Forbes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  2. High Availability Applications for NOMADS at the NOAA Web Operations Center Aimed at Providing Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Rutledge, G.; Wang, J.; Freeman, P.; Kang, C. Y.

    2009-05-01

    The NOAA Operational Modeling Archive Distribution System (NOMADS) is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA's official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC). The WOC is a web service used by all organizational units in NOAA and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including metadata. Data sets served in this way with a high availability server offer vast possibilities for the creation of new products for value added retailers and the scientific community. New applications to access data and observations for verification of gridded model output, and progress toward integration with access to conventional and non-conventional observations will be discussed. We will demonstrate how users can use NOMADS services to repackage area subsets either using repackaging of GRIB2 files, or values selected by ensemble component, (forecast) time, vertical levels, global horizontal location, and by variable, virtually a 6- Dimensional analysis services across the internet.

  3. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  4. THE REGRESSION MODEL OF IRAN LIBRARIES ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to drawing a regression model of organizational climate of central libraries of Iran?s universities. Methods: This study is an applied research. The statistical population of this study consisted of 96 employees of the central libraries of Iran?s public universities selected among the 117 universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health by Stratified Sampling method (510 people). Climate Qual localized questionnaire was used as research tools. For pr...

  5. Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Salavatizadeh; Feridoun NahidiAzar; Sara Salavatizadeh; Seyyed Hossein Salehi; Ahadollah Azami

    2012-01-01

    Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance ...

  6. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  7. Feasibility study of offshore wind turbine installation in Iran compared with the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafaeipour, Ali [Industrial Engineering Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energies have potential for supplying of relatively clean and mostly local energy. Wind energy generation is expected to increase in the near future and has experienced dramatic growth over the past decade in many countries. Offshore winds are generally stronger and more constant than onshore winds in many areas. The economic feasibility for utilization of offshore wind energy depends on the favorable wind conditions in the area. The present paper analyses offshore wind speed in global scale and also studies feasibility of introducing this technology for harnessing wind in Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea, Urmia Lake and Gulf of Oman. Wind speed data were collected from different sources. The ocean surface winds at a 10 m height from satellite passes as processed by NOAA/NESDIS, from near real-time data collected by NASA/JPL's Sea Winds Scatterometer aboard the QuikSCAT. Development of renewable energy is one of priority research goals in Iran. There are many installed wind turbines in suitable regions like Manjil and Binalood, but there has not been any offshore wind installation yet in Iran. It is suggested that policy makers to invest and pay more attentions toward harnessing renewable energy sources like offshore wind in Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern parts of Iran. (author)

  8. Communication Received from the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The text of a letter of 30 June 1992 from the Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran was transmitted to the Director General by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran and is, as requested in the letter, being circulated for the information of all Member States in Annex 1

  9. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2 is...

  10. Comparison of East African and Iran natural feeding condition based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this scientific work, we used soils from Zanzibar (Tansania region east African), Guilan (north of Iran), Tehran (center of Iran) and two type of soils from Zabol and Saravan regions (southeastern of Iran) in a condition simulated like atmospheric ones. The amounts of reduced Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, pH, Ec, carbohydrate and lipid ...

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux disease burden in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Alireza; Moradi, Ghobad; Elahi, Elham; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2015-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence of this disease ranges from 5% to 20% in Asia, Europe, and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran. Burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran was estimated for one year from 21 March 2006 to 20 March 2007. The definition was adjusted with ICD-code of K21. Incident-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) was used as the unit of analysis to quantify disease burden. A simplified disease model and DisMod II software were used for modeling. The annual incidence for total population of males and females in Iran was estimated 17.72 and 28.06 per 1000, respectively. The average duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease as a chronic condition was estimated around 10 years in both sexes. Total DALYs for an average of 59 symptomatic days per year was estimated 153,554.3 (60,330.8 for males and 93,223.5 for females).   The results of this study showed that reflux imposes high burden and high financial costs on the Iranian population. The burden of this disease in Iran is more similar to that of European countries rather than Asian countries. It is recommended to consider the disease as a public health problem and make decisions and public health plans to reduce the burden and financial costs of the disease in Iran.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the cave A5-3 in Arsanjan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Shinji; Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Modern humans (Homo-sapiens), who originated in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrated out of Africa about 130,000-60,000 years ago, dispersed in West Asia, and finally replaced Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. The region of West Asia, especially southern Iran, therefore, is very important to understand the evolution of modem humans. The Japan-Iran international research group, led by Professor Tsuneki of Tsukuba University, has investigated A5-3 cave in the Arsanjan archeological site in southern Iran since 2011. The sequence of layers in the cave is estimated to belong Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic period, based on the type of lithic artifacts excavated. In this study, we measured AMS- 14 C dates of charcoal fragments collected from the layers to reveal the chronology of the Arsanjan site. Charcoal samples collected from surface layer to Layer 4 in Trench E5 (total 6 layers) and Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 (total 10 layers) in the A5-3 cave were used. In Trench E5, charcoal samples of surface layer were dated at modern, samples of Layer 1 at 300-115 BP, samples of Layer 2 at 26,750-26,370 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 and samples of Layer 4 were older than 14 C-detection limit. In Trench B3, charcoal samples of Layer 2 were dated at 36,500-35,300 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 was dated at 36,890±190 BP. The layers in both Trenches E5 and B3 had been considered to correspond to each other base on the type of lithic artifacts, but the 14 C results show that the layers of Trench B3 are about 10,000 BP older than those of Trench E5. Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 belong to the early Upper Paleolithic period, contemporary with the result reported for AH IV layer in Ghar-e Boof archeological site at Dasht-e Rostam region, southwestern Iran. This study is the second finding of use of these micro-blades at 37,000 BP in Iran, following the Ghar-e Boof site. Layer 4 in Trench B3 includes Middle Paleolithic artifacts, and so 37,000 BP obtained for Layer 3

  13. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  14. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of... than a United States person, of any goods, technology or services that have been exported from the...

  15. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  16. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  17. Medical Science and Research in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Ebadifar, Asghar; Baradaran Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun

    2017-11-01

    During the last 3 decades, Iran has experienced a rapid population growth and at the same time the health of Iranian people has improved greatly. This achievement was mainly due to training and availability of health manpower, well organized public health network and medical science and research improvement. In this article, we aimed to report the relevant data about the medical science and research situation in Iran and compare them with other countries. In this study, after reviewing science development and research indicators in medical sciences with participation of key stakeholders, we selected 3 main hybrid indexes consisting of "Research and Development (R&D) expenditures," "Personnel in Science and Technology sector" and "knowledge generation" for evaluation of medical science and research situation. Data was extracted from reliable databases. Over the past decade, Iran has achieved significant success in medical sciences and for the first time in 2015 based on Scopus index, Iran ranked first in the number of published scientific papers and number of citations in the region and among all Islamic countries. Also, 2% of the world's publications belong to Iran. Regarding innovation, the number of Iranian patents submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) was 3 and 43 in 2008 and 2013, respectively. In these years, the number of personnel in science and technology sectors including post graduate students, researchers and academic members in universities of medical sciences (UMSs) have increased. The female students in medical sciences field account for about twothirds of all students. Also, women comprise about one-third of faculty members. Since 5 years ago, Iran has had growth in science and technology parks. These achievements were attained in spite of the fact that research spending in Iran was still very low (0.5% of gross domestic product [GDP]) due to economic hardships and sanctions. Medical science and research development has

  18. Economics of Gypsum Production in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the economics of gypsum production in Iran. The trend in production cost, selling price and profit are used to investigate economics of gypsum production. In addition, the multivariate time series method is used to determine factors affecting gypsum price in domestic market. The results indicated that due to increase in production and inflation, profitability of gypsum production has decreased during recent years. It is concluded that tariff and non-tariff barriers on mines machinery are among reasons for increasing production cost in Iranian gypsum mines. Decreasing such barriers could increase profitability of gypsum production in Iran.

  19. Implementation of nuclear energy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoodehnia, A.

    1977-01-01

    The method adopted by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOL), for implementing of the Iranian Nuclear Power Plant Program is outlined. The problem of manpower availability and industry participation are discussed. It is concluded that the turnkey project method, combined with the participation of national industries, the prior creation of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and advanced education and training of professional managerial and technical people, for the initial phase of implementation is helping AEOI to achieve the objective of its program. (author)

  20. Iran and Russia signed nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with signing of agreement between Russian Federation and Iran about nuclear fuel for nuclear power plant which is constructed. It was happened only three days after Bratislava Summit between presidents G. Bush and V. Putin. Supply of nuclear fuel should be started up to two months and the nuclear power plant with value eight hundred U. S. dollars should be commissioned next year. According to this agreement spent fuel will be sent back to Russia. After this manner it should be prevented the possibility that Iran will use spent fuel for producing of nuclear bomb

  1. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.

  2. Iran: a (re)emerging energy power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchard, D.; Therme, C.

    2007-01-01

    This document first describes the energy situation in Iran: the energy sector is insufficiently developed due to a lack of investments and the prudence of foreign groups, while ambitious gas pipeline projects take place; however, the important domestic consumption reduces the country's exportation capacity. The second part discusses about the domestic and international political context that is not propitious for energy development (internal tensions that paralyse decision making, international sanctions, etc.) while Iran try to by-pass these difficulties through its relations with Russia and Asia. Several scenarios are then proposed, linked to the possible evolutions of the nuclear litigation

  3. Fragrance contact allergy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, A; Nassiri-Kashani, M; Khatami, A; Gorouhi, F; Babakoohi, S; Montaser-Kouhsari, L; Davari, P; Dowlati, Y

    2010-12-01

    Fragrances are considered as one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. About 1-4% of the general population suffer from fragrance contact allergy (FCA). To determine the frequency of FCA and its clinical relevance in a sample of Iranian patients with history of contact and/or atopic dermatitis from January 2004 to December 2008. Standardized patch testing with 28-allergen screening series recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and European Standard Series was used at six dermatological clinics in Iran. Fragrance allergens comprised of fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae (MP; balsam of Peru), Lyral, turpentine and FM II. Fragrance contact allergy was detected in 7.2% of the patients. The frequency of positive reactions to FM I, MP and FM II were 3.7% (41/1105), 2.8% (32/1135) and 1.1% (3/267) respectively. 82.4% of the reactions to fragrance allergens were clinically relevant. The most common involved areas were hands (68.4%) and face (35.4%). Fragrance allergy predominantly affected women aged more than 40 years (P=0.008). Positive reaction to more than two allergens was significantly higher in FCA patients compared with other contact dermatitis patients (P<0.0001), and FM I, nickel and MP were the most frequent allergens in these patients. Despite less frequency of FCA in comparison with some European countries, its clinical relevance in Iranian patients seems to be high. It mostly affects the hands and the face predominantly in women aged more than 40 years. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  5. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  6. The Iran-1 and Iran-2 nuclear power station on the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altvater, W.

    1977-01-01

    Iran is a country with large oil reserves which, however, are exploited only very carefully because of ther importance for exports. In the light of this policy it was decided to make increasing use of nuclear energy for the country's electricity supply. Under the 8th Iranian five year plan, a total installed generating capacity of 56,000 MW is foreseen by 1993, of which 24,400 MW will be in nuclear power plants. This large construction program of nuclear power stations is implemented by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, which started negotiations with potent nuclear industries of various industrialized countries in early 1974. In November 1974, these discussions led to a letter of intent with the German Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for the turnkey erection of the first Iranian nuclear power plant, Iran-1 and Iran-2, with two units of 1,300 MW on a site on the Persian Gulf. The siting decision was taken in favor of the Halileh area located some 18 km from the seaport of Bushehr. Construction work on the site began in July 1975. The delivery dates are December 1, 1980 for Iran-1 and November 1, 1981 for Iran-2. (orig.) [de

  7. Estimation of organic carbon loss potential in north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, A.; Khormali, F.; Kehl, M.; Welp, G.; Scholz, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems requires techniques that accurately monitor changes in the amount, nature and breakdown rate of soil organic matter and can compare the rate of breakdown of different plant or animal residues under different management systems. In this research, the study area includes the southern alluvial and piedmont plains of Gorgan River extended from east to west direction in Golestan province, Iran. Samples from 10 soil series and were collected from cultivation depth (0-30 cm). Permanganate-oxidizable carbon (POC) an index of soil labile carbon, was used to show soil potential loss of organic carbon. In this index shows the maximum loss of OC in a given soil. Maximum loss of OC for each soil series was estimated through POC and bulk density (BD). The potential loss of OC were estimated between 1253263 and 2410813 g/ha Carbon. Stable organic constituents in the soil include humic substances and other organic macromolecules that are intrinsically resistant against microbial attack, or that are physically protected by adsorption on mineral surfaces or entrapment within clay and mineral aggregates. However, the (Clay + Silt)/OC ratio had a negative significant (p < 0.001) correlation with POC content, confirming the preserving effect of fine particle.

  8. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  9. Implementation of nuclear energy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satodehnia, Ahmad

    1977-01-01

    The method adopted by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) for implementation of the Iranian Nuclear Power Plant Program is outlined in this paper. The problems of manpower availability and industry participation are discussed. It is concluded that the method adopted for the initial phase of implementation is helping AEOI to achieve the objective of its program

  10. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  11. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  12. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  13. Abstract of articles from Iran's physics conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzabeygi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics presented at Iran's physics conference; thermodynamics and statistical physics,fundemental particles, nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, atomic physics and spectroscopy, electromegnatism and optics, lasers,acoustics, fluids, plasma and electric discharge, solid states, medical physics, environmental and food industries, meteorology, astrophysics, computation physics. Students projects was also represented at this conference. In summary form only

  14. Los “campamentos nómadas” en Italia, entre marginalización y negación de derechos (The "camps for nomads" in Italy between marginalization and denied rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Baldoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ilustrar un aspecto esencial de la “cuestión gitana” en Italia que tiene que ver con la existencia de los llamados “campamentos nómadas”. Más concretamente, después de trazar en clave histórica un resumen cualitativo y cuantitativo de los diferentes grupos presentes en Italia, se trata el problema de los “campamentos nómadas” a partir de la legislación regional que los ha establecido, mostrando la ambigüedad y las contradicciones de las políticas nacionales que no reconocen a la población gitana el estatus de minoría, pero al mismo tiempo la confinan en campamentos-gueto por su presunta actitud nómada. | The article aims to focus on the key aspect of the "Roma issue" in Italy which concerns the construction of so-called "camps for nomads". After briefly outlined a qualitative and quantitative framework of the different ethnic groups in Italy, it addresses the problem of "camps for nomads" starting from the regional legislation that instituted them, showing the ambiguities and contradictions of national policies that do not recognize to the Roma population the status of minority and, at the same time, enclose them in ghetto-camps on the basis of a presumed attitude to nomadism.

  15. Nuclear cardiology in Iran in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: few nuclear cardiology surveys, were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. the aim of this study is to perform a nuclear cardiology survey in iran. This may lead to better decision making and programming. Methods and materials: a questionnaire was sent by mail or e- mail to all nuclear medicine centers in iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice in year 2002. Also ownership of the center were studied using telephone interviews. Results: from 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. Among them, 27 centers were private clinics. There was 69 gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3 % with SPECT capabilities. it is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. About 85.5 % of centers perform cardiac studies routinely. Tc-99m-MIBI is used in more than 85.7% of the studies and some centers do not use Tl-201. Pharmacological stress with infusion of Dipyridamole is used in 56.7% of the studies and treadmill is the main type of physical exercise (40.2%). SPECT technique was used in 93% of studies including 2.5% of gated SPECT. About 64.3% of centers used two day protocol for imaging.Our study showed that about 65594 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99.2% of the studies. Considering population of the country(about 65 millions) nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.01 study/1000/year. For viability assessment, Tl-201 with rest redistribution technique is used in 10.7 % of cases while re-injection is used in 29.8% of cases and TNG augmented Tc-99m-MIBI injection at rest in 59.5%. Discussion: Activity of nuclear cardiology is about 15 studies/1000 population/year is USA and 2.2 studies/1000/year in Europe. Although it is not uniformly practiced in different countries of Europe, however the numbers indicate that nuclear cardiology is under utilized in Iran ( less

  16. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  17. Injury epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, Pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD age among these cases was 30 (17.4 years. Males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%, followed by falls (22.3%. In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%. Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%. The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%. The mean (SD Injury Severity Score (ISS was 8.1(8.6%. The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes.

  18. Communication dated 2 March 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency concerning the nuclear activities of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 2 March 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), attaching a letter dated 19 February 2007 addressed to the Director General from the Resident Representative of Iran concerning the nuclear activities of Iran. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, its attachment, are circulated herewith

  19. Medieval Nomads – Sixth International Conference on the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe (Szeged, Hungary, November 23–26, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Uzelac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixth international conference dedicated to the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe took place in the Hungarian city of Szeged on November 23-26, 2016. The organizer of the event was MTA-SZTE (“Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged” Turkological Research group of the departments of Altaic and Medieval Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Szeged. More than thirty scholars from Hungary, Russia, Turkey, China, Spain, Bulgaria and Serbia took part in this event. The working languages of the conference were English and Russian. Presented papers dealt with various aspects of the history of Eurasian nomads, from the Early Middle Ages up to the seventeenth century. Among them, several have been related to the history of the Golden Horde. The proceedings of the conference are planned to be published in 2017, as a separate volume of the journal Chronica – Annual of The Institute of History, University of Szeged. Considering the quality and variety of the papers, presented at this occasion, there is no doubt it will attract the attention of the growing community of researchers and scholars interested in the medieval history of Eurasia.

  20. The Y-chromosome haplogroup C3*-F3918, likely attributed to the Mongol Empire, can be traced to a 2500-year-old nomadic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, Xiyan; Li, Jiawei; Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Yongbin; Zhou, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The Mongol Empire had a significant role in shaping the landscape of modern populations. Many populations living in Eurasia may have been the product of population mixture between ancient Mongolians and natives following the expansion of Mongol Empire. Geneticists have found that most of these populations carried the Y-haplogroup C3* (C-M217). To trace the history of haplogroup (Hg) C3* and to further understand the origin and development of Mongolians, ancient human remains from the Jinggouzi, Chenwugou and Gangga archaeological sites, which belonged to the Donghu, Xianbei and Shiwei, respectively, were analysed. Our results show that nine of the eleven males of the Gangga site, two of the eight males of Chengwugou site and all of the twelve males of Jinggouzi site were found to have mutations at M130 (Hg C), M217 (Hg C3), L1373 (C2b, ISOGG2015), with the absence of mutations at M93 (Hg C3a), P39 (Hg C3b), M48 (Hg C3c), M407 (Hg C3d) and P62 (Hg C3f). These samples were attributed to the Y-chromosome Hg C3* (Hg C2b, ISOGG2015), and most of them were further typed as Hg C2b1a based on the mutation at F3918. Finally, we inferred that the Y-chromosome Hg C3*-F3918 can trace its origins to the Donghu ancient nomadic group.

  1. Lifestyles Based on Health Components in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Lifestyle is a way employed by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts. Health depends on lifestyle and is essential to preserve and promote health and improve lifestyle. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate lifestyle based on health-oriented components in Iran. Data Sources The research was conducted through E-banks including scientific information database (SID, Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Iran journal databank (Magiran and other databases such as Elsevier, PubMed and google scholar meta search engine regarding the subject from 2000 to 2014. Moreover, Official Iranian statistics and information were applied. The search terms used included lifestyle, health, health promoting behaviors, health-oriented lifestyle and lifestyle in Iran. Study Selection In the primary research, many papers were observed out of which 157 (120 in Farsi and 37 in English were selected. Data Extraction Following the careful study of these papers and excluding the unqualified papers, 19 papers with thorough information and higher relevance with the research purpose were selected. Results After examining articles based on the selected keywords and search strategies, 215 articles (134 in Farsi and 81 in English were obtained. Components of lifestyle and health are increasing in recent years; therefore, 8 (42% and 11 (58% articles were published during 2005 - 2010 and 2011 - 2014, respectively. Among them, there were 3 (16%, 8 (42%, 2 (10.5%, 2 (10.5% and 0 articles on the review of literature, descriptive-analytic, qualitative, analytic and descriptive articles, respectively. Conclusions Due to positive effect of healthy lifestyle on health promotion of individuals, it would be better for the government to provide comprehensive programs and policies in the society to enhance awareness of people about positive effects of health-oriented lifestyle on life and

  2. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, David [President, Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS), 236 Massachusetts Avenue, NE 305, Washington, DC 20002 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  3. Issue of Separation of Powers in Ancient Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotemporary public law in Iran cannot ignore the elements of its identity in the past. Although analysis of public law issue in ancient Iran, the most researchers to be considered so it is not easy to speak about separation of powers, the part of the body of public law in the Iran primary governments but this article constants on hypothesis which with think and assimilation in history of ancient Iran which can laying the groundwork of strengthening people rights and limitation of authority's governors with emphasis on three periods of governorship on ancient Iran .for example Hakhamaneshian, Ashkanian and Sasanian. This article intent to clear haw can in these periods, the primary figure and foundation of separation of powers and functions division in body of previous governments of Iran to be observed.

  4. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  5. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  6. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  7. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  8. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis in a recent controlled outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the south of Iran, December 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mojtaba Ghiasi, S

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock. In December 2008, a re-emerging outbreak...... of CCHF occurred in the southern part of Iran. Five people were hospitalised with sudden fever and haemorrhaging, and CCHF was confirmed by RT-PCR and serological assays. One of the cases had a fulminant course and died. Livestock was identified as the source of infection; all animals in the incriminated...

  10. On the Circumscription of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MOAZZENI, Hamid; ZARRE, Shahin

    2006-01-01

    In the course of preparing a revision of Isatis L. and its allies in Iran, we verified Isatis tinctoria L. among the material studied. Although it has been previously recorded for Iran, we give a more extensive description and a map of its distribution in Iran. A key to distinguishing this species from its allies and a discussion of the affinities in this group are provided.

  11. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  12. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2015-09-01

    when possible , with the aid of measuring microscope having accuracy 0.001 mm. One of the main goals of the detailed analysis on dental remains is obtaining the changes of teeth size during time and space (Mashkour and Hashemi 2008 . KS remains were recovered out by water sieving a column of three geological sieves with decreasing size of the mesh from top to bottom: 1 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.2 cm. Furthermore, all obtained information, which depending on the type of the skeletal remains has been entered in tables of excel for statistical analysis. Combination of morphometric with morphological studies and their identification keys were used to identify of the remains. Based on these methods, known examples in both archeological sites were belonging to Gerbillinae and Tatera indica species .     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   The effect of climate change on Tatera indica species was found for the first time in 1973 in the western regions of Iran and Dehloran plain (10,000-3800 years ago (Redding 1978 . This region has 200 to 399 mm of rainfall per year rivers, streams, marshes and channels which represents wet conditions in most of the year. In this area, in addition of Tatera indica species, Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Gerbillus nanus and Meriones crassus were identified. The remains of Tatera indica species with Nesokia and Mus were found also in Shahre shoukhteh in Sistan which wa s reported approximately 6000 years ago (Chaline and Helmer 1974 . Presence of Tatera indica in KS site and also in other central, western, southwestern and eastern Iran during the mid to late Holocene can be show that climatic and environmental conditions in the southern half part of the country has not changed from 9000 years to recent (Alley et al. 1997 .   Finding the dental and cranial remains of Tatera indica in TN of Mashhad and in another archeological site such as Kohandejh in north east of Iran (Nishapur can be indicate the change climate probably was intense in

  13. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    possible , with the aid of measuring microscope having accuracy 0.001 mm. One of the main goals of the detailed analysis on dental remains is obtaining the changes of teeth size during time and space (Mashkour and Hashemi 2008 . KS remains were recovered out by water sieving a column of three geological sieves with decreasing size of the mesh from top to bottom: 1 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.2 cm. Furthermore, all obtained information, which depending on the type of the skeletal remains has been entered in tables of excel for statistical analysis. Combination of morphometric with morphological studies and their identification keys were used to identify of the remains. Based on these methods, known examples in both archeological sites were belonging to Gerbillinae and Tatera indica species .     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   The effect of climate change on Tatera indica species was found for the first time in 1973 in the western regions of Iran and Dehloran plain (10,000-3800 years ago (Redding 1978 . This region has 200 to 399 mm of rainfall per year; rivers, streams, marshes and channels which represents wet conditions in most of the year. In this area, in addition of Tatera indica species, Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Gerbillus nanus and Meriones crassus were identified. The remains of Tatera indica species with Nesokia and Mus were found also in Shahre shoukhteh in Sistan which wa s reported approximately 6000 years ago (Chaline and Helmer 1974 . Presence of Tatera indica in KS site and also in other central, western, southwestern and eastern Iran during the mid to late Holocene can be show that climatic and environmental conditions in the southern half part of the country has not changed from 9000 years to recent (Alley et al. 1997 .   Finding the dental and cranial remains of Tatera indica in TN of Mashhad and in another archeological site such as Kohandejh in north east of Iran (Nishapur can be indicate the change climate probably was intense in 2,000 years ago in

  14. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the remaining parts of

  15. Iran and the United States: Recreating a Strategic Partnership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weynand, Gordon W

    2009-01-01

    Iran's geographical location, regional influence, large and well-educated population, extensive petroleum resources, and functioning theocratic democracy make it critical for the United States to seek...

  16. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the

  17. An evaluation of small businesses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad karimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.

  18. The state of radiation protection in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Historically, radiation protection in Iran can be related to when the first x-ray machine was applied for medical diagnosis. However, organized activities were started with the establishment of the Tehran University Nuclear Center (TUNC) in 1959, and within a broader scope when AEOI research reactor went into operation in 1967. In 1974, the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran was ascribed the responsibility for radiological safety and protection to the AEOI. Then this responsibility was assigned by AEOI to the Radiation Protection Department (RPD), as the national authority. The RPD's organization and functions have been divided into three main RPD divisions: Radiation Protection Control; Radiation Dosimetry Research and Development and Services; and Radiological Protection of the Environment

  19. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country.

  20. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. Conclusion: The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country. PMID:23555142

  1. Iran. Nuclear crisis: the continuous compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The author comments and discusses the content and implications of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action which has been adopted in July 2015 by the Republic of Iran and the members of the E3/EU+3 group. According to this text, a flexible normative and institutional framework is defined, according to which negotiation must prevail on the reinstatement of economic sanctions. While significantly lowering objectives related to non proliferation, this plan aims (through various arrangements which are discussed by the author) at maintaining Iran under the threshold of nuclear power. The author also comments various aspects related to the implementation of this Plan of Action, and outlines that they rely on the search for a continuous compromise: negotiations and involvement of international bodies are foreseen before application of sanctions

  2. IAEA Convenes Board Meeting on Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Full text: ''I welcome the recent announcement by the EU High Representative Catherine Ashton regarding the implementation of the Joint Plan of Action on the Iranian nuclear programme, which is to take effect as of 20 January. ''I have received a request from Iran and the E3/EU+3 that the Agency conducts monitoring and verification of nuclear-related measures in relation to the Joint Plan of Action. ''I have requested that a meeting of the Board of Governors be convened on 24 January, to consult with the Board regarding the request by Iran and the E3/EU+3 for the Agency to undertake monitoring and verification of nuclear-related measures in relation to the Joint Plan of Action.'' (IAEA)

  3. Socioeconomic inequality in hypertension in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mansooreh; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Asgari, Fereshteh; Alami, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89 400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n = 18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n = 16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension.

  4. Application of accrual accounting in Iran municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eamaeilzade Maghariee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Rahele Abdi

    2015-01-01

    Accrual accounting is a technique for recognizing expenses when incurred and revenue when earned rather than when payment is made or received. In the cash method of accounting, on the other hand, cash receipts and disbursements technique of accounting or cash accounting records revenue when cash is earned, and expenses when they are paid in cash. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effect of implementing accrual accounting in municipality of Amol, Iran. The surve...

  5. Climate indices of Iran under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    alireza kochaki; mehdi nasiry; gholamali kamali

    2009-01-01

    Global warming will affect all climatic variables and particularly rainfall patterns. The purpose of present investigation was to predict climatic parameters of Iran under future climate change and to compare them with the present conditions. For this reason, UKMO General Circulation Model was used for the year 2025 and 2050. By running the model, minimum and maximum monthly temperature and also maximum monthly rainfall for the representative climate stations were calculated and finally the e...

  6. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi; Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID), and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, ...

  7. Iran’s Strategic Intentions and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    89 International Defense Review, April 1993, pp. 282-283; International Defense Review, June 1993, p. 431. ජ One of these is a West German Seahorse ...must not overestimate the influence of secular Muslim Turkey or of theocratic Muslim Iran in the newly independent Central Asian republics. Turco...Central Asian republics like Tajikistan, spill-over effects of ethnic conflict," and the possibility of Turkish success in establishing influence in the

  8. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  9. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  10. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  11. Metaphor Analysis and Discursive Cycle of Iran's Foreign Policy: “Justice” through the lenses of US-IRAN Presidents

    OpenAIRE

    SADEGHI, Bahador; TABATABAI, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is twofold. It mainly aims at determining and defining different foreign policy discourses in Islamic republic of Iran as well as their developmental trend in the past three decades through explanation and elucidation of their particulars, components and nodal points. Actually, it seeks to explore what kind of discourses have been emerged in Iran's foreign policy during the lifetime of Islamic republic of Iran and what discursive developments have be...

  12. THE DILEMMA OF MULTILINGUALISM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a multilingual country with linguistic and cultural diversity. Minority languages such as Turkish, Kurdish, Baluchi and Arabic are spoken in Iran which constitutes part of the culture and ethnic identity. Iranian community is dominantly a bilingual community. Persian as an official language used as linguistic and cultural homogenization while minority languages are not used in education system. The controversy bilingual education and programs to serve language minority students is complex and puzzling for education authorities. On the other hand one of the challenges Iranian faces is how to reconcile conflicting perspectives of bilingual education regarding globalizing of English. Currently, most of parents prefer their children to learn English as it is the language of business, aviation and scientific research. In contrast according to Iran’s comprehensive scientific plan, Persian should be scientific language of the world in the near future. In this research, challenges, perspectives and solutions of bilingual education in Iran were analyzed. The results indicate that conflicting of minority, majority and international language is an important challenge and developing, promotion and expansion of Persian is a future outlook. Furthermore some suggestions and solutions to reconcile bilingual education were made.

  13. Statement on Iran by the IAEA Spokesperson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Full text: In December 2015, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano presented the Final Assessment on past and present outstanding issues regarding Iran’s nuclear programme to the IAEA Board of Governors. In the report, the Agency assessed that, before the end of 2003, an organizational structure was in place in Iran suitable for the coordination of a range of activities relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device. Although some activities took place after 2003, they were not part of a coordinated effort. The Agency’s overall assessment was that a range of activities relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device were conducted in Iran prior to the end of 2003 as a coordinated effort, and some activities took place after 2003. The Agency also assessed that these activities did not advance beyond feasibility and scientific studies, and the acquisition of certain relevant technical competences and capabilities. The same report stated that the Agency had no credible indications of activities in Iran relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device after 2009. Based on the Director General’s report, the Board of Governors declared that its consideration of this issue was closed. In line with standard IAEA practice, the IAEA evaluates all safeguards-relevant information available to it. However, it is not the practice of the IAEA to publicly discuss issues related to any such information. (author)

  14. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID, and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, and Iran to reach the related articles published up to 2016. The English and Persian articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, prospective, and case-control designs were selected. The Persian studies were then translated into English. The animal studies were not investigated. Results: The findings showed that nutrition and diet were associated with oral health. However, the majority of studies focused on evaluation of the relation between nutrition and dental caries. Further, a few studies were conducted on the association between nutrition and other oral problems such as periodontal disease or oral cancer. Moreover, the limited nutritional or dietary factors were investigated in the literature. Conclusions: Nutrition and diet are related to oral health and prevention of oral disease. Further studies are therefore recommended to evaluate the association between nutrition and oral health with considering various dietary or nutritional factors and different types of oral problems in Iran.

  15. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2009-03-01

    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  16. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmasi, M

    1994-01-01

    1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future.

  17. Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  18. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

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    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  19. Elderly Healthy Eating Diet-2005 Index Living in Urban Areas of Iran`s Markazi Province

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    Ali Aghanuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to assess elderly “healthy eating diet” -2005 (HED-2005 quality and its relationship to their socio-demographic variables in healthy subjects aged 60 years and over who live in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Methods & Materials: This study was a descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Data were obtained via a general questionnaire and three 24-hours recalls. Results: The mean of overall HEI-2005 was 54.08. Ninty-three point three percent (93.3% of subjects consumed grains, 70.9% fruits, 84.2% whole fruit, 47.9% vegetables, 12.7% dark-orange vegetables and legumes, 37% dairy products, 40% meats, 18.8% oils, 40% saturated fats, 1.8% sodium and 1.2% discretionary calories (from solid fat and added sugar in optimal levels. Besides, none of the elderly people had a sufficient intake of whole grains. The HEI-2005 total score enhanced along with the increases in education level (P<0.05, income (P<0.01 and TV watching time (P<0.05. But, age and the HEI-2005 total score had an inverse relationship (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because the diet quality of elderly people in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province is low, they will benefit from the improvement of their diet quality. Also, they need to increase intakes of whole grains, dark-orange vegetables and legumes and plant oils, and reduce intakes of sodium and their energy levels from saturated fat and simple sugar. It should be pointed out that the government can help with the achievement of these objectives through some plans such as promoting their literacy level, income and nutritional knowledge.

  20. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.