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Sample records for nomads southern iran

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Qashqai migrating nomads, southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Mostaghni; Davood Mehrabani; Farnaz Khademolhosseini; Seyed Jalil Masoumi; Fariba Moradi; Najaf Zare; Mehdi Saberi-Firoozi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in Qashqai migrating nomads with a different life style in Fars province, southern Iran. METHODS: In summer 2006, 748 Qashqai migrating nomads aged 25 years or more were enrolled using a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. A questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, lifestyle and GERD symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia, hoarseness and cough) as completed for each subject. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed in 717 subjects. The prevalence rate of GERD, defined as reflux occurring at least one time per week in the preceding year, was 33% (237 subjects). The prevalence was higher in older individuals (36.0% vs 28.9%, P < 0 . 0 5 ) a n d i n t h o s e w i t h o t h e r gastrointestinal complaints (51.0% vs 27.8%, P < 0.001), but not different in obese and non-obese subjects. It was also higher in those consuming fruits and vegetables more than once a week (36.2% vs 17.3%, P < 0.001). GERD had a positive correlation with smoking (42.1% vs 27.8%, P < 0.001), but a negative relation with non-alcoholic beverages. The association between GERD and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consumption was also significant (40.2% vs 25.4%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GERD (33%) is very high in Qashqai migrating nomads which may be due to a lower socioeconomic and educational level of these people and difference in the life style. Older age, frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking and NSAIDs are risk factors for GERD in this population.

  2. Frequency of Thalassemia, Iron and Glucose-6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Among Turkish Migrating Nomad Children in Southern Iran

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    Mehrabani D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferropenia and consequent iron deficiency anemia (IDA, β-thalassemia, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency are three main common hematological problems in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of these problems in Turkish migrating nomads in southern Iran. From June to October 2006, the blood sample of 152 Turkish migrating nomadic children including 79 (52% males and 73 (48% females were evaluated for iron indices and G6PD deficiency in southern Iran. The family history of thalassemia, favism, and signs and symptoms related to anemia of participants were determined. RBC count, different types of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, SI, TIBC and SF were measured immediately after blood sampling. Twenty-seven (17.7% children had serum ferritin (SF level <12 ng/dL, while this low serum ferritin level was similar in both genders. The low hemoglobin (Hb level had a statistical correlation with the low serum ferritin level. Among all participants, the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 7.2% which was more frequent in males compared to females (8.9% vs. 5.5%. Seven (4.6% children had Hb  3.5 g/dL; and the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was higher in female children compared with males (5.5% vs. 3.8%. The prevalence of IDA was 17.7%. Although this figure is less than the prevalence found in other developing countries (25-35%; but it shows that Turkish ethnic nomads in southern Iran are still behind the health statues in the industrialized countries (5-8%. The relatively high prevalence of β-thalassemia trait also is a major potential risk; and careful performance of Iranian thalassaemia program is highly suggested. It seems that G6PD deficiency is a prevalent disease in migrating Turkish nomads, and again establishment of educational programs, and investigation of dietary habits of Turkish migrating nomads on how and by whom the fava beans are consumed; seems to be a good way to prevent favism.

  3. Nomad Iconography on Tombstones from Luristan, Iran

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    Inge Demant Mortensen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Luristan in western Iran the nomad cemeteries are scattered apparently at random across the landscape. The history of these nomads is not very well known, and until a few years ago they were themselves largely illiterate. They have lived in areas which comprise some of the very isolated mountain valleys and plains in the central Zagros mountains, and untilrecently their rhythm of life was to a great extent determined by the changing seasons. In the interpretation of the images on Luristani tombstones, it may never be possible ,with certainty, to arrive at the correct interpretation of a motif. The signs and symbols on the tombstones are comparable to a code whereby messages are converted from one form of representation to another, which means that they have to be encoded in a form that the communicants can easily interpret. In a community sharing the same religion, cultural inheritance and social background, and living at a given time in particular area, this should present no problem. But if one or more of these elements are altered, the whole structural pattern and symbolic scheme of the community will be affected: as, for example, is clearly demonstrated by the forcible settlement of nomads in Luristan which has caused an abrupt discontinuation in the erection of pictorial tombstones. The more drastic the change, the quicker the transition of symbolic values into fossilized and sometimes incomprehensible fragments of a tradition.

  4. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  5. Participation and Participatory Development among the Kalhor Nomads of Iran.

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    Haidari, Shokrullah Hamd; Wright, Susan

    2001-01-01

    An ethnographic study of Kalhor nomads in Iran showed that the government's top-down approach to development and weak local institutions obscure the impact of technology on women and poor people. Despite rhetoric about participation, these groups are not consulted about their needs, priorities, and interests. (SK)

  6. Seroepidemiology of human brucellosis in nomads in a rural area of Iran

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    Ali Sharafi Chegeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the seroprevalence of brucellosis among nomads in Shoulabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 5 847 person took part by randomized cluster sampling and 312 of them with clinical feature of brucellosis were selected. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made with a standard tube agglutination test (STAT, Coombs test, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME test, and the results with titers equal 1:80 or more were considered positive. Results: The seroprevalnce of anti-Brucella titer was 29.5% for STAT, 29.9% for Coombs test and 21.1% for 2ME test. Overall, 92, 93 and 66 patients had titers of 1:80 or higher in STAT, Coombs test and 2ME test, respectively. Seroprevalence was more among males (54.3% than females (45.7%. There is statistical difference between seroprevalence of infection and age (P<0.05. Based on age group, 10-19 years age group was more affected (37%. Conclusions: This results confirmed the necessity of conducting comprehensive and scheduled program of seroprevalence survey, particularly in nomad area, which aims at reducing the incidence of brucellosis as well as to guide planning programs by decision makers to improve community health.

  7. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Southern Iran

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    Asadollah Habib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Phenylketonuria is a hereditary, autosomal recessivedisorder caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylaseor its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The purpose ofthe present study was to evaluate the incidence of this disorderin southern Iran.Methods: All the neonates born between 22/Dec/2004 and7/Sep/2007 were screened and their blood samples were testedby colorimetric and high performance liquid chromatographymethods to obtain a diagnosis of phenylketonuria.Results: Of the screened newborns (87091 females and 88143males 15 female and 13 male neonates were diagnosed definitelyas having phenylketonuria.Conclusion: The incidence of phenylketonuria in girls andboys was 1.7 in 10000 and 1.5 in 10000, respectively (mean:1.6 in 10000 in southern Iran (Fars province.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 137-139.

  8. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  9. Survey on ectoparasites of Aphanius sophiae (Cyprinodontidae) from Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Taghi Rahimi; Zeynab Gholami; Hamid Reza Esmaeili; Iraj Mobedi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infesation of Aphanius sophiae (A. sophiae) with ectoparasite for the first time from Iran as a little attention has been paid to parasitic infection of A. sophiae which is an native species found in the endorheic Kor River Basin, Fars Province, Southern Iran. Methods: A total of 70 A. sophiae (35 males and 35 females) were collected using dip net in May 2010 from Ghadamgah Spring-stream, Southern Iran. After fixation, the external surface of each fish was examined for ectoparasite through stereomicroscope.Results: Out of 70 fish specimens, two females (2.86%) were infected with three Lernaea spp. copepod or anchor worm. The ectoparasite prevalence rate, intensity and abundance were estimated 2.860, 1.500 and 0.043 respectively.Conclusion:This study reports infestation of A. sophiae by Lernaea spp. for the first time in Iran. Further parasitological investigations are required to determine ectoparasites of A. sophiae in different parts of Iran due to its importance and numerous epizootics occurring among the most important farmed fish in various parts of the world.

  10. Exercise-Induced Asthma in Asthmatic Children of Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fayezi, Abbas; Amin, Reza; Kashef, Sara; Yasin, Soheila Al; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a common illness, especially among children. Exercise-induced asthma is an important consideration, both as a factor, limiting physical activity of patients, and also as an indicator of poor long term control. We investigated pre-Valence of exercise-induced asthma in a group of asthmatic children living in southern Iran. Methods: We conducted treadmill exercise challenge test in 40 young asthmatic patients aged 6 to 18. After 8 minutes exercise to achieve 80% of maximum ...

  11. Hospital Mortality Associated with Stroke in Southern Iran

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    Afshin Borhani-Haghighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike the western hemisphere, information about stroke epidemiology in southern Iran is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the main epidemiological characteristics of patients with stroke and its mortality rate in southern Iran. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, hospital-based longitudinal study was performed at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th editions, for the period between 2001 and 2010. Demographics including age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and discharge destinations were analyzed in association with mortality. Results: 16351 patients with a mean age of 63.4 years (95% CI: 63.1, 63.6 were included in this analysis. Men were slightly predominant (53.6% vs. 46.4%. Forty-seven percent of the total sample was older than 65,17% were younger than 45, and 2.6% were children younger than 18. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days (95% CI: 6.2, 6.4. Among all types of strokes, the overall hospital mortality was 20.5%. Multiple logistic regression revealed significantly higher in-hospital mortality in women and children (P<0.001 but not in patients with low socioeconomic status or from rural areas. During the study period, the mortality proportions increased from 17.8% to 22.2%. Conclusion: In comparison to western countries, a larger proportion of our patients were young adults and the mortality rate was higher.

  12. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

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    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  13. Increased Guillain-Barre Syndrome Admissions in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    Seyed Taghi Heydari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an acute immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy usually after an incident. This study was performed to investigate the basic epidemiologic features of GBS in south of Iran.Methods: We studied consecutive patients with GBS in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz, southern Iran. Demographic characteristics of the subjects, i.e. age, sex, and length of hospital stay were extracted. Information regarding yearly admissions for the entire hospital was also gathered. The prevalence of GBS per 10,000 hospital admissions was calculated and stratified by sex and year. Yearly prevalence was compared using the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results: From January 2000 to December 2009, 389 (232 males and 157 females patients with GBS were admitted in our center. The mean age of patients was 29.8 ± 23.0 years and their mean length of hospital stay was 12.9 ± 11.6 days. The overall mortality rate was 6%. The ratio of admissions due to GBS to the total admissions was significantly higher in 2009, the year of an influenza A (H1N1 virus pandemic.Conclusion: There appears to be an increase in the incidence of GBS in Shiraz. This is in parallel with the increasing trend of some other autoimmune diseases.

  14. Epidemiology of prothrombin G20210A polymorphism in the Southern Iran

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    Mohadeseh Arabnejad

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Results of the present study might be important in understanding the distribution of PTH G20210A polymorphism in the Southern Iran. Minor allele frequency in this population is higher than in the Iranian and European population but similar to the prevalence in the Western Iran, Iranian Jews, American, Irish, Tunisian and Bahraini population.

  15. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of severe childhood ocular injuries in Southern Iran

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    Hamid Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Trauma is an important cause of childhood ocular morbidity in southern Iran. Playing with sharp objects is an important cause of ocular trauma in children, and most injuries can be prevented by careful supervision.

  16. The prevalence of pediculus capitis among the middle schoolchildren in Fars Province, southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Rasekhi Kazerouni, Akbar; Rahmati, Hashem; Neirami, Roxana Neirami; Bakhtiary, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children. In this study we assessed the prevalence of head pediculosis among the middle schoolchildren in the urban and rural areas of Fars province, southern Iran.

  17. Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Teferra Solomon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria, loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase

  18. Prevalence of stomach cancer in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, cancer of stomach is still the fourth common cancer and the second cause of mortality among all cancers affecting annually 870,000 subjects. This study aims to determine the frequency and the characteristics of gastric cancer in southern Iran. Materials and Methods: 10,800 of all cancers registered in Fars Hospital-based Cancer Registry were surveyed among which 574 cases were gastric cancer in both genders and all age groups. From January 2002 to December 2007, all hospital-based data were recorded according to International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O and registered cases included all invasive cancers in ICD-10 categories of C-00 to C-80 and all duplicate cases were eliminated. Results: Among all registered cancers, there were 574 cases of gastric cancer including 69.3% males. The mean age of patients was 58.1 ± 14.8 years, 25.4% with a history of in their first relatives and most of them were smokers (50.9% and from low socioeconomic class (45.5%. Metastasis was visible in 182 patients and majority of them underwent surgery (64.3%. The majority of gastric cancer patients were older than 50 years, smokers, low socioeconomic class, and female in favor of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Our results showed that in our area, treatment programs and health plans should focus on men, patients older than 50 years and with adenocarcinoma, smokers, and those in a low income level.

  19. Viral etiology of aseptic meningitis among children in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininasab, Ali; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Abbasian, Amin; Kadivar, Mohamad Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Aseptic meningitis refers to a clinical syndrome of meningeal inflammation in which bacteria cannot be identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The viral etiology and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis among children aged 2 months to 15 years in Shiraz, southern Iran were determined. From May 2007 to April 2008, 65 patients were admitted to the hospital with aseptic meningitis. Seven viruses, non-polio human enteroviruses, mumps virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Viruses were detected in 30 (46.2%) patients in whom non-polio human enterovirus and mumps virus were detected in 13 (43.3%) and 11 (36.7%), respectively. The remaining 6 (20%) of the cases were caused by HSV, VZV, HCMV, and HHV-6. Haemophilus influenzae and non-polio human enterovirus were detected in one patient simultaneously. Viral meningitis was found to be more frequent during spring and summer. The majority (66.6%) of the patients were treated in the hospital for 10 days and had received antibiotics in the case of bacterial meningitis. Rapid diagnosis of viral meningitis using PCR testing of CSF can help shorten hospitalization, and avoid the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  20. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran, Shiraz

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    Janati Mansour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery. Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention, excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran, Shiraz. Methods: From January 2001 to June 2007, medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated. The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy. Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study. Results: The study consisted of 37 patients, including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%, 35 stab wounds (94.6% and 1 (2.7% shotgun wound. The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37 and that in stab wound patients was 80%. The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival, 67% hypotensive, and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation. Paired sample test showed sig-nificant correlation between mortality and electrocardio-graphic changes, amount of retained blood in pericardium, clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation, as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound. Conclusion: Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of out-comes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries. Besides, gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality. Key words: Heart injuries; Wounds, penetrating; Heart arrest; Survival

  1. Personality characteristics and irritable bowel syndrome in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    Mousavinasab Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, and its definite etiology is still unclear. It has been shown that personality characteristics can affect the disease presentation and attitude of patient toward symptoms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the personality characteristics in patients with IBS in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the personality characteristics of 60 patients with IBS and 55 healthy persons were compared using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. The cases were selected from patients who were referred to the Mottahari clinic affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: The patients recorded the highest scores on the hypochondriasis and psychoasthenia scales. The scores of the patient on the scales of lie, infrequency, hypochondriasis, depression and hysteria showed significant elevation in comparison to those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores on clinical scales in male subjects were higher for psychopathic-deviate, paranoia and social introversion scales in comparison to the males in the control group. Female subjects recorded lower scores on the social introversion scale in comparison to the females in the control group. Male subjects also recorded a higher score on the psychopathic-deviate, paranoia, psychoasthenia and social introversion scales in comparison to females. Female subjects had a relatively higher score on the masculinity/feminity scale. Based on the clinical interview using DMS-IV criteria, the most prevalent symptoms were anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with IBS, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of these patients is recommended.

  2. Risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Shiraz, southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a healthy general population in relation to demographic, lifestyle and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz, southern Iran. METHODS: A total of 1978 subjects aged > 35 years who referred to Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and who completed a questionnaire consisting of 27 questions for GERD in relation to demographic, lifestyle and health-seeking behaviors were included in this study for a period of five months. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined.RESULTS: The prevalence of GERD was 15.4%, which was higher in females (17.3%), in rural areas (19.8%),and in illiterate subjects (21.5%) and those with a mean age of 50.25 years. The prevalence was significantly lower in subjects having fried food (14.8%), and fruit and vegetables (14.6%). More symptoms were noticed in subjects consuming pickles (22.1%), taking aspirin (21%)and in subjects with psychological distresses (27.2%)and headaches (22%). The correlation was statistically significant between GERD and halitosis (18.3%),dyspepsia (30.6%), anxiety (19.5%), nightmares (23.9%)and restlessness (18.5%). Their health seeking behavior showed that there was a significant restriction of diet (20%), consumption of herbal medicine (19%), using over-the-counter drugs (29.9%) and consulting with physicians (24.8%). Presence of GERD symptoms was also significantly related to a previous family history of the disease (22.3%).CONCLUSION: GERD is more common in females, rural and illiterate subjects and correlated with consumption of pickles, occurrence of headache, psychological distress,dyspepsia, halitosis, anxiety, nightmare and restlessness,and a family history of GERD and aspirin intake, but the correlation was negative with consumption of fat and fiber intake.

  3. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran,Shiraz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Janati; Shahram Bolandparvaz; Shirvan Salaminia; Hamed Ghoddusi Johari; Babak Sabet; Javad Kojuri

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery.Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention,excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran,Shiraz.Methods:From January 2001 to June 2007,medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated.The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy.Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study.Results:The study consisted of 37 patients,including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%),35 stab wounds (94.6%) and 1 (2.7%)shotgun wound.The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37) and that in stab wound patients was 80%.The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival,67% hypotensive,and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation.Paired sample test showed significant correlation between mortality and electrocardiographic changes,amount of retained blood in pericardium,clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation,as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound).Conclusion:Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of outcomes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries.Besides,gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality.

  4. Leaf-feeding Mycterothrips: two new species from southern Iran (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Kambiz; Alichi, Mahmood; Fekrat, Lida; Aleosfoor, Maryam; Alavi, Jalil

    2017-03-13

    Mycterothrips doostii sp. n. and Mycterothrips zagrosi sp. n. are described and illustrated from Fars province, southern Iran, on the basis of specimens collected on green leaves of Juglans regia and Amygdalus scoparia respectively. M. doostii is closely related to M. aureus and M. weii, whereas M. zagrosi resembles M. sanubari and M. glycines in color and structure.

  5. Nomad_Scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I investigate the concept of nomad_ scape in relation to the Kounta nomadic pastoralists, inhabiting the arid Hodh Ech Chargui province in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Through the application of Ingold’s dwelling perspective and Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of nomadology, I...

  6. Tin Aicha Nomad Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    The report details some aspects of the American Friends Service Committee's (AFSC) and the Mali government's cooperative rehabilitation project for nomad families along the shores of Lake Faguibine. Covering the years 1975-81, the report contains five sections. The introduction provides background information on nomads and the Sahel; drought,…

  7. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran) School Children in Relation to Height

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi; Zare, Marzie

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Methods Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls) who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic...

  8. Patterns of Uveitis at a Tertiary Referral Center in Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Rahimi; Ghazaleh Mirmansouri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the patterns of uveitis at Motahari uveitis clinic, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, a tertiary referral center in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Methods: All new cases of uveitis referred from June 2005 to July 2011 to our center were consecutively enrolled in the study. After taking a complete history of systemic and ocular diseases, all patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including determination of Snellen visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy,...

  9. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  10. Neonatal hearing screening program in Ahvaz, Southern Iran

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    Marzieh Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP established standards for neonatal hearing screening programs in 1999. The main purpose of this study was to achieve exact statistical data of this program in Ahvaz, Iran, and to compare these results with the standards of American Academy of Pediatrics.Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the data of neonatal hearing program in Ahvaz west health center from 2008 to 2011 were reviewed. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics.Results: From 25073 neonates, 25 had hearing loss. The false positive and referral ratio to the diagnosis stage were 2.6 and 0.48 percent, respectively. 92 percent of hard of hearing infants were diagnosed before three months of life.Conclusion: In comparison with the standards of American Academy of Pediatrics, all of the items, except two, were included completely or relatively complete. But, more efforts must be done to achieve the whole standards which are available.

  11. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia isolates from human in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, B; Ashrafmansori, A; Hatam, G R; Motazedian, M H; Asgari, Q; Mohammadpour, I

    2012-09-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human faeces in South of Iran were analyzed with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, based on the detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Among 205 faecal samples from microscopically diagnosed giardiasis patients, the gdh gene was amplified from 172 cases with a semi nested PCR assay and typed by RFLP analysis. Of the 172 positive samples, 128 (74.41%) were typed as assemblage AII, 30 (17.44%) assemblage BIII, 6 (3.49%) assemblage BIV and in 8 (4.66%) isolates, mixed assemblages AII and BIV were detected. Clinical features were available for 52 successfully typed cases and the possible correlation of Giardia assemblages and clinical symptoms was evaluated. Both assemblages caused similar illness, but assemblage AII was significantly more frequently associated with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Since these isolates, A and B, are of human origin, anthroponotic transmission of Giardia can be suggested for the route of infection in this region.

  12. Nomads of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Strigari, Louis E; Marshall, Philip J; Blandford, Roger D

    2012-01-01

    We estimate that there may be up to ~10^5 compact objects in the mass range 10^{-8} -10^{-2} solar mass per main sequence star that are unbound to a host star in the Galaxy. We refer to these objects as nomads; in the literature a subset of these are sometimes called free-floating or rogue planets. Our estimate for the number of Galactic nomads is consistent with a smooth extrapolation of the mass function of unbound objects above the Jupiter-mass scale, the stellar mass density limit, and the metallicity of the interstellar medium. We analyze the prospects for detecting nomads via Galactic microlensing. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will measure the number of nomads per main sequence star greater than the mass of Jupiter to ~ 13%, and the corresponding number greater than the mass of Mars to ~25%. All-sky surveys such as GAIA and LSST can identify nomads greater than about the mass of Jupiter. We suggest a dedicated drift scanning telescope that covers approximately 100 square degrees in ...

  13. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshandel, J. [Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The rationale behind Iran`s support for the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty being negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, is explained. The CTB is seen as crucial to nuclear non-proliferation, again supported by Iran. The Iranian nuclear energy programme exists, it is argued, for peaceful purposes only, despite international suspicions on weapons testing. Foreign policy too, it is argued, has favoured denuclearization of the region. With recent emnities with neighbouring states, and the USA, safeguards in treaties are a high priority. Iran argues for near-term security assurances and long term nuclear disarmament to remove the threat it perceives from the USA. No new states should be allowed to possess nuclear weapons and nuclear arsenals should be gradually eliminated, it is argued. (UK).

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Esophagitis in Southern Iran; A Single-Center Experience

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    Mozhgan Zahmatkeshan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of pediatric esophagitis in southern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-year period, from 2005 to 2009, in Nemazee Hospital, a tertiary healthcare center in Shiraz, southern Iran. We consecutively included all pediatric patients (<18 years who underwent endoscopy in our center and had pathology-confirmed diagnosis of esophagitis. Data regarding the patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and clinical findings were recorded using a questionnaire. All the patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy of the esophagus, and the findings were recorded in the questionnaire. Results: We studied 125 children, comprising 61 (48.8% girls and 64 (51.2% boys at a mean age of 6.6±5.5 years. Repeated vomiting was the prominent symptom in our series, with it being reported by 75 (60% patients, followed by fever in 35 (28%. Erythema (33.6%, esophageal ulcer (11.2%, and whitish patch (8.0% were the most common endoscopic findings, while reflux esophagitis (32.8%, chronic (6.4% and acute esophagitis (5.6%, and candida esophagitis (5.6% were the most common histological diagnoses. Only one (0.8% patient was diagnosed as having eosinophilic esophagitis, aspergillosis, and graft-versus-host disease. Conclusion: Reflux was the most common cause of esophagitis in the pediatric population of southern Iran. Contrary to previous reports, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis was far less than that estimated, while the prevalence of opportunistic infections was higher secondary to post-liver transplantation immunosuppression.

  15. Comparison of Anxiety and Depression in Laundered and Unlaundered Nomads of Ashori Family of Ghashghaie Community

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    A Mohamadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Non laundered nomad populations in Iran experience more adverse living circumstances than laundered populations, but there is little research regarding the prevalence of mental health disorders of them. This study investigated the prevalence of depression and anxiety in laundered versus unlaundered nomads. Materials & Methods: 95 people of unlaundered nomads and 86 people of laundered nomads from Ashori family of Ghasghaee were assessed using Hamilton anxiety rating scale and Beck depression rating scale. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using chi - square test. Results: The depression rate in unlaundered nomads included 33.7% normal, 29.5 % mild and 36.5 % moderate and severe, but in laundered nomads, 84.7% were normal, 8.2% were mild and 7.1% were moderate and severe. The difference is statistically significant. The anxiety rate in unlaundered nomads proved to be 43.2% normal, 38.9% mild and 17.9 % moderate and severe, but in laundered nomads 87.2% were normal, 7% were mild and 5.7% were moderate and severe. The difference is statistically significant too. Depression rate in married uneducated and female subjects were more than those in singles and males in both laundered and unlaundered nomad. Anxiety rate in married uneducated and male subjects were more than those in singles and females in both laundered and unlaundered nomad. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety rates in unlaundered nomads were more than those in laundered nomads and these rates are higher than the national rates. These rates were more in married, group aged over 30 and in those with low education.

  16. Cerebral Palsy in 1-12 Year Old Children in Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    INALOO, Soroor; KATIBEH, Pegah; GHASEMOF, Masroor

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive CNS disorder due to an insult to the growing brain, usually occurring in the first two years of life. During the recent years, its etiology has been changed; perinatal and postnatal insults are not considered as its main causes in developed countries any more. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of CP in children in southern Iran. Materials & Methods Overall, 200 children with CP aged 1-12 yr old referring to Pediatric Neurology Clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran between 2012 and 2013 were enrolled. In addition, 200 healthy age and sex-matched children were considered as the control group. Exclusion criteria were isolated movement disorders with no other evidence of CP, progressive neurologic disorders, metabolic disorders, and incomplete or uncertain past history. After collecting the data on pregnancy period, prenatal history and past medical problems, they were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results Maternal age, medical problems during pregnancy period, route of delivery, head circumference at birth, neonatal admission, neonatal jaundice, and prematurity were the main risk factors for CP. Discussion The distribution of risk factors of CP is different from that of developed countries in our region. Pre- and peri-natal etiologies are still among the common causes of CP in Iran. PMID:27057186

  17. Heterogeneity of the internal transcribed spacer region in Leishmania tropica isolates from southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Amin; Sharifi, Iraj; Kuhls, Katrin; Kanannejad, Zahra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; de Almeida, Marcos E; Hatam, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2014-09-01

    Most of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in only 7 countries, including Iran. Leishmania tropica is the main cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. In order to study the heterogeneity and phylogeny of L. tropica in southern Iran, a total of 61 isolates were obtained from Bam district and the cities Kerman and Shiraz. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from the ribosomal DNA locus was amplified and then analysed by sequencing. Analysis of the ITS sequences showed four haplotypes in the isolates, including 3 haplotypes among the 58 isolates from the south eastern region, including Bam district and Kerman city, and 2 haplotypes among the 3 isolates from Shiraz city. The results showed a monophyletic structure for the south eastern population. In comparison to GenBank sequences of L. tropica from different countries, most of the southeast Iranian and Indian isolates are comprised in one cluster, while isolates from other countries and few other Iranian isolates group in a different cluster. Analysis of ITS sequences of south eastern L. tropica showed a homogeneous population which could be the basis for other molecular epidemiology studies using more discriminative markers and tracing possible changes in the population structure of L. tropica.

  18. MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF Plasmodium vivax AND Plasmodium falciparum DHFR MUTATIONS IN ISOLATES FROM SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Sarasiabi, Khojasteh; Haghighi, Ali; Kazemi, Bahram; Taghipour, Niloofar; Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    In Iran, both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria have been detected, but P. vivax is the predominant species. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in both Plasmodia are the major mechanisms of pyrimethamine resistance. From April 2007 to June 2009, a total of 134 blood samples in two endemic areas of southern Iran were collected from patients infected with P. vivax and P. falciparum. The isolates were analyzed for P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) point mutations using various PCR-based methods. The majority of the isolates (72.9%) had wild type amino acids at five codons of pvdhfr. Amongst mutant isolates, the most common pvdhfr alleles were double mutant in 58 and 117 amino acids (58R-117N). Triple mutation in 57, 58, and 117 amino acids (57L/58R/117N) was identified for the first time in the pvdhfr gene of Iranian P. vivax isolates. All the P. falciparumsamples analyzed (n = 16) possessed a double mutant pfdhfrallele (59R/108N) and retained a wild-type mutation at position 51. This may be attributed to the fact that the falciparum malaria patients were treated using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. The presence of mutant haplotypes in P. vivax is worrying, but has not yet reached an alarming threshold regarding drugs such as SP. The results of this study reinforce the importance of performing a molecular surveillance by means of a continuous chemoresistance assessment.

  19. Do different populations of Aphanius dispar in Southern Iran form Operational Taxonomic Units (OUTs?

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    Azad Teimori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the exact fundamental relations of morphological differentiation among isolated populations of animal species is generally difficult. Usually changes in morphology are resulted from adaptation to different environmental conditions (ecoplasticity or represent an expression of genetic differences and/or gene pool pauperization, and in most instances, however, changes in morphology are the result of the interplay between environmental factors and genetic plasticity. In this study, the morphology and molecular phylogenies of common tooth-carp populations (Aphanius dispar were studied in three basins in Southern part of Iran to discuss an important aspect relate to the question whether morphologically differentiated populations of a single species function as Operational Taxonomic Units. All morphological analyses were revealed significant and strong morphological differentiation between the populations that corresponds well with their zoogeography and their molecular phylogeny in geographically isolated basins. Therefore, it can be concluded that when the interaction between gene flow among populations and natural selection is resulted owing to a long evolutionary history, then the observed morphological differences can be functioned as different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in subspecies or even species levels. In addition, biological characteristics of the A. dispar, its high tolerance, geological and ecological conditions in Southern Iran are the main factors that increase chance of reproductive isolation and genetic diversity in this region.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Amir Hossein; Shafiekhani, Mojtaba; Nasihatkon, Ali Asghar; Rastani, Iman Hafizi; Tabatabaie, Mojgan; Borzoo, Ali Reza; Hojat, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the prevalence of MSx in adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, using a simple random sampling method, 377 adults aged more than 20 years who were invited for periodic health examinations to Petroleum Industry Health Organization Polyclinic, a general health care center, Shiraz, southern Iran, were studied. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III was used for the diagnosis of MSx. The participants included 190 women and 187 men with a mean±SD age of 43.8±11.0 (range: 20-86) years. Of 377 participants, 101 (26.8%, 95% CI: 22.3-31.3%) had MSx. The prevalence in men (16.6%) was significantly (p<0.001) lower than that in women (36.8%). The prevalence increased by almost 15% with each decade of life (p<0.001). The prevalence of MSx in our population, particularly in women, is high. Strategies should be planned to prevent the increasing prevalence of MSx in our country. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

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    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  2. Creative Nomad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Nomad Ⅱ附送的耳机 虽然不断有音响评论家从音质到版权问题对MP3进行否定,但无可否认MP3绝对是现时最受欢迎的数码音乐制式,而还未够一年的时间,音效卡大皇--创新公司便推出了第二代的NOMAD Ⅱ手提MP3机,出机的速度足与一般的随身听推出周期相当就可证明人这一点.

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Pediatric Scorpion Stings: A Report From Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Mobaraki, Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Yazdani, Reza; Nazemi, Abdolmajid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohmudi, Forugh; Taghavi, Mohsen; Dehghankhalili, Saeed

    2017-06-01

    Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in many countries, particularly in pediatrics. Children are more susceptible to severe clinical manifestations of envenomation. The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric scorpionism in Hormozgan province of Iran during 2012. This was a cross-sectional study being conducted during 2010 in Hormozgan, the southern province of Iran. We included 350 patients admitted to emergency unit of the hospitals of 8 cities of Hormozgan with impression of scorpion envenomation. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics as well as the treatment and outcome were recorded. The prevalence rate of pediatric scorpion stings in the province was 1.8 in 1000 children. The mean age of the patients was 5.75 ± 4.54 (range, 1-18) years. There were 208 (59.5%) boys and 142 (40.5%) girls among the patients. The most common site of sting was sole to knee in 94 (26.8%) followed by hand in 61 (17.4%) and fingers in 47 (13.4%). The most common presenting symptom was vomiting in 236 (67.4%) followed by localized pain in 131 (37.3%), erythema in 120 (34.2%), and edema in 119 (33.9%). The highest and lowest frequency occurred in July (17.7%) and January (3.2%), respectively. Nocturnal envenomations (53.7%) were more common than diurnal (46.3%). Most of scorpionism were mild (83.4%) that all evolved to cure, without any deaths. The results demonstrate the pediatric scorpionism is a public health problem in Hormozgan province of Iran, and special attention should be paid to prevention and treatment.

  4. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS. Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  5. Gully Erosion Monitoring on Shakhen Drainage Basin, Southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Moghaddam, M. H.; Saghafi, M.

    In many parts of Iran gullies can be found, but few studies have reported their genesis and characteristics. This study investigates gullies under semi arid climate in the small case-study area of Southern Khorasan Province, in Iran. The objectives are to determine the spatial distribution of gullies in the study area, to measure their morphological and topographical characteristics and to reconstruct the factors that led to their development. Large deep gullies are some of the most important sediment sources in the semi-arid environment of the Shaken Basin. So, this study regards gully development in SHAKHEN drainage basin, north of BIRJAND city, taking into account environmental and social characteristics, which affect gully occurrence and its evolution. Gully erosion clearly is a threshold phenomenon. This geomorphic process occurs only when a threshold in terms of flow hydraulics, rainfall, topography, pedology and land use has been exceeded. In this study with using simple methodology the gully erosion, initiation and development concerning with main factors are monitored. Furthermore, also the role of new tectonics activity in the study area on gully development was considered. Hence, different information resources are being undertaken such as: maps, aerial photos, satellite image and field observations to determine variables in order to understand where and why gullies occurred and developed.

  6. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinat Motlagh, Sayed Fazel; Chaman, Reza; Ghafari, Sayed Rashid; Parisay, Zafar; Golabi, Mohamad Reza; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Babouei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS). Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  7. Molecular characterization, biological forms and sporozoite rate of Anopheles stephensi in southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Chavshin; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Hasan Vatandoost; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Ahmad Raeisi; Fatemeh Nikpoor

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the biological forms, sporozoite rate and molecular characterization of the Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) in Hormozgan and Sistan-Baluchistan provinces, the most important malarious areas in Iran. Methods: Wild live An. stephensi samples were collected from different malarious areas in southern Iran. The biological forms were identified based on number of egg-ridges. Molecular characterization of biological forms was verified by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II (mtDNA-COI/COII). The Plasmodium infection was examined in the wild female specimens by species-specific nested–PCR method. Results: Results showed that all three biological forms including mysorensis, intermediate and type are present in the study areas. Molecular investigations revealed no genetic variation between mtDNA COI/COII sequences of the biological forms and no Plasmodium parasites was detected in the collected mosquito samples. Conclusions:Presence of three biological forms with identical sequences showed that the known biological forms belong to a single taxon and the various vectorial capacities reported for these forms are more likely corresponded to other epidemiological factors than to the morphotype of the populations. Lack of malaria parasite infection in An. stephensi, the most important vector of malaria, may be partly due to the success and achievement of ongoing active malaria control program in the region.

  8. STUDY OF THE CRUDE BIRTH RATE AND DELIVERY CONDITION AMONG THE QASHQAI TRIBE, SOUTHERN IRAN

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    M. Motabar

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a cross-sectional demographic survey that was conducted among the Qashqai Tribe of southern Iran in 1973, the crude birth rate was estimated at 48.2 per thousand per year. The most productive age groups, was 25-29 years. Forty-nine, point seven per cent (49.7% or about one half of the total births occurred among married women aged 20 to 29 years Eighty-seven point three per cent (87.3% of the deliveries took place in tents, only one per cent at maternity hospitals. Ninety point one per cent (90.1% of babies were delivered with the help of relative and friends, while only 6.9 per cent of all deliveries took place with the aid of midwives. Eighty-nine point seven per cent (89.7% of deliveries were performed without medical expenses.

  9. RESISTANCE OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI LISTON TO MALATHION IN THE PROVICE OF FARS, SOUTHERN IRAN

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    N.Eshghy

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles Stephensi is an important malaria vector in southern Iran. This species developed resistance to DDT in 1975 and subsequently to dieldrin in 1960. Since 1968 this species has been under pressure of malathin house sprayin. 50% w.d.p. , 2g/m2, 1-2 rounds per year. Susceptibility tests carried out with malathion impregnated papers during 1979 showed that An.stephensi has acquired resistant to malathion too. With regard to the 0.1% propoxur, a study was carried out to obtain base-line data in the localities under routine observations and also the discriminating dosage that could kill 100% of An.stephensi. The objective of the present paper is to summarize and discuss briefly the field investigations concerning insecticide resistance in An.stephensi.

  10. Geographical Distribution of Leishmania Species of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    M Akhoundi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to know the identity of Leishmania species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Fars Province, southern Iran.Methods: Five counties of Shiraz, Firouz Abad, Ghir-Karzin, Farashband and Larestan were pros­pected. Forty-four patients exhibiting cutaneous lesions were selected. Samples collected on skin lesions were examined both microscopically (after Giemsa staining and molecularly (after PCR-RFLP.Results: On the 44 examined patients, 39 exhibit Leishmania sp. by microscopical examination, all confirmed by PCR. For five patients with negative microscopical examination, PCR was positive for three of them. Among these 42 positive samples, 3 (7% were infected by L. tropica and 39 (93% by L. major.Conclusions: Leishmania major is the most prevalent species in prospected area and L. tropica occurs in Shiraz and Ghir-Karzin counties.

  11. Herds on the Move: Transformations in Tibetan Nomadic Pastoral Systems

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    Daniel Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Miller. 2015. Herds on the Move: Transformations in Tibetan Nomadic Pastoral Systems in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 207-220. Eight thousand years ago, an event took place that changed the world. In the mountain valleys where modern Iraq, Turkey, and Iran intersect, some enterprising farmers determined that it was easier to make a living by specializing in raising livestock than growing crops. They left their farms and moved into the grasslands, herding their animals over a vast area, traveling to different seasonal pastures throughout the year with their belongings and homes rolled up and carried on the backs of animals. This was the first stage of what later became known as nomadic pastoralism, and the people that followed the herds were called nomadic pastoralists, or simply, nomads. Sheep and goats were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago, but it took another couple thousand years before some hardy farmers, who raised both crops and livestock, ventured into the steppes and developed a culture that specialized in raising livestock. Since they first left the fertile, agricultural valleys with their livestock and moved into the steppes, they have been out there on the edge of civilization – out where the vast rolling grasslands meet the purple haze of the horizon – living a life that many aspire to, but which few were able to follow.

  12. Study of Patients Absconding Behavior in a General Hospital at Southern Region of Iran

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    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients’ escape from hospital imposes a significant cost to patients as well as the health system. Besides, for these patients, exposure to adverse events (such as suicide, self-harm, violence and harm to hospital reputation are more likely to occur compared to others. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of the absconding patients in a general hospital through a case-control design in Shiraz, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 413 absconded patients as case and 413 patients as control in a large general hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. In this study, data on the case and control patients was collected from the medical records using a standard checklist in the period of 2011–3. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, through SPSS 16. Results The finding showed that 413 patients absconded (0.50% and mean of age in case group was 40.98 ± 16.31 years. In univariate analysis, variables of gender [Odds Ratio (OR= 2], ward (OR= 1.22, insurance status (OR= 0.41, job status (OR= 0.34 and residence expenditure were significant. However, in multivariate analysis significant variables were age (ORadj= 0.13, gender (ORadj= 2.15, self-employment/unemployed (ORadj= 0.47, emergency/admission (ORadj= 2.14, internal/admission (ORadj= 3.16, insurance status (ORadj= 4.49 and residence expenditure (ORadj= 1.15. Conclusion Characteristics such as middle age, male gender, no insurance coverage, inability to afford hospital expenditures and admission in emergency department make patients more likely abscond from the hospital. Therefore, it may be necessary to focus efforts on high-risk groups and increase insurance coverage in the country to prevent absconding from hospital.

  13. Changing Epidemiology of Common Cancers in Southern Iran, 2007-2010: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Seyed Masoom Masoompour

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the ever changing epidemiology of cancers in Fars province, Iran since the re-establishment of Fars cancer registry. Based on the collected data from all related sources in Fars province from 2007-2010 we calculated the cancer age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O, sex, age, crude rate, and ASRs. In women the total ASR was 41.70 per 100,000 from 1985-1989 which had increased to 55.50 and 95.46 during 1998-2002 and 2007-2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women during 2007-2010 was about two and four times higher than 1998-2002 and 1985-1989. The incidence of colorectal cancer in women during 2007-2010 was about three and five times higher than 1998-2002 and 1985-1989. In men the total ASR was 62.9 per 100,000 in 1985-1989 that increased to 64.50 and 101.48 during 1998-2002 and 2007-2010. Although stomach cancer was the most common cancer among men during 1985-1989 and 1998-2002, but in recent study bladder cancer was the most common cancer among men in Fars province. The incidence of colorectal cancer in men during 2007-2010 was about three times higher than 1998-2002 and 1985-1989. This study shows growing incidence of cancer in southern Iran. The colorectal cancer in both genders had increased and its pattern is similar to western countries. In men, bladder and prostate cancers had a growing rate and the incidences of these cancers in the present study were greater than stomach cancer.

  14. Premarital screening for beta-thalassaemia in Southern Iran: options for improving the programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Jamalian, Nima; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Askarnejad, Abdolrasoul; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Hashemi, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    beta-thalassaemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000 homozygote beta-thalassaemia patients and 3,750,000 carriers. To assess the 10-year results of the screening programme, which has been operating in Southern Iran since 1995. All couples wanting to marry were required to be checked for beta-thalassaemia by their red blood cell indices in order to receive a permit for marriage registration. The results were reported to the nearest counselling team. If the results were conspicuous, haemoglobin A(2)(HbA(2)) and, in some subjects, Hb electrophoresis was performed. Couples in which both partners were carriers received counselling. For those who, in spite of the recommendation, decided to marry, prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy in case of an affected fetus was offered. The latter was offered only in the last three years. In 1995, 1999 and 2004, 296, 94 and 56 beta-thalassaemia homozygotes, respectively, were born (2.53, 1.07 and 0.82 patients per 1000 births). This programme has decreased the birth prevalence of beta-thalassaemia, but has unfortunately not eliminated the disease altogether. The reasons for the birth of new cases, in spite of the screening programmes, are: (i) premarital screening programme started in 1995; therefore, carrier couples who married before this did not receive counselling and gave birth to homozygote beta-thalassaemia children; (ii) unwanted pregnancy among the carrier couples; (iii) the couples knew about their problem, but they married for cultural and religious causes (illegal marriages).

  15. The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran

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    Sara Amel-Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 software. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years. The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014 and 43.8 (n: 1627, respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (16.8%, atrial septal defect (ASD (15.8%, pulmonary stenosis (PS (11% and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF (8.9% were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively.

  16. Demonstration of malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning in Minab District, southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Rashidian Arash; Jafari Mehdi; Raeisi Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd Ahmad Ali; Yousofzai Abdul Wali; Daryanavard Ali; Mojahedi AbdulRasool; Pakari Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning for an endemic area in southern Iran. Methods: Data on health system, population, meteorological parameters, malaria cases, anopheline vectors, and control activities during 2005-2007 was obtained from Minab Health Center, Minab Meteorological Station and published documents about malaria elements in the study area. A datasheet was created in excel 2003 for analysis. Results: There were 644 health staff working in Minab District including 99 health staff in malaria control program. The health facilities are distributed as follow: 1 hospital with 96 beds, 23 health centers including private centers (10 in Minab city and 13 in rural area of Minab District) and 119 health houses in rural areas of Minab District. Anopheles stephensi was the dominant species in Minab District, however, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anophelesmulticolor, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles turkhudi can also be found in the area. Anopheles stephensi was reported susceptible to malathion, propoxur, primphos-methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin permethrin and deltamethrin, and resistant to DDT and dieldrin in the area. During the study period a total of 10 665 positive cases were reported, mainly due to local transmission (99.6%). Plasmodium vivax was the main causative agent followed by Plasmodium falciparum. There were reports about drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the area. Conclusions:Using different parameters, Minab was classified into 3 strata. A plan was designed based on described goal, objectives and targets. The approaches of this plan were categorized into: health education, early detection and correct treatment, and vector control. Main constraints of these approaches are population movement between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan; vector control challenges at district, inadequate skilled medical staff in malaria case management and weak inter

  17. Final NOMAD results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Chukanov, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R D; Daniels, D C; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O L; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Kustov, D V; Kuznetsov, V E; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Naumov, D V; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, Alfredo; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P; Krasnoperov, A V

    2001-01-01

    Results from the nu_tau appearance search in a neutrino beam using the full NOMAD data sample are reported. A new analysis unifies all the hadronic tau decays, significantly improving the overall sensitivity of the experiment to oscillations. The "blind analysis" of all topologies yields no evidence for an oscillation signal. In the two-family oscillation scenario, this sets a 90% C.L. allowed region in the sin^2(2theta)-Delta m^2 plane which includes sin^2(2theta)nu_tau oscillation hypothesis results in sin^2(2theta)<1.5 x 10^{-2} at large Delta m^2 and Delta m^2 < 5.9 eV^2/c^4 at sin^2(2theta)=1. We also derive limits on effective couplings of the tau lepton to nu_mu or nu_e.

  18. Social Studies for Somali Nomads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Diane L.; Brook, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Somalia Nomad Education Program. States that social studies is the core of the program which has a primary goal of developing national unity. Discusses successful features of the program and its vulnerability to political and economic events. (CFR)

  19. Duean sip, théâtre de l’ethnorégionalisme sud. Les nomades de la mer et le cycle rituel du dixième mois dans la province de Phang Nga (sud de la Thaïlande Duean sip, Theater of the Southern Ethnoregionalism. The Sea Nomads and the Tenth Lunar Month Ritual Complex in the Phang Nga Province (Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ferrari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La cérémonie bouddhique du dixième mois lunaire, connue comme la fête des morts et des revenants, revêt dans la région de Phang Nga, au sud de la Thaïlande une importance et un rôle qui vont bien au-delà de sa signification religieuse. Il s’agit en effet d’un complexe rituel qui, en s’emboîtant avec les cérémonies du festival végétarien des Sino-Thaïs et avec d’autres cérémonies propres aux nomades de la mer (Moken, Moklen et Urak Lawoi, met en scène les fondements des relations interethniques qui caractérisent la région. Le partage du territoire et des rôles sociaux dans celui-ci sont au cœur de ce cycle rituel, qui devient de fait le théatre de l’ethnorégionalisme du sud de la Thaïlande.The bouddhist ceremony of the tenth lunar month, dedicated to the dead and the hungry ghosts, is a paramount feature in the region of Phang Nga, Southern Thailand. Its importance and role go well beyond its religious meaning. Indeed, it is a ritual ensemble which, by overlapping with the vegetarien festival of the Sino-Thais and with ceremonises held by the Sea Gypsies (Moken, Moklen and Urak Lawoi, displays the very foundations of the interethnic relationships that characterize the region. The sharing of the territory and of the social roles distributed within the region are the core of the ritual cycle, which is thus the theater of Southern Thai’s ethnoregionalism.

  20. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  1. Seroepidemiological Study of Hepatitis E Virus in Drug Addicts in Ahvaz, Southern Iran: 2005-2006

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    Mohammad Reza Ghasemirad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Poor personal health in drug addicts predisposes them to Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibody to HEV (HEV- IgG and evaluate epidemiological features of HEV infection among drug addicts. Methods: 224 drug addicts were included in this analytic descriptive study in Ahvaz, southern Iran, from 2005 to 2006. After a through physical examination and completing a questionnaire, 5 mL blood was obtained from each case and tested for anti-HEV-IgG by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method using commercial kit (Dia-prob. Data were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 using chi-square test.Results: Of 228 cases, 35 (13.5% were HEV-IgG positive. The sero-prevalence of positive HEV-IgG in injecting, inhalant and oral drug abusers was 22.8%, 9.1%, and 6.2%, respectively (p0.05.Conclusions: Drug addiction is associated with an increased risk of exposure to HEV and resulted in the high prevalence of anti-HEV-IgG in addicts.

  2. A critical ethnography of doctor-patient interaction in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Iman, Mohammad Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Derakhshan, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Doctor-patient interaction is a subject with ethical ramifications, besides being an important issue in medical sociology. The main goal of this critical study is to explore the interactional experience of hospital admitted patients. For this reason, the study, carried out in an educational hospital in southern Iran, entailed 156 recorded clinical consultations, 920 hours of participant observation, and six focus groups consisting of patients and their families. The research method used is Critical Ethnography, which was introduced by PF Carspecken. The results showed that negative interactional experience was common among the participants. Six related themes were: doctors' inattentiveness; weak interaction; violation of patients' privacy; unjustified pain; long waiting period and ambiguity; and faceless physicians. According to the participants' observations, poor interaction with doctors has led to these negative experiences. The findings showed that doctors were inconsiderate about patients' concerns and due to this, patients were dissatisfied. Theoretically, this form of fragmented collaboration has deep roots in the framework of modern medicine, but in the context of this study, the intensity of the fragmentation between doctors and patients was observed to be intolerable. To solve this problem, models of patient-centredness and narrative medicine are recommended. In addition, the health system should monitor and evaluate the observance of ethics by physicians.

  3. The Management of Dental Waste in Dental Offices and Clinics in Shiraz, Southern Iran

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    M Danaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental waste can be hazardous to humans and the environment. Objective: To determine the current status of dental waste management in private and public dental clinics and private dental offices in Shiraz, southern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February through June 2013. A stratified random sampling method was used to study 86 private offices, 14 private clinics and 10 public clinics. Types of waste studied included mercury and amalgam, lead foil packets, sharps, infectious tissues and fluids, pharmaceuticals and domestic waste materials. Compliance with established standards by the monitored dental offices and clinics and public clinics were compared. Results: 89.1% of dental offices and clinics disposed their infectious waste with domestic waste. Only 60% of centers used standard method for sharps disposal. None of the dental centers disposed their pharmaceutical waste and x-ray fixer waste by standard methods. Less than 10% of centers recycled the amalgam and lead foil pockets waste to the manufacture. Conclusion: Government agencies should establish monitoring programs for all dental offices and clinics to identify noncompliant activity and enforce recommended regulations.

  4. Effectiveness of β-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis in Southern Iran: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Karimi, Mehran; Dehghani, Seyed Javad; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Montazeri, Somaye; Javanmardi, Elham; Asadzade, Rahimeh; Amiri, Azizollah; Saghatoleslam, Zahra; Sotodegan, Fatemosadat; Morshedi, Nazila; Imanifard, Jaber; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prenatal diagnosis (PND) for the prevention of thalassemia in Southern Iran. From 2004 to 2012 1346 couples with β-thalassemia minor were referred to our center. Mutation analyses utilized different methods including polymerase chain reaction-based technique of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of PCR-Amplified Fragments (PCR-RFLP) and Gel Electrophoresis and direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis of the β-globin gene cluster was done routinely using the PCR-RFLP technique. Of the 1346 couples, 884 (66%) requested PND. They had a total of 985 pregnancies (954 singleton and 31 twin pregnancies): the 1016 fetuses underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Thalassemia major was diagnosed in 266 cases (26.2%), and termination of pregnancy was requested by the parents in 264 of them (99%). Thalassemia trait was detected in 499 (49.1%) and 251 cases (24.7%) showed no β-thalassemia mutations. There were three misdiagnoses (0.4%) (affected children diagnosed as carriers at PND). A unique pattern of thalassemia mutations was present in the study population, with IVS II-I (G→A), C36-37(-T), IVS I-5(G>C), -25bpdel (252-276), IVS I-110(G>A) and C44 (-C) being present in 62% of cases. The pattern of distribution of thalassemia mutations differs among ethnic groups within the same country. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Nahid Hatam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami; Morteza Pourahmad; Rasoul Baharlou; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Abbass Ahmadi Vasmejani; Kavous Solhjoo; Hamid Reza Fallah; Mohsen Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County, using ELISA method. Methods: Based on the prevalence and characteristics method, 400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases, Southern Iran, during 2010–2011, designed at testing by ELISA. IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits (Dia-Pro) on serums. The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software. Results: Review of 400 cases, 54 of them were IgG positive for parasites (13.5%) and 346 of those with negative IgG (86.5%). In IgM examination, 1.75%of them have been positive IgM (7 cases) and 98.25% of them were IgM negative (393 cases). By comparing the different group ages, 40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of IgG positive (17.9%) and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of IgM negative (2.5%). Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  7. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  8. Severe head injuries and intracranial pressure monitoring outcome in Southern Iran

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    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Head injury is still a major cause of death and disability. Despite advances in intensive monitoring and clinical practice, little data is available to show the predictive value of intracranial pressure monitoring in assessment of the outcome of head injuries. This study was undertaken to evaluate this predictive value and is the first Iranian study in which ICP monitoring has been included. METHODS: In a prospective study from September 1999 to September 2003, all head- injured patients (53 patients with GCS of 4-8 who were admitted to Nemazee Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were included in this study. Subarachnoid screw method or ventricular catheter via ventriculostomy was used to determine intracranial pressure. Patients were monitored for 3 days and were followed for two years at 6-month intervals. RESULTS: Car accidents were the most common cause of head injury (43.3% and 43.3% of patients had GCS of 8. Sixty percent of patients had abnormal intracranial pressure. The patients were most commonly in their first decade of life (18.8% and 81% of patients were male. Controlling increased intracranial pressure was successful in 60% of patients and resulted in a decrease of mortality rate from 60% to 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment of increased intracranial pressure in head injury patients would be beneficial in reducing mortality and morbidity rates. KEY WORDS: Southern Iran, head injury, outcome, intracranial pressure.

  9. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran

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    Soroor INALOO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveApproximately 4% of the world's population experience one or more febrile seizures during their lifetime, and 0.5-1% of the population has active epilepsy.Less than one-third of the reported seizures are categorized as epilepsy. The cause of established epilepsy is important in determining the treatment and prognosis.Materials & MethodsWe studied 389 cases of documented epilepsy in children aged 2 months to 18 years who visited the hospital for neurologic examination during 2005-2010.Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was performed for categorical variables.ResultsThe most common age for the first seizure was below 2 years, and the most common type of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Electroencephalography (EEG showed an epileptic pattern in 60%, 29.8%, and 51% of the patients with idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic epilepsy, respectively. This pattern was significantly different among these 3 categories of epilepsy.ConclusionThe most common type of seizure was cryptogenic; however, in most industrialized countries, idiopathic epilepsies were more frequent. With respect to the age and sex of patients, the prevalence of epilepsy in southern Iran is not so much different from that of patients in other parts of the world. As to generalized or partial epilepsy, there are different reports from different part ofthe world; however, generalized tonic-clonic seizures were more common in our area.

  10. A STUDY ON RODENT ECTOPARASITES IN BANDAR ABBAS: THE MAIN ECONOMIC SOUTHERN SEAPORT OF IRAN

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    A. A. Hanafi-Bojd, M. Shahi, M. Baghaii, M. Shayeghi, N. Razmand, A. Pakari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are one of the main health problems in the cities, especially in coastal area. These animals make economic damages and are potential health dangers in Bandar Abbas, the main economic southern port of Iran. In this study, rodents were captured from different parts of the city, before and after a control program during 2003-2004, transferred to the laboratory, identified and examined for ecto-parasites. Totally 105 rodents demonstrating four species: Rattus rattus (3%, R. norvegicus (78%, Mus musculus (3% and Tatera indica (16%, were captured before the control program. The most frequency was observed in Ayatollah Ghafari quarter, 10 rodents per 24 traps. After 12 months, the duration of control program, rodents were re-captured to assessment the success of control activity. In this stage 35 small mammals demonstrated four species were obtained: R.norvegicus (51.4%, R.rattus (37.1%, T.indica (8.6% and one weasel (2.9%. We found the most frequency in Khoon-sorkh quarter with 6 rodents per 24 traps. The identified ectoparasites were Xenopsylla buxtoni, Rhipicephalus sp., Polyplax gerbilli, Haplopleura captiosa, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Laelaps nuttalli, Dermanyssus americanus, Dermanyssus sanguineus, Haemolaelaps glasgowi and Echinolaelaps echidninus. The number of rodents reduced to one third after control program, shows the relative success of this program (p<0.05.

  11. Current substance use in patients with gastric cancer in Southern Iran

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    Tabei S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders may affect patients suffering from cancer and substance use disorders. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco and opioid use in patients with gastric cancer in Shiraz, Fars Province and Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a hospital survey of 177 gastric cancer patients aged 24 years and more, a semistructured-interview was performed based on SDM-IV criteria during the year 2003. Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.13 (SD=14.03 years. Among the subjects, 50.9% (90 were tobacco dependent (61.5% men and 29.4% women, P < 0.001, while 10 (5.7% were opioid-dependent (7.3% men and 1.9% women, P =0.16. Tobacco and opioid-dependency were not significantly related to age groups, economical or occupational status. Mean ages of tobacco and opioid-dependants were not significantly different from nondependants. Conclusions: Tobacco and opioid dependency were common problems among gastric cancer patients. This report provides useful information for health planning. Men were at greater risk than women. Treatment programs should focus on all age-groups, all occupations and all income-levels.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District,Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Hassan; Davami; Morteza; Pourahmad; Rasoul; Baharlou; Abdolreza; Sotoodeh; Jahromi; Abbass; Ahmadi; Vasmejani; Kavous; Solhjoo; Hamid; Reza; Fallah; Mohsen; Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County,using ELISA method.Methods:Based on the prevalence and characteristics method,400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases,Southern Iran,during 2010–2011,designed at testing by ELISA.Ig M and Ig G antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits(Dia-Pro)on serums.The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software.Results:Review of 400 cases,54 of them were Ig G positive for parasites(13.5%)and 346of those with negative Ig G(86.5%).In Ig M examination,1.75%of them have been positive Ig M(7 cases)and 98.25%of them were Ig M negative(393 cases).By comparing the different group ages,40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of Ig G positive(17.9%)and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of Ig M negative(2.5%).Conclusions:Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study,toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

  13. LARVICICAL ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS H-14 (TEKNAR ON MOSQUITO LARVAE IN RICEFIELDS, SOUTHERN IRAN

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    M.Motabar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the larvicidal activity of Teknar (San-402-I-Bacillus thuringiensis, serotype H-14, Sandoz, 600 ITU/mg on mosquitolarvaein Kazeroun, Fars Province, southern Iran. Five experimental plots were selected randomly in a rice field and three concentrations of Teknar: .0003, .0006 and .0012 cc/1 was used. Maximum larval mortality usually occurred during the first 24 hours of exposure. Culicinae larvae were more susceptible than the anophelines. Also, the first and second instars showed greater mortality than the third and fourth instars. The percent larval vortality were 71.8 to 81.5 in anophelines and 82.1 to 100 in culicinae at.0003 cc/1, 89.4 to 100 in anophelinae and 97.2 to 100 in culicinae at.0006 cc/1and 98.4 to 98.6 in anophelinae and 100 in culicinae at.0012 cc/1 concentrations respectively. No mortality was detected in the control plots. It was concluded that.0006 and .0003 cc/1 were the concentrations of choice for the proper mosquito larval control in the area.

  14. A Clinico-Pathologic Study of 142 Orofacial Tumors in Children and Adolescents in Southern Iran

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    Mohammad-Javad Ashraf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The prevalence, patients age and sex and the site of the lesions are important factors for diagnosis and they may be different in various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of orofacial tumors among children and adolescents in an Iranian population Methods:In this retrospective, case series study, data about the type, age, sex and site of 142 tumors in patients ≤18 years afflicted with orofacial neoplasms referred 2005-2009 to two referral centers in Shiraz, Southern Iran, were collected and analyzed. Findings:There were 142 (2.8% tumors among the subjects. The most common types of benign and malignant tumors were odontoma and lymphoma in children and pleomorphic adenoma and rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescents. Parotid and posterior parts of the mandible were the most common sites of soft tissue and intrabony tumors. In the oral cavity, the palate was the most common affected site. The tumors were found in boys with higher frequency (Male:Female ratio was 1.4:1. Conclusion:The observed differences in tumor type and distribution in comparison with previous studies may be attributed to genetic and geographic variations in the populations; however the design and methods of the studies are different, too.

  15. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

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    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  16. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city. Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  17. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2017-02-01

    Daily global solar irradiation ( R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults over 35 years in Shiraz, southern Iran: Prevalence and associated factors

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    Farnaz Khademolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran. Methods: From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS. Results: The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1% but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%. The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity. Conclusions: In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and con-sumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers.

  19. The Prevalence and Clinical Study of Galactosemia Disease in a Pilot Screening Program of Neonates, Southern Iran

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    B Tarami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to research concerning the epidemiology of newborns' galactosemia during 2007-2008 to find out whether screening was necessary for Iranian newborns or not and also what the symptoms of this disease before or after diet were.Methods: The data were collected from 24000 newborn babies from Fars Province, southern Iran. The enzymatic calori­metric test was done on their blood and Red questions from the children's parents. For treatment, free lactose milk or soya milk have been used for the feeding of the newborns. Results: The prevalence of galactosemia in Fars Province was 5:24000 in neonates, being more than those reported among the white race are and Asians are. The maximum clinical symptoms before diet in 10 days after birth were vomiting and jaundice and those after using diet were sepsis, full fontanels, and hepatic failure.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage is a major cause of inheritance of the disease in Iran. The number of familial mar­riage in children's parents was very high. Screening should be executed for all of the families with a history of Galactosemia in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large study report on the prevalence of Galactosemia in Iran.

  20. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran

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    Soroor INALOO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Inaloo S, Katibeh P. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran.Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:15-20Objective Approximately 4% of the world's population experience one or more febrile seizures during their lifetime, and 0.5-1% of the population has active epilepsy.Less than one-third of the reported seizures are categorized as epilepsy. The cause of established epilepsy is important in determining the treatment and prognosis.Materials & Methods We studied 389 cases of documented epilepsy in children aged 2 months to 18 years who visited the hospital for neurologic examination during 2005-2010.Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was performed for categorical variables.Results The most common age for the first seizure was below 2 years, and the most common type of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Electroencephalography (EEG showed an epileptic pattern in 60%, 29.8%, and 51% of the patients with idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic epilepsy, respectively. This pattern was significantly different among these 3 categories of epilepsy.Conclusion The most common type of seizure was cryptogenic; however, in most industrialized countries, idiopathic epilepsies were more frequent. With respect to the age and sex of patients, the prevalence of epilepsy in southern Iran is not so much different from that of patients in other parts of the world. As to generalized or partial epilepsy, there are different reports from different part ofthe world; however, generalized tonic-clonic seizures were more common in our area.References Hauser, Hesdorffer DC. Epilepsy, frequency, causes and consequences. New WA York, NY: Demos Publications;1990.P.1–51.Jallon P. Epilepsy in developing countries. Epilepsia 1997; 38: 1143-51.King M, Newton M, Jackson G, Fitt G, Mitchell L, Silvapulle M, Berkovic S. Epileptology of the first-seizure presentation: a clinical

  1. The prevalence of Pediculus capitis among School Children in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    R Neirami

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in ur­ban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also exam­ined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in win­ter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in ru­ral areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeco­nomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effec­tive management strategies should target this group in the province.

  2. Estimation of daily minimum land surface air temperature using MODIS data in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Land surface air temperature (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial daily minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface temperature (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric temperature and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.

  3. On Nomadism. Nomadismist

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    Knut Ove Arntzen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mõiste nomaadid kasutamine filosoofias on seotud metafoorse mõtlemisega, nagu seda demonstreerivad Gilles Deleuze ja Félix Guattari oma raamatus „Nomadoloogia: sõjamasin” („Traité de nomadologie: la machine de guerre“, 1980. Nad käsitlevad nomaadidega seostatavat mobiilsust kui sõjametafoori. Viimane viitab faktile, et ajaloolised nomaadidest sõdalased, näiteks mongolid, suutsid hobustel kiiresti edasi liikuda ning ootamatult rünnata. Riigi loomine sai võimalikuks vaid tänu sellele, et sõjamasinaid võis hoida pidevas liikumises. Paradoksaalne küll, aga nomaade kasutasid ära just riigi loojad, kes olid õppinud, kuidas rakendada metallurgilisi tehnikaid, nii et ajaloolaste arvates muutusid nomaadid koos oma sõjamasinatega vaid instrumentideks riigimeeste käes, nagu mongolid hiinlaste või tatarlased venelaste jaoks. Kirjeldatud käsitlust kasutatakse kui metodoloogilist baasi, et uurida, kuidas mõistet nomaadid võib mõista eri kontekstides: nii antropoloogilises tähenduses kui ka uue kontseptsioonina filosoofias ja kunstides. Antud artiklis rakendatakse seda mõistet uute kunstiliste praktikate uurimiseks nii otseses kui metafoorses tähenduses. Otseses tähenduses viidatakse nomaadide kunstile, metafoorselt aga nomadismile uuemas kunsti- ja teatriloomingus. Nomaade iseloomustab peavoolujärgne (post-mainstream – vastand eurotsentristlikule peavoolule, mida kontrollivad Lääne-Euroopa keskused liikumine uute kunstiliste tegevuste leidmiseks. Nende tegevus kannab nii globaalset kui ka lokaalset või regionaalset värvingut ning nomadismi mõistet võib kasutada kirjeldamaks seda, mis toimub, kui peavooluliikumised ammenduvad. Nomadism segab stiile ja traditsioone, mida peavoolu kontseptsioonis ei saaks esteetilise puhtuse või suundumuste kinnistumise tõttu kombineerida. Konkreetsemalt tuuakse näiteid Põhja-Skandinaavia etendus- ja visuaalkunstidest.

  4. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

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    M. Motabar

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  5. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Qashqai Tribe, Southern Iran, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motabar

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.

  6. The NOMAD Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vannucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the experimental apparatus and some physics results fromthe NOMAD(neutrino oscillation magnetic detector) experiment which took data in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam from 1995 to 1998. It collected and reconstructed more than one million charged current(CC)$\

  7. Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    Northrop A-17A Nomad: In the spring of 1939 the NACA tested an experimental cowling and cooling system on Northrop's A-17A. Various types and combinations were tried, but the NACA cowl first used seemed to work best, as no modifications made their way onto 'line' aircraft.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Bowel Obstruction in Southern Iran; Results of a Single Center Experience

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    Majid Akrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory characteristics as well as outcome of 411 patients with bowel obstruction in Southern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in Shahid Faghihi hospital of Shiraz between 2006 and 2012. We reviewed the medical charts of the 411 patients with initial diagnosis of bowel obstruction who were admitted to our center during the study period. The patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory findings as well as their management and outcome was recorded in data gathering forms. The data were then analyzed according to the outcome and clinical characteristics. Results: Among the 411 patients with initial diagnosis of bowel obstruction, 253 (61.5% were men and 158 (38.5% were women. The mean age of the patients was 48.2±19.7 years. Besides, 73.6% were observed and 26.4% were operated. Those who were operated had those who underwent operation had significantly lower frequency of obstipation (28.1% vs. 71.9%; p=0.045 and abdominal distention (32.3% vs. 67.7%; p=0.007. Intraoperative findings included adhesion band formation in 50 (48.1%, mass 18 (17.3%, and hernia 7 (6.7%. We found that the frequency of malignancy was significantly higher in those who were managed conservatively compared to those undergoing operation (64.3% vs. 35.7%; p=0.042. The mean hospital stay was significantly higher in those who underwent operation (8.1±7.5 vs. 2.6±2.2 days; p=0.035. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrates although some signs and symptoms, such as abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, abdominal distention, and obstipation, were more common among the patients with bowel obstruction, they were not sensitive and specific enough for definite diagnosis. Due to the lack of positive predictive value of clinical signs and symptoms in diagnosis of bowel obstruction, a reasonable and logical modality is needed for bowel obstruction diagnosis with better

  9. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents in central institution of southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azar Shokri; Khojasteh Sharifi Sarasiabi; Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi; Hamid Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents of rehabilitation center of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, southern Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in central rehabilitation institute of Hormozgan province in summer 2010. Fecal samples of all 133 residents (72 males, 61 females) aged 3-52, were collected in triplicate. Specimens were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether concentration techniques and stained by permanent Trichrome, Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 13.5. Results:Intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 48.5%(64 out of 133 subjects:53.4%in males and 46.6%in females). Strongyloides stercoralis with 17.3%showed the highest incidence followed by Entamoeba coli (9.8%), Blastocystis hominis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Endolimax nana (2.3%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Oxyuris vermicularis (0.8%), and Chilomasix mesnili (0.8%). Double infections were found to be as: Strongyloides stercoralis+Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Entamoeba coli+Giardia lamblia (1.5%), Entamoeba coli+Blastocystis hominis (1.5%), Oxyuris vermicularis+Entamoeba coli (0.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis+Entamoeba coli (0.8%), respectively. Conclusions:Our findings reveal that strongyloidiasis is a common disease among mentally retarded population in southern Iran.

  10. Qualitative and financial evaluation of public and private forest nurseries; Case study of southern Zagros forests, Iran

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    MARYAM FAZLOLLAHI MOHAMMADI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammadi MF, Vaezin SMH, Etemad V, Sepahvand A, Shirvani A, Azam S. 2014. Qualitative and financial evaluation of public and private forest nurseries; Case study of southern Zagros forests, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 152-158. This study has examined the efficiency of two nurseries, private and public divisions, based on qualitative and financial evaluation in the Southern Zagros forests of Iran. To achieve this purpose, we selected two species including pistachio (Pistacia atlantica and poplar (Popolus nigra in one year period. Results of qualitative evaluation showed that all produced seedlings by private nursery significantly had better features than the public one at the significant level of 0.05. Also, the results of financial evaluation showed that cost price of each poplar seedling at private nursery (0.734 $ was 19.6 times less than public one (14.4 $. The interest rate for pistachio seedling in private sector ranges from 1.9 to 2.2 $, while it ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 $ for poplar seedling. Such researches may help to improve management as well as financial and qualitative efficiency, especially in public nurseries. Future researches will be required to document other aspects of private management on nurseries in seedling products.

  11. Prevalence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal disease and healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran

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    Ghabanchi J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was shown that two parasites of Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease and in healthy population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with periodontal disease (case group and 50 subjects with healthy gingiva (control group entered in the present study. A questionnaire recorded general health, smoking habits, and any history of antibiotic consumption during the last six months for each patient. In the case group, saliva was collected by sterile swab and the gingival crevicular fluid by the paper point. The plaque and calculi were collected by sterile curette and scaler. In the control group, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and sent to laboratory for further studies. Results: In the case group, nine patients were infected, six with E. gingivalis and three with T. tenax. Seven patients had mobility of the teeth, one patient was smoker and five had previous history of antibiotic consumption. In the control group, only one subject was infected with E. gingivalis without any history of smoking and antibiotic consumption. Conclusion: Parasitic infections are relatively common in patients with periodontal disease. It seems that follow-up of instructions are essential in control of parasitic infection in Southern Iran.

  12. Prevalence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal disease and healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, J; Zibaei, M; Afkar, M Daghigh; Sarbazie, A H

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that two parasites of Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis) and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax) may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease and in healthy population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. A total of 50 patients with periodontal disease (case group) and 50 subjects with healthy gingiva (control group) entered in the present study. A questionnaire recorded general health, smoking habits, and any history of antibiotic consumption during the last six months for each patient. In the case group, saliva was collected by sterile swab and the gingival crevicular fluid by the paper point. The plaque and calculi were collected by sterile curette and scaler. In the control group, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and sent to laboratory for further studies. In the case group, nine patients were infected, six with E. gingivalis and three with T. tenax. Seven patients had mobility of the teeth, one patient was smoker and five had previous history of antibiotic consumption. In the control group, only one subject was infected with E. gingivalis without any history of smoking and antibiotic consumption. Parasitic infections are relatively common in patients with periodontal disease. It seems that follow-up of instructions are essential in control of parasitic infection in Southern Iran.

  13. Evaluation of the Relationship between Social Desirability and Minor Psychiatric Disorders among Nurses in Southern Iran: A Robust Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustaei, Narges; Jafari, Peyman; Sadeghi, Erfan; Jamali, Jamshid

    2015-10-01

    Social desirability may affect different aspects of people's quality of life. One of the impressive dimensions of quality of life is mental health. The prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD) among health care workers is higher than other health workers. This article aims at evaluating the relationship between social desirability and MPD among nurses in southern Iran. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 765 nurses who had been employed in hospitals in the southern provinces of Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS) were used for evaluating the MPD and social desirability in nurses, respectively. The Robust Regression was used to determine any quantified relationship between social desirability and the level of MPD with adjusted age, gender, work experience, marital status, and level of education. The mean scores of GHQ-12 and MC-SDS were 13.02±5.64 (out of 36) and 20.17±4.76 (out of 33), respectively. The result of Robust Regression indicated that gender and social desirability were statistically significant in affecting MPD. The prevalence of MPD in female nurses was higher than males. Nurses with higher social desirability scores had the tendency to report lower levels of MPD.

  14. Evaluation of the Relationship between Social Desirability and Minor Psychiatric Disorders among Nurses in Southern Iran: A Robust Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Roustaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Social desirability may affect different aspects of people’s quality of life. One of the impressive dimensions of quality of life is mental health. The prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD among health care workers is higher than other health workers. This article aims at evaluating the relationship between social desirability and MPD among nurses in southern Iran. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 765 nurses who had been employed in hospitals in the southern provinces of Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Marlowe- Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS were used for evaluating the MPD and social desirability in nurses, respectively. The Robust Regression was used to determine any quantified relationship between social desirability and the level of MPD with adjusted age, gender, work experience, marital status, and level of education. Result: The mean scores of GHQ-12 and MC-SDS were 13.02±5.64 (out of 36 and 20.17±4.76 (out of 33, respectively. The result of Robust Regression indicated that gender and social desirability were statistically significant in affecting MPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of MPD in female nurses was higher than males. Nurses with higher social desirability scores had the tendency to report lower levels of MPD.

  15. Implications of the genetic epidemiology of globin haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Merat, Ahmad; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Nagel, Ronald L

    2006-12-01

    To determine the origin of sickle cell mutation in different ethnic groups living in southern Iran, we studied the haplotype background of the betaS and betaA genes in subjects from the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan, Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Kerman and from the islands of Khark and Qeshm. beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were determined using the PCR-RFLP technique. Detection of -alpha 3.7 deletion and beta-thalassemia mutations were defined by PCR and reverse dot blot techniques, respectively. The framework of the beta-globin gene was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We found that the betaS mutation in southern Iran is associated with multiple mutational events. Most of the patients were from two ethnic groups: Farsi speakers (presumably Persian in origin) from Fars province and patients of Arab origin from Khuzestan province. In both ethnic groups the Arab-Indian haplotype was the most prevalent. The frequencies of the Arab-Indian and African haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from the provinces of Fars and Khuzestan were similar. Among betaA chromosomes the Bantu A2 haplotype was the most prevalent. The decrease in alpha-globin production in SS patients and AS individuals appeared to be related to the reduction in mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin. The Arab-Indian haplotype gene flow into this region of Iran can be traced to the Sassanian Empire. It is likely that the influx of betaS genes linked to the Benin and Bantu haplotypes, of African origin, must have occurred during the Arab slave trade.

  16. Last Nomads In China:NOTES OF THE EVERYDAY LIFE OF KAZAK NOMADS IN XINJIANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    An American historian refers to the Kazak herdsmen who lead a nomadic life in the mountains, valleys and gobi in Tianshan and Altay as "the last nomads" in China. During recent years, I traveled many times to the Kazak region in northern Xinjiang to carry out field research. Each time I acquired a better understanding of the nomadic life of the Kazak people there.

  17. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...... mobile, place-less and nomadic lifestyles. We furthermore present a number of prototypes that seek to enrich the practices of the modern nomad....

  18. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...... mobile, place-less and nomadic lifestyles. We furthermore present a number of prototypes that seek to enrich the practices of the modern nomad....

  19. Skin Test Reactivity to Fungal Aeroallergens in Asthmatic Children in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of asthma appears to involve interplay between host factors and environmental exposures. The most important environmental factors are viral respiratory infections and airborne allergens in consist of sensitization to fungal aeroallergens [1]. Exposure to fungal aeroallergens was reported to be a cause of asthma in many parts of the world.There are few data on the prevalence of allergy to molds in Iran. This study was performed to determine the positive skin prick test to molds and their related risk factors in asthmatic children in Shiraz, southern Iran (Table 1.Skin prick test was done in two hundred and thirty asthmatic children with five types of common fungal aeroallergens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Caldosporium herbarum, Penicillium, Alternaria and Rhizopus.Out of 230 asthmatic children (175 boys, 55 girls with mean age 6.34±3 years, 25 (10.9% had positive skin test to molds. In other studies this rate was reported to be different between 2% to 80%[2]. Of 25 children with positive skin test to molds, the common fungal aeroallergen was Aspergillus followed by Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Amin R et al studied airborne fungal spores in Shiraz. The most important fungi, in order of numbers, had been Altenaria, Aspergilus, Rhizopus and Penicillium[3]. With regard to results of skin prick test in our study, it seems that Alternia is the most common outdoor fungus, but Aspergillus could be the most important indoor fungus.Another study showed in asthmatic patients that main skin test reactivity to fungi was for Aspergillus but most frequent cultured fungus was Cladosporium[4].Of 25 subjects with positive skin test to molds, 5 (20% were females, 20 (80% were residents of urban areas and 4 (56% lived in homes older than ten years. There was no significant correlation between the prevalence of mold skin test positivity in males and females, rural and urban habitats and age of homes.There was no difference in the

  20. Genotyping and Mutation Pattern in the Overlapping MHR Region of HBV Isolates in Southern Khorasan, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Masood; Javanmard, Davod; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Hasan Namaei, Mohammad; Azarkar, Ghodsiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran. Methods This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software. Results The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%). Conclusions This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region. PMID:27882062

  1. Genotyping and Mutation Pattern in the Overlapping MHR Region of HBV Isolates in Southern Khorasan, Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Masood; Javanmard, Davod; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Hasan Namaei, Mohammad; Azarkar, Ghodsiyeh

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran. This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software. The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%). This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region.

  2. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  3. The Occurrence of Red-Back Spider Latrodectus Hasselti (Araneae: Theridiidae in Bandar Abbas, Southern Port of Iran

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    M Shahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance and fatal affect of Red-back spiders, Latrodectus hasselti, a faunistic survey for presence of this spider in Bandar Abbas has been conducted. This animal is considerably the most medically importance spiders all over the world.Methods: Live adult spider specimens were collected from Bandar Abbas town using hand catch conventional method and transferred to the laboratory throughout the summer of 2008. They were identified based on mor­phological characteristics and taxonomic keys and confirmed by some external experts.Results: Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen. Conclusion: Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.

  4. Subjective lactose intolerance in apparently healthy adults in southern Iran: Is it related to irritable bowel syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi-Firoozi M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : The main symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, abdominal cramps, increased flatus and loose watery stools. These symptoms are similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, which is a prevalent entity in the community. Objective : As there was no data available on the prevalence of LI and the correlated factors, this study aimed to determine these correlations and their relation to IBS symptoms in an apparently healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods : A survey among 1,978 individuals older than 35 years was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran, using a questionnaire that consisted of items regarding demographic data, life style, subjective gastrointestinal symptoms of LI and IBS symptoms according to ROME II criteria. Results : A total of 562 subjects reported LI (28.41%. The prevalence was significantly higher in females, in subjects taking NSAIDs or acetaminophen and in cases reporting IBS symptoms. Subjects with LI avoided certain foods and drinks; and in order to relieve their symptoms, they used OTC drugs, herbal medicine or visited a physician. On the other hand, no relation was found between LI and age, smoking or the number of meals per day. Conclusions : Although we found that individuals with IBS had significantly more subjective LI than those without IBS, in the absence of documented lactose malabsorption, it is hard to tell whether the reported symptoms indeed are those of LI or simply those of IBS. So, a period of dairy product avoidance and/ or requesting a test for lactose malabsorption may be beneficial in this area.

  5. Monitoring of Plasmodium infection in humans and potential vectors of malaria in a newly emerged focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mohsen; Soltani, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mostafa; Yousefi, Masoud; Amin, Masoumeh; Shafiei, Ayda; Azizi, Kourosh

    2017-02-01

    Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species. The Annual Parasite Incidence rate (API) was three cases per 1,000 population from 2,000 individuals in three villages. Parasites species were detected in 9 out of the 4,000 blood smear samples among which, 6 cases were indigenous and had no history of travels to endemic areas of malaria. Also, the prevalence rate of asymptomatic parasites was about 0.3%. Overall, 1073 Anopheles spp. were caught from 9 villages. Totally, 512 female samples were checked by PCR, which indicated that none of them was infected with Plasmodium. Despite new malaria local transmission in humans in Mamasani and Rostam districts, no infection with Plasmodium was observed in Anopheles species. Because of neighboring of the studied area to the re-emerged focus in Fars province (Kazerun) and important endemic foci of malaria in other southern provinces, such as Hormozgan and Kerman, monitoring of the vectors and reservoir hosts of Plasmodium species would be unavoidable. Application of molecular methods, such as PCR, can simplify access to the highest level of accuracy in malaria researches.

  6. Precision measurements from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petti, R

    2004-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment collected unprecedent neutrino data samples, matching both the large statistics of massive calorimeters and the reconstruction quality of bubble chambers. This paper describes the determination of the weak mixing angle which is ongoing in NOMAD, with a target precision of $\\sim 1%$. In addition, measurements of the $\

  7. The Nomad Model: Theory, Developments and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanella, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents details of the developments of the Nomad model after being introduced more than 12 years ago. The model is derived from a normative theory of pedestrian behavior making it unique under microscopic models. Nomad has been successfully applied in several cases indicating that it ful

  8. The NOMAD Experiment at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vannucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the experimental apparatus and some physics results from the NOMAD (neutrino oscillation magnetic detector experiment which took data in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam from 1995 to 1998. It collected and reconstructed more than one million charged current (CC νμ events with an accuracy which was previously obtained only with bubble chambers. The main aim of the experiment was to search for the oscillation νμ into ντ, in a region of mass compatible with the prescriptions of the hot dark matter hypothesis, which predicted a ντ mass in the range of 1–10 eV/c2. This was done by searching for ντ CC interactions, observing the production of the τ lepton through its various decay modes by using kinematical criteria. In parallel, NOMAD also strongly contributed to the study of more conventional processes: quasielastic events, strangeness production and charm dimuon production, single photon production, and coherent neutral pion production. Exotic searches were also investigated. The paper reviews the neutrino beam, the detector setup, the detector performances, the neutrino oscillation results, the strangeness production, the dimuon charm production, and summarizes other pieces of research.

  9. Molecular characterization of Torque teno virus and SEN virus co-infection with HIV in patients from Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyar Pirouzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Torque teno virus (TTV and SEN virus are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that cause blood-borne infections. The SEN virus (SEN-V was originally detected in the serum of an injection drug user infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Recently TTV was discovered as a potential causative agent of non-A-E hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the SEN-V-D/H and TTV in HIV patients and healthy blood donors in Iran. Methods One hundred and fifty HIV patients with a mean age of 50.46 ± 18.46 years and 150 healthy blood donors with a mean age of 48.16 ± 13.73 years were included in this study. TTV and SEN-V were detected by the PCR and were quantitatively assayed by competitive PCR (nested and semi-nested PCR. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs were used to determine the heterogeneity of TTV. Results TTV and SEN-V were detected 96 (64% and 84 (56% of 150 HIV patients respectively. These rates were 34% (n=51 and 37.33% (n=56 in healthy blood donors (significant, p<0.05. PCR detected SEN-V/TTV DNA from 32 of the healthy blood donors (21.33%, while 65 (43.33% of HIV patients were positive for SEN-V/TTV DNA. Of 150 HIV patients, 32.66% and 23.33% were positive for SEN-V-H and SEN-V-D, respectively and 18.66% (n=28 were co-infected with SEN-V-D/H. Conclusions The prevalence of SEN-VD/H and TTV is higher in HIV patients than in healthy blood donors in Southern Iran. Our results suggest that TTV and SEN-V might play a role in the development of liver disease in patients with immunodeficiency diseases.

  10. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mahrooz; Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion potential in southern Iran. We used remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8 imagery of 2004 and 2013) for land use/cover mapping and employed the Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland (IRIFR) method to estimate changes in wind erosion potential. For an optimal mapping, the performance of different classification algorithms and input layers was tested. The amount of changes in wind erosion and land use/cover were quantified using cross-tabulation between the two years. To discriminate land use/cover related to wind erosion, the best results were obtained by combining the original spectral bands with synthetic bands and using Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm (Kappa Coefficient of 0.8 and 0.9 for Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8, respectively). The IRIFR modelling results indicate that the wind erosion potential has increased over the last decade. The areas with a very high sediment yield potential have increased, whereas the areas with a low, medium, and high sediment yield potential decreased. The area with a very low sediment yield potential have remained constant. When comparing the change in erosion potential with land use/cover change, it is evident that soil erosion potential has increased mostly in accordance with the increase of the area of agricultural practices. The conversion of rangeland to agricultural land was a major land-use change which lead to more agricultural practices and associated soil loss. Moreover, results indicate an increase in sandification in the study area which is also a clear evidence of increasing in soil erosion.

  11. Attitudes Toward and Experience of Singles with Premarital Sex: A Population-Based Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Salehi, Forough; Barfi, Rahele; Asadi, Zahra; Honarvar, Hossein; Odoomi, Neda; Arefi, Nafiseh; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2016-02-01

    The population of Iran is young and millions of youths are at risk for unprotected sexual relationships and their consequences. This questionnaire-based study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran. Singles were asked about premarital sex (PMS) and sexual health issues. A total of 1076 participants (634 males, 58.9%) with a mean age of 24 ± 5.8 years participated in this study. One out of 2 singles reported PMS and 1 out of 2 singles with PMS reported multiple partners. Median age at first sexual contact was 18 years. Of all singles, 452 (41.9%) were heterosexual, 61 (5.6%) were bisexual, 366 (33.9%) were alcohol users, 252 (23.3%) were smokers, 57 (5.2%) were opium users, and 392 (36.3%) did not know about preventive methods for HIV. Of 528 singles who had PMS, 126 (23.8%) never used a condom, 223 (42.2%) used it inconsistently, and 59 (11.1%) used it mainly against sexually transmitted diseases. In the regression analysis, alcohol use was the strongest associated factor of PMS in singles (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.3-7.4), followed by lack of religious beliefs (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8). As a result, the PMS situation in our setting is cause for alarm and to protect singles against the risks associated with PMS, a multidisciplinary intervention including improving access to sexual behavioral counseling centers, education about sexual health and especially condom use, abstinence from alcohol use, and commitment to religious values is urgently needed to be established by health policymakers.

  12. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. Results: All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Conclusions: Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran. PMID:26060566

  13. Prevalence of Obesity, Overweight and Underweight among Elementary School Children in Southern Iran, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years obesity has become epidemic in children and adolescents and was one of the main problems in developed and developing countries. Considering the importance of obesity complications for the health state of society and its increasing rate, careful evaluation, monitoring and follow up of obesity in children and adolescents was of a great importance. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight in elementary schoolchildren in Kerman, Iran. Approach: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1566 elementary schoolchildren aged 7-11 years in Kerman/Iran in 2009. A questionnaire consisted of age, sex, type of school, parents educational level, family size, weight and height was filled out for each student. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. Obesity, overweight and underweight based on Body Mass Index (BMI were determined for age and sex and in comparison to standard percentiles of World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight was 9.7, 4.4 and 0.57% respectively. There was no significant relationship between BMI and gender. There was an increasing rate of obesity and overweight risk in children of parents with higher educational levels and the prevalence of underweight was higher in the students of public schools. No significant relationship was found between BMI and family size. Conclusion: Based on the results, although obesity was still relatively uncommon in 7-11 year old urban students, the more important problem was the increasing rate of obesity and overweight prevalence. Establishing interventional measures in order to prevent risky behaviors leading to obesity and overweight seems to be highly necessary.

  14. Results from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, A

    2000-01-01

    he NOMAD experiment has been searching for νμ ↔ ντ oscillations by looking for the appearance of τ− in events from the CERN-SPS neutrino beam. With some improvements in the analysis techniques with respect to the previous published results and including data from 1995 to 1997, no evidence for oscillations is found, resulting in an updated limit in the oscillation probability of P(νμ↔ντ) < 0.6 × 10−3 at 90% C.L. This corresponds to a limit on the oscillation mixing angle of sin22θμτ < 1.2 × 10−3 for large Δm2.

  15. Alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cervera-Villanueva, A

    2000-01-01

    This note describes the alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector. This is the B/sub 4/C-silicon target installed in the NOMAD spectrometer in 1997. NOMAD-STAR is composed of modules of 12 silicon detectors each giving a total length of 72 cm. Ten of these modules (called ladders) are assembled to form a layer. There are five layers interleaved with passive boron carbide plates. The total surface of silicon is 1.14 m /sup 2/. Energetic muons from the flat-top of the CERN SPS cycle provide the necessary information to perform a very precise software alignment. This alignment is needed to ensure that the impact parameter measurement needed for the identification of taus in a detector like NOMAD-STAR will not be limited by the error in the alignment. (15 refs).

  16. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  17. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  18. Hepatitis B, C virus co-infection and behavioral risks in HIV-positive patients in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Moghaddam, Sodaif Darvish; Abasi, Mehdi Hayatbakhsh; Parnian, Maryam; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2014-02-01

    To determine the risk factors and frequency of hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Control of Diseases Centre of Kerman Medical University, southern Iran, between May and December 2011. Demographic features and history of high-risk behaviours were evaluated in 165 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen tests were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Out of the 165 patients, 136 (82.4%) were male and 29 (17.6%) were female. The mean age of the subjects was 40.4 +/- 9 years. Positive hepatitis C antibody was found in 122 (73.9%) and positive hepatitis B surface antigen was present in 6 (3.6%). Frequency of all three viruses co-infection was 3 (1.8%). History of imprisonment (OR = 17.5; 95% CI: 7.1-43.1) and drug injection addiction (OR = 15.3; 95% CI: 6.4-36.1) were the most significant risk factors involved in hepatitis C virus co-infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection was high and it was strongly related to history of imprisonment and drug injection addiction.

  19. GIS-based groundwater spring potential assessment and mapping in the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaghi, Zohre Sadat; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-01

    Three statistical models—frequency ratio (FR), weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression (LR)—produced groundwater-spring potential maps for the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. In total, 304 springs were identified in a field survey and mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), out of which 212 spring locations were randomly selected to be modeled and the remaining 92 were used for the model evaluation. The effective factors—slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, lithology, land use, and distance to river, road, fault—were derived from the spatial database. Using these effective factors, groundwater spring potential was calculated using the three models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for spring potential maps and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The final results indicated that the FR model (AUC = 79.38 %) performed better than the WofE (AUC = 75.69 %) and LR (AUC = 63.71 %) models. Sensitivity and factor analyses concluded that the bivariate statistical index model (i.e. FR) can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of groundwater spring potential when a sufficient number of data are obtained.

  20. The Emergence of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Following the Earthquake in Southern Villages of Bam District, Southeastern Iran, 2010

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    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.Methods: A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Results: Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more signifi­cantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.Conclusion: The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  1. The emergence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis following the earthquake in southern villages of bam district, southeastern iran, 2010.

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    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more significantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  2. Epidemiological features, clinical manifestation and laboratory findings of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kasiri; Hossein Najafi; Masoud Lotfi; Elnaz Kasiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Southern Iran.Methods:This descriptive study was conducted during 2004-2008. A questionnaire was completed for each case regarding age, gender, place of residence, the number and location of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions etc. Suspected active lesions were scraped with a sterile blade and the samples smeared onto glass slides, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa and examined under a light microscope for the presence of amastigotes.Results:Totally, 135 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis came to the health centers. The highest number of patients catching cutaneous leishmaniasis was found in 2006 (n=54). Most cases (56.3%) occurred during winter. The most highly infected age group was 1 to 10 years .The hands were the most affected parts of the body. About 54% of the patients had one lesion. The most cases (53.3%) occurred in rural areas.Concluions:It is important for the health authorities to take powerful actions to control cutaneous leishmaniasis. Meanwhile, It is significant to prepare quick treatment of cases.

  3. Water Consumption of a Six-Year-Old River Red Gum Plantation in the Southern Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud EDRAKI; Sayyed Ahang KOWSAR; Ali Asghar MEHRBAKHSH; Ali BORDBAR

    2007-01-01

    Water is the most important limiting factor in the development of arid environments;therefore, optimization of water use is a necessity in desert reclamation projects. Evapotranspiration of a 6-year-old river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) plantation, located in a sedimentation basin of an artificial recharge of the Gareh Bygone Plain groundwater system in Iran's southern Zagros Mountains, was studied during a 7-month period. A neutron moisture probe was used to monitor soil water changes in the root zone. Soil water depletion following rapid drainage for blocks receiving relatively high, medium and low volumes of floodwater were 809.6, 312.4, and 203.1 mm, respectively, for a 150-day period. Soil water potential during most of the study period was below -1.5 MPa. This study proves that river red gum in not a suitable species for desertification control where water conservation is of vital importance. Flood irrigation of trees on 8 Aug.1991 provided the opportunity to throw doubt upon the claim of summer dormancy of river red gum.

  4. First report on isolation of Leishmania tropica from sandflies of a classical urban Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

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    Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Rasolian, Mohammad; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Doosti, Sogra

    2010-12-01

    Shiraz district in south of Iran is a classical focus of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major in urban and rural areas, respectively. However, none of the Phlebotomus sergenti, a known vector for L. tropica, of the region has been found infected. We report the first isolation of L. tropica from sandflies in urban community of southern part of Shiraz city. Parasite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gene sequencing analyses indicate CL cases in this community were caused by either L. major or L. tropica. Sandflies of P. sergenti were infrequent, however, three out of 10 (30.0%) females captured in urban area were found infected with L. tropica. But, no human cases were found to be infected with L. tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi were found the most dominant and infected species where 41 out of 207 (20%) tested individuals harboring L. major in suburb area of the city. Patients have been lived in the suburb area of the city where people keep normally domestic animals in their houses which provide appropriate environment for completion of sandfly life cycle and expansion of CL disease in the region.

  5. Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southern Iran

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    Vazin A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Afsaneh Vazin,1 Zahra Zamani,1 Nahid Hatam2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Abstract: This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5% MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2% and antimicrobial (23.6% medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6% and wrong time error (4.4% were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04, higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017, and the morning shifts (P=0.035 were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction

  6. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in Southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475

  7. Laboratory based diagnosis of leishmaniasis in rodents as the reservoir hosts in southern Iran, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Masoumeh; Azizi Kourosh; Kalantari Mohsen; Motazedian Mohammad Hossein; Asgari Qasem; Najafi Mohammad Esmaeil; Dabaghmanesh Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the fauna of rodents as zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis reservoir hosts in Zarqan County, Fars Province, south of Iran, during 2012. Methods:During 2012, wild rodents from different parts of this region were caught by Sherman traps and checked by the examination of liver and spleen smears, for Leishmania infection, to see which species were acting as reservoir hosts;the slides were then processed to extract DNA for molecular test using PCR assay. Results:From 108 rodent species caught, 63%were male and 37%identified as female. Meriones libycus was the most abundant species caught (80.5%) and 5.7%of them were found to be smear-positive for Leishmania amastigotes. The other species were Rattus rattus (14.8%) and Mus musculus (4.7%), but none of them were found positive. Leishmania infection was observed in male and female samples microscopically. Moreover, molecular results revealed Leishmania major in three male and two female specimens. Conclusions:Based on our knowledge, Meriones libycus is incriminated as the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania major in the rural area of Zarqan.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Scorpion Sting in a High-Risk Area of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Mehran; Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahamd Ali; Navidpour, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdolhossein; Rafinejad, Javad

    2016-06-16

    Scorpion sting is a public health problem in south and southwestern parts of Iran, with about 36,000 cases recorded annually. This study aimed to find the spatial distribution of scorpions and their stings in Bandar Abbas County. Monthly scorpion sting cases at the village level were obtained and used for mapping. Scorpions were collected from 14 collection sites using a UV lamp at night and searching under stones during the day time. During the study period, a total of 3,971 cases of scorpion sting were recorded, most of them were found in mountainous areas and affected individuals aged 25-44 yrs. In total, 18 scorpion species belonging to 10 genera were collected and identified. The peak of scorpion sting cases occurred from July to September. The northern part of the mountainous areas had a richer species composition. Hemiscorpius persicus and Hemiscorpius gaillardi were collected for the first time in the area. There were 22 scorpion species in the area across studies; among them, 10 were most dangerous. Hemiscorpius genus is the main etiologic agent in Bandar Abbas County. Mapping dangerous species allows the health system to provide relevant anti-scorpion venom serum accordingly and more cost-effectively.

  9. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2014-07-27

    Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.

  10. Frequency of Tonsilloliths in Panoramic Views of a Selected Population in Southern Iran

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    Janan Ghabanchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Tonsilloliths are relatively common clusters of dys-trophic calcified material that form in the tonsillar crypts, mostly the palatine ton-sils. Although they may be asymptomatic, some cause halitosis, cough, dysphagia, and foreign body sensation, as well as otalgia. Since tonsilloliths can be detected on panoramic views as radiopaque lesions, and misdiagnosis may lead to wasting time and cost, dentist should be familiar with radiographic characteristics of this type of calcification. Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the pattern of distribution of tonsilloliths on panoramic radiographs. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was based on 2000 panoramic radiographs from 1030 female and 970 male aged 6-75 years old evaluated for the presence and pattern of tonsillolithiasis, between 2011 and 2013 in Shiraz, Iran. Chi–square test and odds ratio were used to evaluate the relationship between tonsillolithiasis and gender. p< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of the 2000 individuals, 101 cases (5.05% had tonsilloliths on pano-ramic radiographs out of which 61 were male (60.4% and 40 were female (39.6%, with age range of 18 to 65. Forty patients (39.6% had both left and right sides involved, 25 of tonsilloliths (24.75% were located on the right and 36 on the left side (35.65%. Men were more likely to develop tonsilloliths (p= 0.014. Conclusion: Tonsilloliths are not very common finding and can be detected on nearly 5.05% of panoramic radiographs. Most of the cases are unilateral with a diameter less than 2mm.

  11. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in children: Experience with 181 cases from southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Haghighat; Seyed Mohammad Rafie; Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Gholam Hossein Fallahi; Marzieh Nejabat

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the clinical presentation,response to prophylactic therapy and outcome of children with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) in Shiraz,Iran.METHODS:During a period of 11 years (March 1994 to March 2005),181 consecutive children with a final diagnosis of CVS were evaluated,treated and followed in our center. Patients were randomized to receive either amitriptyline or propranolol as prophylactic treatments.RESULTS:There were 88 boys and 93 girls with mean age of onset of symptoms of 4.9 ± 3.3 years(range,neonatal period to 14 years),the mean age at final diagnosis was 6.9 years (range, 1.5 to 14),and the mean duration between the onset of the first attack and the final diagnosis of CVS was 2 ± 1.81 years(range,1/6 to 8).The mean duration of each attack was 4.26 days(range,from few hours to 10 d)and the mean interval between the attacks was 1.8 mo(range,1 wk to 12 mo).The time of onset of the attacks was midnight to early morning in about 70% of cases. Amitriptyline was effective in 46 out of 81 (56%) patients (P<0.001). Propranolol appeared to have a superior action and was effective in 74 out of 83 (92%) patients (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION:There is a significant lag time between the onset of clinical symptoms and the final diagnosis of CVS in our area. In patients with typical clinical presentationsof CVS,who are examined by an experienced physician,invasive workup is not necessary. Propranolol appears more effective than amitriptyline for prophylactic use in children with CVS.

  12. Chrysura izadiae sp. nov., a new cuckoo wasp (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) from Southern Iran.

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    Strumia, Franco; Fallahzadeh, Majid; Izadi, Elaheh

    2016-01-07

    Chrysura Dahlbom, 1845 is the second largest genus in the Chrysidini tribe. It is essentially a Holarctic genus composed of over 100 species. The largest diversity is observed in the western Palaearctic Region. Important diagnostic features are the relatively flat and finely punctured face, absence of transverse frontal carina, the edentate metasomal tergum 3, and male flagellomeres 2-5 (especially 2-4) bulging ventrally (Kimsey & Bohart 1991). Kimsey & Bohart (1991) divided Chrysura into five species-groups: candens, cuprea, dichroa, austriaca and radians. Recently, Rosa and Lotfalizadeh (2013) proposed Ch. baiocchii as a new species-group. Within the Ch. dichroa species-group, including about 20 species, the largest richness is observed in the Mediterranean Region where a number of sibling species are present, making taxonomy of this group particularly difficult (Linsenmaier 1959, Arens 2001, 2002). The male genitalia have an important taxonomic value for species identification. The body colour pattern is rather constant in each species-group. All known species in the Ch. dichroa species-group have "head blue to green on vertex at least", "pronotal dorsum all or nearly all coppery-red; scutum and scutellum mostly red", "metanotum, propodeum, and pleuron mostly or all purple to green" (Kimsey & Bohart 1991). According to Linsenmaier (1959) the Ch. dichroa species-group has the above body colour with in addition tegula non coppery-red. Up to now, the following seven species belonging to the Ch. dichroa species-group are known in Iran (Rosa et al. 2013, Rosa & Lotfalizadeh 2013, Strumia & Fallahzadeh 2015): Chrysura filiformis (Mocsáry, 1889); Ch. laconiae (Arens, 2001); Ch. laevigata (Abeille de Perrin, 1879); Ch. lydiae (Mocsáry, 1889); Ch. psudodichroa (Linsenmaier, 1959); Ch. purpureifrons (Abeille de Perrin, 1878); Ch. simuldichroa (Linsenmaier, 1969).

  13. Survival Prognostic Factors of Male Breast Cancer in Southern Iran: a LASSO-Cox Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi; Salehi, Alireza; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    We used to LASSO-Cox method for determining prognostic factors of male breast cancer survival and showed the superiority of this method compared to Cox proportional hazard model in low sample size setting. In order to identify and estimate exactly the relative hazard of the most important factors effective for the survival duration of male breast cancer, the LASSO-Cox method has been used. Our data includes the information of male breast cancer patients in Fars province, south of Iran, from 1989 to 2008. Cox proportional hazard and LASSO-Cox models were fitted for 20 classified variables. To reduce the impact of missing data, the multiple imputation method was used 20 times through the Markov chain Mont Carlo method and the results were combined with Rubin's rules. In 50 patients, the age at diagnosis was 59.6 (SD=12.8) years with a minimum of 34 and maximum of 84 years and the mean of survival time was 62 months. Three, 5 and 10 year survival were 92%, 77% and 26%, respectively. Using the LASSO-Cox method led to eliminating 8 low effect variables and also decreased the standard error by 2.5 to 7 times. The relative efficiency of LASSO-Cox method compared with the Cox proportional hazard method was calculated as 22.39. The19 years follow of male breast cancer patients show that the age, having a history of alcohol use, nipple discharge, laterality, histological grade and duration of symptoms were the most important variables that have played an effective role in the patient's survival. In such situations, estimating the coefficients by LASSO-Cox method will be more efficient than the Cox's proportional hazard method.

  14. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

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    Akogun Oladele B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next" as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them.

  15. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

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    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  16. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

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    Y. Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1 warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2 During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  17. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  18. Nomadic concepts in the history of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Jan; Stráner, Katalin; Haslinger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The history of scientific concepts has firmly settled among the instruments of historical inquiry. In our section we approach concepts from the perspective of nomadic concepts (Isabelle Stengers). Instead of following the evolution of concepts within one disciplinary network, we see them as subject to constant reification and change while crossing and turning across disciplines and non-scientific domains. This introduction argues that understanding modern biology is not possible without taking into account the constant transfers and translations that affected concepts. We argue that this approach does not only engage with nomadism between disciplines and non-scientific domains, but reflects on and involves the metaphoric value of concepts as well.

  19. The trigger system of the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altegoer, J; Boyd, S; Cardini, A; Farthouat, Philippe; Ferrari, R; Geppert, D; Gössling, C; Huta, W; Hyett, N; Koch, N; Lanza, A; Long, J; Moorhead, G F; Poolmann, D; Poulsen, C; Rubbia, André; Schmidt, B; Soler, F J P; Steele, D; Varvell, K E; Weisse, T; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Voullieme, A

    1999-01-01

    The NOMAD trigger system is described in the present paper. It is made up of a largearea plastic scintillator veto system, two trigger scintillator planes inside a 0.4~Tmagnetic field and their associated trigger electronics. Special features of the systemconsist of the use of proximity mesh photomultipliers which allow the trigger scintillators to operate in the magnetic field, and the use of custom-built VME moduleswhich perform the trigger logic decisions, the signal synchronisation and gate generation,event counting and livetime calculations. This paper also includes a description of each of the NOMAD triggers, with their calculated and measured rates, efficiencies and livetimes.

  20. Changing Climate, Disrupted Livelihoods: The Case of Vulnerability of Nomadic Maasai Pastoralism to Recurrent Droughts in Kajiado District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.; Desanker, P. V.

    2007-12-01

    Pastoralism is practiced in all arid and semiarid lands (ASALs) of Africa. High interannual rainfall variability and degraded ecosystems characterize these ASALs and limits arable farming. Under these conditions, pastoralism has evolved as the most feasible livelihood system in ASALs, where total annual rainfall correlates with annual net primary productivity, especially grass. Maasai of East Africa are the largest group of nomadic pastoralists in Africa, with about two-thirds living in southern Kenya, mainly in Kajiado and Narok Districts. Maasai people of Kenya subsist by nomadic pastoralism. Nomads migrate with their livestock in search of natural pastures and water as climatic and environmental circumstances mandate. Successful migrations of nomadic pastoralists are being hampered by changing social and ecological factors both at local and broader scales. What is more, increased frequency and duration of drought constitute a major challenge with which the Maasai have to confront. Drought is a slow-developing phenomenon; therefore, it captures delayed attention. Nonetheless, the cumulative impacts of drought are more immense. Drought triggers catastrophic events that diminish adaptive capacity of inhabitants of these ASALs; this is conspicuous in Kajiado District where livestock productivity plummet as resource base erodes. What is more, global climate change is projected to intensify the occurrence, severity and duration of droughts in this region. Frequent droughts are likely to disrupt proper functioning of nomadic Maasai pastoralism. This study presents findings from an integrated research conducted in Kajiado District during the last two years. Spatiotemporal trends of drought, effects of drought on, and possible future of nomadic Maasai pastoralism are presented. This is informative to the Maasai pastoralists, policy makers and other actors in this sector. Most important, the study is contributes toward formulation of informed drought management strategies

  1. Hepatitis D in Chronic Active Hepatitis B: Prevalence, Liver Enzyme Levels and Histopathology- an Epidemiological Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Khademolhosseini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: At least 5% of hepatitis B carriers worldwide are infected with Hepatitis D virus (HDV. This study aims to determine the prevalence, transaminase levels and histopathological findings of HDV among patients with chronic active hepatitis B in southern Iran.Methods: During 2003-2004, 93 patients >15 years with chronic active hepatitis B were enrolled from referrals to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran.Results: Nine (9.7% patients were seropositive for the anti HDV antibody. 76.3% of patients were male and among the HDV positive group, all subjects were male too. A significantly higher AST and more advanced grade and stage of liver disease were observed in the HDV positive group. The most common mode of transmission in the positive group was intravenous drug use.Conclusions: The risk of liver disease progression in chronic hepatitis B appears to be higher in HDV infected patients. Intravenous drug abuse is an important risk factor for acquiring HDV infection. Checking anti-HDV is suggested in any patient with positive HBsAg, especially in males or those with history of intravenous drug abuse.

  2. Hepatitis C and G Virus Infection Prevalence Among Hemodialysis Patients and Associated Risk Factors in the Hormozgan Province of Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargar Kheirabad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection with blood-borne viruses including hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis G (HGV viruses is a substantial health problem. Varying prevalences of these infections in different studies reflect the role of predisposing risk factors in different countries or even different regions of a country. Objectives The objective of the present survey was to assess the prevalences of HCV and HGV virus infections among hemodialysis (HD patients in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran, 2015. Methods A total of 149 subjects with chronic renal failure undergoing HD at Shahid Mohammadi hospital in the Hormozgan province of southern Iran from January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2015 were evaluated for anti-HCV and antibodies against HGV E2 glycoprotein by census sampling method. Thereafter, all of the specimens were evaluated for molecular assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and other techniques. Investigated data were recorded for each participant in a pre-designed data collection sheet. All statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 19 for Windows by t-test and chi-square test (χ2. Results The mean age of patients was 56.23 ± 12.35 years (minimum age 18, maximum age 85. Both kinds of assays determined that five (3.36% patients were HCV positive, whereas no HGV positives were diagnosed. The prevalence of HCV is associated with longer duration of HD (P value = 0.008, history of blood transfusion (P value = 0.037 and drug addiction (P value = 0.035. Conclusions History of drug addiction and/or blood transfusion and longer duration of HD treatment were the main risk factors determining the prevalence of HCV infection in the Hormozgan province of southern Iran in 2015. However, the values observed in the present investigation reflect the effective management techniques imposed by healthcare authorities and relevant organizations in recent years.

  3. "Becoming" Learners/Teachers in Nomadic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a conjunction between the learning space of educational edge community (EEC) and the Deleuzeguattarian thought regarding the nature of teachers' "becoming." It attends to the emerging subjectivities of teachers/learners within an EEC, a nomadic, open, and smooth space of learning. It is suggested that autonomous…

  4. Performance of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barichello, G; Daniels, D C; Ellis, M; Ferrère, D; Gouanère, M; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gössling, C; Hernando, J A; Huta, W; Kokkonen, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Linssen, Lucie; Lisowski, B; Long, J; Lupi, A; Runólfsson, O; Schmidt, B; Soler, F J P; Steele, D; Stipcevic, M; Veltri, M; Vidal-Sitjes, G; do Couto e Silva, E

    2003-01-01

    The NOMAD-STAR detector is a silicon vertex installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. It consists of four layers of a passive boron carbide target with a total mass of 45 kg and five layers of 600 single sided silicon microstrip detectors covering a total area of 1.14m^2. About 11,500 nu_mu charged current interactions were reconstructed in the fiducial volume of NOMAD-STAR from the neutrino run in 1998. The potential use of silicon detectors for nu_mu (nu_e) nu_tau oscillations depends on the observation of the tau candidates by the experimental signature of a large impact parameter, in the case of the one prong decay of the tau, or a double vertex, in the case of the three prong decay. The main aim of NOMAD-STAR is to measure the impact parameter and vertex distributions of charged current interactions, which constitute the main backgrounds for the oscillation signals, to understand the significance of a potential signal in a future experiment. The present paper describes the experi...

  5. The NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altegoer, J.; Anfreville, M.; Angelini, C.; Astier, P.; Authier, M.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Basa, S.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Bunyatov, S.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Castera, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cavestro, V.; Cloué, O.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; de Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; di Lella, L.; Dignan, T.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Donnelly, I. J.; Dumarchez, J.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Galumian, P.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Huta, W.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Kirsanov, M.; Kekez, D.; Khomenko, B.; Klimov, O.; Kovzelev, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mossuz, L.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Passérieux, J.-P.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Perroud, J.-P.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Pluquet, A.; Poinsignon, J.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Pope, B. G.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Renzoni, G.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Shahmanèche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Sconza, A.; Serrano, M.; Sevior, M. E.; Sillou, D.; Sobczynski, C.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steininger, M.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, S.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Uros, V.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vo, M.-K.; Volkov, S.; Weber, F.; Weisse, T.; Werlen, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wicht, P.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; NOMAD Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a short base-line search for νμ - ντ oscillations in the CERN neutrino beam. The ντ's are searched for through their charged current interactions followed by the observation of the resulting τ- through its electronic, muonic or hadronic decays. These decays are recognized using kinematical criteria necessitating the use of a light target which enables the reconstruction of individual particles produced in the neutrino interactions. This paper describes the various components of the NOMAD detector: the target and muon drift chambers, the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, the preshower and transition radiation detectors and the veto and trigger scintillation counters. The beam and data acquisition system are also described. The quality of the reconstruction and individual particles is demonstrated through the ability of NOMAD to observe K s0's, Λ0's and π0's. Finally, the observation of τ- through its electronic decay being one of the most promising channels in the search, the identification of electrons in NOMAD is discussed.

  6. Studying Nomads on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Beall, Cynthia M.

    1986-01-01

    Noting that few western social scientists have been allowed to enter Tibet, this article describes the 5-month experience of 2 United States anthropologists. Included are 5 photographs of nomads, a description of the research conditions, and a collection of observations and tentative conclusions about these highland peoples (JDH)

  7. Improving the Nomad microscopic walker model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanella, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two calibration efforts and improvements of the Nomad microscopic walker model. Each calibration consisted in comparing the outcome of 19 sets of model parameters with results from laboratory experiments. Three different flows were used in the calibrations: bidirec

  8. The Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-01-01

    The Northrop A-17A Nomad: Although another A-17 was used as a cowling testbed, this Northrop A-17A was only slightly modified during the course of its short NACA career at Langley. These modifications were done to determine the profile drag of a wing in flight.

  9. Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and

  10. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ziaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2009-2010, 881 inmates in three prisons of Southern Khorasan Province in Iran were selected based on a systematic, stratified random sampling method. Sera were analyzed for HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV infections by appropriate commercial ELISA kits. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and information about risk factors.Overall, 881 prisoners (mean age: 34.7±11.4 years, range: 11-84 years, M/F ratio:4.5/1 were participated in this study. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection was 6.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Among the HBsAg positive subjects, 6.6% (4/61 and 9.8% (6/61 had HDV and HCV super-infection, respectively. Only one case (0.1% had HIV infection that was co-infection with HCV. Drug abuse and history of traditional phlebotomy were associated risk factors for HBV infection (P<0.05 and history of drug injection was associated with HCV infection (P<0.05.This study show fairly higher prevalence of blood borne infections among prisoners and indicate drug abuse and phlebotomy as the associated risk factor. Implementation of appropriate screening tests and preventive programs is suggested in prisons.

  11. Effectiveness of Educational Program Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action to Decrease the Rate of Cesarean Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Fasa, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan-Jeihooni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cesarean section is considered as a major surgery accompanied by several complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of reasoned action to reduce the rate of cesarean section among pregnant women in Fasa, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 100 (50 participants in each of the control and intervention groups primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to health centers of Fasa city, Fars province, Iran. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables and the theory of reasoned action structures. After the pretest, the intervention group underwent exclusive training based on the theory of reasoned action. Then, after 3 months, both groups took part in the posttest. Data was analyzed by paired T-test, independent T-test and chi-square using SPSS-18 software. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups regarding knowledge, evaluations behavioral outcomes, Behavioral beliefs and intention (P<0.001. Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding their performance (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present intervention was effective in increasing the pregnant women’s knowledge, evaluation of outcomes, attitude and strengthening their intention as well as performance. Therefore, it is suggested to use this model and other systematic straining for pregnant women to decrease the rate of cesarean section.

  12. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  13. The drift chambers of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfreville, M.; Astier, P.; Authier, M.; Baldisseri, A.; Banner, M.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Castera, A.; Cloue, O.; Dumarchez, J. E-mail: jacques.dumarchez@cern.ch; Dumps, L.; Gangler, E.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Jollec, C.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Meyer, J.-P.; Ouriet, J.-P.; Passerieux, J.-P.; Margaley, T.P.T. Pedrol; Placci, A.; Pluquet, A.; Poinsignon, J.; Popov, B.A.; Rathouit, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Stolarczyk, T.; Uros, V.; Vannucci, F.; Vo, M.K.; Zaccone, H

    2002-04-01

    We present a detailed description of the drift chambers used as an active target and a tracking device in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. The main characteristics of these chambers are a large area (3{center_dot}3 m{sup 2}), a self-supporting structure made of light composite materials and a low cost. A spatial resolution of 150 {mu}m has been achieved with a single hit efficiency of 97%.

  14. The effects of exposure to pesticides on the fecundity status of farm workers resident in a rural region of Fars province, southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Neghab; Mohammadjafar Momenbella-Fard; Reza Naziaghdam; Narges Salahshour; Maryam Kazemi; Hamzeh Alipour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of fecundity and other reproductive problems among a group of farmers in Kavar district of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: A total of 268 randomly selected married male farm workers were investigated. A questionnaire was devised and validated [Cronbach’s α-coefficient (0.81)]. Subjects were directly interviewed and the questionnaire forms were completed for them. Results:The prevalence of current primary infertility among the studied population was about 7.4% (P=0.001). Similarly, 6.3% of farm workers had offsprings with congenital malformations. Finally, 1.5% and 9% of farmers’ wives had a history of stillbirth and abortion, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence of current primary infertility were higher among farm workers families than in the normal population (P Conclusions:These effects are likely to be attributed to the exposure of farm workers to pesticides.

  15. Discovering New Rock Paintings at Shmsali and Gorgali Rock Shelters in Kohgiluye and Bouier Ahmad Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Hemati Azandaryani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Shamsali and Gorgali rock shelters were discovered during an archaeological survey in 2009 at Kohgiluye Bouier Ahmad province, west of Iran. In total, 50 paintings occur at both rock shelters; 21 at Shamsali, and 29 remains at Gorgali rock shelter. The paintings consist of “ibex”, “Predators”, and “riders” in red and black. They are depicted stylistically in singular or plural subjects in profile. In addition, the most numerous images in the Shamsali and Gorgali rock shelters represent “ibex”, comparable with a large numbers of such motifs identified in other regions of Iran. There is no certainty in attributed dates, because we are lacking absolute dating methods.

  16. Evolving Approaches to Educating Children from Nomadic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Evolving policies have increasingly aimed to include nomadic groups in EFA, but an overemphasis on mobility has distracted policy makers from going beyond access logistics to consider learning needs within nomads' contemporary livelihoods and cultural values. Notable global trends are the growth and institutionalization of forms of Alternative…

  17. The Role of Women in Military Organization of Nomads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgabayeva, Gaukhar Z.; Samarkin, Sergey V.; Yarochkina, Elizaveta V.; Taskuzhina, Aigul B.; Amantaeva, Aigul B.; Nazarova, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of women in the nomadic environment, particularly in the military structure. Using the method of comparative historical analysis as well as archaeological research data, the authors found that dual organization was typical for most nomads. Moreover, women in the Scythian and Sarmatian societies were…

  18. Gallex, Nomad and Antares. A decade of neutrino research; Gallex, nomad, antares. Une decennie de neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarczyk, Th

    2003-02-01

    This report presents 10 years of research concerning the neutrino through the experiments Gallex, Nomad and Antares to which the author has contributed. For each experiment the author gives the physic principles on which the detection is based, presents the equipment and the detection systems, details his contribution and reports the main results.

  19. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  20. Methodology of nomadic culture research: problems and innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimkul Erzhanova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary interest to the nomad culture of Kazakh people is result of overcoming closeness and elitism in knowledge of national history and culture. It is also reflection of desire to get rid of labels and stereotypes of soviet history science as well. The paper doubts the capacity of formational and civilized theoretical concepts, rooted in European historiography, in objective studying the nomadic culture: within these methodologies the interpretations of nomadic culture results from Western system of values The author emphasizes that in the study of the nomad culture and history of the Kazakh people during a difficult transition period (18th - beginning of the 2oth century the value-based concepts are more applicable. Such approach describes the nomadic culture as a specific independent cultural system, containing its own values.

  1. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran.

  2. Quantitative characterization of cantharidin in the false blister beetle, Oedemera podagrariae ventralis, of the southern slopes of Mount Elborz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, S M; Nikbakhtzadeh, M R; Vatandoost, H; Mehdinia, A; Rahimi-Foroshani, A; Shayeghi, M

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin, a potent vesicant and antifeedant agent, is produced by two families of beetles, Meloidae and Oedemeridae (Coleoptera). In this study, the cantharidin content of oedemerid beetles of central Iran was investigated using the GC-MS method. Cantharidin in both sexes of Oedemera podagrariae ventralis Meïneïtrieãs (Oedemeridae) was found in an average of 3.89 µg/beetle in males and 21.68 µg/beetle in females, which are amounts sufficient to irritate human skin. The average of cantharidin in virgin and coupled beetles was 1.35 and 1.62 (µg cantharidin/mg of beetle) respectively. Females had five to six times more cantharidin in their bodies than males, but there was no significant difference between the amount of cantharidin in virgin and coupled females. The results of this study revealed the production of cantharidin in both sexes of beetle.

  3. Molecular Detection and Identification of Theileria Species by PCR-RFLP Method in Sheep from Ahvaz, Southern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the accurate status of ovine Theileria infection in sheep from Ahvaz and surrounding region, a tropical area southwest Iran.A PCR-RFLP method based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene was designed which could detect and differentiate Theileria and Babesia spp. and also differentiate main Theileria species in sheep at the same time. 119 sheep blood samples were collected from Ahvaz and surroundings.Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 69.7% (83/119 infection with Theileria spp. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, 89% (106/119 were found to be positive, all of which were identified as Theileria by RFLP analysis using enzyme Hind II. In enzymatic digestion of PCR products by Vsp I, 91.5% (97/106 of Theileria positive samples were identified as T. ovis while mixed Theileria infections were found in 9 samples. The samples with mixed infections were analyzed with an additional nested PCR-RFLP method, by HpaII enzyme digestion. 3 samples with T. lestoquardi infection, 1 sample with T. ovis and T. annulata, 1 sample with T. lestoquardi and T. annulata, and 4 samples with T. ovis, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata mixed infections were detected.Ovine theileriosis caused by T. ovis is highly prevalent in southwest Iran while T. lestoquardi and T. annulata infection can be detected in a lesser propor-tion of sheep in this region. The new PCR-RFLP method that was designed in this study, can serve as a beneficial diagnostic tool, especially in T. ovis prevalent re-gions.

  4. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  5. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Envi-ron¬mental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, South-ern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic kerati­tis (AK. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran.Methods: In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA. Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Geno­types were identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Result: Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6% of samples of water and 13 (26% soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%, T2 (6.6%, and T5 (6.6% genotypes.Conclusion: TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture.

  6. Combination of Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process Techniques to Assess Potassium Saturation Percentage of Some Calcareous Soils (Case Study: Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mokarram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the capability of a combined fuzzy logic-based approach and analytical hierarchy process (AHP for potassium saturation percentage (KSP estimation in some calcareous soils of southern Iran. Based on a reconnaissance soil survey, 52 soil series were selected and different physical and chemical properties were determined. Five soil parameters including clay, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate equivalent, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon were chosen for analysis. Mapping was developed with the kriging method for each parameter. Different fuzzy membership functions were employed and weights for all parameters were calculated according to AHP. Finally, KSP classes were provided for each land unit. Results indicated that about 60% of the studied area is classified as having moderate to high KSP content (>3% and 40% of had low or very low KSP content (<3%. Then 15 sample points were used for determination of the accuracy of the fuzzy method. Results showed that the fuzzy and AHP methods have a high accuracy for KSP estimation in the studied soils. Further development of the fuzzy and AHP methods would be worthwhile for improving the accuracy of KSP analysis.

  7. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations in Rutilus frisii kutum on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine products, especially fish, play an increasingly significant role in human diets and health. This research evaluated the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum along the Caspian Sea coasts of northern Iran. Methods: Thirty samples of fishes were taken from five stations (Astara, Rezvanshahr, Anazali, Ramsar, and Tonekabon during fishing season. An ICP-OES spectrophotometer was used to determine concentrations of the studied metals. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistical index, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA test; P Ni>Pb>Cd. The results showed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of these metals in liver and muscle tissues (P < 0.05, but no significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Based on calculations, the estimated permissible tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs of cadmium (0.042 and 0.567 mg and lead (0.0021 and 0.027 mg in this study are lower than the levels established by the World Health Organization (WHO (0.455 mg for cadmium and 1.625 mg for lead.

  8. An Authentication Framework for Nomadic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    Security and usability are often horn locked and system administrators tend to configure systems so that they favor security over usability. In many cases, however, the increased security results in usability that is so poor that users feel the need to circumvent the security mechanisms....... This is probably best explained by considering password based authentication, where a user is actively involved in the process. If the time required to log in to an account is considered too high, users tend to leave their terminals logged in throughout the day and share their account with other users....... This is particularly true for nomadic users who move around in ubiquitous computing environments and avail from different IT services from many different locations. In many ubiquitous computing environments, where information processing is not considered the main priority, management often accepts this practise...

  9. environmental education for survival: the use of radio among nomads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Unesco/UNEP project using radio as a medium of environmental education among nomads is ... alia at creating awareness of environmental problems, specific- ally desertification ..... Failure of rains or lack of water was the most often cited ...

  10. Ecological aspect of the culture of Eurasian Nomads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin U. Baydarov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the properties of ecological culture and ecological consciousness of Eurasian nomads. In situation of modern global problems, including the ecological ones, they preserved their exemplary behavior to the nature.

  11. OceanNOMADS: Real-time and retrospective access to operational U.S. ocean prediction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J. M.; Cross, S. L.; Bub, F.; Ji, M.

    2011-12-01

    Nowcast/Forecast System over the Gulf of Mexico from 2004-Mar 2011, the operational Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) regional USEast ocean nowcast/forecast system from early 2009 to present, and the NAVOCEANO operational regional AMSEAS (Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean) ocean nowcast/forecast system from its inception 25 June 2010 to present. AMSEAS provided one of the real-time ocean forecast products accessed by NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration from the NGI/NCDDC developmental OceanNOMADS during the Deep Water Horizon oil spill last year. The developmental server also includes archived, real-time Navy coastal forecast products off coastal Japan in support of U.S./Japanese joint efforts following the 2011 tsunami. Real-time NAVOCEANO output from regional prediction systems off Southern California and around Hawaii, currently available on the NCEP ftp server, are scheduled for archival on the developmental OceanNOMADS by late 2011 along with the next generation Navy/NOAA global ocean prediction output. Accession and archival of additional regions is planned as server capacities increase.

  12. Privacy-aware Nomadic Service For Personalized IPTV

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; User-Centric Personalized IPTV UbiquitOus and SecUre Services (Up-TO-US) project provides nomadism and personalization in IPTV operated services. This paper proposes a novel architecture for nomadism combined with an extensive game to enforce identity exposure when a user accesses his/her services from outside the home domain. The goal of the game is to minimize the personal information divulgation outside his/her domain. The proposed algorithm is implemented within a ...

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahador Sarkari; Asgari Qasem; Mohammad Reza Shafaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods: The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection.Results:Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents’ attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions: In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants’ contribution in control program of CL in this area.

  14. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Phenylketonuria (PKU Disease in the National Screening Program of Neonates, Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senemar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU is a rare metabolic disorder that results from a deficiency of a liver enzyme known as phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH. In this study, we researched about PKU epidemiological factors and health quality of patients after the neonatal screening program."nMethods: Neonatal screening for PKU was conducted by one neonatal screening center in Fars Province, in Shiraz Paramedical University. All Fars infants must refer only to this center, in which a heel prick blood sample  of each infant was collected at 72 hours postnatal on to standard filter paper and asked questions from the children's parent's and the doctor examined the patients receiving phenylalanine- free milk through examining the children's development. PKU was screened by Fluorometric method."nResults: Totally of 70477 newborns screened for PKU, 15- cases of PKU detected with an incidence of 1:4698. In "Eghlid", that is a city in Fars Province. The prevalence of the disease is 1:382 of newly born babies. The frequency of familial marriage in these children's parents is 86.6%. Twenty nine percent of them were observed among those who had married their close relatives. Mean rate of normal development in PKU patients was 95%."nConclusion: Consanguineous marriage is a major cause in that pattern particular in Iranian. The treatment of PKU after newborn screening is used. With special diet in above of 90% newborn is satisfactory. Now screening should be executed for all of family that they have familial history of PKU in Iran.

  15. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Freidoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Freidoonkenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year that performs motive force in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, are dominating the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  16. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Feridoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year. This system performs the forcing in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, dominates the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  17. Knowledge,attitude,and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis,Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahador; Sarkari; Asgari; Qasem; Mohammad; Reza; Shafaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess knowledge,attitudes,and practices(KAP)of inhabitants of an endemic area it)Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis(CI).Methods:the study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province,south of Iran,one of the most important foci of CL in this province.Sample size(237 residents)was calculated based on population.House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge,attitudes,and practices of the inhabitants.The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL.A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection.Results:Mean age of participants was 39 and more titan half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40.Males constituted 172(72.5%)of subjects.Most of the respondents(84.3%)were literate.The majority of the study poulation(83%)had heard about SalaJc(local name for CL)and most of these respondents(91%)were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion.Nearly two-third of the participants(63.5%)stated the bite of mosquito(not specifically sandflies)for CL transmission.The respondents’attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since Only 48%believed that CL can be treated by medicine.A noticeable proportion of respondents(21%)believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL.A small proportion of respondents(14%)stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease.More than two-third(69%)of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures.Conclusions:In this study,insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature,vector,transmission mode and preventive measures of CL,highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL.This would improve inhabitants’contribution in control program of CL in this area.

  18. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  19. A significant breakthrough in the incidence of childhood cancers and evaluation of its risk factors in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Erjaee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study investigates epidemiologic and practical information about the incidence and risk factors of childhood cancer in a population of Southern Iranian children. Materials and Methods: A total number of 300 cancer patients along with 600 age- and gender-matched healthy control were interviewed by a trained physician regarding their demographic characteristics, and major family-associated risk factors, childhood malignancies. Results: The average annual percentage change for cancers in the studied population is calculated as 45%. Our study indicated that possible risk factors which could contribute to the development of childhood cancer are maternal oral contraceptive pill use during pregnancy, exposure to radiation during pregnancy, parental smoking, residence near high voltage electricity lines, exposure to pesticides and fertilizers, patient allergy, contact with domestic animals and father's educational degree. Furthermore, new ecological risk factors such as air pollution due to nonstandard petroleum or toxic inhalant particles, nonhealthy food consumption, and satellite jamming are other predisposing factors. Conclusion: Our study reported a higher average annual percentage change of childhood cancers in our area, compared to the existing literature. In conclusion, detection and prevention of the consistent and possible new environmental risk factors such as nonstandard petroleum or satellite jamming from all around the country should be taking into consideration.

  20. Life history pattern of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) in the Tajan River (Southern Caspian Sea to Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATIMAR Rahman; GHORBANI Mohsen; GOL-MOHAMMADI Ali; AZIMI-GLUGAHI Hoda

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the ecology of introduced species in new habitats can allow determinations of the degree, direction, and rate of evolutionary change. The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki in the southern Caspian Sea presents such a situation. We evaluated the life history traits of mosquitofish in the Tajan River basin. A total of 744 G. holbrooki specimens were collected between January and December 2008. The maximum observed ages are 0+ years for males and 1+ years for females. Both sexes grew allometrically (negative for males: b=2.442 and positive for females: 6=3.232). The overall sex ratio is unbalanced and dominated by females. GSI values suggest that this population of G. holbrooki matures between February-July. The highest mean GSI value is 1.80 for males and 15.97 for females in May. Egg diameter ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 mm with a mean value of 2.098 mm. Absolute fecundity varied from 7 to 57 eggs. Both ova diameter and absolute fecundity were positively correlated to fish size (length and weight). Fecundity relative to total weight fluctuated from 34.44 to 582.64 eggs/g, and to total length from 2.33 to 12.95 eggs/cm. Both were negatively correlated with female size. The characteristics of this population are important with respect to life history of the species.

  1. A Significant Breakthrough in the Incidence of Childhood Cancers and Evaluation of its Risk Factors in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjaee, Asma; Niknam, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ahmadreza; Dehghani, Maryam; Safaei, Zeinab; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates epidemiologic and practical information about the incidence and risk factors of childhood cancer in a population of Southern Iranian children. A total number of 300 cancer patients along with 600 age- and gender-matched healthy control were interviewed by a trained physician regarding their demographic characteristics, and major family-associated risk factors, childhood malignancies. The average annual percentage change for cancers in the studied population is calculated as 45%. Our study indicated that possible risk factors which could contribute to the development of childhood cancer are maternal oral contraceptive pill use during pregnancy, exposure to radiation during pregnancy, parental smoking, residence near high voltage electricity lines, exposure to pesticides and fertilizers, patient allergy, contact with domestic animals and father's educational degree. Furthermore, new ecological risk factors such as air pollution due to nonstandard petroleum or toxic inhalant particles, nonhealthy food consumption, and satellite jamming are other predisposing factors. Our study reported a higher average annual percentage change of childhood cancers in our area, compared to the existing literature. In conclusion, detection and prevention of the consistent and possible new environmental risk factors such as nonstandard petroleum or satellite jamming from all around the country should be taking into consideration.

  2. Nomadic pastoralism in the Aru basin of Tibet's Chang Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius W. Næss

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Nomadic pastoralists live at the northern extent of human habitation within the ca. 5000 m elevation Aru basin, in the nortwestern part of the Chang Tang Nature Preserve, Tibet. These nomads herd primarily sheep and goats, a lesser number of yaks, and a few horses. Goats are increasing in importance because of the value of cashmere wool in national and international markets. Although sheep wool production is greater per animal than for the cashmere goats, the price obtained for its wool is much lower. Still, households keep more sheep than goats, primarily because sheep meat is preferred for consumption and sheep wool is important for the nomads' own use. The Aru nomads have traditionally depended on hunting to compensate for livestock lost to predators and unpredictable climatic phenomena such as blizzards. The prohibition of hunting in the reserve from 1993 has apparently resulted in a lowering of their standard of living, even with an overall rise in cashmere prices. According to the nomads, without hunting they have thus lost a safety measure important during years with heavy livestock losses. Conservation related development initiatives in the reserve should address this issue.

  3. Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programmes in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinoye, R. A.; Ojokheta, K. O.; Olojede, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the Nigerian National Commission for Nomadic Education in 1989 created wider opportunities for an estimated 9.3 million nomads living in Nigeria to acquire literacy skills. This commission was struck to address low literacy rates among pastoral nomads and migrant fishermen, which put literacy rates at 0.28 percent and 20…

  4. Analysis of the black tents of nomadic Bakhtiari houses and pavilions of the Turkmen and the air conditioning and heating, cooling, black tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houtan Iravan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the fundamental principles of the formation of the black tents of the province as well as the local housing Turkmen living in Iran. Migrating and analysis of structural features which are part of the objectives of the project. What is the structure of the alcove and the culture and traditions of their people alachyq what effect has the overall analysis and opinion on the Iranian nomadic dwellings? Residents pavilions linked to the social economy determine the structure of the skeleton-Avq-chords-intip-Qapyand strains.

  5. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    The Neo-Tethyan basin closure in Iran is characterized by the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), formed by north-eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust during the Alpine orogeny. This belt also coincides with the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran, which hosts many porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (PCDs) and prospects, such as Sungun (NW Iran) and Sarcheshmeh (central Iran). The Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (PMD) is the first discovered porphyry molybdenum deposit on this belt, which is located 10 km west of Mianeh (NW Iran), with 39.2 Mt proved reserves @ 539 ppm Mo and 66.4 Mt probable reserves @ 266 ppm Mo. The host porphyry stock has quartz-monzonitic composition, which intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age. Re content of molybdenites is about 10.44-41.05 ppm which, considering the several tens of ppm concentration, is comparable with porphyry Mo deposits (e.g., Climax in USA), being clearly distinguished from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from this PMD has given model ages between 28.1±0.15 to 29.06±0.2 Ma, and isochron age of 28.0±2.1 Ma, corresponding to the middle Oligocene (upper part of Rupelian). Comparing the ages determined for Siah Kamar PMD with porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Lesser Caucasus indicates that it is younger than most of the dated PCDs and prospects there, especially those of upper Eocene, while it is a little older than Paragachay and first-stage Kadjaran PCDs [1]. In a regional scale of NW Iran, it shows a narrow overlap with vein-type Cu-Mo-Au mineralizations in Qarachilar (Qaradagh batholith) and is nearly coeval with Haftcheshmeh PCD, indicating that mineralization in the Siah Kamar PMD corresponds to the second porphyry mineralization epoch in NW Iran, proposed by [2]. Meanwhile, mineralization in Siah Kamar is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations along the central and SE parts of the UDMA, except the Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone, which nearly

  6. SOIR and NOMAD: Characterization of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S.; Chamberlain, S.; Mahieux, A.; Thomas, I.; Wilquet, V.; Vandaele, A. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy is involved in the Venus Express mission (VeX), launched in 2006 and in the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission (TGO), due for launch in 2016. BISA is responsible for one instrument in each mission, SOIR onboard VeX and NOMAD onboard TGO respectively. The SOIR instrument onboard Venus Express allows observations of trace gases in the Venus atmosphere, at the terminator for both the morning and evening sides of the planet and for almost all latitudes. It has been designed to measure spectra in the IR region (2.2 - 4.3 µm) of the Venus atmosphere using the solar occultation technique1. This method derives unique information on the vertical composition and structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere2,3,4,5. It is unique in terms of spectral coverage and spectral resolution (0.15 cm-1), and is ideally designed to probe the Venus atmosphere for CO2 as well as trace gases, such as H2O, CO, HCl and HF. SOIR is capable of (1) providing vertical information on a broad series of species, such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO26 and aerosols 7, covering the so far sparsely known region located above the clouds, (2) contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics and stability of the atmosphere by delivering total density and kinetic temperature profiles at the terminator, an up-to-now still unchartered region, and (3) detecting weak absorption bands of rare CO2 isotopologues8, due to the sensitivity of SOIR, the high concentration of CO2 on Venus and the long absorption paths sounded during solar occultations.

  7. Search for the exotic $\\Theta^+$ resonance in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylov, O; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R; Chukanov, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; De Santo, A; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; Di Lella, L; Dignan, T; Do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gosset, J; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gössling, C; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C; Juget, F; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Linssen, L; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V; Lévy, J M; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, M; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Méchain, X; Naumov, D; Nefedov, Yu; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nédélec, P; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A; Touchard, A M; Tovey, S N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V; Vannucci, F; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2007-01-01

    A search for exotic Theta baryon via Theta -> proton +Ks decay mode in the NOMAD muon neutrino DIS data is reported. The special background generation procedure was developed. The proton identification criteria are tuned to maximize the sensitivity to the Theta signal as a function of xF which allows to study the Theta production mechanism. We do not observe any evidence for the Theta state in the NOMAD data. We provide an upper limit on Theta production rate at 90% CL as 2.13 per 1000 of neutrino interactions.

  8. Search for the exotic Θ+ resonance in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylov, O.; Naumov, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2007-01-01

    A search for exotic Θ+ baryon via Θ+→p+K0 S decay mode in the NOMAD νμN data is reported. The special background generation procedure was developed. The proton identification criteria are tuned to maximize the sensitivity to the Θ+ signal as a function of xF which allows to study the Θ+ production mechanism. We do not observe any evidence for the Θ+ state in the NOMAD data. We provide an upper limit on Θ+ production rate at 90% CL as 2.13×10-3 per neutrino interaction.

  9. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes.

  10. Nomads with Maps: Musical Connections in a Glocalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the author's views on the concepts of the philosophers Deleuze and Guattari on striated (sedentary) space and smooth (mobile) space, asserting that "nomads" can move freely about their space. She relates these concepts to music education, incorporating Deleuze and Guattari's concept of mapping as it…

  11. Education Reforms in Nomadic Boarding Schools in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶西

    2012-01-01

      Education improvement in nomadic areas is more challenging. Almost all the schools in Tibet are boarding schools that require better management strategies. Through experience, some reforms must be taken in the boarding schools. Well-developed school strategy plan including confirmation with headmaster role and better teaching methodology are keen.

  12. Becoming-Nomadic through Experimental Art Making with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The author draws on her own experiences through art, along with her experiences with children, to inform her understanding of art making as nomadic thinking, a means to disrupt the power structures and boundaries that developmental psychology imposes on early childhood practice. The author altered the classrooms of two early childhood centres with…

  13. A magnet takes a nomadic journey to Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A CERN magnet originally built for the UA1 detector and later used by the NOMAD experiment has just set sail for a new life in Japan. Spotlight on an incredible voyage by land and sea. See the video at the end of the article!

  14. Becoming-Nomadic through Experimental Art Making with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The author draws on her own experiences through art, along with her experiences with children, to inform her understanding of art making as nomadic thinking, a means to disrupt the power structures and boundaries that developmental psychology imposes on early childhood practice. The author altered the classrooms of two early childhood centres with…

  15. An Interview with Cynthia L. Selfe: "Nomadic Feminist Cyborg Guerilla."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of Cynthia Selfe's philosophy concerning virtual landscapes as discursive spaces. Defines the "nomadic feminist cyborg guerilla" as a kind of English teacher-activist who uses computer technology as a medium for effecting political and educational change and for extending democracy. (NH)

  16. Review - Transforming Nomadic Resource Management and Livelihood Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Winkler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Andreas Gruschke. 2012. Nomadische Ressourcennutzung und Existenzsicherung im Umbruch: Die osttibetische Region Yushu (Qinghai, VR China. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. In late 2012, Andreas Gruschke published a densely packed, 450 page book based on his PhD dissertation, on the transformation of nomad livelihoods in Yushu [Yul shul] Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP. It is volume fifteen of the series of 'Nomaden und Sesshafte (Nomads and Settled People' published by the Sonderforschungsbereich Differenz und Integration – Wechselwirkung zwischen nomadischen und sesshaften Lebensformen in Zivilsationen der Alten Welt (Special Collaborative Research Center, Difference and Integration: Interdependency Between Nomadic and Settled Life-forms in Old World Civilizations. The background information, rich data, dozens of detailed interviews with former and current nomads, and the findings in this publication are the result of eight years of study, including a total of sixteen months of fieldwork by Gruschke in Tibetan areas of Qinghai Province and neighboring Tibetan areas. This book contains case studies that have never been previously presented, and introduces these highland communities' current situation in a clear, detailed, and discriminating light that is rich in data.

  17. Creating a Database for a Small Corporate Library: NOMAD Bookcat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Description of NOMAD, a database management system with flexibility and "friendly" design in use at the Bank of America library, focuses on costs, objectives, database structure, access, and its use to create an automated book catalog and spending reports. Six references are included. (EJS)

  18. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  19. Gallex, Nomad and Antares. A decade of neutrino research

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarczyk, T

    2003-01-01

    This report presents 10 years of research concerning the neutrino through the experiments Gallex, Nomad and Antares to which the has contributed. For each experiment the gives the physic principles on which the detection is based, presents the equipment and the detection systems, details his contribution and reports the main results

  20. Nomads and Education for All: Education for Development or Domestication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    In Gujarat, India, illiterate Rabari nomads see formal education and literacy as irrelevant to pastoralism, but as providing possible alternatives if the pastoral life dies. Access and school culture present many difficulties. The hegemonic values of the international initiative Education for All and associated national policies ignore the…

  1. Measurement of Resonance Inteaction In The NOMAD Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; NOMAD Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Resonance interaction is one of the most important neutrino interaction modes for neutrino oscillation experiments in few-GeV energy region. This talk presents the measurement of charged current resonance production from the NOMAD data, which is the most precise resonance measurement so far. Future prospects of such measurements in the proposed high-resolution LBNF near detector will be outlined.

  2. The Grey Nomad Phenomenon: Changing the Script of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyx, Jenny; Leonard, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a relatively new and little understood phenomenon, that of the Australian Grey Nomads. Every year increasing numbers of older Australians take to the road. This article explores the phenomenon both empirically and theoretically. A grounded approach is used by which the experience is explored from an ethnographic account…

  3. Cross-section measurements in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petti, R

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment collected valuable neutrino data samples, matching both the large statistics of massive calorimeters and the reconstruction quality of bubble chambers. This paper describes the recent measurements of neutrino cross-sections on carbon target. The approach followed for cross-section modeling is also explained.

  4. Acute Glomerulonephritis in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Derakhshan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN is the most common type of in-patient glomerulonephritis (GN in childhood. It has not been studied well in this region yet. Here, we report our experience with APSGN in a tertiary referral center during a five-year period. Material & Methods: Hospital records of all 137 children who had been admitted to Nemazee hospital, between 2001 and 2006, with diagnosis of acute glomerulonephritis (AGN were reviewed. All demographic, clinical, paraclinical data and consumed medications were obtained.Findings: Among 137 children diagnosed as AGN, 122 (89% had APSGN. Other 15 (11% children had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=4, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=4, IgA nephropathy (n=2, lupus nephritis (n=2, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (n=2, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=1. Mean (SD age in children with APSGN was 8.5 (3.5 (range, 3.5-13 years, 117 (96% children developed APSGN following a sore throat and 5 (4% following an impetigo, with 95 (78% during the cold seasons of the year. Periorbital edema was found in 97.5%, hypertension 75%, gross hematuria 72%, oliguria 37%, generalized edema 19%, azotemia (BUN>20 80%, and nephrotic-range proteinuria 24.5%. A high anti streptolysin-O (ASO titer and a low C3 level was detected in 84% and 86%, respectively. There was dilutional anemia in 51.5%, hyponatremia in 27%, and hyperkalemia 14%. With regard to medications, 19 patients received only furosemide, 73 cases furosemide and nifidipine, and 10 patients furosemide, nifidipine, and another antihypertensive medication. Hypertensive encephalopathy occurred in 3 cases, but no mortality was reported during the study period. Conclusion: APSGN is the most common type of glomerulonephritis in this region. It follows sore throat in the majority of cases. It usually has an uneventful course.

  5. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    nuclear technology to Iran and expanding provisions of the USA Patriot Act (P.L. 107-56) to curb money- laundering for use to further WMD programs. Iran...identifying Iran as a “jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern”33 under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act (31 U.S.C. 5318A). The Department...Sanctions Act , might not be inconsistent with the JCPOA. Other legislation, such as that to prevent finalization of a major U.S. sale of passenger aircraft

  6. Irans atomprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10......Det er nu utænkeligt at USA vil angribe Iran, og vi kan ikke længere forhindre iranerne i at nå et stadium, hvor de potentielt kan få atomvåben, mener Gary Sick, en af verdens førende Iran-eksperter. Udgivelsesdato: 10/10...

  7. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-13/ pdf /2012-27642. pdf . 19 Other ISA amendments under that law included recommending against U.S. nuclear agreements with...1929) Prohibits transfer to Iran of nuclear , missile, and dual use items to Iran, except for use in light-water reactors (1737 and 1747). Resolution...including centrifuge development and heavy water research: By State - Nuclear Reactor Fuels Company; Noor Afzar Gostar Company; Fulmen Group; Yasa Part

  8. Understanding Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    national character.” And although national character analysis is out of vogue in the United States, I attribute the use of the term to the...also notable counter-examples of resource benefactions: for example, Norway, Britain , and North Sea oil and gas deposits. 124 Understanding Iran...English, Farsi, Italian, and Spanish. Sadjadpour’s recent commentary, articles, and testimony include “ Britain -Iran Standoff ,” PBS’s Newshour with

  9. Human and animal vaccination delivery to remote nomadic families, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-03-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa's remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time approximately 10% of nomadic children (> 1-11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p < 0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level.

  10. Review of recent results from NOMAD and CHORUS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J P

    2000-01-01

    NOMAD and CHORUS are two short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillations in the CERN SPS wide band neutrino beam. CHORUS has analysed about 60% of the data and finds no tau /sup -/ candidate. A limit is set at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<4.0*10/sup -4/ (90% C.L.). NOMAD has almost finished the analysis and sees no excess of events. A limit is set at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<4.2*10 /sup -4/ (90% C.L.). Combining this two results with the unified approach one can set a limit at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<1.3*10/sup -4/. (7 refs).

  11. A new deployable structure for the nomad art

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Y; Zhang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a project of the international archtecture and structure competition preparing the annual conference of the IASS 2004 at Montpellier in France. A new kind of depolyable structure is designed to fit the requirements of the nomad art. With a poetical implication and a good assemblage and dismantling, this deployable structure needs an ordered construction procedure. During structure analysis, two phases have been distinguished : the construction phase and the working phase. ...

  12. FORMELE DE TURISM PRACTICATE ÎN CADRUL TURISMULUI NOMAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina CAVCALIUC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La nivel mondial există multe forme turistice, aferente turismului nomad, dezvoltate independent sau complementar care promovează toleranţa şi înţelegerea turistică. Aceste forme apar ca rezultat al individualizării serviciilor turistice, determinate atât de motivaţiile, cât şi de comportamentul diferit al turiştilor faţă de fiecare component al produsului turistic oferit. O asemenea individualizare devine tot mai obiectivă, reclamând eforturi considerabile de adaptare a ofertei turistice la cererea actuală şi la cea potenţială. FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE NOMAD TOURISMThere are many forms of tourism related to grey nomad tourism, developed independently or complementary, in order to promote tourism tolerance and understanding. These forms appear as a result of personalization of tourism services, determined by different motivations and tourist behavior to each element of tourism product. Such individualization of tourism products is becoming more objective in order to adjust efforts of tourism supply to the potential demand. 

  13. Prediction of Neutrino Fluxes in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hong, T M; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sevior, M E; Shih, D; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K

    2003-01-01

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for nu(mu) and nu(e), 10% for antinu(mu), and 12% for antinu(e). The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the R(e, mu) prediction needed for a nu(mu)->nu(e) oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  14. Prediction of neutrino fluxes in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T.M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V. E-mail: slava.valouev@cern.ch; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J. [and others

    2003-12-11

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross-sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub e}, 10% for {nu}-bar{sub {mu}}, and 12% for {nu}-bar{sub e}. The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the {nu}{sub e}/{nu}{sub {mu}} prediction needed for a {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  15. Prediction of neutrino fluxes in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T. M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross-sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for ν μ and ν e, 10% for ν¯μ, and 12% for ν¯e. The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the ν e/ν μ prediction needed for a ν μ→ν e oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  16. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  17. Study of dimuons in Nomad experience at the CERN; Etude des dimuons dans l`experience Nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, M.K.

    1996-06-04

    This thesis concerns the study of the production of the first dimuons events in the NOMAD experience (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector). This study is necessary to improve our knowledge about the charmed quark and allows to secure ourselves about the well functioning of our detector and about the reliability of our analysis tools. The two first chapters concern the understanding of physical phenomenons. The physic of neutrinos is described, known and unknown, with a lot of open questions. The second chapter, more specially, gives a theoretical and experimental look concerning the production of dimuons by the neutrinos; the chapter three is devoted to the presentation of the NOMAD detector and its characteristics. The chapter number four concerns the method used by the NOMAD collaboration (drift chambers and their functioning); the chapter five is devoted to the muons identification; the data selection is described at the chapter six; a first preliminary oscillation analysis is studied in the chapter seven; the conclusion ends on questions to deepen the entered upon studies in this thesis. (N.C.). 78 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Tuberculosis among nomads in Adamawa, Nigeria: outcomes from two years of active case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, S; Gidado, M; Dahiru, T; Fanning, A; Codlin, A J; Creswell, J

    2015-04-01

    Nomadic populations are often isolated and have difficulty accessing health care, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Although Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in Africa, case detection rates remain relatively low. Active case finding for TB among nomadic populations was implemented over a 2-year period in Adamawa State. A total of 378 community screening days were organised with local leaders; community volunteers provided treatment support. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF was available for nomads with negative smear results. Through active case finding, 96 376 nomads were verbally screened, yielding 1310 bacteriologically positive patients. The number of patients submitting sputum for smear microscopy statewide increased by 112% compared with the 2 years before the intervention. New smear-positive notifications increased by 49.5%, while notifications of all forms of TB increased by 24.5% compared with expected notifications based on historical trends. Nomads accounted for respectively 31.4% and 26.0% of all smear-positive and all forms TB notifications. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up and treatment outcomes were similar among nomads and non-nomads. Nomads in Nigeria have high TB rates, and active case-finding approaches may be useful in identifying and successfully treating them. Large-scale interventions in vulnerable populations can improve TB case detection.

  19. 77 FR 7229 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads...

  20. 77 FR 37730 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads...

  1. THE BITING ACTIVITY OF ANOPHELES DTHALI IN A RURAL AREA OF MAMASANI UNDER IMPACT OF ORGANO-PHOSPHOROUS SPRAYING, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eshghy

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles dthali Patton which is one of the 7 malaria vectors in Iran was not taken in to consideration until November 1965 when definite sporozaites were found for the first time in its salivary glands in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. Afterwards, efforts have been made to get complete ecological and epidemiological information on this species. The areas of study were two districts of Mamasani, an agricultural area, located 200 km north of the Persian Gulf. The objective of the present paper is to summarize and discuss briefly the field investigations concerning the nocturnal biting cycle and behavior of An. dthali as well as the comparative attractiveness of man and cattle to these vectors under the impact of the organophosphouous insecticides. On the basis of the data collected, it was found that most of the bites take place between 21.00-24.00 hr. Biting pattern under local condition indicated that the number of bites per cow was much greater than the number of bites per man.

  2. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Congressional Research Service 49 • An Irish subsidiary of the Coca Cola Company, which provides syrup for the U.S.-brand soft drink to an Iranian...military power by hampering its acquisition of foreign technology and weaponry. U.S. assessments indicate mixed success in these efforts. Sanctions on Iran...Laundering Jurisdiction ................................................................. 28 Promoting Divestment

  3. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    flight 655), for which the United States paid Iran $61.8 million in compensation ($300,000 per wage -earning victim, $150,000 per nonwage earner) for...barrels per day) and again to implement the JCPOA (to remove any ceiling on Iran’s exports of oil). Implementation: Exemptions Issued The lack of

  4. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    and Sanctions Exemptions to Support Democratic Change/Civil Society in Iran ........ 32 Expanding Internet and Communications Freedoms...Reserves “Lock Up” Provision of ITRSHRA ..................................... 22 Weapons of Mass Destruction, Missile, and Conventional Arms Sanctions... Communications by Iranians ..................................................................................................................... 33 Measures to

  5. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  6. Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria: Issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Aderinoye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Nigerian National Commission for Nomadic Education in 1989 created wider opportunities for an estimated 9.3 million nomads living in Nigeria to acquire literacy skills. This commission was struck to address low literacy rates among pastoral nomads and migrant fishermen, which put literacy rates at 0.28 percent and 20 percent respectively (FME, 2005. To improve the literacy rate among Nigeria’s nomadic populations, the National Commission for Nomadic Education employed various approaches such as onsite schools, ‘shift system’ schools with alternative intake, and Islamiyya (Islamic schools, to provide literacy education to its nomads. A critical appraisal of these approaches by the commission, however, shows that very few of the schools were actually viable. This paper explores why these approaches have not notably helped to improve the literacy rate among Nigeria’s nomadic people. Thus, there remains a need for alternative approaches to educational delivery. In face of the revolutionary trends taking place in information and communication technologies (ICTs in Nigeria, there is now opportunity to embrace mobile learning using low cost mobile technologies (i.e., mobile phones to enhance the literacy rates among Nigeria’s nomadic people, some of whom are enrolled in Nigeria’s current Nomadic Education Programme. Indeed, mobile telephones with simple text messaging features, for example, are prevalent in many parts of Nigeria. This paper explores the needs and advantages of integrating mobile learning into Nomadic Education programmes in Nigeria to ensure a successful implementation and achievement of the goals of the programme.

  7. Designing Pervasive Computing Technology - In a Nomadic Work Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis

    2002-01-01

    In my thesis work I am investigating how the design of pervasive/ubiquitous computing technology, relate to the flexible and individual work practice of nomadic workers. Through empirical studies and with an experimental systems development approach, the work is focused on: a) Supporting...... interpretation and inclusion of implicit and invisible as well as explicit and visible characteristics of artifacts, users and use practices. b) Identifying breakdowns in human-computer interaction situations, with particular emphasis on the computation that happens "behind the scenes" in the pervasive computing...... environment, and how that computational process at a sufficient level is made intelligible, visible, accountable and negotiable to the human participant....

  8. Neutrino production of opposite sign dimuons in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Ballocchi, G; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R D; Daniels, D C; Degaudenzi, H M; De Santo, A; Del Prete, T; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Fazio, T; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O L; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Kuznetsov, V; Lacaprara, S; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Manola-Poggioli, E; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Mossuz, L; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, Alfredo; Pluquet, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rathouit, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Steininger, M; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, S; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Verkindt, D; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Vo, M K; Weber, F; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD Collaboration presents a study of opposite sign dimuon events in the framework of Leading Order QCD. A total of 2714 neutrino- and 115 antineutrino-induced opposite sign dimuon events with $E_{\\mu 1}, E_{\\mu 2} > 4.5$ GeV, $15 1\\;(\\mbox{GeV}/\\mbox{c})^{2}$ are observed %in the data from the 1995 and 1996 runs. in the Front-Calorimeter of NOMAD during the 1995 and 1996 runs. The analysis yields a value for the charm quark mass of $m_{c} = 1.3^{+0.3\\;+0.3}_{-0.3\\;-0.3}\\;\\mbox{GeV}/\\m box{c}^{2}$ and for the average semileptonic branching ratio of $B_{c} = 0.095^{+0.007\\;+0.014}_{-0.007\\;-0.013}$. The ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon is measured to be $\\kappa = 0.48^{+0.09 +0.17}_{-0.07 -0.12}$. The measured rate of charm-induced dimuon relative to single muon, as a function of neutrino energy, is consistent with the slow rescaling hypothesis of heavy quark production.

  9. Nomad devices for interactions in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Kemeny, Andras; Merienne, Frédéric; Chardonnet, Jean-Rémy; Thouvenin, Indira Mouttapa; Posselt, Javier; Icart, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Renault is currently setting up a new CAVE™, a 5 rear-projected wall virtual reality room with a combined 3D resolution of 100 Mpixels, distributed over sixteen 4k projectors and two 2k projector as well as an additional 3D HD collaborative powerwall. Renault's CAVE™ aims at answering needs of the various vehicle conception steps [1]. Starting from vehicle Design, through the subsequent Engineering steps, Ergonomic evaluation and perceived quality control, Renault has built up a list of use-cases and carried out an early software evaluation in the four sided CAVE™ of Institute Image, called MOVE. One goal of the project is to study interactions in a CAVE™, especially with nomad devices such as IPhone or IPad to manipulate virtual objects and to develop visualization possibilities. Inspired by nomad devices current uses (multi-touch gestures, IPhone UI look'n'feel and AR applications), we have implemented an early feature set taking advantage of these popular input devices. In this paper, we present its performance through measurement data collected in our test platform, a 4-sided homemade low-cost virtual reality room, powered by ultra-short-range and standard HD home projectors.

  10. Neutrino production of opposite sign dimuons in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G. M.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanre, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mossuz, L.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Pluquet, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M. E.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steininger, M.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, S.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Vo, M.-K.; Weber, F.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2000-07-01

    The NOMAD Collaboration presents a study of opposite sign dimuon events in the framework of Leading Order QCD. A total of 2714 neutrino- and 115 antineutrino-induced opposite sign dimuon events with Eμ1,Eμ2>4.5 GeV, 151(GeV/c)2 are observed in the Front-Calorimeter of NOMAD during the 1995 and 1996 runs. The analysis yields a value for the charm quark mass of mc=1.3+0.3+0.3-0.3-0.3GeV/c2 and for the average semileptonic branching ratio of Bc=0.095+0.007+0.014-0.007-0.013. The ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon is measured to be κ=0.48+0.09+0.17-0.07-0.12. The measured rate of charm-induced dimuon relative to single muon, as a function of neutrino energy, is consistent with the slow rescaling hypothesis of heavy quark production.

  11. Disco’s Revenge: House Music’s Nomadic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillegonda C. Rietveld

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of house music as a nomadic archival institution, constituted by the musical history of disco, invigorating this dance genre by embracing new production technologies and keeping disco alive through a rhizomic assemblage of its affective memory in the third record of the DJ mix. This exploration will be illustrated through a close analysis of a specific DJ set by a Chicago house music producer, Larry Heard, in the setting of Rotterdam, 2007, in which American house music is recontextualised. Refining the analysis through close attention to one of the tracks played during that particular set, Grand High Priest’s 2006 “Mary Mary”, the analysis shows how DJ and music production practices intertwine to produce a plurality of unstable cultural and musical connections that are temporarily anchored within specific DJ sets. The conceptual framework draws on the work of Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as Baudrillard’s sense of seduction, with the aim to introduce a fluid notion of mediated nomadic cultural memory, a type of counter-memory, enabled by the third record and thereby to playfully re-imagine the dynamic function of a music archive. Keywords: house music, DJ practices, third record, cultural memory, nomadology

  12. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Quantity and Quality of Sleep Among Elderly People Referring to Health Centers of Lar City, Southern of Iran; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Seddigh, Maryam; Jahanbin, Iran; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep. 50% of senior citizens living in the community and 70% of those living in nursing homes suffer from sleep disorders. Moreover, insomnia increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in older adults. We aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on quantity and quality of sleep among the elderly people referring to health centers of Lar city, southern Iran. We enrolled 60 elderly people whose age range was 60-75 years and (mean ±SD) age was (64.8±5.2). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 each (case group= 30 and control group=30). The patients in the case group participated in exercise trainings consisted of three one-hour sessions per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Sleep quantity and quantity in the participants was evaluated before and after intervention using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Independent t-test showed that sleep quality score was improved by 44.46% in the case group (pexercise program could improve the sleep quality and quantity in the elderly. It could also be used as a cost effective and long lasting method of therapy with no side effect which could be used for the treatment of insomnia in older people.

  13. Rediscovery of Acorus calamus (Acoraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gholipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acorus calamus has already been reported based on a single specimen collected from Guilan province. Yet, this species has not been reported during last 50 years in Iran and thus, its herbarium specimen is not available. A sample of the species was collected from southern area of Sari during a study on aquatic plants of Mazandaran province. According to the new finding, the natural occurrence of the species was confirmed in Iran. Complementary botanical description, photographs of plant habitat and distribution map of the species were presented. Although, according to the Flora Iranica and Flora of Iran Acorus was considered as a genus of Araceae the recent phylogenetic study considered its taxonomic position in Acoraceae as a distinct family. Therefore, Acoraceae is introduced as a new family to the Flora of Iran with a single representative i. e. Acorus calamus.

  14. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  15. Slums’ Access to and Coverage of Primary Health Care Services: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shiraz, a Metropolis in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Joulaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United Nations has predicted that the population of slum dwellers will have grown from one billion people worldwide to 2 billion by 2030. This trend is also predictable in Iran. In the Iranian metropolis of Shiraz, more than 10% of the residents live in slum areas. There are several problems regarding the delivery of social services in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate slums dwellers’ access to and coverage of health care. Methods: This cross-sectional face-to-face study included 380 household of slum dwellers via stratified random sampling. Demographics, accessibility of health services, coverage of health care, and route of receiving health services were recorded through interviews. Results: Approximately, 21.6% of the households had no physical access to health centers. The coverage rate of family planning programs for safe methods was 51.4% (95% CI: 48.86-53.9%. Vaccination coverage among children under 5 years old was 98% (95% CI: 97-99%. Furthermore, 34% of pregnant women had not received standard health care due to a lack of access to health centers. Conclusion: Limited access to health services along with inadequate knowledge of slum residents about health care facilities was the main barrier to the utilization of the health care in the slums.

  16. Nomadity beyond contemporaneity: Prelude to the indisciplinary rigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muoz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When addressing notions of nomadism in relation to knowledge production, it seems unavoidable to delve upon Gilles Deleuze’s Treatise on Nomadology as a triggering potential unfolding. Through his treatise, Deleuze underlines the flow sustained by the unsettled distinctions between strategy (generally attributed to the mechanisms of royal knowledges, in conflictual opposition to the tactics (as the productive tool pertaining to those subordinated categories of knowledge. His proposition unfolds by a manifested distinction —a becoming, that emerges outside the limits of these relations. The body of a war machine in antagonist relation to the State Apparatus, a constantly contested processes of territorialization and deterritorialization. Complementing this argument from what has become a returning historical materialist position, could be said that the borders between knowledges, and discourses of categorization (noology that distinguish hierarchies between “free”, “pure” and “applied” knowledges; are based on attributing a position of centrality to the State or other institutionalised monopolies. A simulacrum violently imposed, serving the regulation of flows between exchanges in order to capitalize knowledges’ creative potentials, to govern their productive and reproductive capacities, and speculative tendencies. Through the configurations that shape these particular conflicts, is where the actuality of knowledge seems to acquire its disciplinary character, together with its financial possibility. Even to the point of been mistakenly rendered as an unavoidable dependency; turning attributions of centrality into a paradoxical situation, or —in the most critical cases, an infrastructural horizon. The necessity for a continuous fight against renewed forms of coloniality, the persistent recovery of what belongs to collectivity (what can not be divided, the exercise of practical means to keep oneself alert, and the cultivation of

  17. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Cervical Column and Cord Injuries; A 2-Year Experience from a Large Trauma Center in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kamravan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with cervical spine injury admitted to Rajaee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study includes all patients admitted with impression of cervical column injury with or without cervical cord injury from October 2009 to March 2012 to our level I trauma center in Shiraz. We recorded the patients’ characteristics including age, sex, marital status, mechanism of injury, level of injury, concomitant injury, treatment(non-operative or operative and clinical outcome. The data were described and compared with the international literature. Results: Among 261 patients referred with impression of spinal cord injury, the diagnosis of spinal column injury (with or without spine cord injury was confirmed in 206 patients. The mean age of patients was 37.2±15.9 years with Male/Female ratio of 3:1. Car turn-over and car-collisions were the leading causes of injury. The most common spine fracture was C6 vertebra involving 60 (29.1% patients. Fracture of upper and lower extremities were the most concomitant fractures observed in 31(15.1% patients. Open surgery was performed in 65(31.6%.Mortality rate was 7.3% (15 patients.Patients with brain, lung and cord injuries had increased risk of death, among 15 deaths,9 patients had brain injury, 5 individuals had lung injury and 10 patients suffered from cord injury. Conclusion: Cervical spine injuries mostly affect young males, and comprise 206 (10% cases out of 2100 spine injuries in our country. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce cervical spine injuries especially in young age group.

  18. Nomad Aesthetics of Capoeira and the Deterritorialization of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kasper

    an embodied and aesthetic deterritorialization of the established understanding of ADHD this paper will explore the relationship between the expressive movements of the Afro-Brazilian martial art, capoeira, and the state of the body established by the ADHD diagnosis. Primarily constituted through a classical...... an absolute movement of deterritorialization in relation to the subjective, social and scientific ideas of the body. As Deleuze and Guattari note: “martial arts do not adhere to a code, as an affair of the State, but follow ways, which are so many paths of the affect” (1987, p. 400). In concurrence...... with this description the capoeira scholar Nestor Capoeira has pointed out that capoeira can be considered a “Brazilian nomadic and urban war machine” (Capoeira, 2002, p. 91). As an art of physical and cultural resistance against the oppressing forces of slavery, the expressive bodily aesthetics of capoeira resonates...

  19. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in Drinking Water in some Wells and Springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current study,the hazard quotient, the hazard index (HI and spatial variations of Fe,Mn,Cu and Cr in drinking water sources of Andimesk-Shush, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iranaquifer were assessed. Methods: We compared theconcentrations of aforementioned heavy metals in wells and springs inAndimeshk and Shush regions. The non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals was implemented usingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA index.The spatial maps in the area were developed by geostatistical methods. Results: Mean concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater sources of the study area in decreasing order was as follows: Cu >Mn> Fe> Cr. Except for iron,mean heavy metal concentrations were higher than the standard levels. Manganese concentration in 41.5% of the samples exceeded the permissible limits. Copper was higher than the safety limit in 74% of the samples, and chromium in 54% of the cases. The spatial pattern of heavy metals concentrations indicated higher concentrations in the southern parts of the region. The mean hazard quotients of most samples for the four heavy metals were lower than one, indicating that there was no immediate threat due to the exposure to these heavy metals. The calculated accumulated hazards of these heavy metals produced different results, with hazard indices of higher than one. Conclusion: The accumulated hazard indicesfor the evaluated metals were higher than one, indicating that chronic ingestion of these waters threatens the health of local consumers on the long run.

  1. The Fate of Coho Salmon Nomads: The Story of an Estuarine-Rearing Strategy Promoting Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V. Koski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The downstream movement of coho salmon nomads (age 0, conventionally considered surplus fry, has been an accepted characteristic of juvenile coho salmon for the past 40 to 50 yr. The fate of these nomads, however, was not known and they were assumed to perish in the ocean. Several studies and observations have recently provided new insights into the fate of nomads and the role of the stream-estuary ecotone and estuary in developing this life history strategy that promotes coho resilience. Chinook and sockeye salmon have developed the ocean-type life-history strategy to exploit the higher productivity of the estuarine environment and migrate to the ocean at age 0. Nomad coho can acclimate to brackish water, and survive and grow well in the stream-estuary ecotone and estuary, but instead of migrating to the ocean they return upstream into freshwater to overwinter before migrating to the ocean as smolts. Nomads may enter the estuarine environment from natal or non-natal streams, rear there throughout the summer, and then emigrate to a non-natal stream for overwintering and smolting in the spring. These estuarine and overwintering habitats have enabled coho to develop this unique nomad life history strategy that may help to ensure their resilience. Restoring estuarine habitats may be essential to the recovery of depressed populations of coho.

  2. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  3. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with −α 3.7 kb as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed. PMID:23853772

  4. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran and Kermanshah (western Iran provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  5. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Taheri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical

  6. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Laleh; Chahian, Golshan

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical comparison of children

  7. More Pressure on Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the UN Security Council adopts a new resolution to pressure Iran over its nuclear activities, the country maintains a tough stance On March 24, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a new resolution imposing tougher sanctions against Iran to

  8. What Will Iran Do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Iran's response to a UN resolution requiring it to halt its nuclear program looms large,experts sayWith the halt in fighting between Israel and the Lebanon-based Hezbollah militant group, the world's attention is again turning to the Iran nuclear issue. The international community had been waiting for Iran's response to the package of economic, political and security incentives

  9. A Wideband Channel Model for Intravehicular Nomadic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bellens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electronic entertainment equipments within vehicles has rendered the idea of replacing the wired links with intra-vehicle personal area networks. Ultra-wideband (UWB seems an appropriate candidate technology to meet the required data rates for interconnecting such devices. In particular, the multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM is able to provide very high transfer rates (up to 480 MBps over relatively short distances and low transmit power. In order to evaluate the performances of UWB systems within vehicles, a reliable channel model is needed. In this paper, a nomadic system where a base station placed in the center of the dashboard wants to communicate with fixed devices placed at the rear seat is investigated. A single-input single-output (SISO channel model for intra-vehicular communication (IVC systems is proposed, based on reverberation chamber theory. The model is based on measurements conducted in real traffic conditions, with a varying number of passengers in the car. Temporal variations of the wireless channels are also characterized and parametrized. The proposed model is validated by comparing model-independent statistics with the measurements.

  10. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  11. Latest results on neutrino oscillation from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, C

    2001-01-01

    The latest results on nu /sub tau / appearance search in nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / and nu /sub e/ to nu /sub tau / oscillation in NOMAD are reported. The analysis, carried out on the full data sample, is based on kinematic criteria. No evidence of oscillations is found. In the two-family oscillation scenario this sets a limit on sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub mu tau / < 4.0 * 10/sup -4/ at large Delta m/sup 2/ and Delta m/sup 2/ < 0.7 eV/sup 2//c/sup 4/ for sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub mu tau / = 1 at 90% C.L.. If the results are interpreted in the nu /sub e / to nu /sub tau / oscillation hypothesis the corresponding limits are sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub e tau / < 2.0 * 10/sup -2/ at large Delta m /sup 2/ and Delta m/sup 2/ < 6 eV/sup 2//c/sup 4/ for sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub e tau / = 1 at 90% C.L.

  12. The SPS Target Station for CHORUS and NOMAD Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S; Zazula, J M

    1996-01-01

    A new SPS target station, T9, has been constructed for the CHORUS and NOMAD neutrino experiments at CERN. The heart of the station is the target box : 11 beryllium rods are aligned in a cast aluminium box ; they are cooled by a closed circuit helium gas with adjusted flow to each rod. The box is motorised horizontally and vertically at both ends, to remotely optimise the secondary particle production by aligning the target with the incident proton beam. Radiation protection around the station is guaranteed by more than 100 tons of shielding material (iron, copper, marble). This presentation describes briefly the various components of the target station ; it emphasises particularly the thermal and mechanical calculations which define a safe maximum beam intensity on the beryllium rods. Over the first two years of successful operation, the station has received more than 2€1019 protons at 450 GeV/c, with intensity peaks of 2.8€1013 protons per machine cycle.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2016-12-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  15. The NOMAD Spectrometer Suite on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Vandaele, Ann; Lopez-Moreno, Jose-Juan; Patel, Manish R.; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Neefs, Eddy; Thomas, Ian R.; Drummond, Rachel; Rodriguez-Gomez, Julio; Daerden, Frank

    2016-04-01

    NOMAD (Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery) is a suite of three high-resolution spectrometers on-board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The instrument will be able to detect and map a wide variety of Martian gases in unprecedented detail. NOMAD's three spectrometers cover the UV-visible (UVIS channel - 200-650nm) and infrared ranges (SO and LNO channels - 2.2-4.3μm), operating in solar occultation, limb and nadir-viewing modes, generating a huge dataset of Martian atmospheric observations during the mission across a wide spectral range. NOMAD has the resolving power to identify many trace gases that exhibit absorption features within the spectral range of the three channels. The order-of-magnitude increase in spectral resolution over previous instruments will enable spatial and temporal mapping of several isotopologues of methane and water, providing important measurements of the Martian D/H and methane isotope ratios globally. Sensitivity studies have shown that, using expected SNR values, NOMAD should have the ability to measure methane concentrations NOMAD will also continue to monitor the major seasonal cycles on Mars, extending existing datasets made by successive space missions in the past decade.

  16. Immigrants: Potential Menace for Measles Elimination Target in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious disease. By the end of 2013, 84% of children had received at least a single dose of measles vaccine by their second birthday, and 148 countries had included a second dose as part of routine immunization. In 2002, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education developed a comprehensive strategy to eliminate Measles including mass immunization campaign for people aged 5-25 years (1. Suburban areas where residents usually are nomads or migrants with low socio-economic status (SES, pose a serious threat to the success of any prevention program(2 . There are a huge yet unknown number of Iranian immigrants and illegal refugees living in suburbs of large cities in Iran, where low participation of families in vaccination services might be a challenge (3. In this report, we try to highlight the importance of migrants and immigrants on the success of Measles vaccination programs.

  17. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad; Vahid Otarod; Amanollah Fathnia; Ali Ahmadabadi; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Alireza Zavareh; Nargess Miandehi; Benoit Durand; Philippe Sabatier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland ...

  18. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  19. NOMAD on ExoMars: first results from near Earth commissioning and mid-cruise checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Neefs, Eddy; Ristic, Bojan; Thomas, Ian R.; Mason, Jon; Patel, Manish; Lopez-Moreno, Jose-Juan; Bellucci, Giancarlo; NOMAD Team

    2016-10-01

    NOMAD (Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery) is a suite of three high-resolution spectrometers on-board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The instrument will be able to detect and map a wide variety of Martian gases in unprecedented detail. NOMAD covers the UV-visible (UVIS channel - 200-650nm) and infrared ranges (SO and LNO channels - 2.2-4.3mm), operating in solar occultation, limb and nadir-viewing modes, generating a huge dataset of Martian atmospheric observations during the mission across a wide spectral range.NOMAD has the resolving power to identify many trace gases that exhibit absorption features within the spectral range of the three channels. The order-of-magnitude increase in spectral resolution over previous instruments will enable spatial and temporal mapping of several isotopologues of methane and water, providing important measurements of the Martian D/H and methane isotope ratios globally. Sensitivity studies have shown that, using expected SNR values, NOMAD should have the ability to measure methane concentrations down to 25 parts per trillion (ppt) in solar occultation mode, and to 11 parts per billion (ppb) in nadir mode. Using SO and LNO in combination with UVIS, aerosol properties such as optical depth, composition and size distribution can also be derived. NOMAD will also continue to monitor the major seasonal cycles on Mars, extending existing datasets made by successive space missions in the past decade.NOMAD is now en route to Mars, and has already performed a series of observations, primarily to check the health of the instrument and to begin calibration.

  20. PLASTICITY OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN A NOMADIC EARLY SPRING FOLIVORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective behaviour in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces others constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues.Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among colony members to stay together during foraging. At the group level, these rules lead to cohesive synchronised collective nomadic foraging, in which the colony travels en masse between feeding and resting sites. This paper proposes that synchronized collective locomotion prevents individuals from becoming separated from the colony and hence permits them to reap the advantages of group living, notably collective basking to increase their body temperature above ambient and collective defense against natural enemies.However, this cohesive behaviour also implies conservative foraging, and colonies can become trapped on poor food sources. High fidelity to pheromone trails leads to strong amplification of an initial choice, such that colonies seldom abandon the first food source contacted, even if a better one is nearby. The risk of this trapping is modulated both by consistent inter-individual variations in exploratory behaviour and by inner state. Colonies consisting of active-phenotype or protein-deprived individuals that explore more off trails exhibit greater collective flexibility in foraging.An ontogenetic shift toward more independent movement occurs as caterpillars grow. This leads to colony break-up as the season advances. Selection pressures facing older caterpillars favour solitary living more than in the earlier instars. Caterpillars respond to this predictably changing environment by altering their behavioural rules as they grow.

  1. Iran - waiting and watching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-07-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  2. Shaking the Tree, Making a Rhizome: Towards a Nomadic Geophilosophy of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2006-01-01

    This essay enacts a philosophy of science education inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's figurations of rhizomatic and nomadic thought. It imagines rhizomes shaking the tree of modern Western science and science education by destabilising arborescent conceptions of knowledge as hierarchically articulated branches of a central stem or…

  3. Thinking through the Photographic Encounter: Engaging with the Camera as Nomadic Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Cala

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the photographic act as an affective and affirmative encounter--a reflexive, embodied, and relational community engagement that may produce a rupture in our habitual modes of thinking. The author uses the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of the nomadic weapon to consider how the camera may become an affective trigger for…

  4. Becoming Artist, Becoming Educated, Becoming Undone: Toward a Nomadic Perspective of College Student Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Keefe, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I place my ethnographic project among undergraduate university art students and their professor in dialog with Rosi Braidotti's figuration of the nomadic subject and her reflections on the importance of creating theoretical alternatives for mapping the embedded and embodied social positions that we inhabit. As educational…

  5. The Nomad Explorer assembly assist vehicle: An architecture for rapid global extraterrestrial base infrastructure establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Madhu

    1994-01-01

    Traditional concepts of lunar bases describe scenarios where components of the bases are landed on the lunar surface, one at a time, and then put together to form a complete stationary lunar habitat. Recently, some concepts have described the advantages of operating a mobile or 'roving' lunar base. Such a base vastly improves the exploration range from a primary lunar base. Roving bases would also allow the crew to first deploy, test, operationally certify, and then regularly maintain, service, and evolve long life-cycle facilities like observatories or other science payload platforms that are operated far apart from each other across the extraterrestrial surface. The Nomad Explorer is such a mobile lunar base. This paper describes the architectural program of the Nomad Explorer, its advantages over a stationary lunar base, and some of the embedded system concepts which help the roving base to speedily establish a global extraterrestrial infrastructure. A number of modular autonomous logistics landers will carry deployable or erectable payloads, service, and logistically resupply the Nomad Explorer at regular intercepts along the traverse. Starting with the deployment of science experiments and telecommunication networks, and the manned emplacement of a variety of remote outposts using a unique EVA Bell system that enhances manned EVA, the Nomad Explorer architecture suggests the capability for a rapid global development of the extraterrestrial body. The Moon and Mars are candidates for this 'mission oriented' strategy. The lunar case is emphasized in this paper.

  6. A Measurement of Coherent Neutral Pion Production in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kullenberg, C T

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of exclusive neutral pion production in neutrino-nucleus Neutral Current interactions using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS. The data correspond to $1.44 \\times 10^6$ muon-neutrino Charged Current interactions in the energy range $2.5 \\leq E_{\

  7. Statement of Facts for 1977 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Walker Thomas v. Sam Nomad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil case over an automobile accident. Walker Thomas is suing Sam Nomad for damages that resulted from a collision, for which both parties blame the other. The handout clarifies the laws and…

  8. Counseling Global Nomads and Foreign Exchange Students in U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Global nomads are those who spend a significant portion of their developmental years outside the parents' culture. Many accompany parents on career moves, others complete foreign exchange years with host families. These students provide benefits and challenges to school professionals. This article provides a model of school counselor response when…

  9. South Asian Nomads--A Literature Review. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This review of literature on South Asian nomads is part of a series of monographs on educational access published by the Consortium for Research on Educational Access Transitions and Equity (CREATE). In the context of India, most recent work has focused on access to the education system for the poor. CREATE research in India has focused on …

  10. Nomadic Teaching, Vagabond Dreaming: An Examination of the Spaces That Schools Might Become

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin J.; DeLeon, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the multiple spaces of schooling as it shifts architecturally, geographically, and increasingly virtually. It aims to examine how how teachers might find new networks of power and subjectivities--using the interlocking concepts of the vagabond, the nomad, and imaginal machines--of historically situated bodies that perform and…

  11. Mobile Phone Revolution in the Tundra? Technological Change among Russian Reindeer Nomads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Stammler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution looks at the influence of technological change thatnomads in the Russian North have undergone, using as examples two crucial innovations: the snowmobile and the mobile phone. I argue that the snowmobile did not have the same revolutionary impact on the Russian tundra as it did in Fennoscandia, for reasons connected to long distances, infrastructure, spare parts, availability of fuel, priorities of Soviet transport policy as well as the convenience of previously used practices of herd control using ‘sitting transport’. Different from that, I argue that mobile phones have the potential for a greater penetration into nomadic societies. Because they encourage equality rather than stratification, they are low maintenance; they are small enough to be embedded into existing social contexts. Connecting not only neighbours but the whole world, in principle, mobile phones may entail a significant socio-cultural change. The article presents first fieldwork evidence of such change among tundra nomads and relates this to existing theoretical studies on how mobile communication changes societies. Attention is paid to the particularities of a mobile type of communication introduced in mobile communities, that is, among nomads. In doing so, I explore similarities and differences in how technological change influences sedentary and nomadic societies.

  12. World's Youth Connect through Global Nomads Group: An Interview with GNG's David Macquart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Macquart, David

    2006-01-01

    Editor-in-chief James L. Morrison talks with David Macquart, co-founder of the Global Nomads Group (GNG), a group dedicated to improving children's cultural understanding by bringing the world into the classroom using videoconferencing technology. GNG moderates video conferences between K-12 classes in different countries, organizes virtual…

  13. Robotic health assistant (Feverkit) for the rational management of fevers among nomads in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akogun, Oladele

    2011-06-01

    The innovation described in this paper was motivated by concern that in Africa, parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs is associated with irrational drug use where health facilities are inaccessible. However, advancement in digital technology, simple diagnostic devices and smart drug packaging inspire innovative strategies. The combination of communication technology, rapid diagnostic tools, and antibiotic and antimalarial medicines can increase access to evidence-based malaria management, reduce mortality and slow the development of resistance to drugs. The author initiated development of a solar-powered device (Feverkit) programmed with user-interactive capabilities and equipped with a detachable laboratory and dispensary for community management of fevers. The operational performance of 10 units of the device was evaluated among 20 nomadic Fulani communities in northeastern Nigeria. A brief introduction to its parts and functions was sufficient for community-selected nomadic caregivers to use it competently for managing 207 fever cases in eight weeks, with a 97% (p=.000) recovery rate. The Feverkit guided the nomads to distinguish between malaria and non-malaria-induced fevers, and thus selectively treat them. Camp communities accepted the device and were willing to pay between US$33 and $334 (mean, $113; mode, $67) to keep it. Public-private sector collaboration is essential for sustaining and scaling up production of the Feverkit as a commercial health device for the management of fevers among nomads.

  14. Morbidity and nutrition patterns of three nomadic pastoralist communities of Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, E; Daoud, S; Daugla, D M; Diallo, P; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2005-07-01

    As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999--2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). Malnutrition was only documented for 3 out of 328 children (0--14 years). Arab women in childbearing age had a higher proportion of children not surviving when compared to Fulani women (0.2 versus 0.07). This study identified several implications for reseach and interventions in nomadic settings. Innovative and integrated health services for nomads can possibly be extended to many settings as nomadic pastoralists have in common a similar way of life driven by the needs of their animals.

  15. The frequency and type of events of Chaharmahal Bakhtyari nomads in the first half of 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shahbazi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Events are the second leading cause of disability and one of the problems that can cause physical and psychological disorders, and in more severe cases lead to death. Therefore, at the first, the risks must be identified, so that one can offer how to confront and eliminate risk. Thus, this study aimed to determine the frequency and type of events among nomads. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 534 nomad in Chaharmahal- Bakhtiari Province during first half of 2014. The data collection was through interviews based on a predetermined checklist and finally the data gathered were analyzed using SPSS (Ver.19 software and descriptive statistics. Results: It was found that out of 534 nomads, 144 were female (26.97% and 390 male (73.03% and age average of them was 26.32±24.12. These people are often faced with 18 types of events in their location or during their shifting; the most frequent one is caused by sinking of thorns and sharp rock aggregates in their organs during labor activities (62.46% and the least frequent one was hurt caused by lightning (0.19% and electric shock by electrical tower (0.19%. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between sex, season of the year, the summer location, and accident rate (P ≤0.002 but there was no significant relationship between the nomads and clans of the study and event rate. Conclusion: Like many diseases, events are preventable, and this requires the development of knowledge about the principles of safety during migration and housing. Therefore, it seems that for the preserving nomadic population and reducing lost caused by these events, the national event management centers and emergency medical centers should have better planning in this field.

  16. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism  has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  18. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  19. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East......, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  20. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (pMalnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  1. Mapping Statistical Characteristics of Frosts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mahmoudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To model and map the statistical characteristics of frost in Iran, the data related to the minimum daily temperature for a 15-year period (1990–2005 was obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. Then using multivariate regression models, the relationship among five statistical characteristics, i.e. the mean Julian day of the first frost, mean Julian day of the last frost, mean number of frost days per year, mean length of the frost period and mean length of growing season were modeled by three geo – climate factors: elevation, longitude and latitude. The precision of each model was explored using four hypotheses: linearity of the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable, normality of errors, constancy of error variance and lake of correlation of errors were tested, and their precisions were confirmed. At the second stage, contour lines resulting from STRM were converted to the point features class. Altogether, 661 474 points were gathered from all over Iran. Then, the studied five frost characteristics were generalized to 661 474 points; then, the regionalization maps of statistical characteristics of frost were obtained for Iran using Kriging interpolation method. The results showed that the temperature of highland areas above 4200 m above sea level always was at least zero and below zero during the year, and also the coastal strip of southern Iran had no frost. Elevation was the most effective factor in the spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the first frost. The most effective factors in spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the last frost, length of frost period and length of growing season were elevation and latitude. Finally, spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of the frost days was also a function of three factors of elevation, longitude and latitude. The dominant role of elevation in spatial arrangement for the

  2. Adaptation strategies to pasture degradation:Gap between government and local nomads in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; WU Yingying; ZHANG Yili

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,there has been increasing interest in climate change,pasture degradation and its driving forces,and innovations in nomadic pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau.However,little is known of indigenous strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation,which limits the effectiveness of adaptation strategies planned by local government.This paper analyzes nomads' strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation on the basis of a field survey of three townships of Dalag County in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.Pastures there have evidently degraded,with pastures in Wasai mainly in a state of slight or medium degradation and those in Manzhang and Jianshe in a state of medium or severe degradation.With the degradation of pasture,the grazing time is reduced,which affects the livelihoods of nomads.Although the Four-Package Project has commenced in this region,there is still severe fodder shortage in winter and spring.The traditional hay storage strategy does not work because of pasture degradation,and few nomads establish fenced and artificial pastures.Therefore,nomads have employed other strategies,such as renting pasture,providing supplementary feed,and diversifying their livelihoods.Local strategies taken by nomads can provide valuable insights into ecological restoration and livelihood improvement in the region and suggest changes to means promoted by local government.It is necessary to seek new means that combine the best aspects of nomadic pastoralism with modern stockbreeding technologies to help nomads adapt to pasture degeneration and improve their livelihoods.

  3. The Value of Difference: Kantian Hospitality and Flikschuh’s Rethinking of Nomadic Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Rajiva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I discuss the issue of Kantian hospitality and how Katrin Flikschuh’s arguments in “Kant’s Nomads: Encountering Strangers” offer us a framework for dealing with certain problems that seem to arise out of the Kantian account, namely, problems of dealing with cultures unlike modern liberal states, such as nomadic and indigenous communities. I look at some criticisms of Kant’s position on hospitality and cosmopolitan right and on how Flikschuh’s discussion helps to resolve these criticisms. I focus especially on her discussion of respectful interaction and openness in the course of encountering cultural others, encounters that inherently and positively contain a large element of unexpectedness.

  4. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S.; Vandaele, A. C.; Thomas, I.; Daerden, F.; Depiesse, C.; Drummond, R.; Neary, L.; Willame, Y.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite is part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will probe the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3μm. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple channels and observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. We will present the instrument, its science objectives and the performances we expect based on simulations we have done so far.

  5. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  6. Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Background The mountainous Wakhan and Pamir in northeastern Afghanistan is one of the most isolated yet inhabited places in Asia. It is home to the agropastoralist Wakhi and the last Afghan semi-nomadic Kyrgyz. We present a study of plant names and uses, along with comparisons of plant name etymology, origins of plant resources, intra- and intercultural exchanges and relations, and the relative availability of the known and used plants. Methods The fieldwork was conducted as an expedition in ...

  7. Learning through Nomadic Interiors - Villa Rotonda through the lenses of Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    in a series of nomadic interiors allowing the students to travel in time and place; from Palladio to the 14th Architectural Biennale and from Vincenza to Venice. In the paper we use Foucaults concept of Heterotopia to analyze how a window in 1:10 from the south façade of Villa Rotonda now re......-designed in caramelized sugar can create a parallel learning space; an interior that make a utopian space possible....

  8. Do Social Computing Make You Happy? A Case Study of Nomadic Children in Mixed Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I describe a perspective on ambient, ubiquitous, and pervasive computing called the happiness perspective. By using the happiness perspective, the application domain and how the technology is used and experienced, becomes a central and integral part of perceiving ambient technology....... will use the perspective in a case study on field test experiments with nomadic children in mixed environments using the eBag system....

  9. Search for νμ-->νe oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOMAD Collaboration; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubič, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Renò, R.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2003-09-01

    We present the results of a search for νμ-->νe oscillations in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. The experiment looked for the appearance of νe in a predominantly νμ wide-band neutrino beam at the CERN SPS. No evidence for oscillations was found. The 90% confidence limits obtained are Δm2~10 eV2.

  10. Bose-Einstein Correlations in charged current muon-neutrino interactions in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Zei, R

    2004-01-01

    Bose-Einstein Correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with NOMAD. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov parametrizations. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal co-moving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal sizes is observed.

  11. On the Origin of Bronze Belt Plaques of Ancient Nomads in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUEn; 丁小雷

    2003-01-01

    The bronze plaques decorated with animal, human or geometric designs were the ornaments on the leather belts of the nomadic people, such as Xiongnu (Hun) and Xianbei (Sienpi) in Northern China in the Qin and Han Dynasties. These plaques had unique regional and ethnical characteristics. There have been many different ideas on the origination of this kind of plaques. The author plans to give his own opinion hereby on this issue.

  12. [Morbidity patterns in three nomadic communities in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugla, D M; Daoud, S; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities, i.e., Fulani, Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, living in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad. This is the first data about the health of Chadian nomadic pastoralists who account for approximately 6% of the total population. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4.6% of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age.

  13. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frachetti, Michael D.; Smith, C. Evan; Traub, Cynthia M.; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-01

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient ‘Silk Roads’ across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use ‘flow accumulation’ modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  14. A Precision Measurement of Charm Dimuon Production in Neutrino Interactions from the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylov, O.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; del Prete, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Duyang, H.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kim, J.J.; Kirsanov, M.; Kulagin, S.; Kullenberg, C.T.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Libo, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Scott, A.M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tian, X.C.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B.D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present our new measurement of the cross-section for charm dimuon production in neutrino-iron interactions based upon the full statistics collected by the NOMAD experiment. After background subtraction we observe 15,344 charm dimuon events, providing the largest sample currently available. The analysis exploits the large inclusive charged current sample - about $9\\times 10^6$ events after all analysis cuts - and the high resolution NOMAD detector to constrain the total systematic uncertainty on the ratio of charm dimuon to inclusive Charged Current (CC) cross-sections to $\\sim 2%$. We also perform a fit to the NOMAD data to extract the charm production parameters and the strange quark sea content of the nucleon within the NLO QCD approximation. We obtain a value of $m_c(m_c)=1.159\\pm0.075$ GeV/c$^2$ for the running mass of the charm quark in the $\\bar{\\rm MS}$ scheme and a strange quark sea suppression factor of $\\kappa_s = 0.591 \\pm 0.019$ at $Q^2=20$ GeV$^2$/c$^2$.

  15. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.

  16. A precision measurement of charm dimuon production in neutrino interactions from the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylov, O. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Petti, R., E-mail: Roberto.Petti@cern.ch [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Alekhin, S. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation); Astier, P. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Autiero, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baldisseri, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay (France); Baldo-Ceolin, M. [University of Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Banner, M. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Bassompierre, G. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K. [University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Besson, N. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay (France); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bobisut, F. [University of Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Bouchez, J. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay (France); Boyd, S. [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Bunyatov, S. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Camilleri, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cardini, A. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); and others

    2013-11-11

    We present our new measurement of the cross-section for charm dimuon production in neutrino–iron interactions based upon the full statistics collected by the NOMAD experiment. After background subtraction we observe 15 344 charm dimuon events, providing the largest sample currently available. The analysis exploits the large inclusive charged current sample – about 9×10{sup 6} events after all analysis cuts – and the high resolution NOMAD detector to constrain the total systematic uncertainty on the ratio of charm dimuon to inclusive Charged Current (CC) cross-sections to ∼2%. We also perform a fit to the NOMAD data to extract the charm production parameters and the strange quark sea content of the nucleon within the NLO QCD approximation. We obtain a value of m{sub c}(m{sub c})=1.159±0.075 GeV/c{sup 2} for the running mass of the charm quark in the MS{sup ¯} scheme and a strange quark sea suppression factor of κ{sub s}=0.591±0.019 at Q{sup 2}=20 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  17. The Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section In NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Jun

    2010-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) was a short baseline neutrino experiment conducted at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle physics) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) with a neutrino beam provided by the super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerator. In this dissertation, we present a measurement of muon-neutrino induced quasi-elastic cross section and its axial-mass off an isoscalar target in the NOMAD detector. The incident neutrino energy in NOMAD experiment spans from 2.5 to 300 GeV. The measurement of cross-section is conducted in two seperate kinematic-based topology, two-track and one-track topologies, where a proton is not properly reconstructed. The QEL cross-section as a function of the incoming neutrino energy is consistent for the two different topologies, and within errors , constant as a function of the neutrino energy. We determine the energy-averaged cross-section. From the shape-comparisons of kinematics of QEL-like events, the parameter of QEL axial mass is estimated. It i...

  18. Limiting factors for nomadic pastoralism in Mongolian steppe: A hydrologic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Yoshizawa, Shintaroh; Byambakhuu, Ishgaldan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, limiting factors for continuing nomadic pastoralism in steppe areas were studied based on a hydrologic perspective. Two small watersheds in central Mongolia were selected for an assessment of water balance and hydrologic processes. We determined that the majority of annual precipitation, ∼88-96 mm, was lost by evaporation (82%) while only a small proportion went to groundwater discharge, surface runoff, and groundwater consumption by nomadic activities. The soil column was found to absorb large fluctuations in precipitation although its connection to groundwater was very weak. Groundwater recharge was, therefore, very small and occurred only rarely during heavy rainfall events in valley bottoms. However, current water storage in shallow groundwater was determined to be quite sufficient for continuing nomadic pastoralism when compared to the drinking water requirements of livestock. The main limiting factors identified were a temporal lack of feed to animals due to a loss of aboveground biomass resulting from soil moisture shortages during drought conditions, and a decline in the number and maintenance level of the traditional well network that, due to access to shallow groundwater, has allowed herders to migrate to areas with better conditions in remote Mongolian steppe.

  19. A precision measurement of charm dimuon production in neutrino interactions from the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylov, O.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Duyang, H.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kim, J. J.; Kirsanov, M.; Kulagin, S.; Kullenberg, C. T.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Libo, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Scott, A. M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tian, X. C.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present our new measurement of the cross-section for charm dimuon production in neutrino-iron interactions based upon the full statistics collected by the NOMAD experiment. After background subtraction we observe 15 344 charm dimuon events, providing the largest sample currently available. The analysis exploits the large inclusive charged current sample - about 9×106 events after all analysis cuts - and the high resolution NOMAD detector to constrain the total systematic uncertainty on the ratio of charm dimuon to inclusive Charged Current (CC) cross-sections to ˜2%. We also perform a fit to the NOMAD data to extract the charm production parameters and the strange quark sea content of the nucleon within the NLO QCD approximation. We obtain a value of mc(mc)=1.159±0.075 GeV/c2 for the running mass of the charm quark in the MS¯ scheme and a strange quark sea suppression factor of κs=0.591±0.019 at Q2=20 GeV/c2.

  20. Patagonia, Land of Nomads: A Glance at a Territory Shaped by Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chiuminatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the nineteenth century, as global voyages became popular, and transcontinental empires settled, remote corners of the third world such as Patagonia began to be explored and became the subject of European travel literatures. The opening of this region to the global scenario produced profound transformations in its territorial conformation, poetic imaginary, and local culture. As Patagonia became a land of travellers, local nomads which had inhabited this land for centuries became extinguished. The historical context of this re-shaping is conceptualised in literary theory through notions such as nomadism, elaborated by Gilles Deleuze and its aesthetical counterpart, geo-poetics, by Kenneth White. The travel literature about Patagonia, such as that produced by Charles Darwin, Lady Florence Dixie, and Bruce Chatwin, depicts the difficulties these travellers faced in trying to endow their writings of adequate descriptions and images. Instead, they recurred to images from their homeland, and thus created an imaginary of Patagonia through displacement: their own, and that of images brought by themselves to this land. When Chilean poets like Gabriela Mistral and Pablo Neruda begun to write about Patagonia, they found it already populated by strange images, shaped indeed, by nomads, travellers and dis-located identities.

  1. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Samira; Zamani, Nasim; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis) is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide) has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important. PMID:28761199

  2. The Combination of Nomadic and Hierarchic Principles within the State Organization in the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the state system of the Golden Horde inherits a number of features from the former political culture of the Turkic states. On the other hand, it brings fundamental changes that determine the characteristics of the Eurasian empire. We introduce the concept of zero-point of history to explain periodization of Tatar history. In the history, the smooth flow of events breaks near the bifurcation point, when society enters into an unstable phase and a radical dismantling of social structures begins. Elements of the past remain as invariants. But they find themselves in the new assembly, which cannot be reduced to the same combinations of social elements. This is essentially new historical phase, in which one coordinate system of space-time is replaced by another and history launches a new countdown. The Golden Horde is the pinnacle of a nomadic civilization. Its prosperity was based on metallurgy, agriculture, and trade. Moreover, its main export was corn. Hundreds of cities and seaports were built in the Golden Horde, which distinguishes it from the Great Steppe. At the same time, despite the increase in sedentary population, the Golden Horde civilization retained its nomadic mentality. Chinese or European models of governance were basically impossible due to the presence of nomadic economy: it was necessary to control precisely the clans occupying certain territories. Clans were able to ensure both the collection of taxes from the mobile population and training of soldiers for the army. The clan system gave stability in the conditions of semi-nomadic life, while also allowing to control the sedentary population. The Golden Horde was a highly developed State with a strong financial system, with the state apparatus divided into two parts, one of which was associated with control of the nomadic population, and the other with the sedentary one. Territory, state structures, traditions, and political culture of the Golden Horde became the

  3. NOMAD on the ExoMars TGO 2016 mission: MAIT and characterisation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Neefs, Eddy; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio; Drummond, Rachel; Patel, Manish; Thomas, Ian; Gissot, Samuel; Depiesse, Cedric; Ben Moussa, Ali; Giordanengo, Boris; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    NOMAD, the “Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery” spectrometer suite has been selected by ESA and NASA to be part of the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission 2016. This instrument suite will conduct a spectroscopic survey of Mars’ atmosphere in the UV, visible and IR regions covering the 0.2-0.65 and 2.2-4.3 μm spectral ranges. NOMAD’s observation modes include solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. The NOMAD instrument is composed of 3 channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of observing nadir, solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. The spectral resolution of SO and LNO surpasses previous surveys in the infrared by more than one order of magnitude. NOMAD offers an integrated instrument combination of a flight-proven concept (SO is a copy of SOIR on Venus Express), and innovations based on existing and proven instrumentation (LNO is based on SOIR/VEX and UVIS has heritage from the ExoMars lander), that will provide mapping and vertical profile information at high spatio-temporal resolution. The three channels have each their own ILS and optical bench, but share the same single interface to the S/C. The NOMAD flight model is due for delivery to ESA in January 2015. We will present results so far of the manufacturing, assembly and especially testing of the various components. The UV CCDs have been characterised in thermal-vacuum; optical fibres have been studied with UV exposure to look at transmission degradation; the IR AOTFs have been tested for their transfer functions; lifetime and vibration testing has been carried out on the flip mirror mechanism. These are all vital inputs to the scientific results from NOMAD. Acknowledgements - The research program was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office and the European Space Agency (ESA PRODEX

  4. Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghatee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

  5. Health and sanitary status in 1970 of Tubu nomads dwelling in Northeastern Niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Franois Magnaval; Christian Oosterbosch; Michel Mandl; MABN group

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Tubu are nomadic people who live in remote parts of the central Sahara, primarily in the Tibesti massif (Chad), and in both Northeastern Niger and Southern Libya. All of these areas are close to become conflict zones. However, no data about the Tubu’s health and sanitary status are currently available, which would be of major concern if humanitarian interventions would become required. Methods: In 1970, the “Mission Anthropologique Belge au Niger” (MABN) investigated a Tubu tribe named Broaya that lived at Seguedine and Djado on the northeastern rim of the Tenere desert. One hundred fifty-one adult volunteers answered an oral questionnaire and underwent a medical examination, followed by the collection of blood thin films and samples of urine and stool. The environmental fauna of medical importance was also studied. Results: Albeit 43 year-old, these results have not been previously published. The estimated age of death for fathers was approximately 56 years, and that for mothers was 60 years. On average, each married woman had had 4.7 children. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 232 ‰, the overall infant mortality rate was 153 ‰, and the overall child mortality rate was 99 ‰. The mean height was 164.1 cm and 157.4 cm, the mean weight was 50.1 kg and 47.9kg, and the mean blood pressure was 131/78 mmHg and 127/75 mmHg for males and females, respectively. The physical examination found 6 cases of blindness (4.0%). Five subjects presented with an elevated blood pressure (3.3%), and 5 (3.3%) displayed an abnormal thoracic auscultation evocative of tuberculosis or of an acute lung infection. The abdominal examination and renal palpation found 5 large masses (3.3%), and 2 subjects had a palpable enlarged spleen (1.3%). The blood thin films were fixed in methanol and subsequently examined in Toulouse. The search for blood parasites was negative. The urine samples were centrifuged and then microscopically examined in the field. No blood

  6. Search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the NOMAD experiment; Recherche des oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l'experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoperov, A

    2000-06-01

    The NOMAD experiment is looking for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in a predominantly {nu}{sub {mu}} beam at the CERN SPS. Neutrino oscillations are closely related with the existence of non-zero neutrino mass and mixing between different flavours. This document describes the search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample accumulated during four years of data-taking (1995-98). The search for {nu}{sub e} appearance was performed by studying the charged current (CC) interactions with in the NOMAD detector. The selection of {nu}{sub e} CC and {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions with the help of different particle identification algorithms, as well as using the event kinematic criteria, is described here in detail. We show that the NOMAD experiment is sensitive to the LSND allowed region of oscillation parameters with the squared mass difference larger than 10 eV{sup 2}/C{sup 4}. An upper limit on the probability of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations, based on a fraction of the NOMAD data, is given. (author)

  7. Perspectives on Health, Health Needs and Health Care Services among Select Nomad Tribal Populations of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Sachdev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the opinion of select nomad tribal communities of Rajasthan State in India on health, health needs, and health care services. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 1113 nomadic populations in select districts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar and Churu were undertaken. A perception on regarding various health issues among the study populations were obtained through semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The major insight of nomad tribal populations on health, health need and health care services are lack of infrastructures, inaccessibility to health institutions, ill-treated by government hospitals staff, acceptability and affordability are some of the main problems contributing to their poor health status. Conclusion: The Nomad tribal environment and sense of community with its associated strong social networks are identified as key determinants for common perception in all communities. However, the inaccessibility to health care and reluctance to seek help for health issues remain a significant problem in nomad tribal areas. In considering priorities for health, greater effort and resources are required to increase their awareness and change attitudes towards health issues

  8. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  9. Contribution of Complementary Elementary Education towards Transition of Nomadic Pupils from Non-Formal to Middle School Education in Habero Sub-Zone, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Tesfu; Njihia, Mukirae; Ogeta, Norbert; Habtu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Education in Eritrea is a fundamental right of every person. Therefore, ensuring equal and equitable educational opportunities for every citizen is essential for upward mobility. However, enrolment in areas inhabited by the nomadic groups is far less from the national average. To boost enrolment among the nomads and to meet the…

  10. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  11. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  12. Thalassemia in Iran: epidemiology, prevention, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Amid, Ali; Zeinali, Sirous; Radfar, Mohammad H; Eshghi, Peyman; Rahiminejad, Mohammad S; Ehsani, Mohammad A; Najmabadi, Hossein; Akbari, Mohammad T; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Hoorfar, Hamid

    2007-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of thalassemia and to evaluate the success of the thalassemia prevention and treatment programs in Iran. Data were obtained from the National Thalassemia Registry of Iran, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, genetic laboratories involved in prenatal diagnosis, related pharmaceutical companies, and centers performing bone marrow transplantation for thalassemic patients. A total of 13,879 living patients have been registered, mostly from the northern and southern parts of Iran with the median age of 15 years. Twenty-three percent of patients were older than 20 years. The number of newly diagnosed cases has been decreased considerably after the start of the prevention program. Since the introduction of prenatal diagnosis, 2819 couples (2549 fetuses) have been tested, with only 6 false results. Elective abortion was not performed in 10 affected fetuses. Most common mutations detected were IVS II-1 and IVS I-5. In 2003, approximately 25% of the national blood products and 6 million vials of desferal were used for thalassemic patients. Overall, 340 patients have received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, of those 46 patients deceased. Bloodborne infections have also been decreased significantly owing to the national screening of blood products for bloodborne viral infections. Owing to the national prevention program and provided special care, the age distribution of thalassemic patients in Iran is getting adapted to a full prevention and treatment program and life expectancy of these patients has been increased considerably. This shift in the age distribution of thalassemia, a traditionally considered pediatric disease, will face us with new challenges and the health care system should be prepared for this new face of thalassemia.

  13. Breaking Language Barrier in Rural Awareness Campaign on School Enrolment through Drama among Nomads in Taraba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boh Aondowase

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to formal education is the right of every child, yet the socio-economic circumstances of children of nomadic Fulani may not allow them to fully enjoy such rights due to their itinerant way of life.  The government in response to the need to bridge literacy gap in its population has various agencies in place to cater for the educational needs of nomads but the efforts are not without challenges. This paper considers the practical steps that can be taken to enlighten nomadic Fulani communities on the importance of enrolling their children into formal schools thus working towards realization of government objectives. Drama speaks a universal language by virtue of its action and could be a veritable tool in awareness campaigns among itinerant Fulani population in Nigeria.

  14. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Popov, B.; Kim, J. J.; Camilleri, L.; Levy, J.-M.; Mezzetto, M.; Naumov, D.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Kustov, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2009-10-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ( ν μ n→ μ - p and bar{ν }_{μ}ptoμ+n ) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ ( bar{ν}_{μ} ) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are < σ_{qel}rangle_{ν_{μ}}=(0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 and <σ_{qel}rangle_{bar{ν}_{μ}}=(0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A =1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  15. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  16. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  17. Modern wildlife conservation initiatives and the pastoralist/hunter nomads of northwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Fox

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR of China established the 300 000 km2 Chang Tang Nature Preserve on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, an action precipitated by rapidly diminishing populations of chiru (Tibetan antelope and wild yak. Some 30 000 nomadic pastoralists use areas within this reserve for livestock grazing, with many having traditionally depended in part on hunting for supplementary subsistence and trade. Following a 1997 request from TAR leaders for international assistance in addressing the conservation issues associated with the creation of this reserve, the TAR Forestry Bureau and the Network for University Co-operation Tibet — Norway began a 3-year research collaboration program in 2000 to outline human-wildlife interactions and conservation priorities in the western part of the reserve. To date, four excursions (2-6 weeks each have been made to the western Chang Tang region, and investigations of interactions between pastoralists and wildlife conservation objectives have been initiated in an area of about 5000 km2, including the 2300 km2 Aru basin located at 5000 m elevation at the northern edge of pastoralist inhabitation. The Aru site is unique in that nomads have only recently returned to this previously off-limits basin. But, as in surrounding areas, the people's lives are undergoing changes recently influenced by the introduction of permanent winter houses, changing international trade in shahtoosh and cashmere wool, and a move towards stricter hunting regulations. The northwestern Chang Tang, with the Aru basin as a prime site, represents one of the last strongholds of the endangered chiru and wild yak, as well as home to Tibetan gazelle, kiang, Tibetan argali, blue sheep, wolf, snow leopard and brown bear. In autumn 2000, for example, with approximately 12 000 of the wild ungulates (mostly the migratory chiru within the Aru basin along with some 8000 domestic livestock, issues of land use overlap and possible

  18. A Study of Strange Particles Produced in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, D V; Naumova, E; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R C; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Das, R; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hong, T M; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Shih, D; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2004-01-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles (K0s, Lambda, Lambda-bar) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified K0s or Lambda in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K* and Sigma(1385) have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Lambda polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  19. The Salvage from Postmodernism: Nomadic Subjectivity in Contemporary Women’s Poetry in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ZAMORANO LLENA

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The nomad’s identity is a map of where s/he has already been; s/he can always reconstruct it a posteriori, as a set of steps in an itinerary. (Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Subjectivity 14 “As a woman I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman my country is the whole world.” This is the quote from Virginia Wolf’s Three Guineas (1938 that Adrienne Rich decided not to use in a talk given at a “Conference on Women, Feminist Identity and Society in the 1980s” held in Utrecht, Holland...

  20. Study of D*+ production in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOMAD Collaboration; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2002-02-01

    A search was made among νμ charged current events collected in the NOMAD experiment for the reaction: νμ+N-->μ- +D*++hadrons↪D0+π+↪K-+π+. A high purity D*+ sample composed of 35 events was extracted. The D*+ yield in νμ charged current interactions was measured to be /T=(0.79+/-0.17(stat.)+/-0.10(syst.))%. The mean fraction of the hadronic jet energy taken by the D*+ is /0.67+/-0.02(stat.)+/-0.02(syst.). The distributions of the fragmentation variables /z, PT2 and xF for D*+ are also presented.

  1. A study of strange particles produced in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D.; Chukanov, A.; Naumova, E.; Popov, B.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Das, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T. M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2004-11-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles ( Ks0, Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified Ks0 or Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K and Σ(1385 have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Λ polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  2. A search for νμ-->ντ oscillations using the NOMAD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOMAD Collaboration; Altegoer, J.; Angelini, C.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Basa, S.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Castera, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Donnelly, I. J.; Dumarchez, J.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Galumian, P.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kekez, D.; Khomenko, B.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubič Ić , A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mossuz, L.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Perroud, J.-P.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Pluquet, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Pope, B. G.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Renzoni, G.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Scannicchio, D.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Sconza, A.; Serrano, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Steininger, M.; Stiegler, U.; Stipč Ević , M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Uros, V.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Vo, M.-K.; Volkov, S.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Werlen, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.

    1998-07-01

    NOMAD is a neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for ντ appearance in the CERN-SPS wide band νμ beam. Signal detection relies on the identification of ντ charged current interactions using kinematic criteria. The analysis of the 1995 data sample yields no oscillation signal. Combining all studied τ decay modes, a limit of sin22θμτ < 4.2x10-3 is obtained for large Δm2 at the 90% confidence level.

  3. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  4. The NOMAD Spectrometer Suite on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter: Calibration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. R.; Vandaele, A. C.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Drummond, R.; Neefs, E.; Rodriguez-Gómez, J.; Depiesse, C.; Mahieux, A.; Robert, S.; Daerden, F.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD (Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discoveryis a suite of three high- resolution spectrometers on-board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Observing in the ranges 200- 650nm and 2.2-4.3μm, the instrument will be able to detect and map a wide variety of Martian gases in unprecedented detail. The instrument was calibrated during March and April 2015; this presentation will describe the results of the tests performed and the expected performance when the instrument begins observing the planet in late 2017.

  5. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  6. Measurement of the {lambda}-bar polarization in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B. E-mail: boris.popov@cern.ch; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.[and others

    2001-07-02

    We present a measurement of the polarization of {lambda}-bar hyperons produced in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions. The full data sample from the NOMAD experiment has been analyzed using the same V{sup 0} identification procedure and analysis method reported in a previous paper [NOMAD Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B 588 (2000) 3] for the case of {lambda} hyperons. The {lambda}-bar polarization has been measured for the first time in a neutrino experiment. The polarization vector is found to be compatible with zero.

  7. Measurement of the Λ¯ polarization in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    We present a measurement of the polarization of Λ¯ hyperons produced in νμ charged current interactions. The full data sample from the NOMAD experiment has been analyzed using the same V0 identification procedure and analysis method reported in a previous paper [NOMAD Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B 588 (2000) 3] for the case of Λ hyperons. The Λ¯ polarization has been measured for the first time in a neutrino experiment. The polarization vector is found to be compatible with zero.

  8. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  9. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  10. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  11. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  12. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Kuwaiti population subgroup of nomadic Bedouin ancestry—Whole genome sequence and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Elsa John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. By sequencing whole genome of a Kuwaiti male from this subgroup at 41X coverage, we report 3,752,878 SNPs, 411,839 indels, and 8451 structural variations. Neighbor-joining tree, based on shared variant positions carrying disease-risk alleles between the Bedouin and other continental genomes, places Bedouin genome at the nexus of African, Asian, and European genomes in concordance with geographical location of Kuwait and Peninsula. In congruence with participant's medical history for morbid obesity and bronchial asthma, risk alleles are seen at deleterious SNPs associated with obesity and asthma. Many of the observed deleterious ‘novel’ variants lie in genes associated with autosomal recessive disorders characteristic of the region.

  14. Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Bruce C; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Laptander, Roza; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Zetterberg, Pentti; Verdonen, Mariana; Skarin, Anna; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Boisvert, Linette N; Stroeve, Julienne C; Bartsch, Annett

    2016-11-01

    Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense. Here, we review evidence for autumn atmospheric warming and precipitation increases over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to BKS ice loss. Two major ROS events during November 2006 and 2013 led to massive winter reindeer mortality episodes on the Yamal Peninsula. Fieldwork with migratory herders has revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from the catastrophic 2013 event will unfold for years to come. The suggested link between sea ice loss, more frequent and intense ROS events and high reindeer mortality has serious implications for the future of tundra Nenets nomadism.

  15. Incidence of Peste des petits ruminants in nomadic sheep and goat of Jammu region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mahajan

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was planned with an aim to access the incidence of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR in nomadic sheep and goat of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K state of India. Materials and Methods:A total of 34 nasal swabs (13 sheep and 21 goats samples of 13 flocks suspected for PPR infection were screened for presence of PPR virus antigen by PPR sandwich-ELISA kit. Results: The overall incidence of PPR by sandwich ELISA was observed to be 55.55%, with higher incidence in goats (66.66% than in sheep (35.71%. Location wise incidence of PPR ranged between 33.33-100%. The overall age wise incidence of PPR was highest in young animals of 0-6 months (83.33%, followed by 6-12 months (66.66% and lowest in adults of >12 months (31.35 %. Whereas month wise incidence of PPR was highest in the month of February. Conclusion: In nut shell it can be concluded that PPR is fairly prevalent in nomadic sheep and goats of Jammu region of J&K state with the evidences of natural transmission of PPR. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 384-387

  16. A Study of charm production by neutrinos in the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    The NOMAD neutrino experiment at the CERN SPS is described and the silicon tracking detector (STAR) that was placed in NOMAD is discussed in detail. An algorithm for the reconstruction of hits, tracks and vertices with the silicon tracker and utilising the Kalman filter method was developed and is also described. The vertex position resolution is determined to be 19um in the Y direction and 781um in the Z direction from Monte Carlo. The impact parameter resolution of STAR is determined to be 28um. From the sample of charged current neutrino interactions, a search is performed for the production and decay of D0 ' n+' Dt' D0 " and n +" mesons. From this analysis, the masses and lifetimes of the D mesons and resonances are determined to be: mno = 1.875 ± 0.075GeV = 145~~~/lnl mn+ = 1.880 ± 0.088GeV = 213_67 /lrn m1J.t = 1.973 ± 0.061GeV = 199~.~~2 /nll rnno• = 1.973 ± 0.046GeV mn+• = 2.072 ± 0.031GeV The production rates (R) per uμ. charged current deep inelastic interaction of D mesons are determin...

  17. Perception of mental health in Pakistani nomads: an interpretative phenomenological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Fahad Riaz; Bokharey, Iram Zehra

    2013-12-19

    The study was conducted to explore the mental health issues of Pakistani nomads and to uncover their concept, ideation, and perception about mental health and illnesses. It was an exploratory study situated in the qualitative paradigm. The research strategy used was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), as the study was planned to explore the lived experiences of nomads regarding mental health and coping strategies and how they interpret those experiences. For data collection, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Seven participants were included in the FGDs, and two FGDs were conducted composed of both genders. The responses were recorded, and data were transcribed and analysed using IPA. Data verification procedures of peer review, which help to clarify researcher bias and rich thick description, were used. The major themes were lack of resources and myriad unfulfilled needs, specifically the basic needs (food, shelter, and drinking and bathing water). Moreover, a strong desire to fulfil the secondary needs of enjoyment and having luxuries was also reflected. A list of recommendations was forwarded for policy making of this marginalized community and to create awareness regarding mental health.

  18. Effect of an educational intervention on knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviours related to HIV and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in southern Iran: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakha, Minoo Alipour; Kazerooni, Parvin Afsar; Lari, Mahmood Amini; Sayadi, Mehrab; Azar, Farbod Ebadi Fara; Motazedian, Nasrin

    2013-09-01

    This quasi-experimental, before-after study was designed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections, HIV and preventive behaviours among female sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. A single-group pre-post test design was used and the study was done between August and December 2009. The participants were 80 female sex workers recruited from three drop-in centers in Shiraz, with stratified random sampling. Pre-intervention knowledge was assessed by interview with a standard questionnaire. The educational intervention consisted of a lecture, face-to-face education, printed information, an educational movie, role playing and a contest. After 2 months, the effect of the intervention was evaluated (post-test). The average age of the participants was 32.6 ± 9.1 years. After the intervention, the mean score for general knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted infections increased from 13.7 ± 0.95 (pre-test) to 19.47 ± 11.62 (post-test, pknowledge and attitudes, and in decreasing their risk behaviours.

  19. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  20. The Contemporary Socio-Economic Crisis Situation and the Implementation of Inclusive Education for Nomadic Children with Disabilities in Nigeria: Implications for Guidance and Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester MwandarYakwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present socio-economic crisis situation in Nigeria has affected so many facets of life of the people generally not least of all the life of nomadic children with disabilities. Presently, a lot of focus is being directed at the provision of educational services for children with special needs (including nomadic children through inclusive education. This paper attempts to identify some of the ways that teaching and learning can be effectively carried out for nomadic children with disabilities in Nigeria with particular emphasis on its implications for guidance and counseling. The paper will attempt to identify the methods that can be used in the nomadic education classroom as well as establish the expected roles that guidance and counselling can play in the provision of such programmes for the enhancement of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities in the Nigerian educational system. Furthermore, it will strive to identify the problems emanating from the socio-economic crisis situation and how it affects nomadic children with disabilities. In particular, it will attempt to identify the counseling strategies that can be used for the insurance of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities generally and make far reaching recommendations to that effect.

  1. The Great Wall as Perilous Frontier for the Mongols in 16th Century: Reconsidering Nomadic-Sedentary Relations in Premodern Inner Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temur Temule

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The existing scholarship in nomadic-sedentary relations has focused on the raids and invasions by nomads against agricultural society, and has attempted to seek internal reasons for this within the nomadic society. Interactive Ming- Mongol history along the Great Wall in the sixteenth century indicates that the agricultural society was also capable of offense. Many raids conducted by nomads were actually revenge for the provocation and raids by the agricultural society, hence they were retaliatory raids. Nomadic-sedentary groups interacted along the Great Wall area; therefore, scholars should turn their attention to this area rather than exclusively search for reasons from internal factors of nomadic society. The razzias upon the Mongols beyond the Great Wall by Ming generals and their retainers have shown that sedentary society were in need of horses, cattle, meat, wool, hides, etc. Ming China’s big market for the nomadic goods drove Ming generals and their retainers to do the profitable, risky, but provocative forays against the Mongols in 16th century.

  2. Les barrières à la demande de service de vaccination chez les populations nomades de Danamadji, Tchad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some interesting themes emerged especially at the end of the individual interviews, focus group discussions as well as after observing the behavior of the nomads during this study. Firstly, among the themes identified is the mistrust towards the vaccinating agents by most simple rescuers or young

  3. Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Livelihoods: The Case of Recurrent Droughts among Nomadic Pastoralist of Southeastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.; Desanker, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    Drought is the most injurious impact of climate change that decimates lives and hinders socioeconomic development in most rangelands of Kenya. Several scientific evidences indicate that global climate change will increase frequency and intensity of droughts. This will have important ramification for ecosystems and social systems in the rangelands of southeastern Kenya, and correctly so. These rangelands are fragile and degraded; and the inhabitants are mostly poverty-stricken. Nomadic pastoralism is the chief source of livelihood in this region; it relies on local natural pastures. Besides, pressures from land use change constitute an additional exposure, of nomadic pastoralism, to vulnerabilities of this climatic hazard. This region is highly prone to droughts; it is currently recovering from a devastating drought that started in early 2005 and terminated at the start this year. Most important, and like most societies in sub-Saharan Africa, inadequate adaptive capacity among nomadic pastoralists of Kenya, exacerbates deleterious impacts of drought. The livelihood of these pastoralists, therefore, stands to be destabilized. This study presents findings from an on-going research in Kajiado District of southeastern Kenya. Impacts of and adaptation strategies to recurrent and prolonged droughts among the nomadic Maasai pastoralist are presented. The study concludes with possible future scenarios of this form of pastoralism from which climate change actors can draw from.

  4. The Nomadic Existence of the Eternal Improviser and Diasporic Co-Poiesis in the Era of Mega-Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurze'ev, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    The history of transcendence and nomadism in face of the call for "home-returning" is marked figuratively by four milestones: (1) the "era" of immanence and dwelling in total harmony as a manifestation of self-sustained holiness; (2) the "era" of relating to holiness by mediation of God, especially in the monotheistic religions; (3) the "era" of…

  5. Functional Curriculum Development: A Means of Retaining Nomadic Fulbe Cultural Identity. Contribution of Education to Cultural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    To develop a functional curriculum for Nigeria's nomadic Fulbe tribespeople it is necessary to understand the cultural setting. The myths of the Fulbe, such as the story of herdsman Sile Sajo's encounter with the deity Kumen, provide insight into the culture. The story reflects the society's agricultural base, identifies personal characteristics…

  6. From Yak Herders to Yartsa Traders--Tibetan Nomads and New Market Options in Qinghars Yushu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Gruschke

    2011-01-01

    Discussing the situation of Tibetan nomads within a framework that suggests that more and more pastoral people are left without pastures, and therefore will gradually fail to subsist from the rapidly decreasing number of their animals, it seems somehow obsolete to scrutinize on their relationship to the market, not to speak of the world market.

  7. Community Tracking in a cMOOC and Nomadic Learner Behavior Identification on a Connectivist Rhizomatic Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Honeychurch, Sarah; Caines, Autumm; Bali, Maha; Koutropoulos, Apostolos; Cormier, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on connectivism, connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs) and rhizomatic learning by examining participant interactions, community formation and nomadic learner behavior in a particular cMOOC, #rhizo15, facilitated for 6 weeks by Dave Cormier. It further focuses on what we can learn by observing Twitter interactions…

  8. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  9. Prevalence of shiga toxins (stx1,stx2),eaeA andhly genes ofEscherichia coli O157:H7 strains among children with acute gastroenteritis in southern of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Kargar; Maryam Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To survey the prevalence severe diarrhea arising from these bacteria in children under5 years old inMarvdasht.Methods:In this study faecal sample from615 children aged <5 years old who were hospitalized for gastroenteritis inFars hospitals inIran were collected and then enriched inEscherichia coli(E. coli) broth and modified tryptone soy broth with novobiocin media.Fermentation of sorbitol, lactose and β-glucoronidase activity of isolated strains was examined byCT-SMAC,VRBA and chromogenic media respectively.Then isolation ofE. coli O157:H7 have been confirmed with the use of specific antisera and with multiplexPCR method presence of virulence genes including: stx1,stx2,eaeA,hly has been analyzed.Results:E. coli O157:H7 was detected in7(1.14%) stool specimens.A significant difference was seen between detection rate of isolated bacteria from age groups18-23 months and other age groups(P=0.004). Out of considered virulence genes, only1 of the isolated strains(0.16%) the stx1 andeaeA genes were seen and also all isolated bacteria had resistance to penicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin antibiotics.Conclusions:We found that children <2 years of age were at highest risk of infection withE. coliO157:H7.Regarding severity ofE. coliO157:H7 pathogenesis, low infectious dose and lack of routine assay for detection of these bacteria in clinical laboratory, further and completed studies on diagnosis and genotyping of thisE. coliO157:H7 strain has been recommended.

  10. Iran funds dam completion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  11. Genetic data suggests that the Jinggouzi people are associated with the Donghu, an ancient nomadic group of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Chen, Lu; Ge, Binwen; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Nomadic populations have played a significant role in the history of not only China but also in many nations worldwide. Because they had no written language, an important aspect in the study of these people is the discovery of their tombs. It has been generally accepted that Xiongnu was the first empire created by a nomadic tribe in the 3rd century BC. However, little population genetic information is available concerning the Donghu, another flourishing nomadic tribe at the same period because of the restriction of materials until the Jinggouzi site was excavated. In order to test the genetic characteristics of ancient people in this site and to explore the relationship between Jinggouzis and Donghus, two uniparentally inherited markers were analyzed from 42 human remains in this site, which was located in northern China, dated approximately 2500 years ago. With ancient DNA technology, four mtDNA haplogroups (D, G, C, and M10) and one Y chromosome haplogroup (C) were identified using mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms. Those haplogroups are common in North Asia and East Asia. The Jinggouzi people were genetically closest to the Xianbeis in ancient populations and to the Oroqens among extant populations, who were all pastoralists. This might indicate that ancient Jinggouzi people were nomads. Meanwhile, according to the genetic data and the evidences in archaeology, we inferred that Jinggouzi people were associated with Donghu. It is of much value to trace the history of the Donghu tribe and this might show some insight into the ancient nomadic society.

  12. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  13. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  14. Typhoon generated surface gravity waves measured by NOMAD-type buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clarence O., III

    This study examines wind-generated ocean surface waves as measured by NOMAD-type buoys during the ONR-sponsored Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) field experiment in 2010. 1-D measurements from two new Extreme Air-Sea Interaction (EASI) NOMAD-type buoys were validated against measurements from established Air-Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys. Also, during ITOP, 3 drifting Miniature Wave Buoys, a wave measuring marine radar on the R/V Roger Revelle, and several overpasses of JASON-1 (C- and Ku-band) and -2 (Ku-band) satellite altimeters were within 100 km of either EASI buoy. These additional measurements were compared against both EASI buoys. Findings are in line with previous wave parameter inter-comparisons. A corroborated measurement of mean wave direction and direction at the peak of the spectrum from the EASI buoy is presented. Consequently, this study is the first published account of directional wave information which has been successfully gathered from a buoy with a 6 m NOMAD-type hull. This result may be applied to improve operational coverage of wave direction. In addition, details for giving a consistent estimate of sea surface elevation from buoys using strapped down accelerometers are given. This was found to be particularly important for accurate measurement of extreme waves. These technical studies established a high level of confidence in the ITOP wave measurements. Detailed frequency-direction spectra were analyzed. Structures in the wave field were described during the close passages of 4 major tropical cyclones (TC) including: severe tropical storm Dianmu, Typhoon Fanapi, Super Typhoon Megi, and Typhoon Chaba. In addition, significant swell was measured from a distant 5th TC, Typhoon Malakas. Changes in storm direction and intensity are found to have a profound impact on the wave field. Measurements of extreme waves were explored. More extreme waves were measured during TCs which coincided with times of increased wave

  15. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  16. Astronomy in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  17. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  18. National organic standards for Iran:II. Concepts and principles of standards for organic animal products and food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghorbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently organic agriculture as a most popular alternative production system has increasingly been considered by scientists, people and policymakers and governments in the world, and many research programs are directed to this sustainable production system. In organic agriculture it is hardly recommended to integrate plant with animal husbandry in agroecosystem. Various animal products such as meat, milk and even wool are interested by the consumers worldwide. Standards in organic agriculture are principles, regulations and criteria that must be considered from animal production up to packaging, processing and consumption. Many of animal husbandry systems in Iran have excellent potential to be easily converted to organic system, such as pastoral nomadism and even some industrial animal production units, but the main reason for the refusal of our products could be the absence of organic standards which are to be considered during the production of those products. Writing the basics and principles of animal organic standards and also organic food processing standards and regulations for Iran is the first significant and necessary step in order to develop organic food and animal production system. This paper recommends the principles and standards, considering IFOAM basic standards for organic animal products and food processing in Iran.

  19. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers in

  20. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  1. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  2. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman

    2014-05-01

    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  4. America's Nomads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Examines economic, housing, nutrition, and health conditions faced by migrant workers in the United States. Reveals migrant workers to be living in conditions similar to the poor in underdeveloped, third world countries. (DA)

  5. NOvelty-related motivation of anticipation and exploration by dopamine (NOMAD): implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzel, Emrah; Bunzeck, Nico; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Düzel, Sandra

    2010-04-01

    Studies in humans and animals show that dopaminergic neuromodulation originating from the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) of the midbrain enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity for novel events and has a motivationally energizing effect on actions through striatal mechanisms. In this review, we discuss how these mechanisms of dopaminergic neuromodulation connect to the behavioural and functional consequences that age-related structural degeneration of the SN/VTA exerts on declarative memory. We propose a framework called 'NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine' (NOMAD) which captures existing links between novelty, dopamine, long-term memory, plasticity, energization and their relation to aging. We propose that maximizing the use of this mechanism by maintaining mobility and exploration of novel environments could be a potential mechanism to slow age-related decline of memory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cultural nomadism. In search of the sources of the “sellotape selfie”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Savini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the "cultural nomadism" as an interchangeability of the roles of the artist and the viewer. With the spreading of new technologies and of the web, it is unthinkable nowadays, to oppose art to non-art, since the artwork has managed to widen the borders of its representation to immerse in the experience of life. Example of this encroachment is the "sellotape selfie", sharing on social networks a self-photo with the face deformed by transparent tape, a phenomenon that began to spread via Facebook in spring 2014. The works by important contemporary artists to investigate the sources of this performative practice are presented in this article.

  7. Measurement of Lambda polarization in muon neutrino charged current interactions in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, Dmitry V.

    2000-01-01

    The Lambda polarization in muon neutrino charged current interactions has been measured in the NOMAD experiment. We observe negative polarization along the W - boson direction which is enhanced in the target fragmentation region: Px (xF 0) = -0.09 +/- 0.06(stat) +/- 0.03(sys). These results provide a test of different models describing the nucleon spin composition and the spin transfer mechanisms. A significant transverse polarization (in the direction orthogonal to the Lambda production plane) has been observed for the first time in a neutrino experiment: Py = -0.22 +/- 0.03(stat) +/- 0.01(sys). The dependence of the absolute value of Py on the Lambda transverse momentum with respect to the hadronic jet direction is in qualitative agreement with the results from unpolarized hadron-hadron experiments.

  8. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age. PMID:28256537

  9. The Virtual Naval Hospital: the digital library as knowledge management tool for nomadic patrons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To meet the information needs of isolated primary care providers and their patients in the US Navy, a digital health sciences library, the Virtual Naval Hospital, was created through a unique partnership between academia and government. Methods: The creation of the digital library was heavily influenced by the principles of user-centered design and made allowances for the nomadic nature of the digital library's patrons and the heterogeneous access they have to Internet bandwidth. Results: The result is a digital library that has been in operation since 1997, continues to expand in size, is heavily used, and is highly regarded by its patrons. Conclusions: The digital library is dedicated to delivering the right information at the right time to the right person so the right decision can be made, and therefore the Virtual Naval Hospital functions as a knowledge-management system for the US Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. PMID:15685269

  10. Sampling Nomads: A New Technique for Remote, Hard-to-Reach, and Mobile Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himelein Kristen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock are an important component of rural livelihoods in developing countries, but data about this source of income and wealth are difficult to collect due to the nomadic and seminomadic nature of many pastoralist populations. Most household surveys exclude those without permanent dwellings, leading to undercoverage. In this study, we explore the use of a random geographic cluster sample (RGCS as an alternative to the household-based sample. In this design, points are randomly selected and all eligible respondents found inside circles drawn around the selected points are interviewed. This approach should eliminate undercoverage of mobile populations. We present results of an RGCS survey with a total sample size of 784 households to measure livestock ownership in the Afar region of Ethiopia in 2012. We explore the RGCS data quality relative to a recent household survey, and discuss the implementation challenges.

  11. Brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabli, Abdelhafid; Agabou, Amir; Gabli, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    A 31-months study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus. Five hundred eight human and 4955 animal sera were screened with the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement fixation test for confirmation. Uterine fluids from aborting goats were subjected to microbiological analyses to determine the biovars responsible for abortions. The overall seroprevalence was 0.98% among animals and 15.84% among herds. A significant correlation was recorded between occurrence of brucellosis and herd size (r = 0.4046, P Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the only aetiology of brucellosis-associated abortion in goats of the studied region.

  12. Updated results from the ντ appearance search in NOMAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steininger, M.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2000-06-01

    Updated results from the appearance searches for νμ-->ντ and νe-->ντ oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample are reported. The increased data and the use of more refined kinematic schemes for the ντ CC selection allow a significant improvement of the overall sensitivity. The ``blind analysis'' of both the deep-inelastic and the low multiplicity samples yields no evidence for an oscillation signal. In the two-family oscillation scenario, this sets a 90% C.L. region in the sin22θμτ-Δm2 plane which includes sin22θμτντ oscillation hypothesis results in sin22θeτ<2.2×10-2 at large Δm2 and Δm2<6.5 eV2/c4 at sin22θeτ=1.

  13. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space......) and methodological considerations (e.g. the role of context and structure for different age groups, workshop formats, expenditure of time)....

  14. Learning through Nomadic Interiors - Villa Rotonda through the lenses of Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    The question of the critical role of our built heritage to the complex and interdisciplinary processes that govern the current development of the built environment define a continuous challenge in interior studies and education: Can a study of the fundamental interior elements of Villa Rotonda fo...... in caramelized sugar can create a parallel learning space; an interior that make a utopian space possible....... in a series of nomadic interiors allowing the students to travel in time and place; from Palladio to the 14th Architectural Biennale and from Vincenza to Venice. In the paper we use Foucaults concept of Heterotopia to analyze how a window in 1:10 from the south façade of Villa Rotonda now re-designed...

  15. A Search for nu_mu to nu_e oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Godley, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a neutrino oscillation experiment. capable of identifying Vμ, -Vμ, Ve, -Ve and Vt for use in oscillation analyses. A search for Vμ --> Ve oscillations is conducted, emphasising the development of two separate beam simulators, to provide the background, (no oscillation), lie signal. Both beam descriptions include fits to the results of the SPY experiment that measured hadron production from a 450 GeV proton beam on beryllium target. An independent analysis of the raw SPY data to produce the particle yield is reported. A series of criteria are described for the selection and classification of neutrino events. These produce the data samples necessary for both tuning the beam simulation and determining the oscillation signal. The development of a GEANT and FLUKA based Monte Carlo beam simulator is presented; providing good agreement to the measured neutrino beam. This simulation method has sizeable variations depending on the beamline geometry, which is not knonm precisely. This causes ...

  16. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Rabia Aref

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8, Brassicaceae (6, Poaceae (6, Umbelliferae (6.

  17. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  18. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce C Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia...

  19. Many paths to walk. The political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads were much more complex, diverse, and dynamic.

  20. GWDC's Application of Air Drilling in Tabnak Field, Iran Makes Great Success Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ At the end of 2001, Great Wall Drilling Company Ltd started to execute the drilling service contract in Tabnak gas field, Southern Iran. This is a turnkey contract awarded by INOC and the basic contract work amount is to drill 19 wells and service 2 existing wells with a total estimated footage of 68400m.

  1. Human rabies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez

    2014-10-01

    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  3. Trichinellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahdavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nTrichinellosis is both of veterinary and medical importance in countries where pig breeding and pork consumption exists. In Iran, people are forbidden to consume pork because of the religious regulations. Therefore, there have not been any human cases over the past decades except a doubtful case based on serological test. Although there are some sylvatic trichinellosis in wild life in different parts of Iran, but a little is known about the current prevalence in wild animals. To date, some cases of Trichinella nelsoni  in  golden jackals from Khuzestan Province; Trichinella spiralis  in wild boars, brown bears, golden  jack­als, jungle cat, from Mazandaran Province and stray dogs, Jackals, red fox, hyena, Meriones percicus in Isfahan; finally T.spiralis nelsoni in Herpestes auropuntatus from Khuzestan were reported. Based on these data  and consumption of ani­mal derived food products among some local hunters,  and not a safe and insure rodent control,  trichinellosis could be con­cern as an emerging disease, so more investigation and clinical awareness are needed in this regard.

  4. Social Stratification as Reflected in Funeral Rite of the Steppe Ciscaucasia Nomads in the Golden Horde Period: discussion continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chkhaidze Victor N.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the validity of identifying medieval nomads’ elite status criteria, universal for the Steppe area, on the basis of the study of their funerary monuments are discussed in the article. The materials of male nomadic burials from the 11-14th-century Ciscaucasia steppes made it possible to identify a four-level military and socio-stratified structure of the nomadic society at the later stage of its existence, up to the inclusion of the Polovtsians (Cumans in component of the Golden Horde troops. The social structure in question was subjected to differentiation based upon the set of offensive and defensive weapons. However, the remains of the horse and a number of items traditionally associated with "status" are not always present in the "elite" assemblages and cannot serve as reliable criteria for determining the social status of the buried.

  5. [Dermatitis caused by 2 species of Paederus in south Iran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakhtzadeh, M R; Sadeghiani, C

    1999-02-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a pruritic, self-healing dermatitis, showing vesicle and squamose in ordinary cases. It is caused by rove beetles' Paederus hemolymph coming into contact with human skin. Paederus hemolymph contains the powerful pederin toxin. Paederus ilsae Bernhaurt and Paederus iliensis Coiffait are found in southern Iran and cause numerous cases of cutaneous lesions every year, chiefly in spring and summer. This is the first report describing the pathogen of Paederus in Iran. Dermatitis caused by these two species is the same except for duration and severity which are higher in P. ilsae. Clinical manifestations of the above mentioned species in human beings and Guinea pigs are different. Laboratory tests of pederin dissolved in ethanol is also part of the study. Complications arising from secondary infections, pederin stability and local treatment are also discussed.

  6. [Some features of mitochondrial gene pool of Maeotis in light of their relation to Cis-Asov nomads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, I Iu; Batieva, E F; Grosheva, A N; Kovalevskaia, V B; Rychkov, S Iu

    2013-09-01

    New data on mitochondrial gene pool polymorphism of Maeotis (1st-3rd centuries CE) in the light of their relation with Sarmatian nomads are presented. Maeotis are more genetically various, compared to Sarmatians; both the age of Maeotian gene pool and their close interactions with neighboring tribes can be reasons for this. The study of relationships of Maeotis and Sarmatians suggests an intensive gene interchange between them, which influences significantly on the formation of the Maeotian gene pool.

  7. INFLUENCE OF PEDAGOGICAL POTENTIAL OF ETHNO-CULTURAL TRADITIONS OF NOMADIC PEOPLES IN SHAPING THE PERSONALITY OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya S. ZHIRKOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of the influence of the pedagogical potential of ethno-cultural traditions of nomadic peoples in shaping the personality of students. Traditional and moral education, which has a thousandyear history, and human values, is considered on the basis of ethnic and cultural traditions of nomadic peoples and understanding between children and parents. The cultural heritage of each nation contains valuable pedagogical ideas and experience of education, which provided their critical thinking and applications in education are the most effective means and methods of moral education of students. We present the results of sociological research the significance and influence of ethno-cultural traditions of nomadic peoples in the development of educational space. The most important task of the school is socialization of the individual children. This school is based on the fact that in the process of determinant is the assignment of the individual public culture, ethnic and cultural traditions, social norms of behavior, morality. Educational environment of the region as one of the main resources of socialization of pupils the content of the activities of students and teachers helps to ensure the future of a citizen of such training, which will allow him to live in the modern world, but psychologically feel comfortable in it.

  8. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  9. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  10. Iran’s Security Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    see William 0. Beeman , "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in Iran...Books, 1984. Beeman , William 0., "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in...University Press, 1986. Wilber, Donald N., Iran: Past and Present, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. Woodward, Bob, veil, New York: Simon and

  11. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  12. Tertiary stress field evolution in Sistan (Eastern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jentzer; Marc, Fournier; Philippe, Agard; Jafar, Omrani

    2016-04-01

    are presently mechanically coupled and shortened in the Arabia Eurasia collision zone. The counterclockwise rotation of compression, from Miocene to Present, documented everywhere in Iran is probably related to the rotation of the Arabia-Eurasia direction of convergence. However, the amount of rotation is higher in Central Iran than in South Iran, suggesting a progressive mechanical coupling from Miocene to Present. Tirrul, R., Bell, I.R., Griffis, R.J., Camp, V.E., 1983. The Sistan suture zone of eastern Iran. Geol. Soc. America Bull., 94, 134-150. Walker, R., Jackson, J., 2004. Active tectonics and late Cenozoic strain distribution in central and eastern Iran. Tectonics 23, doi:10.1029/2003TC001529 Walker, R.T., 2006 a. A remote sensing study of active folding and faulting in southern Kerman province, S.E. Iran. J. Struct. Geol. 28, 654-668. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2005.12.014 Walker, R.T., Khatib, M.M., 2006 b. Active faulting in the Birjand region of NE Iran. Tectonics 25, doi:10.1029/2005TC001871

  13. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  14. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  15. Spider Bite in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  16. CONSANGUINITY IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.Farhud

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8641 married couples were investigated from 28 Iranian populations for consanguineous marriages and coefficient of inbreeding. The results showed considerable differences in the rate and kind of consanguineous matings among the various urban, rural, tribal, and religious populations studied. The observed frequencies of the consanguineous matings in the populations of Iran are higher than those reported previously for the Middle Eastern populations. First cousin matings occurred more than second cousin matings among most of the groups studied. Uncle-niece matings occurred only among the Jews. The observed results were expected, considering the cultural, ethnic, and religious differences, and also the ecological and geographical conditions of the populations studied.

  17. Earthquake Potential in the Zagros Region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madahizadeh Rohollah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seismic strain and b value are used to quantify seismic potential in the Zagros region (Iran. Small b values (0.69 and 0.69 are related to large seismic moment rates (9.96×1017 and 4.12×1017 in southern zones of the Zagros, indicating more frequent large earthquakes. Medium to large b values (0.72 and 0.92 are related to small seismic moment rates (2.94×1016 and 6.80×1016 in middle zones of the Zagros, indicating less frequent large earthquakes. Small b value (0.64 is related to medium seismic moment rate (1.38×1017 in middle to northern zone of the Zagros, indicating frequent large earthquakes. Large b value (0.87 is related to large seismic moment rate (2.29×1017 in northwestern zone, indicating more frequent large earthquakes. Recurrence intervals of large earthquakes (M > 6 are short in southern (10 and 14 years and northwestern (13 years zones, while the recurrence intervals are long in the middle (46 and 114 years and middle to northern (25 years zones.

  18. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  19. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components

  20. Brief communication: Effect of nomadic subsistence practices on lactase persistence associated genetic variation in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah Catherine; Mohammad, Talal Ramadan; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-09-01

    Lactase persistence (LP)-the ability to digest lactose in adulthood-is paradigmatic of Holocenic dietary change affecting the evolutionary trajectory of specific populations. Kuwait represents one location of high LP where the variation in associated genomic regions has not been examined. Here, we present new sequence data from a 427 bp amplicon 14 kb upstream of the LCT (lactase) gene for two Bedouin tribal populations, the Ajman and Mutran. We estimate the frequency of known LP associated alleles and discuss the impact of nomadic-pastoralism on the associated genetic variation. We observe high frequency (56% on average) of the -13,915*G allele in both tribes, which is consistent with the high prevalence of LP in Kuwait. Whilst LP associated alleles occur in Kuwait at a similar frequency to other regional populations, we suggest that the -13,915*G allele frequency among the Kuwaiti Bedouin may be higher than among non-Bedouin Kuwaitis, possibly due to greater historical reliance on milk consumption or genetic drift.

  1. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Khabarova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (−13910 C/C genotype among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design. The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods. Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results. The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (−13910 C/C among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis.

  2. Measurement of the /Λ polarization in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2000-11-01

    The Λ polarization in ν μ charged current interactions has been measured in the NOMAD experiment. The event sample (8087 reconstructed Λ 's) is more than an order of magnitude larger than that of previous bubble chamber experiments, while the quality of event reconstruction is comparable. We observe negative polarization along the W -boson direction which is enhanced in the target fragmentation region: P x(x F0)=-0.09±0.06 (stat)±0.03 (sys) . These results provide a test of different models describing the nucleon spin composition and the spin transfer mechanisms. A significant transverse polarization (in the direction orthogonal to the Λ production plane) has been observed for the first time in a neutrino experiment: P y=-0.22±0.03 (stat)±0.01 (sys) . The dependence of the absolute value of P y on the Λ transverse momentum with respect to the hadronic jet direction is in qualitative agreement with the results from unpolarized hadron-hadron experiments.

  3. A measurement of coherent neutral pion production in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullenberg, C. T.; Mishra, S. R.; Seaton, M. B.; Kim, J. J.; Tian, X. C.; Scott, A. M.; Kirsanov, M.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study of exclusive neutral pion production in neutrino-nucleus Neutral Current interactions using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS. The data correspond to 1.44 ×106 muon-neutrino Charged Current interactions in the energy range 2.5 ⩽Eν ⩽ 300 GeV. Neutrino events with only one visible π0 in the final state are expected to result from two Neutral Current processes: coherent π0 production, ν + A → ν + A +π0 and single π0 production in neutrino-nucleon scattering. The signature of coherent π0 production is an emergent π0 almost collinear with the incident neutrino while π0's produced in neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering have larger transverse momenta. In this analysis all relevant backgrounds to the coherent π0 production signal are measured using data themselves. Having determined the backgrounds, and using the Rein-Sehgal model for the coherent π0 production to compute the detection efficiency, we obtain 4630 ± 522 (stat) ± 426 (syst) corrected coherent-π0 events with Eπ0 ⩾ 0.5 GeV. We measure σ (νA → νAπ0) = [ 72.6 ± 8.1 (stat) ± 6.9 (syst) ] ×10-40 cm2 /nucleus. This is the most precise measurement of the coherent π0 production to date.

  4. A more sensitive search for νμ-->ντ oscillations in NOMAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOMAD Collaboration; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Donnelly, I. J.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gandolfo, A.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić , B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubič Ić , A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mossuz, L.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Pluquet, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Renò, R.; Renzoni, G.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Segneri, G.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steininger, M.; Stiegler, U.; Stipč Ević , M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Vo, M.-K.; Volkov, S.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    1999-04-01

    With additional data and improved algorithms, we have enhanced the sensitivity of our appearance search for νμ-->ντ oscillations in the NOMAD detector in the CERN-SPS wide-band neutrino beam. The search uses kinematic criteria to identify ντ charged current interactions followed by decay of the τ- to one of several decay modes. Our ``blind'' analyses of deep-inelastic scattering data taken in 1996 and 1997, combined with consistent reanalyses of previously reported 1995 data, yield no oscillation signal. For the two-family oscillation scenario, we present the contour outlining a 90% C.L. confidence region in the sin22θμτ-Δm2 plane. At large Δm2, the confidence region includes sin22θμτ<1.2x10-3 (a limit 3.5 times more stringent than in our previous publication), while at sin22θμτ=1, the confidence region includes Δm2<1.2 eV2/c4.

  5. The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer NOMAD at the Spallation Neutron Source SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Carruth, John William [ORNL; Hoffmann, Ron [ORNL; Chipley, Kenneth King [ORNL; Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is neutron time-of-flight diffractometer designed to determine pair dist ribution functions of a wide range of materials ranging from short range ordered liquids to long range ordered crystals. Due to a large neutron flux provided by the Spallation Neutron Source SNS and a large detector coverage neutron count-rates exceed comparable instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. This is achieved while maintaining a relatively high momentum transfer resolution of a $\\delta Q/Q \\sim 0.8\\%$ FWHM (typical), and an achievable $\\delta Q/Q$ of 0.24\\% FWHM (best). The real space resolution is related to the maximum momentum transfer; A maximum momentum transfer of 50\\AA$^{-1}$ can be achieved routinely and the maximum momentum transfer given by the detector configuration and the incident neutron spectrum is 125 \\AA$^{-1}$. High stability of the source and the detector allow small contrast isotope experiments to be performed. A detailed description of the instrument is given and the results of experiments with standard samples are discussed.

  6. The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer NOMAD at the Spallation Neutron Source SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuefeind, Joerg, E-mail: neuefeindjc@ornl.gov [Neutron Scattering Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6475 (United States); Feygenson, Mikhail; Carruth, John; Hoffmann, Ron; Chipley, Kenneth K. [Neutron Scattering Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6475 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is neutron time-of-flight diffractometer designed to determine pair distribution functions of a wide range of materials ranging from short range ordered liquids to long range ordered crystals. Due to a large neutron flux provided by the Spallation Neutron Source SNS and a large detector coverage neutron count-rates exceed comparable instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. This is achieved while maintaining a relatively high momentum transfer resolution of a {delta}Q/Q{approx}0.8% FWHM (typical), and a possible {delta}Q/Qof0.24% FWHM (best). The real space resolution is related to the maximum momentum transfer; a maximum momentum transfer of 50 Angstrom-Sign {sup -1} can be obtained routinely and the maximum momentum transfer given by the detector configuration and the incident neutron spectrum is 125 Angstrom-Sign {sup -1}. High stability of the source and the detector allow small contrast isotope experiments to be performed. A detailed description of the instrument is given and the results of experiments with standard samples are discussed.

  7. The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer NOMAD at the Spallation Neutron Source SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuefeind, Jörg; Feygenson, Mikhail; Carruth, John; Hoffmann, Ron; Chipley, Kenneth K.

    2012-09-01

    The Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is neutron time-of-flight diffractometer designed to determine pair distribution functions of a wide range of materials ranging from short range ordered liquids to long range ordered crystals. Due to a large neutron flux provided by the Spallation Neutron Source SNS and a large detector coverage neutron count-rates exceed comparable instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. This is achieved while maintaining a relatively high momentum transfer resolution of a δQ/Q ˜0.8% FWHM (typical), and a possible δQ/Q of 0.24% FWHM (best). The real space resolution is related to the maximum momentum transfer; a maximum momentum transfer of 50 Å-1 can be obtained routinely and the maximum momentum transfer given by the detector configuration and the incident neutron spectrum is 125 Å. High stability of the source and the detector allow small contrast isotope experiments to be performed. A detailed description of the instrument is given and the results of experiments with standard samples are discussed.

  8. Analysis of hospitalized burned patients in bandar abbass, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, L; Aghamolei, T; Boushehri, E; Sabili, A

    2009-06-28

    This study was conducted to determine the causes and outcomes of burn in patients referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbass, southern Iran, in which 212 burned patients were assessed from March 2007 to March 2008 .Mean age of patients was 22.14 yr. Heat contact was the main cause of burn with 92.5%. 49.1% of total burns occurred among less than 20 yr old people. Mortality rate was 10.4%. Most of burns occurred at home. An educational program is necessary to prevent thermal burning at home.

  9. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  10. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  11. Search for neutrino oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the decay channel: {tau}{yields}{rho} of the NOMAD experiment; Recherche d'oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} dans le canal de desintegration {tau}{yields}{rho} aupres de l'experience NOMAD au Cern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, N

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the {tau}{sup -} issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the {tau}{sup -} decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: {tau}{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup -} is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of {rho}. (A.C.)

  12. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports...

  13. Search on neutrino oscillation {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} in the NOMAD experiment; Recherches des oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l`experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-07-07

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e}. This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of {nu}{sub e} by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) < 1.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -3} (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 15 eV{sup 2} and gives the most constraining world limit on sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 20 eV{sup 2} 123 refs., 82 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Search on neutrino oscillation {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} in the NOMAD experiment; Recherches des oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l`experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-07-07

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e}. This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of {nu}{sub e} by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) < 1.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -3} (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 15 eV{sup 2} and gives the most constraining world limit on sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 20 eV{sup 2} 123 refs., 82 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Hormozgan Province with a revised key to gekkonid genera of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Anderson, Steven C

    2016-05-10

    We describe a new genus and species of gekkonid from two gravid specimens which were found within Koh-e Homag Protected Area, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. The genus Parsigecko gen. nov. can be distinguished from other genera of Middle East Gekkonidae by a combination of the following characteristics: digits not dilated, dorsal tail covered with small scales without any tubercles or keels, having two strong keeled and pointed scales on each side of each annulus. Parsigecko ziaiei sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling lizard. The new species was found in the Zagros Mountain forest steppe patch with scattered wild pistachio trees and mountain almond shrubs surrounded by South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert habitat in the south of Iran. The genus is the 13th gekkonid genus known from Iran, and the only gekkonid genus endemic to the Zagros Mountains. A key to the genera of the Gekkonidae in Iran is provided.

  16. Health Observatories in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shad­pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  17. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  18. The non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope effect in the electrodissociation of carbon dioxide - A step toward understanding NoMaD chemistry. [fractionations in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, J. E., III; Thiemens, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    A non-mass dependent (NoMaD) oxygen isotope effect is demonstrated in the dissociation of CO2 similar to that observed in the electrosynthesis of ozone. The molecular oxygen produced carries the signature of two separate isotopic fractionation processes; a mass-dependent fractionation probably due to CO2 + O isotopic exchange, and a secondary NoMaD fractionation (delta O-17 = 0.97 + or - 0.09 delta O-18, with the O2 depleted in O-17 and O-18). It is suggested that the effect is due to either the formation or relaxation of ozone in an excited electronic state. This represents the latest advance in the understanding of chemical NoMaD effects which may be essential to the explanation of non-mass-dependent fractionations observed in meteorites.

  19. Pathology of Iran tourism Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    helya barezani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Destination branding is one the most challenging and attractive discussions place marketing and in the field of tourism marketing nowadays. Considering the plethora of advantages of branding concepts and activities for countries around the globe and high potentials of Islamic Republic of Iran as a tourism destination, in this paper authors have tried to assess the current situation of tourism brand and the effectiveness of branding activities in Iran based on Hankinson model (2004. To achieve the objectives of this research 102 members of Iranian DMO consisting of managers and experts in the respected subject have been questioned. Collected data were analyzed with mean comparing methods. Findings implicate that Core brand of Iran (including, brand personality, brand positioning and brand reality has serious problems and the degree of attention to branding activities and concepts is respectively too low. Based on our findings managerial and marketing recommends are presented.

  20. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  1. Dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms and body composition in undernourished pastoralists: An exploration of nutrition indices among nomadic and recently settled Ariaal men of northern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Peter B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food craving. In addition, the 7R minor allele of the DRD4 gene is at a higher frequency in nomadic compared to sedentary populations. Here we examine polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DRD4 genes with respect to body mass index (BMI and height among men in two populations of Ariaal pastoralists, one recently settled (n = 87 and the other still nomadic (n = 65. The Ariaal live in northern Kenya, are chronically undernourished and are divided socially among age-sets. Results Frequencies of the DRD4/7R and DRD2/A1 alleles were 19.4% and 28.2%, respectively and did not differ between the nomadic and settled populations. BMI was higher in those with one or two DRD4/7R alleles in the nomadic population, but lower among the settled. Post-hoc analysis suggests that the DRD4 differences in BMI were due primarily to differences in fat free body mass. Height was unrelated to either DRD2/TaqI A or DRD4/48 bp genotypes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the DRD4/7R allele may be more advantageous among nomadic than settled Ariaal men. This result suggests that a selective advantage mediated through behaviour may be responsible for the higher frequency of the 7R alleles in nomadic relative to sedentary populations around the world. In contrast to previous work, we did not find an association between DRD2 genotypes and height. Our results support the idea that human phenotypic expression of genotypes should be rigorously evaluated in diverse environments and genetic backgrounds.

  2. Tropical ulcer plant treatments used by Papua New Guinea's Apsokok nomads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Homot, Peter; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Fang, Rui; Patrick, Sheila; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Kiapranis, Robert

    2017-06-09

    The tropical ulcer is a debilitating bacterial infection that is common in Papua New Guinea. Deploying healthcare infrastructure to remote and inaccessible rainforest locations is not practical, therefore local plants may be the best treatment option. Here we present an ethnobotanical survey of the tropical ulcer plant medicines used by the semi-nomadic Apsokok who roam the remote central mountains of Papua New Guinea's West New Britain Province. In vitro biological activity in assays relevant to tropical ulcer wound healing is also presented. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to acquire information on the uses of plants, vouchers of which were identified by comparison with authentic herbarium specimens. Antibacterial disc diffusion assays with Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium ulcerans, MMP-9 enzyme inhibition and dermal fibroblast stimulation assays were carried out on plant saps and aqueous extracts of plant material. LC-MS was used to identify known plant metabolites. The ethnobotanical survey identified sixteen species that were used to treat tropical ulcers, all of which were applied topically. A subset of twelve species were investigated further in vitro. Four species produced zones of inhibition with S. aureus, all 12 species provided low level inhibition of MMP-9 and 8 species stimulated dermal fibroblast proliferation, although cytotoxicity occurred at higher concentrations. The extract of Homalium foetidum Benth. inhibited S. aureus and MMP-9 while at lower sub-cytotoxic concentrations stimulated fibroblast proliferation. Trans-3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid cis-3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid were detected in the aqueous extract of H. foetidum. Topical application of plant saps to wounds results in very high localised concentrations of plant metabolites which is likely to result in inhibition of MMP proteases. H. foetidum is a candidate plant for tropical ulcer treatment in remote areas. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B

  3. The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayazit Yunusbayev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language's expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM, an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01 compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.

  4. Surface release of methane on Mars: A model study in the framework of the future NOMAD mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardy, S.; Daerden, F.; Neary, L.; García Muñoz, A.; Vandaele, A.-C.

    2015-10-01

    Two connected tasks are tackled in this work in order to provide useful information for the highly sensitive NOMAD solar occultation channel [1] on the future ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. Firstly,an analysis of potential chemical by-products of methane is carried out using a 1D model for atmospheric chemistry. Secondly, we aim to investigate the time and space evolution of methane after different surface release scenarios using a 3D Global Circulation Model (GCM) for the atmosphere of Mars(GEM-Mars), focusing specifically on the vertical distribution of methane.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera:Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Shahyad Azari-Hamidian; Hassan Vatandoost; Zabihollah Charrahy

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission. Correlation between climate conditions and vector distribution can help to predict the potential range of activity for each species and preparedness for malaria epidemics.

  7. SINBAD electronic models of the interface and control system for the NOMAD spectrometer on board of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo Zafra, José M.; Sanz Mesa, Rosario; Gómez López, Juan M.; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Aparicio del Moral, Beatriz; Morales Muñoz, Rafael; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pastor Morales, M. Carmen; Robles Muñoz, Nicolás.; López-Moreno, José Juan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Neefs, Eddy; Drummond, Rachel; Delanoye, Sofie; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Ristic, Bojan; Maes, Jeroen; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; Patel, Manish R.; Leese, Mark

    2016-07-01

    NOMAD is a spectrometer suite: UV-visible-IR spectral ranges. NOMAD is part of the payload of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. SINBAD boards are in charge of the communication and management of the power and control between the spacecraft and the instrument channels. SINBAD development took four years, while the entire development and test required five years, a very short time to develop an instrument devoted to a space mission. The hardware of SINBAD is shown in the attached poster: developed boards, prototype boards and final models. The models were delivered to the ESA in order to testing and integration with the spacecraft.

  8. Russian Scientific Conference with International Participation “Nomadic Peoples of South Russia: Historical Experience and Modernity” (March 16-19, 2016, Elista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komandzhaev Aleksandr N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about the Russian scientific conference with international participation “Nomadic peoples of the South of Russia: historical experience and the present”, which was held in Elista from 16 to 19 March, 2016. The conference was held at Kalmyk State University with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Foundation. Over 80 representatives of Russian, Ukrainian, Kazakhstan and Chinese universities as well as more than 20 employees of scientific institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences took part in this productive conference. For the first time at a high scientific level and with the participation of Russian and foreign scientists, we investigated the issues of socio-economic, administrative, political and cultural development of the nomadic peoples of the South of Russia and their neighbours, ethnic history and contemporary ethnic processes, as well as various aspects of the cultural and spiritual component in a multi-ethnic processes. The article analyzes the work of the plenary session, which included the reports of scientists from Kalmykia, Buryatia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Astrakhan, Stavropol and Kazakhstan (city of Atyrau. The content of these reports represents the characteristics of nomadic economy and the economic development of the region (S.V. Vinogradov, A.N. Komandzhaev, the social composition (D.S. Kidirniyazov, military cooperation of the peoples of Russia (K.N. Maksimov historiographical issues (M.E. Kolesnikova, development of customary rights of nomadic peoples (A.U. Turdaliev, S.Zh. Dugarova and ethno-cultural processes (Kh.B. Mamsirov. Speech by the rector of the Kalmyk State University B.K. Salaeva was devoted to the analysis of the status and prospects of development of higher education in the south of Russia. In this article we analyzed the work of three sections on the example of the most typical reports. Reports of the breakout sessions touched upon various issues that

  9. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

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    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  10. Causes of organ donation refusal in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S M; Gholami, S; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Eshraghian, A; Salahi, H; Kazemi, K; Shamsaei, A; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal is an important factor that limits the number of organ donations. Some studies from different centers have reported various reasons for family decisions of organ donation refusal. This study evaluated the reasons for organ donation refusal by family members covered in our organ procurement organization. This cross-sectional study was performed among families of potential organ donors who satisfied brain death criteria as identified between March 2009 and March 2010. Among 125 potential donors 73 (58.4%) families refused donation. Their main reasons were as follows: lack of acceptance of brain death n=26 (35.6%), belief in miracle and patient recovery (n=22; 30.1), fear of gossip regarding sale rather than autonomous organ donation (n=11; 15.1%), and fear about deformation of the donor's body (n=9; 12.3%). Family members play an important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the case of brain death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  12. Utilization of Emergency Department Services by the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Dov Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of the emergency department (ED is associated with increased costs and workload in the ED, patients' inconvenience and disruption of the continuity of care. The study's goal was to describe trends in ED utilization among Bedouins living in southern Israel. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care clinics in southern Israel. Patients included Bedouin and Jewish patients insured by Clalit Health Services. Data was retrieved from a central database. The number of visits to the ED and age-adjusted rates of ED visits during 2000-2003 were determined in the Bedouin vs. Jewish population. All visits that ended in hospitalization were excluded. Data was stratified according to patients' residence (semi-nomadic vs. urban Bedouins and referral origin. Age-adjusted rates of ED visits decreased from 42.9/1000 patients/month in 2000 to 38.3/1000 patients/month in 2003. There were more ED visits in the Bedouin as compared to Jewish population (38.3/1000 vs. 21.8/1000 patients/month. The decrease in ED utilization was more prominent among adult semi-nomadic Bedouins (from 60.8/1000 to 40.3/1000 patients/month. The proportion of referrals by the family physician to ED significantly decreased (among urban Bedouins: from 54.3% to 43.2%, p<0.001; among semi-nomadic Bedouins: from 53.9% to 39.9%, p<0.001, while the proportion of selfreferrals and referrals from physicians other than the family physician increased. A decrease in ED utilization by the Bedouin population during the last years was demonstrated. Utilization of ED services is still increased as compared to the non-Bedouin population. Interventions to control excessive use of ED services in the Bedouin population are currently underway.

  13. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation patterns of heavy and super-heavy rainfall in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Iman; Doostkamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Esmaeil; Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza; Yarahmadi, Parvane

    2017-09-01

    Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord G i statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.

  14. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  16. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    Petrobras (Brazil) $34 million ? Oct. 2004 Yadavaran (oil). Finalized December 9, 2007 Sinopec (China) $2 billion 185,000 bpd (by 2011) June...2006 Gamsar block (oil) Sinopec (China) $20 million ? Sept. 2006 Khorramabad block (oil) Norsk Hydro (Norway) $49 million ? The Iran Sanctions Act

  17. Iran: Soviet Interests, US Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    progress- ing onward toward Zanjan, Qazvin , and ultimately to the western approaches to Tehran. Another two-pronged attack was launched simultaneously...their control over northern Iran, Russian forces occupied Tabriz in 1908 and ultimately marched as far south as Qazvin in the west and Mashhad in the

  18. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  19. Sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis with global distribution. The disease remains endemic in many countries including Iran, while its seroprevalence in endemic area is not well documented. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Material and methods: A total of 3,250 blood samples from 2,550 sheep and 700 goats were collected randomly. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal, Wright standard tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol agglutination tests. Results: The seroprevalence rate of brucellosis in animals and flock level were found in 4.6% and 13.6% of goats and 3% and 27.9% of sheep, respectively. No evidence of correlation between gender and Brucella infection rate were found in animals (P>0.05. Statistical significant differences was seen between age groups and infection rate in goats (P=0.033, OR=2.1; unlike to sheep (P=0.373. Also, the infection rate in nomads population of sheep was higher than fix location animals (P=0.003; OR=1.9; unlike to goats (P=0.195. In animals with history of abortion and vaccination against brucellosis, seroprevalence rate was significantly lower than other (P<0.05. Conclusion: This is the first report of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province. The design of a comprehensive control program including vaccination, screening, and culling of brucellosis-positive animals is recommended. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 399-405

  20. East Eurasian ancestry in the middle of Europe: genetic footprints of Steppe nomads in the genomes of Belarusian Lipka Tatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Vasili; Litvinov, Sergei; Kassian, Alexei; Shulhin, Dzmitry; Tchebotarev, Lieve; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Möls, Märt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Rootsi, Siiri; Metspalu, Ene; Golubenko, Maria; Ekomasova, Natalia; Akhatova, Farida; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Heyer, Evelyne; Endicott, Phillip; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Mait; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard; Kushniarevich, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Medieval era encounters of nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe and largely sedentary East Europeans had a variety of demographic and cultural consequences. Amongst these outcomes was the emergence of the Lipka Tatars—a Slavic-speaking Sunni-Muslim minority residing in modern Belarus, Lithuania and Poland, whose ancestors arrived in these territories via several migration waves, mainly from the Golden Horde. Our results show that Belarusian Lipka Tatars share a substantial part of their gene pool with Europeans as indicated by their Y-chromosomal, mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Nevertheless, Belarusian Lipkas still retain a strong genetic signal of their nomadic ancestry, witnessed by the presence of common Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variants as well as autosomal segments identical by descent between Lipkas and East Eurasians from temperate and northern regions. Hence, we document Lipka Tatars as a unique example of former Medieval migrants into Central Europe, who became sedentary, changed language to Slavic, yet preserved their faith and retained, both uni- and bi-parentally, a clear genetic echo of a complex population interplay throughout the Eurasian Steppe Belt, extending from Central Europe to northern China. PMID:27453128

  1. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease and risk factors in small ruminants of Shiraz suburb, Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Tanzifi, P; Nemati, Y

    2012-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae which is transmitted by insects and could cause considerable damages in sheep and goat flocks, such as mortality, decreased production and fertility, medical costs and commercial limits for flocks and their biologic production. As no study has been conducted on small ruminants about this disease in Fars province of Iran, the present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of the disease and some risk factors that might be related to it. A total of 200 serum samples were collected from 13 flocks including nomadic animals (70%) and resident flocks (30%) using a cluster random sampling method with an equal proportion of sheep and goats during the last three months of 2010. Some risk factors such as age, breed and abortion, exposure to other flocks, density and female replacement origin were reported in a question sheet. Totally, 73.5% of the samples were positive for presence of BTV antibody.The results showed that age and contact with other herds are influential risk factors on seroprevalence of the disease.

  2. Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Falahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers′ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007′s report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ, demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry.

  3. A reward for patience and suffering – Ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Rossi, D.; Dentoni, D.

    2013-01-01

    A Reward for Patience and Suffering: Ethnomycology and Commodification of Desert Truffles among Sahrawi Refugees and Nomads of Western Sahara. This paper reflects on the role of ethnobiological knowledge and practices for refugees’ agency by focusing on the use and commodification of desert truffles

  4. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  5. The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun and the Specificity of the Social Structure of a Nomad Society (through the Example of Traditional Kazakh Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaiy I. Orazbayeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the issue of the organization of the social subsystem of the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads. To this end, the author examines the specificity of the social structure of a nomad society through the example of traditional Kazakh society within the context of Ibn Khaldun’s concept of “asabiyyah” developed in his work entitled “Muqaddimah” (“An Introduction” or “A Book on the Nature of Social Life”. The author’s primary object of study is the theoretical and methodological conceptualization of the aspect under study, providing an insight into the specificity of the organization of internal mechanisms in the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads, and trying to expound various phenomena in its development. In a related move, the authors, based on a selection of their own parameters of historical measurements, without any attempts to force a fit with accepted standards, venture to explain the specificity of the patterns of development characteristic of a local type of the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads.

  6. Supporting the Learning of Nomadic Communities across Transnational Contexts: Exploring Parallels in the Education of UK Roma Gypsies and Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Martin; Hooley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Deriving from the authors' respective ethnographic fieldwork (around two decades in each context), this position paper considers experiences of education across two communities: Gypsy/Roma in the UK and Indigenous in Australia. The article brings together understandings across these traditionally nomadic communities, with no shared history or…

  7. The Iran Nuclear Issue and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since August 2005, Iran on one side and the United States and the European countries on the other have been locked in a rangle over the Iran nuclear issue and tension has steadily escalated to a critical point as both sides stick to an uncompromising position. In earlier June 2006, in order to break the deadlock, the EU, with U.S. blessing, once again offered Iran a new package of incentives in an

  8. Studies on mental health in Kurdistan - Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to carry out an epidemiological study on mental health related issues in the Kurdish population of Iran. This part of Iran suffered directly during the Iran-Iraq war 1980-1988. Iran is an Islamic republic with strict adherence to Islamic traditions, which has implications for the way of life and gender issues. Suicide is prohibited according to Islamic teaching, but still there is a rather high suicide incidence especially among young women, who burn themselves to d...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Ra 226 is proved and measured by radiom emanation-method in waters and food products of North , North West and North – East of Iran. A total of 126 water, 249 food and 22 air samples have been examined. The concertration of Ra 226 in waters found to be 0.01 to 1.104 Pci/1 and in food products from 0.01 to Pci/gr. Ash.The amount found in due ranges from 0.003 to 0.227 Pci/m 3.It is concluded that the presence of higher than normal activity in some parts of Northern Iran is due to radiationanomalies in subsurface strata, where these mineral waters pass. Further investigattions are recommended.

  10. Contextual variations in costs for a community health strategy implemented in rural, peri-urban and nomadic sites in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Charles Ouma; Edwards, Nancy; Kaseje, Dan C O

    2017-02-28

    Many low and middle income countries have developed community health strategies involving lay health workers, to complement and strengthen public health services. This study explores variations in costing parameters pertinent to deployment of community health volunteers across different contexts outlining considerations for costing program scale-up. The study used quasi experimental study design and employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore community health unit implementation activities and costs and compare costs across purposively selected sites that differed socially, economically and ecologically. Data were collected from November 2010 to December 2013 through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. We interviewed 16 key informants (eight District community health strategy focal persons, eight frontline field officers), and eight focus group discussions (four with community health volunteers and four with community health committee) and 560 sets of monthly cost data. Cost data were tabulated using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data were transcribed and coded using a content analysis framework. Four critical elements: attrition rates for community health volunteers, geography and population density, livelihood opportunity costs and benefits, and social opportunity benefits, drove cost variations across the three sites. Attrition rate was highest in peri-urban site where population is highly mobile and lowest in nomadic site. More households were covered by community health workers in the peri-urban area making per capita costs considerably less than in the nomadic settings where long distances had to be covered to reach sparsely distributed households. Livelihood opportunity costs for Community Health Volunteers were highest in nomadic setting, while peri-urban ones reported substantial employability benefits resulting from training. Social opportunity benefits were highest in rural site. Results show that costs of implementing

  11. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Islamic-governed society will act. These are the sort of issues with which St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquinas , Hobbes, Locke, and others struggled...and Attitudes, Thomas L. Friedman identifies three American schools of thought regarding policy toward Iran; those who advocate rolling back the...issue. In his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman offers the following passage: “...my old two-dimensional view of the world was

  12. Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar Hasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. Methods This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated. Results A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls. There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04–5.97. The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000. Conclusion The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher

  13. A study of strange particle production in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B. E-mail: popov@nusun.jinr.dubna.su; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G. [and others

    2002-01-21

    A study of strange particle production in {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions has been performed using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Yields of neutral strange particles (K{sup 0}{sub s},{lambda},{lambda}-bar) have been measured. Mean multiplicities are reported as a function of the event kinematic variables E{sub {nu}}, W{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} as well as of the variables describing particle behaviour within a hadronic jet: x{sub F}, z and p{sub T}{sup 2}. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with identified K{sup 0}{sub s} and {lambda} in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K{sup *{+-}}, {sigma}{sup *{+-}}, {xi}{sup -} and {sigma}{sup 0} have been observed.

  14. Seasonal Variations of Polarization Diversity Gain in a Vegetated Area considering High Elevation Angles and a Nomadic User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kvicera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of the polarization diversity gain are addressed for a nomadic user in a vegetated area taking high elevation angles and nongeostationary satellites into consideration. Corresponding experimental data were obtained at a frequency of 2.0 GHz at Stromovka Park in Prague, the Czech Republic, within the full in-leaf and out-of-leaf periods of 2013 and 2014, respectively. By detecting copolarized and cross-polarized components of the transmitted left- and right-handed circularly polarized signals, the corresponding diversity gain was obtained for multiple-input single-output (MISO, single-input multiple-output (SIMO, and combined MISO/SIMO cases. It was found that tree defoliation results in a significant decrease of the polarization diversity gain achieved for low time percentages in particular scenarios.

  15. A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2002-01-01

    A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions has been performed using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Yields of neutral strange particles ( K0s,Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Mean multiplicities are reported as a function of the event kinematic variables Eν, W2 and Q2 as well as of the variables describing particle behaviour within a hadronic jet: xF, z and pT2. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with identified K 0s and Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K ★±, Σ ★±, Ξ- and Σ0 have been observed.

  16. Analysis of neutrino interactions and search for neutral heavy particles with the front calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Geppert, D

    2001-01-01

    The NOMAD detector at CERN was designed for the appearance search of tau neutrinos in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam, predominantly composed of muon type neutrinos. Neutrino interactions in the front calorimeter (FCAL) of the detector accumulated during the 1996-1998 data taking periods have been analyzed. A search for muon type neutral heavy leptons (NHL) produced by neutral-current muon neutrino interactions in the FCAL target and decaying into final states including a muon has been conducted. No evidence for the existence of such a particle has been found. The results have been parametrized in terms of a Grand Unification Theory (GUT) NHL predicted to behave as a singlet under weak-isospin group of the Standard Model of particle physics.

  17. The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter NOMAD Spectrometer Suite for Nadir and Solar Occultation Observations of Mars' Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Carine Vandaele, Ann; López-Moreno, José Juan; Patel, Manish; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Drummond, Rachel; Neefs, Eduard; Depiesse, Cedric; Daerden, Frank; Rodriguez-Gómez, Julio; Neary, Lori; Robert, Séverine; Willame, Yannick; Mahieux, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    NOMAD (Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery) is one of four instruments on board the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, scheduled for launch in January 2016 and to begin nominal science mission around Mars in late 2017. It consists of a suite of three high-resolution spectrometers - Solar Occultation (SO), LNO (Limb Nadir and Occultation) and UVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) - which will generate a huge dataset of Martian atmospheric observations during the mission, across a wide spectral range. Specifically, the SO spectrometer channel will perform occultation measurements, operating between 2.2-4.3μm at a resolution of 0.15cm-1, with 180-1000m vertical spatial resolution and an SNR of 1500-3000. LNO will perform limb scanning, nadir and occultation measurements, operating between 2.2-3.8μm at a resolution of 0.3cm-1. In nadir, global coverage will extend between ±74O latitude with an IFOV of 0.5x17km on the surface. This channel can also make occultation measurements should the SO channel fail. UVIS will make limb, nadir and occultation measurements between 200-650nm, at a resolution of 1nm. It will have 300-1000m vertical resolution during occultation and 5x60km ground resolution during 15s nadir observations. An order-of-magnitude increase in spectral resolution over previous instruments will allow NOMAD to map previously unresolvable gas species, such as important trace gases and isotopes. CO, CO2, H2O, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, H2CO, CH4, SO2, H2S, HCl, O3 and several isotopologues of methane and water will be detectable, providing crucial measurements of the Martian D/H and methane isotope ratios. It will also be possible to map the sources and sinks of these gases, such as regions of surface volcanism/outgassing and atmospheric production, over the course of an entire Martian year, to further constrain atmospheric dynamics and climatology. NOMAD will also continue to monitor the Martian water, carbon, ozone and dust cycles, extending existing datasets made by successive

  18. Health Care Challenges in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available All health systems across the world have faced new challenges, which is primarily referable to increasing the cost of health care services as well as growing demands for new and expensive health technologies. The aim of this study is to analyse the main challenges facing the Iranian health system. A review of available governmental and relevant publications about Iranian health care system was undertaken to assess the direction of future healthcare policy. Electronic news agencies, newspapers, and parliament’s electronic news also reviewed to realise policy-makers points of view about the health system. Healthcare services in Iran have had a great success in primary healthcare services in last 25 years, which is mainly attributable to National Health Networks policy. Between 1979 and 2003, average life expectancy at birth increased from 57 to 70 and infant mortality rate fell from 104 to 26 per thousand live births. Active vaccination system, very good distribution and coverage, free end point services, family planning, maternal teaching, and primary referral system are of strong advantages of health networks in Iran. However, the healthcare system is now subject to a range of new pressures that must be addressed. Many of these pressures are common to all health services (rising consumer demands and expectations for expensive new technologies, changing disease patterns, and resources shortage, but some are largely specific to Iran. Financial fairness contribution of the population to health system, responsiveness of health system, overusing new technologies, inadequate integration of health services, and inequitable distribution of the resources are of the main challenges of health system in Iran. In addition, considering demographic changes of the Iranian population in recent decades, which made Iranian population young, potential pressures due to an aging population will reveal in coming years. Many of these pressures relate to policies and

  19. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  20. Desert and desertification in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  1. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... pursuant to an international agreement. The term Iranian means pertaining to Iran as defined in...

  2. The Right US Strategy for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    struck several familiar chords . “I cannot express the sorrow I feel in my heart…our dignity has been trampled underfoot …all American military...a vocal minority views Iran in much less hopeful terms, and lumps the entirety of Iran into the same category as its leaders without any distinction

  3. The state of the environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekavat, S M

    1997-06-01

    This article describes environmental conditions in Iran including air pollution, pesticide pollution, soil depletion and erosion, water pollution, natural resource loss, lack of appropriate waste management, lead poisoning, and desertification. Environmental policy and implementation is described under the Shah and the Islamic Republic. Iran is beset with interrelated problems of environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, and population growth. Sustainability is being undermined at the cost of future generations. In 1995, Iran had a population of 67 million and a growth rate of 3.6%. Population is expected to exceed 100 million by the year 2000. The country is having difficulty in maintaining its current infrastructure, housing, food, and educational facilities. Competition for admission in higher education discourages women. Women with lower levels of education results in continued supremacy of men over women, more polygamy, and a lower quality of life for women. Iran was food self-sufficient in 1970, and exported its surplus. Today, Iran may be permanently dependent on food imports. Iran has abundant oil reserves, natural gas, copper, lead, and marketable items. Exchanging natural resources for food and technology has time and resource limits. Iran needs monetary assistance from wealthy nations. Population growth leads to increased demand for infrastructure and resources. Iran has signed many international environmental agreements and has enacted detailed environmental policies and regulations, but actual enforcement is lacking.

  4. Reflections on Foreign Language Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhady, Hossein; Hezaveh, Fattaneh Sajadi; Hedayati, Hora

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects upon foreign-language education in Iran. Contrary to its political and historical reputation in the world, Iran has not been well presented regarding its educational system in general and its foreign-language education in particular. Of course, a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian education…

  5. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  6. Fritillaria (Liliaceae in Iran: distribution and Nnomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genus Fritilaria comprises 18 species including two recently described species in Iran. Despite of new reports published and new taxa described available information on vegetation locations, status of their natural populations and taxonomy are not updated since publication of Flora iranica. Taxonomic status of the genus in Iran is reviewed here, and the floristic inventories during 24 years and the localities reported by Flora iranica are used along with available literature as well as our recent collections, in order to update the distribution maps of Fritillaria species in Iran. Fritillaria crassifolia subsp. polunini (from Kurdistan and F. pinardii (from W-Azerbayjan are reported as new records for Iran. Suggestions are made for conservation of some Fritillaria species based on the status of their distribution in Iran.

  7. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation.Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km sur­rounding area.Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts.  

  8. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera:Sarcophagidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Rafinejad; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Yavar Rassi; Jamasp Nozari; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Mostafa Hosseini; Hamzeh Alipour; Abdolmajid Ranjbar; Danial Zeinali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province.Methods:of 10358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps.Results:This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn’t any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Conclusions: The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  9. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (? Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early forms of Ancyrodella rotundiloba . It helps to compare our biozones to those of global stratotype in southern France. A new species, Polygnathus hojedki n. sp. is described here. New range is suggested for P. praepolitus .

  10. Foreword of Special Issue on “Nomadic Services and Applications”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Hung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nomadic Service has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm that offers a challenging model of cyber-physical services and poses fascinating problems regarding distributed resource management, ranging from information sharing to cooperative computing. This special issue is intended to foster state-of-the-art research in the area of nomadic services and related applications, cloud computing technologies and services, including the topics of collaboration environment, implementation and execution of real-world architectures, and novel applications associated with this new paradigm. The published papers are expected to present high quality results for tackling problems arising from the ever-growing cloud computing technologies. The issue will serve as a landmark source for education, information, and reference to professors, researchers and graduate students interested in updating their knowledge about or active in cloud computing technologies and services. Nine papers are included in this special issue.    In the first paper entitled “Broadcasting Data Items with Time Constraints Based on On-Demand Multichannel in Ubiquitous Environments”, Dr. Ding-Jung Chiang and Timothy K. Shih proposes mobile services with time constraints in ubiquitous computing environments based on on-demand multichannel broadcasting. This study provides on-line scheduling strategies for mobile data with timing constraint on multichannel broadcasting environments based on on-demand mode. The goal of this study ensures the most requests meeting their deadlines, which differs from previously proposed scheduling algorithms that aim to minimize the mean access time. The experimental results show the proposed algorithm, called on-demand broadcast program with time constraint (BPTC, outperforms miss rate for data timely delivery to mobile clients.    In order to illustrate a real-time hand gesture recognition system by using shape context matching and cost matrix

  11. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    clerics as teachers of religion and related subjects in Iran’s public educational system. A.~ d 22 various seminaries in Qom, Mashad , Tabriz, Shiraz...under wax. One copy of the new document was again handed to Meshkini and the other hand delivered to Mashad to be deposited in the tomb of Imam Reza...urban centers as Qom, Mashad , Yazd, and Ker- man seem to be their primary centers of support. Hoseyn Ali Montazeri was born in 1922 in the township of

  12. The languages and peoples of the Müller Mountains; A contribution to the study of the origins of Borneo’s nomads and their languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Müller and northern Schwaner mountain ranges are home to a handful of tiny, isolated groups (Aoheng, Hovongan, Kereho, Semukung, Seputan, altogether totaling about 5,000 persons, which are believed to have been forest hunter-gatherers in a distant or recent past. Linguistic data were collected among these groups and other neighbouring groups between 1975 and 2010, leading to the delineation of two distinct clusters of languages of nomadic or formerly nomadic groups, which are called MSP (Müller-Schwaner Punan and BBL (Bukat-Beketan-Lisum clusters. These languages also display lexical affinity to the languages of various major Bornean settled farming groups (Kayan, Ot Danum. Following brief regional and particular historical sketches, their phonological systems and some key features are described and compared within the wider local linguistic setting, which is expected to contribute to an elucidation of the ultimate origins of these people and their languages.

  13. Using remote, spatial techniques to select a random household sample in a dispersed, semi-nomadic pastoral community: utility for a longitudinal health and demographic surveillance system

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Amber L; Rzotkiewicz, Amanda; Zwickle, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background Obtaining a random household sample can be expensive and challenging. In a dispersed community of semi-nomadic households in rural Tanzania, this study aimed to test an alternative method utilizing freely available aerial imagery. Methods We pinned every single-standing structure or boma (compound) in Naitolia, Tanzania using a ‘placemark’ in Google Earth Pro (version 7.1.2.2041). Next, a local expert assisted in removing misclassified placemarks. A random sample was then selected ...

  14. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country.

  15. Fusulinoids from the Bashkirian-Moscovian transition beds of the Shahreza region in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Shirin; Sone, Masatoshi; Hairapetian, Vachik; Esfahani, Fariba Shirezadeh

    2016-12-01

    The presence of the Bashkirian-Moscovian (lower Pennsylvanian) sequence with mixed siliciclastics and fossil-rich carbonates has long been known from the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone in Iran. However, except for a few studies, its biostratigraphy was not previously investigated in detail. A fusulinoid fauna is recovered from newly measured section, which we named the Asad Abad II section. It is located near the Shahreza town in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone. The most important fusulinoids of this assemblage are Aljutovella cf. aljutovica Rauser-Chernosouva, Tikhonovichiella tikhonovichi (Rauser-Chernosouva), and Profusulinella (Depratina) prisca (Deprat); they occur in association with species of Ozawainella, Staffellaeformis, and Pseudostaffella. This fauna overall represents a fauna of the latest Bashkirian-earliest Moscovian transition period in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone. This new fusulinoid fauna shares some common species with the concurrent faunas of the Alborz, East Iran, and Central Iran. Furthermore, it can be easily compared with those of the Russian Platform, Southern and Northern Urals, and Central Taurides (Turkey). The four species of the current fauna, namely Eostaffella compressa Brazhnikova, E. primitiva (Dutkevich), Pseudostaffella timanica Rauser-Chernosouva, and Profusulinella postpararhombiformis Dzhenchuraeva are reported from Iran for the first time. This study also presents the first occurrence of the genera Aljutovella and Tikhonovichiella in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran.

  16. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p < 0.001 for the logistic regression model). These findings demonstrate the critical state of the nutritional situation in the Sahel and rural areas.

  17. Importance of functional ingredients in yak milk-derived food on health of Tibetan nomads living under high-altitude stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xusheng; Long, Ruijun; Kreuzer, Michael; Ding, Luming; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cui, Guangxin

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan nomads have lived since ancient times in the unique and harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with average altitudes over 4000 m. These people have been able to live and multiply healthily over numerous generations under the extreme stress of high-altitude environment, including cold, hypoxia, and strong ultraviolet radiation, and with a simple diet devoid of vegetables and fruits for most of the year. Their survival depends heavily on yak milk, and its products comprise the main portion of their daily diet. In this review, yak milk and its derived products are examined in detail and compared with milk from other ruminant species. Yak milk products seem to be particularly rich in functional and bioactive components, which may play a role in maintaining the health status of Tibetan nomads. This includes particular profiles of amino acids and fatty acids, and high levels of antioxidant vitamins, specific enzymes, and bacteria with probiotic activity (yoghurt is the main food). Based on that, it is proposed that the Tibetan nomads have developed a nutritional mechanism adapted to cope with the specific challenges posed by the environment of the world's highest plateau. Systematic studies are required to demonstrate this in a more mechanistic way.

  18. Understanding land use, livelihoods, and health transitions among Tibetan nomads: a case from Gangga Township, Dingri County, Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Yong; Li, Zhuoqing; Tashi, Nyima; Sharma, Rita; Fang, Jing

    2008-06-01

    Tibetan nomads in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China have experienced profound transitions in recent decades with important implications for land use, livelihoods, and health development. The change from being traditional nomads to agropastoralists engaged in permanent agriculture, a sedentary village life (known as "sedentarization"), has been associated with a remarkable change in diet and lifestyle, decline in spatial mobility, increase in food production, and emerging infectious and noncommunicable diseases. The overarching response of the government has been to emphasize infrastructure and technological solutions. The local adaptation strategies of Tibetan nomads through maintaining balanced mobile herding, reindeer husbandry, as well as off-farm labor and trade could address both the cause of environmental degradation and improve the well-being of local people. Drawing on transdisciplinary, preliminary field work in Gangga Township of Dingri County in the foothills of Mt. Everest, we identify pertinent linkages between land use and health, and spatial and temporal mismatch of livelihoods and health care services, in the transition to sedentary village life. We suggest emerging imperatives in Ecohealth to help restore Tibetan livelihoods in transition to a sedentary lifestyle.

  19. Community Genetic Services in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Atri Barzanjeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to report a description of the primary, secondary, and tertiary level services available for genetic disorders in Iran. For the purpose of this study, essential data were collected from every facility providing community genetic services in Tabriz city of Iran using a prestructured checklist. Technical information was filled in the predesigned forms using diagnostic records of each client/patient. Information was also gathered from community genetic services clients through a face-to-face interview at these facilities to assess the quality of services provided. Primary prevention measures were available in 80 percent of centres in the study population. Diagnostic techniques were fully available in the study area both in public and private sectors. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism and thalassemia has been successfully performed across the country by the Ministry of Health. Other screening programs have also been initiated by the country health authorities for neural tube defects, Down syndrome, and phenylketonuria. The high cost of genetic services at secondary and tertiary levels does not allow many people to get access to these services despite their needs. Governments will therefore need to allocate necessary resources to make the essential genetic services available for everyone needing these in the community.

  20. Patient's rights charter in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of patient's rights in healthcare, special attention has been given to the concept of patient's rights by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian patient's rights charter has been compiled with a novel and comprehensive approach. This charter aims to elucidate rights of recipients of health services as well as observing ethical standards in medicine. This paper presents the Iranian patient's rights charter. Based on a study done from 2007 to 2009, the charter has been finalized through an extensive consultation involving all stakeholders, patients, physicians, nurses, lawyers, patient associations and health policy makers. The developed charter was adopted by the Ministry of Health in December 2009. Iranian patient's rights charter has been formulated in the framework of 5 chapters and 37 articles including vision and an explanatory note. The five chapters concern right to receiving appropriate services, right to access desired and enough information, right to choose and decide freely about receiving healthcare, right to privacy and confidentiality, and finally right to access an efficient system of dealing with complaints which have been explained in 14, 9, 7, 4 and 3 articles, respectively.  The paper concludes that, adopting the patient's rights charter is a valuable measure to meet patient's rights; however, a serious challenge is how to implement and acculturate observing patient's rights in practice in our healthcare system in Iran.

  1. Trauma care system in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Zargar; Sarah Ganji; Mahmoud Khodabandeh; Shahab Abdollahi Far; Morteza Abdollahi; Mohammad Reza Zarei; Seyed Mohammad Reza Kalantar Motamedi; Mojgan Karbakhsh; Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar; Farzad Panahi; Soheil Saadat; Ali Khaji; Seyed Mahdi Davachi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The high burden of injuries in Iran necessitates the establishment of a comprehensive trauma care system. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of trauma system regarding the components and function. Methods: The current status of trauma system in all components of a trauma system was described through expert panels and semi-structured interviews with trauma specialists and policy makers.Results: Currently, various organizations are involved in prevention, management and rehabilitation of injuries,but an integrative system approach to trauma is rather deficient. There has been ongoing progress in areas of public education through media, traffic regulation reinforcement,hospital care and prehospital services. Meanwhile, there are gaps regarding financing, legislations and education of high risk groups. The issues on education and training standards of the front line medical team and continuing education and evaluation are yet to be addressed. Trauma registry has been piloted in some provinces, but as it needs the well-developed infrastructure (regarding staff, maintenance,financial resources), it is not yet established in our system of trauma care.Conclusions: It seems that one of the problems with trauma care in Iran is lack of coordination among trauma system organizations. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries necessitates an organized approach to prevention and management of trauma in the context of a trauma system.

  2. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.

  3. The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri's medium and identified using reliable keys.A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  4. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  5. First report of death due to Hemiscorpius acanthocercus envenomation in Iran: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Mehran; Rafinejad, Javad; Az-Khosravi, Leyla; Moosavy, Seyed Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are significant causes of death in the western and southern regions of Iran. To date, reports have indicated that the H. lepturus species is the main cause of mortality due to scorpion stings. One of the species that belongs to this genus is Hemiscorpius acanthocercus (H. acanthocercus). This scorpion’s venom is cytotoxic, and it causes pathological changes in the blood and can cause severe damage to the kidneys. The pain of Hemiscorpius’ sting is mild and asymptomatic in the early hours. Delays in the treatment of these victims can cause hemolysis, hematuria, kidney failure, and even death. In this paper, we report the first known death due to an H. acanthocercus’ sting in Iran. PMID:26435822

  6. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN; Etude de la production de particules charmees via les interactions de neutrinos dans l'experience nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechain, X.A

    1999-06-25

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  7. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  8. Iran. The Literacy Corps at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Mrs. J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reviewing the activities of the Literacy Corps in Iran, the article examines the national service organization which has done much to combat illiteracy in rural areas and lower the national rate of illiteracy. (MW)

  9. Earthquake Damage, Northern Iran, June 21, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990. The event, the largest...

  10. Surficial geology of Iran (geo2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  11. A Key to the Anophelines of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene R. Shahgudian

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys for identification of adult females and fourth instar larvae of Anopheline Mosquitoes of Iran with brief review of important literature on the Iranian Anopheline Fauna are given in this paper

  12. Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree

    2014-01-01

    ... scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory...

  13. Major faults in Iran (flt2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  14. L'Iran mobilise des scientifiques

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel

    2005-01-01

    An Open Letter to the General Secretary of UNO circulates in the laboratories of CERN. This letter is to protest against the tension between Iran from one part, and USA and Europe on the other part (½ page)

  15. Diversity and frequency of Nocardia spp. in the soil of Isfahan province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kachuei R; Emami M; Mirnejad R; Khoobdel M

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and identify Nocardia spp. from soil in different regions of Isfahan province in the center of Iran. Methods:This study was conducted in 32 districts (16 cities and 16 villages) in Isfahan province during two years. A total of 800 soil samples from these regions were studied by using kanamycin. The isolated Nocardia species were examined by gram and acid-fast staining and were identified biochemically and morphologically. The frequency and distribution of Nocardia spp. were determined in relation to different factors such as soil pH and temperate climate. Results:From 153 (19.1%) Nocardia isolates identified, Nocardia asteroids (N. asteroids) complex (45.5%) and Nocardia brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis) (24.7%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (2.2%), Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura actinomadura (each 1.7%) and Nocardia transvalensis (1.1%) and also unknown spp. (23.0%). In this study, most species (54.4%) of Nocardia, especially N. asteroides complex were isolated from soils with pH:7.01-8, whereas in pH:8.01-9 more N. brasiliensis was isolated. The most Nocardia spp. was detected from regions with semi-nomadic and temperate climate (41.1%). Conclusions:N. asteroids complex is more prevalent in Isfahan province and soil can be a potential source of nocardiosis infections. It is to be considering that climate and soil pH are involved in the frequency and diversity of aerobic Actinomycetes.

  16. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Zahra ABDOLLAHI

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nu...

  17. A Scale of Business Ethics in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee; Mohammad Ali Nasimi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore a scale of business ethical dimensions in Iran. It reviews the extant business ethics literature on Iran, collects data on ethical conduct from an Iranian company, and analyzes the data to examine emerging trends. Factor analysis and multi dimensional scaling are applied to an established survey instrument after reliability is confirmed. The present research brings out the importance of business ethics dimensions in the continuity of interactions with c...

  18. A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    the previous three but has been met with reluctance , especially on the part of Russia. This resistance is due in part to their economic ties to Iran...transformative dangers of living with a nuclear- armed Iran.”34 This is doubly true in the current economic context. With the clock ticking and...need to be fed into a continuously updated target planning process to maximize the effectiveness of a strike on Iranian nuclear capability

  19. The Pathology of Iran Tourism Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Zargham; Helya Barezani

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, destination branding is one the most challenging and attractive discussions in thefield of place marketing and tourism marketing. Considering the plethora of advantages ofbranding concepts and activities for countries around the globe and high potentials of IslamicRepublic of Iran as a tourism destination, in this paper authors have tried to assess the currentsituation of tourism brand and the effectiveness of branding activities in Iran based onHankinson model (2004). To achieve th...

  20. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera) of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh; TIRGARI, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids ar...