WorldWideScience

Sample records for nomad trigger studies

  1. Study of dimuons in Nomad experience at the CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns the study of the production of the first dimuons events in the NOMAD experience (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector). This study is necessary to improve our knowledge about the charmed quark and allows to secure ourselves about the well functioning of our detector and about the reliability of our analysis tools. The two first chapters concern the understanding of physical phenomenons. The physic of neutrinos is described, known and unknown, with a lot of open questions. The second chapter, more specially, gives a theoretical and experimental look concerning the production of dimuons by the neutrinos; the chapter three is devoted to the presentation of the NOMAD detector and its characteristics. The chapter number four concerns the method used by the NOMAD collaboration (drift chambers and their functioning); the chapter five is devoted to the muons identification; the data selection is described at the chapter six; a first preliminary oscillation analysis is studied in the chapter seven; the conclusion ends on questions to deepen the entered upon studies in this thesis. (N.C.). 78 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Digital Nomad Lifestyle : A field study in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Haking, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The digital age has unleashed limitless opportunities and transformed how we work, play and live. As a result, more people embrace the digital nomad lifestyle to fulfill both personal and professional goals. This research assesses the advantages and disadvantages that are associated with this lifestyle. In addition, I examine the digital nomad characteristics in Bali and how the digital nomad community in Bali supports professional development. Data were collected during a two-month field stu...

  3. Study of dimuons in Nomad experience at the CERN; Etude des dimuons dans l`experience Nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, M.K.

    1996-06-04

    This thesis concerns the study of the production of the first dimuons events in the NOMAD experience (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector). This study is necessary to improve our knowledge about the charmed quark and allows to secure ourselves about the well functioning of our detector and about the reliability of our analysis tools. The two first chapters concern the understanding of physical phenomenons. The physic of neutrinos is described, known and unknown, with a lot of open questions. The second chapter, more specially, gives a theoretical and experimental look concerning the production of dimuons by the neutrinos; the chapter three is devoted to the presentation of the NOMAD detector and its characteristics. The chapter number four concerns the method used by the NOMAD collaboration (drift chambers and their functioning); the chapter five is devoted to the muons identification; the data selection is described at the chapter six; a first preliminary oscillation analysis is studied in the chapter seven; the conclusion ends on questions to deepen the entered upon studies in this thesis. (N.C.). 78 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  5. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  6. Do Social Computing Make You Happy? A Case Study of Nomadic Children in Mixed Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I describe a perspective on ambient, ubiquitous, and pervasive computing called the happiness perspective. By using the happiness perspective, the application domain and how the technology is used and experienced, becomes a central and integral part of perceiving ambient technology. I...... will use the perspective in a case study on field test experiments with nomadic children in mixed environments using the eBag system....

  7. Study of nomadic antiquities of the 9th − 14th centuries of the steppe zone Dnipro and Azov regions of Ukraine in the pre-revolutionary period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubrienko, P. S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of the study of nomadic antiquities of the 9th – 16th centuries steppe zone Dnipro and Azov region of Ukraine. The author analyzed the features of the first excavations of archaeological monuments of late nomads in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The initial stage of the archeology of the nomads of the 9th – 16th centuries on the Ukrainian lands is considered.

  8. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  9. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  10. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  11. Understanding nomadic collaborative learning groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    -term collaborations within the frame of Problem and Project Based Learning. By analysing the patterns of nomadic collaborative learning we identify and discuss how the two groups of students incorporate mobile and digital technologies as well as physical and/or non-digital technologies into their group work......The paper builds on the work of Rossitto et al. on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long....... Specifically, we identify the following categories of nomadic collaborative learning practices: “orchestration of work phases, spaces and activities,” “the orchestration of multiple technologies” and “orchestration of togetherness.” We found that for both groups of students there was a fluidity, situatedness...

  12. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechain, X.A.

    1999-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  13. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti) neutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, V.V.; Popov, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino-quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (ν μ n → μ - p and νbar μ p → μ + n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ (νbar μ ) charged current cross section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are (σ qel )ν μ = (0.92 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 and (σ qel )νbar μ = (0.81 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.08 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. The measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in the previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. These results do not support M A measurements published recently by the K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations, which reported somewhat larger values, which are however compatible with our results within their large errors

  14. Nomadic homestead and role structure amongst the Fulbe nomads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the pastoral nomadic culture, the homestead is the property of the women; they take custody of the household properties as well as the milk procurement and sales. The male child is cultured along the ways of raising, nourishing and managing the family flock. Recent studies have discovered some developments ...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  16. Nomad_Scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian Bønløkke Waltorp

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I investigate the concept of nomad_ scape in relation to the Kounta nomadic pastoralists, inhabiting the arid Hodh Ech Chargui province in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Through the application of Ingold’s dwelling perspective and Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of nomadology, I...

  17. A Study of charm production by neutrinos in the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    The NOMAD neutrino experiment at the CERN SPS is described and the silicon tracking detector (STAR) that was placed in NOMAD is discussed in detail. An algorithm for the reconstruction of hits, tracks and vertices with the silicon tracker and utilising the Kalman filter method was developed and is also described. The vertex position resolution is determined to be 19um in the Y direction and 781um in the Z direction from Monte Carlo. The impact parameter resolution of STAR is determined to be 28um. From the sample of charged current neutrino interactions, a search is performed for the production and decay of D0 ' n+' Dt' D0 " and n +" mesons. From this analysis, the masses and lifetimes of the D mesons and resonances are determined to be: mno = 1.875 ± 0.075GeV = 145~~~/lnl mn+ = 1.880 ± 0.088GeV = 213_67 /lrn m1J.t = 1.973 ± 0.061GeV = 199~.~~2 /nll rnno• = 1.973 ± 0.046GeV mn+• = 2.072 ± 0.031GeV The production rates (R) per uμ. charged current deep inelastic interaction of D mesons are determin...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  4. Brucellosis as a neglected disease in a neglected population: a seroepidemiological study of migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, B; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B; Davarpanah, M A; Ataolahi, M; Farbod, A; Eskandari, E; Panahi, M; Ghorbani, A; Zahiri, Z; Tabrizi, R; Pourjafar, M; Heidari, S M M

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT brucellosis was detected in 54 cases, indicating a prevalence of 10% (95% confidence interval 8-12). In conclusion, we determined that brucellosis is a prevalent yet neglected disease in this nomadic population. Brucellosis control is not possible as long as these high-risk populations remain neglected.

  5. An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shamim; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Rahman, Mohammad Ziaur; Abedin, Jaynal; Zeidner, Nord; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype. The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA. Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An Impact Evaluation of Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the extent of the realization of the objectives of nomadic education programme in the northeast sub-region of Nigeria. The study showed that the programme performed satisfactorily and the impact on the nomads is significant. There are however some major problems militating against effective ...

  7. The Role of Women in Military Organization of Nomads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgabayeva, Gaukhar Z.; Samarkin, Sergey V.; Yarochkina, Elizaveta V.; Taskuzhina, Aigul B.; Amantaeva, Aigul B.; Nazarova, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of women in the nomadic environment, particularly in the military structure. Using the method of comparative historical analysis as well as archaeological research data, the authors found that dual organization was typical for most nomads. Moreover, women in the Scythian and Sarmatian societies were…

  8. Study of charmed particle production in interactions with neutrinos detected in the experiment NOMAD at CERN; Etude de la production de particules charmees via les interactions de neutrinos dans l'experience nomad au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechain, X.A

    1999-06-25

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation Magnetic Detector), devoted to the observation of tau neutrino interactions in case of neutrino flavour oscillations, was optimised in order to get an excellent identification of electrons coming from tau decays. Amongst the real events, identified as muon neutrino interactions, we select events including one muon and one positron candidate. We then reduce the number of events for which a hadron simulates the positron, and a method based on a likelihood rate allows us to select events for which the positron, lost in the hadronic jet, comes from the decay of a quark charm, and eliminates those for which the positron comes from photon conversions or Dalitz decays. From the extracted signal, we are able to estimate the mass of the charm quark and the strange sea content of the nucleon, by comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation based on the latest CCFR results. We also carried out a technical study on a possible identification of electrons using the specific behaviour of their tracks left in the drift chambers. We showed that we can get some discrimination power using variables given by the Kalman filter used for track fitting. (author)

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  10. The Australian 'grey nomad' and aged care nurse practitioner models of practice: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Catherine; Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Clark, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Nurse Practitioner - Aged Care Models of Practice Initiative supported the roll-out of a range of nurse practitioner (NP) models of practice, across Australia. One of these models was a community-based clinic-located practice, situated in a remote tourist destination where there is no resident general practitioner. Services were delivered by a NP to the local population as well as the many seasonal tourists passing through the region. These seasonal tourists included a growing number of older people, many of whom had chronic health conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiac disease. A case study approach was taken to test and develop connections between the theory of nursing models and the practice of the NP. This approach enabled the development of a detailed explanation of the community-based, clinic-located NP model, including the model's associated enablers and challenges. The case study approach also supported further theoretical development of nursing models more generally. Enablers of the NP model were the sponsoring not-for-profit organisation, which provided pre-existing structures for clinical governance and general management, as well as funding; and the collaborative agreements negotiated at a systems level between the NP, other health professionals, and a variety of service providers. Challenges to the model included the organisation's limited capacity to back-fill the NP for leave and professional development entitlements obtaining recurrent funding to sustain the model. Also identified was the need for the organisation to more clearly explain the NP role to consumers of the services being delivered. Theoretically, analysis led to the inclusion of an additional component of the nursing model: influence of context. This component is important because it highlights the way in which nursing models of practice are affected by local conditions. The community-based, clinic-located NP model of practice described in this article provides a

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  2. Veto Studies for LIGO Inspiral Triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    LIGO recently conducted its third scientific data run, S3. Here we summarize the veto and data quality studies conducted by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in connection with the search for binary inspiral signals in the S3 data. LIGO's interferometer channels and physical environmental monitors were monitored, and events in these channels coincident with inspiral triggers were examined.

  3. Psychological Factors of Innovativeness among Nomadic Micro-Entrepreneurs for Achieving Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  7. Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  9. On Nomadism. Nomadismist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Ove Arntzen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mõiste nomaadid kasutamine filosoofias on seotud metafoorse mõtlemisega, nagu seda demonstreerivad Gilles Deleuze ja Félix Guattari oma raamatus „Nomadoloogia: sõjamasin” („Traité de nomadologie: la machine de guerre“, 1980. Nad käsitlevad nomaadidega seostatavat mobiilsust kui sõjametafoori. Viimane viitab faktile, et ajaloolised nomaadidest sõdalased, näiteks mongolid, suutsid hobustel kiiresti edasi liikuda ning ootamatult rünnata. Riigi loomine sai võimalikuks vaid tänu sellele, et sõjamasinaid võis hoida pidevas liikumises. Paradoksaalne küll, aga nomaade kasutasid ära just riigi loojad, kes olid õppinud, kuidas rakendada metallurgilisi tehnikaid, nii et ajaloolaste arvates muutusid nomaadid koos oma sõjamasinatega vaid instrumentideks riigimeeste käes, nagu mongolid hiinlaste või tatarlased venelaste jaoks. Kirjeldatud käsitlust kasutatakse kui metodoloogilist baasi, et uurida, kuidas mõistet nomaadid võib mõista eri kontekstides: nii antropoloogilises tähenduses kui ka uue kontseptsioonina filosoofias ja kunstides. Antud artiklis rakendatakse seda mõistet uute kunstiliste praktikate uurimiseks nii otseses kui metafoorses tähenduses. Otseses tähenduses viidatakse nomaadide kunstile, metafoorselt aga nomadismile uuemas kunsti- ja teatriloomingus. Nomaade iseloomustab peavoolujärgne (post-mainstream – vastand eurotsentristlikule peavoolule, mida kontrollivad Lääne-Euroopa keskused liikumine uute kunstiliste tegevuste leidmiseks. Nende tegevus kannab nii globaalset kui ka lokaalset või regionaalset värvingut ning nomadismi mõistet võib kasutada kirjeldamaks seda, mis toimub, kui peavooluliikumised ammenduvad. Nomadism segab stiile ja traditsioone, mida peavoolu kontseptsioonis ei saaks esteetilise puhtuse või suundumuste kinnistumise tõttu kombineerida. Konkreetsemalt tuuakse näiteid Põhja-Skandinaavia etendus- ja visuaalkunstidest.

  10. Nomade | Smith | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tydskrif vir letterkunde. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nomade. S Smith. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  11. Usability of Nomadic User Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, W.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of research activities have been performed to enable user interfaces and the underlying user activities to be migrated from one device to another. We call this “Nomadic User Interfaces”. The primary goal of these research activities has been to develop the

  12. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  13. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Dramane; Hilou, Adama; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Guenne, Samson

    2016-04-26

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc. ). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae

  14. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a research project, Mobile Home Center, about home and mobility in relation to transnational HCI. The project concerns design for mobile life and it is an investigation, through user studies and prototypes, of how to support the act of home making away from the primary home. We...... bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...

  15. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  16. Home Feeling for the Modern Nomad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2011-01-01

    bring in the perspective that transnational HCI is not only concerning individuals distributed across boarders, but also the reality of individuals who live their lives as a modern nomad in multiple countries. We bring in a new perspective of how most people perform homing tactics rather than living...... mobile, place-less and nomadic lifestyles. We furthermore present a number of prototypes that seek to enrich the practices of the modern nomad....

  17. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  18. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  19. Radio listening habits of pupils of Nomadic Pastoralists and Migrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to integrate Nigeria with other nations in the world that have achieved landmark results in Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) innovation necessitated this study on radio listening habits of pupils of nomadic pastoralists and migrant fisherfolks in Nigeria. The study was carried out in four pastoralists' states of Borno, ...

  20. Les barrières à la demande de service de vaccination chez les populations nomades de Danamadji, Tchad

    OpenAIRE

    Seli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some interesting themes emerged especially at the end of the individual interviews, focus group discussions as well as after observing the behavior of the nomads during this study. Firstly, among the themes identified is the mistrust towards the vaccinating agents by most simple rescuers or young people often from indigenous sedentary communities in conflict with nomads. But the mistrust of nomads goes further and even affects qualified health workers in turn affecting the relationship betwee...

  1. Malaria Morbidity and Mortality among Nomadic Fulani Children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a deadly disease which is widely spread in the tropical regions of the world. This study was conducted to investigate malaria morbidity and mortality in under-five nomadic Fulani children.Morbidity and mortality were assessed through film microscopy, interviews, questionnaires and verbal autopsy. Results showed ...

  2. Sexual diversity and role structure in fulbe nomadic homstead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual diversity and role structure in fulbe nomadic homstead: issues in gender education. D Adedeji. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies Vol. 2 (1) 2002: pp. 348-368. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. The demographic implications of nomadic herdsmen and farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the demographic implications resulting from nomadic herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria. Relevant published texts across the country and the Malthusian theory provided the leverage for the study. It revealed that the Nigeria's population is dynamic and growing at a very rapid rate compared to ...

  4. AHP 26: Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub ཀརྨ་དོན་འགྲུབ། (Kar+ma don 'grub

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karma Dondrub's (Kar+ma don 'grub life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (Mtsho sgnon Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Karma Dondrub begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  5. AHP 28: Review: Transforming Nomadic Resource Management and Livelihood Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Winkler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In late 2012, Andreas Gruschke published a densely packed, 450 page book based on his PhD dissertation, on the transformation of nomad livelihoods in Yushu [Yul shul] Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP.1 It is volume fifteen of the series of 'Nomaden und Sesshafte (Nomads and Settled People' published by the Sonderforschungsbereich Differenz und Integration – Wechselwirkung zwischen nomadischen und sesshaften Lebensformen in Zivilsationen der Alten Welt (Special Collaborative Research Center, Difference and Integration: Interdependency Between Nomadic and Settled Life-forms in Old World Civilizations. The background information, rich data, dozens of detailed interviews with former and current nomads, and the findings in this publication are the result of eight years of study, including a total of sixteen months of fieldwork by Gruschke in Tibetan areas of Qinghai Province and neighboring Tibetan areas. This book contains case studies that have never been previously presented, and introduces these highland communities' current situation in a clear, detailed, and discriminating light that is rich in data.

  6. Thinking through the Photographic Encounter: Engaging with the Camera as Nomadic Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Cala

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the photographic act as an affective and affirmative encounter--a reflexive, embodied, and relational community engagement that may produce a rupture in our habitual modes of thinking. The author uses the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of the nomadic weapon to consider how the camera may become an affective trigger for…

  7. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Tracy L; Rapley, Tim; Girling, Melissa; Mair, Frances S; Murray, Elizabeth; Treweek, Shaun; McColl, Elaine; Steen, Ian Nicholas; May, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthca...

  8. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthcare interventions. Objectives The objectives of this study are to: develop a set of NPT-based measures and formatively evaluate their use for identifying implementation problems and monitoring progress; conduct preliminary evaluation of these measures across a range of interventions and contexts, and identify factors that affect this process; explore the utility of these measures for predicting outcomes; and develop an online users’ manual for the measures. Methods A combination of qualitative (workshops, item development, user feedback, cognitive interviews) and quantitative (survey) methods will be used to develop NPT measures, and test the utility of the measures in six healthcare intervention settings. Discussion The measures developed in the study will be available for use by those involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating complex interventions in healthcare and have the potential to enhance the chances of their implementation, leading to sustained changes in working practices. PMID:23578304

  9. Alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cervera-Villanueva, A

    2000-01-01

    This note describes the alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector. This is the B/sub 4/C-silicon target installed in the NOMAD spectrometer in 1997. NOMAD-STAR is composed of modules of 12 silicon detectors each giving a total length of 72 cm. Ten of these modules (called ladders) are assembled to form a layer. There are five layers interleaved with passive boron carbide plates. The total surface of silicon is 1.14 m /sup 2/. Energetic muons from the flat-top of the CERN SPS cycle provide the necessary information to perform a very precise software alignment. This alignment is needed to ensure that the impact parameter measurement needed for the identification of taus in a detector like NOMAD-STAR will not be limited by the error in the alignment. (15 refs).

  10. Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain? A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hallman, David M.; Korshøj, Mette; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis. Objectives To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers. Methods Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, and occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time). Results The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (per hour) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI=1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI=0.89-11.98, P=0.08) periods, referencing those with low sitting time. Conclusion Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of sitting time are recommended. PMID:25806808

  11. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  12. Results from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, B A

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment has sought nu /sub mu / implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations by looking for the emergence of tau /sup -/ in events from the CERN SPS neutrino beam. With some improvements in the techniques of analysis in relation to the results published previously and with the inclusion of data from the 1998 run, no evidence for the oscillations has been found, which results in an updated limit on the oscillation probability [P( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<0.5* 10/sup -3/ at a 90% C.L.]. The corresponding limit on the oscillation mixing angle is given by sin/sup 2/2 theta /sub mu tau /<1.0*10/sup -3/ for large Delta m/sup 2/. By using a 1% contamination of nu /sub e/ in the neutrino beam, we can also rule out nu /sub e/ implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations and constrain the probability of the relevant transition as P( nu /sub 3/ to nu /sub tau /)<3*10/sup -2/ at a 90% C.L. (sin/sup 2/2Q/sub e tau /<6*10/sup -2/ at large Delta m/sup 2/). (10 refs).

  13. Study On Aftershock Triggering In Consideration Of Tectonic Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Cai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    : The occurrence of earthquake is related to the strength of rock and tectonic stress field. The seismic risk factor (SRF),D=\\left|{τn }\\right|/(μσn ) is proposed to describe the dangerous status of aftershock triggering in this paper. Dearthquakes, velocity field from GPS as well as geological survey. As one order of approximation, the magnitudes of the regional tectonic stress field can be estimated by the Coulomb failure criterion. Finite element method (FEM) and the concept of the factor D are used to study the aftershock triggering of the 1976 Tangshan Ms=7.8 earthquake. The results show that: (1) Most of the aftershocks triggered by the Tangshan earthquake occurred in the two-leaf-shaped regions of D≥ 1 near the north-east end of the main-shock fault. The largest leaf is about 100km long and 40km wide. (2) The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by the seismic risk factorD and Δ CFS (the changes in the Coulomb failure stress) are almost the same near the fault. The difference between them is that the aftershock area predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0 is too large and the area predicted by the factor D≥ 1 is limited. The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0.04 MPa are nearly the same as those of D≥ 1 obtained by the study. (3) Sometimes Δ CFS =0.01MPa is taken as a low threshold of aftershock triggering. However, Δ CFS≥ 0 only means the probability increase of the earthquake triggering, not means the earthquake will occur. The earthquake occurrence is not only related to Δ CFS, but also to the tectonic stress field before the main-shock.

  14. A clinical trial of the Nomad portable X-ray unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sharon L; McMinn, Wallin E; Benavides, Eriha

    2009-02-01

    To compare image quality of intraoral radiographs made with the Nomad portable X-ray unit (Aribex, Inc.) and with a wall-mounted dental X-ray machine in a clinical setting. Twelve patients requiring a full-mouth radiographic series for diagnostic purposes were recruited for the study, in which half of the radiographs (one side selected randomly) were made with the Nomad and half with a wall-mounted dental X-ray machine. Each individual image was evaluated independently by three reviewers for diagnostic utility and quality, using a three-point scale: 2 = perfect radiograph; 1 = acceptable for diagnostic purposes despite a small error; 0 = unacceptable. A total score was derived for each of the 220 images, each of the 12 patients, and the study population as a whole. The combined quality scores of the three reviewers for each set of radiographs ranged from 22-60 for the Nomad and 21-55 for the control units. Median scores were 33 for the Nomad and 33.5 for the control. The maximum possible score was nine films/half mouth x two points for perfect film x three reviewers = 54 (maximum 66 for 11 films). Three of the films, all on the same patient in a wheelchair, showed motion artifact (two with Nomad, one with control). Image quality for radiographs taken with the Nomad and a wall-mounted X-ray machine appears to be similar in a variety of clinical situations. Motion artifact is not a significant issue with the Nomad.

  15. Performance of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barichello, G; Daniels, D C; Ellis, M; Ferrère, D; Gouanère, M; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gössling, C; Hernando, J A; Huta, W; Kokkonen, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Linssen, Lucie; Lisowski, B; Long, J; Lupi, A; Runólfsson, O; Schmidt, B; Soler, F J P; Steele, D; Stipcevic, M; Veltri, M; Vidal-Sitjes, G; do Couto e Silva, E

    2003-01-01

    The NOMAD-STAR detector is a silicon vertex installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. It consists of four layers of a passive boron carbide target with a total mass of 45 kg and five layers of 600 single sided silicon microstrip detectors covering a total area of 1.14m^2. About 11,500 nu_mu charged current interactions were reconstructed in the fiducial volume of NOMAD-STAR from the neutrino run in 1998. The potential use of silicon detectors for nu_mu (nu_e) nu_tau oscillations depends on the observation of the tau candidates by the experimental signature of a large impact parameter, in the case of the one prong decay of the tau, or a double vertex, in the case of the three prong decay. The main aim of NOMAD-STAR is to measure the impact parameter and vertex distributions of charged current interactions, which constitute the main backgrounds for the oscillation signals, to understand the significance of a potential signal in a future experiment. The present paper describes the experi...

  16. "Becoming" Learners/Teachers in Nomadic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a conjunction between the learning space of educational edge community (EEC) and the Deleuzeguattarian thought regarding the nature of teachers' "becoming." It attends to the emerging subjectivities of teachers/learners within an EEC, a nomadic, open, and smooth space of learning. It is suggested that autonomous…

  17. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  18. Study on Excitation-triggered Damage Mechanism in Perilous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongkai; Wang, Shengjuan

    2017-12-01

    Chain collapse is easy to happen for perilous rock aggregate locating on steep high slope, and one of the key scientific problems is the damage mechanism of perilous rock under excitation action at perilous rock rupture. This paper studies excitation-triggered damage mechanism in perilous rock by wave mechanics, which gives three conclusions. Firstly, when only the normal incidence attenuation spread of excitation wave is considered, while the energy loss is ignored for excitation wave to spread in perilous rock aggregate, the paper establishes one method to calculate peak velocity when excitation wave passes through boundary between any two perilous rock blocks in perilous rock aggregate. Secondly, following by Sweden and Canmet criteria, the paper provides one wave velocity criterion for excitation-triggered damage in the aggregate. Thirdly, assuming double parameters of volume strain of cracks or fissures in rock meet the Weibull distribution, one method to estimate micro-fissure in excitation-triggered damage zone in perilous rock aggregate is established. The studies solve the mechanical description problem for excitation-triggered damage in perilous rock, which is valuable in studies on profoundly rupture mechanism.

  19. Search for νμ→νe oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperov, A.

    2000-06-01

    The NOMAD experiment is looking for ν μ →ν τ and ν→ν e oscillations in a predominantly ν μ beam at the CERN SPS. Neutrino oscillations are closely related with the existence of non-zero neutrino mass and mixing between different flavours. This document describes the search for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample accumulated during four years of data-taking (1995-98). The search for ν e appearance was performed by studying the charged current (CC) interactions with in the NOMAD detector. The selection of ν e CC and ν μ interactions with the help of different particle identification algorithms, as well as using the event kinematic criteria, is described here in detail. We show that the NOMAD experiment is sensitive to the LSND allowed region of oscillation parameters with the squared mass difference larger than 10 eV 2 /C 4 . An upper limit on the probability of ν μ →ν e oscillations, based on a fraction of the NOMAD data, is given. (author)

  20. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Experimental Study on Triggering Characteristics of a Surface Flashover Triggered Vacuum Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xueling; Chen Jingliang; Sun Wei

    2010-01-01

    Triggering characteristics of triggered vacuum switch (TVS), including the discharge delay time, delay jitter, range of operational voltage and peak of pulsed current, are investigated. Both structure and experimental circuit of TVS are presented. The results indicate that TVS, as a surface flashover triggering device with high dielectric permittivity material, is with excellent triggering characteristics. When the hold-off voltage reaches 120 kV, the minimum operational voltage is 1.3 kV, and the minimum discharge delay time and jitter are 100 ns and ±10 ns, respectively. The peak current is up to 240 kA when the operational voltage reaches 100 kV. TVS can well satisfy the main demands of high voltage and current applications, and can also be used under a multi-crowbar circuit.

  2. Designing Pervasive Computing Technology - In a Nomadic Work Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis

    2002-01-01

    In my thesis work I am investigating how the design of pervasive/ubiquitous computing technology, relate to the flexible and individual work practice of nomadic workers. Through empirical studies and with an experimental systems development approach, the work is focused on: a) Supporting...... interpretation and inclusion of implicit and invisible as well as explicit and visible characteristics of artifacts, users and use practices. b) Identifying breakdowns in human-computer interaction situations, with particular emphasis on the computation that happens "behind the scenes" in the pervasive computing...... environment, and how that computational process at a sufficient level is made intelligible, visible, accountable and negotiable to the human participant....

  3. Nomadity beyond contemporaneity: Prelude to the indisciplinary rigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muoz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When addressing notions of nomadism in relation to knowledge production, it seems unavoidable to delve upon Gilles Deleuze’s Treatise on Nomadology as a triggering potential unfolding. Through his treatise, Deleuze underlines the flow sustained by the unsettled distinctions between strategy (generally attributed to the mechanisms of royal knowledges, in conflictual opposition to the tactics (as the productive tool pertaining to those subordinated categories of knowledge. His proposition unfolds by a manifested distinction —a becoming, that emerges outside the limits of these relations. The body of a war machine in antagonist relation to the State Apparatus, a constantly contested processes of territorialization and deterritorialization. Complementing this argument from what has become a returning historical materialist position, could be said that the borders between knowledges, and discourses of categorization (noology that distinguish hierarchies between “free”, “pure” and “applied” knowledges; are based on attributing a position of centrality to the State or other institutionalised monopolies. A simulacrum violently imposed, serving the regulation of flows between exchanges in order to capitalize knowledges’ creative potentials, to govern their productive and reproductive capacities, and speculative tendencies. Through the configurations that shape these particular conflicts, is where the actuality of knowledge seems to acquire its disciplinary character, together with its financial possibility. Even to the point of been mistakenly rendered as an unavoidable dependency; turning attributions of centrality into a paradoxical situation, or —in the most critical cases, an infrastructural horizon. The necessity for a continuous fight against renewed forms of coloniality, the persistent recovery of what belongs to collectivity (what can not be divided, the exercise of practical means to keep oneself alert, and the cultivation of

  4. On the role of the nomads in development of material culture of the Volga Bulgaria and the bulgarian ulus of the Golden Horde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological findings of the last decades (from 1970s till recently are used to examine ethnic and cultural interaction between the settled and the nomadic population, on the one hand, and different groups of nomads between themselves, on the other hand, in Volga Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Ulus of the Golden Horde. The study showed that the Turk- and Ugrian-speaking nomads were an important ethnic component of these state formations. At the same time, presence of nomads in the region and their influence on the culture of the settled Bulgarian population was different at different stages in history of the Volga Bulgaria. In pre-Mongol time, the nomads would use peripheries of the Bulgarian state, while the settled Bulgarians and their nomadic neighbors would build their relations as “us – them”. During the Golden Horde time, the nomads started exploring central areas (the Turkic groups and eastern territories (the Ugrian groups, and thus the nomadic element, either autonomous or integrated, became a permanent element in the Bulgarian Ulus in the 13th – 14th centuries.

  5. Concerning the Nomadic Culture of the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers consider nomadic and sedentary cultures as evolutionary stages. The nomadic phase precedes a settled one as an inferior stage of civilization. The evolutionary view does not explain the combination of nomadic and settled cultures in the Golden Horde and the preservation of many features of nomadism in the future, up to the present day. A number of experts, in particular, Thomas Barfield believes that nomadic societies exist by levying tribute from the settled state, which raises doubts. The Eurasian nomadic civilization is associated with the organization of vital activity in the conditions of steppe climate zone requiring constant migrations aimed at producing a sufficient amount of livestock. Robbery and receiving tribute from other societies is not its main characteristic. More important for it is a specific arrangement of humans, animals, and vehicles allowing the movement of large numbers of people over long distances. The nomads were not so strongly tied to the land as sedentary people. The structure of society was not built according to a vertical hierarchy but on the clan system. The nomads provoked the Great Migration and created a number of nomadic empires as well as the Golden Horde, the top of nomadic civilization. The ability to integrate different peoples in the uniform State was associated with openness and toleration of nomadic culture. The nomads took advantage of warfare methods through mobility, effective combinations of weapons, horses, vehicles, and skills training of combat operations. Their army was not hired or regular but represented the people-army. The ability to effective warfare contributed to the nomadic expansion and exploration of the Eurasian space. The nomadic culture of the Golden Horde had its own characteristics associated with the conjunction of nomadic and settled population in the uniform State. Nomadism does not disappear as a culture and mentality over time. Large spaces and lack of

  6. Nomadic concepts in the history of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Jan; Stráner, Katalin; Haslinger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The history of scientific concepts has firmly settled among the instruments of historical inquiry. In our section we approach concepts from the perspective of nomadic concepts (Isabelle Stengers). Instead of following the evolution of concepts within one disciplinary network, we see them as subject to constant reification and change while crossing and turning across disciplines and non-scientific domains. This introduction argues that understanding modern biology is not possible without taking into account the constant transfers and translations that affected concepts. We argue that this approach does not only engage with nomadism between disciplines and non-scientific domains, but reflects on and involves the metaphoric value of concepts as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  8. Lake Duortnus, Royal Science, and Nomadic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Schough, Katarina

    2007-01-01

    What happens when a dominant mode of knowledge colonises a life world, i.e. when Royal Science encounters Nomadic Practices? Science and colonisation have always been resisted and contested, not least by its supposed “objects”. Questions of geography, space and orlding have been at the centre of such resistances and contestations. This book details one such encounter. It is a register of the interplays of power, knowledge, and space as manifested in the multiple constructions of Lake Duortnos...

  9. Studies of atlas second level B-physics trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W

    2000-07-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose detector presently under construction for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In the first few years of operation, LHC will run at low luminosity (10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}) which is optimal for B-physics study. This thesis is concerned with the design of the second level B-physics trigger. The B-physics trigger relies on the partial reconstruction of B decays in order to select semi-exclusively channels of interest. After the tagged muon from one of bb-bar pair is confirmed, track reconstruction in the inner detector will be performed to search for the interesting decays of the second b quark. This thesis presents applications of a tree algorithm to search for tracks in the precision detector. The tracking algorithm constructs tracks from locally related space points. The algorithm has been implemented in C++. There are two applications which are initialised by the pixel full-scan and TRT full-scan. The performance of track reconstruction has been studied and optimised including efficiency, resolution, execution time, etc, for seeding from either the inner pixel or outer continuous tracking detectors. After tracks have been reconstructed using the tree algorithm, B-physics event selection is performed. The trigger selection for the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} channel has been studied. The efficiency and trigger rate for this channel have been evaluated. This thesis also contains a study of the data preparation process for track reconstruction. This includes implementation of a recursive clustering algorithm in the pixel detector and development of a data pre-selection algorithm. These two algorithms are shown to be efficient and fast. The Readout Buffer (ROB) is an important part of the trigger and DAQ system. Parts of the Buffer, the ROB-in and the PCI bus, have been modelled using the Ptolemy modelling tool. Comparisons with measurements of PCI bus performance are given. (author)

  10. NOMAD - more than a simple sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutti, P.; Cecillon, F.; Elaazzouzi, A.; Le Goc, Y.; Locatelli, J.; Ortiz, H.; Ratel, J.

    2012-01-01

    NOMAD is the new instrument control software of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). A highly shareable code among all the instruments' suite, a user oriented design for tailored functionality and the improvement of the instrument team's autonomy thanks to a uniform and ergonomic user interface are the essential elements guiding the software development. NOMAD implements a client/server approach. The server is the core business containing all the instrument methods and the hardware drivers, while the GUI (Graphical User Interface) provides all the necessary functionalities for the interaction between user and hardware. All instruments share the same executable while a set of XML configuration files adapts hardware needs and instrument methods to the specific experimental setup. Thanks to a complete graphical representation of experimental sequences, NOMAD provides an overview of past, present and future operations. Users have the freedom to build their own specific work-flows using intuitive drag-and-drop technique. A complete drivers' database to connect and control all possible instrument components has been created, simplifying the inclusion of a new piece of equipment for an experiment. A web application makes available outside the ILL all the relevant information on the status of the experiment. A set of scientific methods facilitates the interaction between users and hardware giving access to instrument control and to complex operations within just one click on the interface. (authors)

  11. Feasibility studies of a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, M; Brenner, R; Konstantinidis, N; Sutton, M

    2009-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is seriously challenged at the SLHC's higher luminosity. A hardware tracking trigger might be needed, but requires a detailed understanding of the detector. Simulation of high pile-up events, with various data-reduction techniques applied will be described. Two scenarios are envisaged: (a) regional readout - calorimeter and muon triggers are used to identify portions of the tracker; and (b) track-stub finding using special trigger layers. A proposed hardware system, including data reduction on the front-end ASICs, readout within a super-module and integrating regional triggering into all levels of the readout system, will be discussed.

  12. Gallex, Nomad and Antares. A decade of neutrino research; Gallex, nomad, antares. Une decennie de neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarczyk, Th

    2003-02-01

    This report presents 10 years of research concerning the neutrino through the experiments Gallex, Nomad and Antares to which the author has contributed. For each experiment the author gives the physic principles on which the detection is based, presents the equipment and the detection systems, details his contribution and reports the main results.

  13. Provision of Education to the "Hard to Reach" amidst Discontinuity in Nomadic Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiro, Laban P.; Sang, James K.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores why nomadic children in the counties of Turkana and West Pokot are left behind in the primary education process despite free primary education (FPE), and considers the variables that contribute to high dropout rates, low enrollment, poor attendance, and unsatisfactory academic achievement with a view of bringing out possible…

  14. Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Background The mountainous Wakhan and Pamir in northeastern Afghanistan is one of the most isolated yet inhabited places in Asia. It is home to the agropastoralist Wakhi and the last Afghan semi-nomadic Kyrgyz. We present a study of plant names and uses, along with comparisons of plant name etymo...

  15. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  16. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger Pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level Triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5 Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows studying how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by Fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Finally, we list the benefits and the limi...

  17. Impact Assessment of Nomadic Education Extension Programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Assessment of Nomadic Education Extension Programme on Nomadic Pastoralists and Traditional Livestock Production in Kaduna State. ... All the Pastoralists (100%) vaccinated their animals annually, 88% practiced feed supplementation and 100% of the Pastoralist communities formed cooperative societies out of ...

  18. An Authentication Framework for Nomadic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    Security and usability are often horn locked and system administrators tend to configure systems so that they favor security over usability. In many cases, however, the increased security results in usability that is so poor that users feel the need to circumvent the security mechanisms....... This is particularly true for nomadic users who move around in ubiquitous computing environments and avail from different IT services from many different locations. In many ubiquitous computing environments, where information processing is not considered the main priority, management often accepts this practise...... organizational efficiency, while at the same time increase the effective level of security of the system....

  19. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Barnes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection.Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle.The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a animal contact, b food preparation and diet, and c household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat.Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate

  20. Health of grey nomads: On the move and under the health sector radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Grey nomads - older people driving long distances recreationally and staying in caravans, tents or motor homes - are common on Australian highways. Although grey nomads report many benefits from their travels, there is anecdotal evidence that they impose a significant burden on rural/remote health services, including general practitioners, pharmacists and hospitals. There have been calls for better resourcing and service provision, but little reference to solid evidence on which to base this. This literature review is the first to integrate existing evidence for a health audience. Australia. Narrative literature search and synthesis. There is very little published information about the health and health service utilisation of grey nomads, and almost none in the medical literature. One key exception, a survey at a caravan park in the Kimberley region, found that, like other older Australians, many grey nomads have chronic diseases, and they have high rates of medication use. However, other studies have found that they generally view themselves as relatively healthy. There is some evidence of inadequate preparation for travelling. Issues include lack of health summaries, inadequate medication supplies and suboptimal vaccination. Some experience emergencies, sometimes resulting in hospital admissions. Overall, they place a poorly documented burden on rural/remote services. There is a need for further research on the health of grey nomads, their use of self-care strategies, and their uptake of health services both on the road and at home, to inform the provision of health services and optimise their well-being and health care utilisation. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Where do we stand after twenty years of dynamic triggering studies? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, S. G.; Hill, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, remote dynamic triggering of earthquakes by other earthquakes has been explored in a variety of physical environments with a wide array of observation and modeling techniques. These studies have significantly refined our understanding of the state of the crust and the physical conditions controlling earthquake nucleation. Despite an ever growing database of dynamic triggering observations, significant uncertainties remain and vigorous debate in almost all aspects of the science continues. For example, although dynamic earthquake triggering can occur with peak dynamic stresses as small as 1 kPa, triggering thresholds and their dependence on local stress state, hydrological environment, and frictional properties of faults are not well understood. Some studies find a simple threshold based on the peak amplitude of shaking while others find dependencies on frequency, recharge time, and other parameters. Considerable debate remains over the range of physical processes responsible for dynamic triggering, and the wide variation in dynamic triggering responses and time scales suggests triggering by multiple physical processes. Although Coulomb shear failure with various friction laws can often explain dynamic triggering, particularly instantaneous triggering, delayed dynamic triggering may be dependent on fluid transport and other slowly evolving aseismic processes. Although our understanding of the global distribution of dynamic triggering has improved, it is far from complete due to spatially uneven monitoring. A major challenge involves establishing statistical significance of potentially triggered earthquakes, particularly if they are isolated events or time-delayed with respect to triggering stresses. Here we highlight these challenges and opportunities with existing data. We focus on environmental dependence of dynamic triggering by large remote earthquakes particularly in volcanic and geothermal systems, as these systems often have high

  2. Search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the NOMAD experiment; Recherche des oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l'experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoperov, A

    2000-06-01

    The NOMAD experiment is looking for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in a predominantly {nu}{sub {mu}} beam at the CERN SPS. Neutrino oscillations are closely related with the existence of non-zero neutrino mass and mixing between different flavours. This document describes the search for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations in the full NOMAD data sample accumulated during four years of data-taking (1995-98). The search for {nu}{sub e} appearance was performed by studying the charged current (CC) interactions with in the NOMAD detector. The selection of {nu}{sub e} CC and {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions with the help of different particle identification algorithms, as well as using the event kinematic criteria, is described here in detail. We show that the NOMAD experiment is sensitive to the LSND allowed region of oscillation parameters with the squared mass difference larger than 10 eV{sup 2}/C{sup 4}. An upper limit on the probability of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations, based on a fraction of the NOMAD data, is given. (author)

  3. Ecological aspect of the culture of Eurasian Nomads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin U. Baydarov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the properties of ecological culture and ecological consciousness of Eurasian nomads. In situation of modern global problems, including the ecological ones, they preserved their exemplary behavior to the nature.

  4. Ecological aspect of the culture of Eurasian Nomads

    OpenAIRE

    Erkin U. Baydarov

    2016-01-01

    Article deals with the properties of ecological culture and ecological consciousness of Eurasian nomads. In situation of modern global problems, including the ecological ones, they preserved their exemplary behavior to the nature.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations for Studying Solar Flare Trigger Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhamad, J.; Kusano, K.; Inoue, S.; Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-20

    In order to understand the flare trigger mechanism, we conduct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations using a coronal magnetic field model derived from data observed by the Hinode satellite. Several types of magnetic bipoles are imposed into the photospheric boundary of the Nonlinear Force-free Field model of Active Region (AR) NOAA 10930 on 2006 December 13, to investigate what kind of magnetic disturbance may trigger the flare. As a result, we confirm that certain small bipole fields, which emerge into the highly sheared global magnetic field of an AR, can effectively trigger a flare. These bipole fields can be classified into two groups based on their orientation relative to the polarity inversion line: the so-called opposite polarity, and reversed shear structures, as suggested by Kusano et al. We also investigate the structure of the footpoints of reconnected field lines. By comparing the distribution of reconstructed field lines and observed flare ribbons, the trigger structure of the flare can be inferred. Our simulation suggests that the data-constrained simulation, taking into account both the large-scale magnetic structure and small-scale magnetic disturbance (such as emerging fluxes), is a good way to discover a flare-producing AR, which can be applied to space weather prediction.

  6. 3D High-definition anorectal manometry: Values obtained in asymptomatic volunteers, fecal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results of a prospective multicenter study (NOMAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, F; Garros, A; Brochard, C; Vitton, V; Ropert, A; Bouvier, M; Damon, H; Siproudhis, L; Roman, S

    2017-08-01

    3D-high definition anorectal manometry (3DARM) may aid the diagnosis of functional anorectal disorders, but data comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects are scarce. We aimed to describe 3DARM values in asymptomatic volunteers and those with fecal incontinence (FI) or chronic constipation (CC), and identify which variables differentiate best these groups. Asymptomatic subjects were stratified by sex, age, and parity. Those with FI or CC were included according to anorectal symptom questionnaires. Endoanal ultrasound examination and 3DARM were performed the same day. Anal pressures were analyzed at rest, during voluntary squeeze, and during push maneuver, and compared between the 3 groups. Anal pressure defects were defined and compared to ultrasound defects. A total of 126 subjects (113 female, mean age 52 years, range 18-83) were included; 36 asymptomatic, 38 FI, 42 CC. Anal resting and squeeze pressures, and rectal sensitivity values were lower in FI women than in the other groups. Typical anal sphincter asymmetry during squeezing was less frequently observed in FI women. A dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found in 70% of asymptomatic subjects, and with a similar frequency in the 2 symptomatic groups. There was slight concordance between 3D-pressure defects and ultrasound defects. 3D anal pressures in asymptomatic women were significantly lower than in men, and in FI compared to asymptomatic women. The classical dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found as frequently in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Further studies should try to identify 3DARM variables that could reliably identify dyssynergic defecation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Study and realisation of a digital TDC in the framework of the GANIL trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujrad, Abderrahman

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear physics, the interaction between the ion beam and the target produces a large amount of events. Some of these events have no interest for the studied physical phenomenon; the useful events are sorted using a trigger. We have studied and realized a new trigger suitable for the GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) experiments. After an overview of the triggers used up to now at GANIL, we give the main features of the new trigger (GANIL Master Trigger, GMT) such as modularity, universality and versatility. After a description of the trigger operating modes, we depict the trigger realization steps. The trigger informs about fired detectors in a beam to target collision but gives no information about timing, nevertheless the timing is a very important piece of information if the trigger analysis duration is several times greater than the beam period. We suggest a timing measurement structure (Time to Digital Converter, TDC) able to eliminate this imprecision. The dead time, the low level integration and the consumption constraints lead us to prefer a digital architecture based on a digital counter associated with delay lines. Simple equations are given in order to define the operating area of the TDC. This area depends on the clock duty cycle and on the delay line taps. Measures of Differential Non Linearity (DNL) for different time resolutions (1, 2, 5 and 10 ns) allow us to establish the limits of this System and to underline some solutions to improve these features. (author) [fr

  8. Childhood diarrheal morbidity and sanitation predictors in a nomadic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Bikes Destaw; Woldu, Wondwoson; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-06

    Diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children on the globe despite the availability of simple and effective solutions to prevent and control it. The disease is more prevalent among under - five children (U5C) in the developing world due to lack of sanitation. A child dies every 15 s from diarrheal disease caused largely by poor sanitation. Nearly 90% of diarrheal disease is attributed to inadequate sanitation. Even though, the health burden of diarrheal disease is widely recognized at global level, its prevalence and sanitation predictors among a nomadic population of Ethiopia are not researched. This study was therefore designed to assess the prevalence of childhood diarrheal disease and sanitation predictors among a nomadic people in Hadaleala district, Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was carried out to investigate diarrheal disease among U5C. A total of 704 households who had U5C were included in this study and the study subjects were recruited by a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and an observational checklist. All the mothers of U5C found in the selected clusters were interviewed. Furthermore, the living environment was observed. Univariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to choose variables for the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis on the basis of p- value less than 0.2. Finally, multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with childhood diarrhea disease on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p water sources [AOR = 2.449, 95% CI = (1.264, 4.744)], inadequate drinking water service level [AOR = 1.535, 95% CI = (1.004, 2.346)], drinking water sources not protected from animal contact [AOR = 4.403, 95% CI = (2.424, 7.999)], un-availability of any type of latrine [AOR = 2.278, 95% CI = (1.045, 4

  9. Mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome suggest the settlement of Madagascar by Indonesian sea nomad populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Brucato, Nicolas; Tonasso, Laure; Suryadi, Helena Loa; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2015-03-17

    Linguistic, cultural and genetic characteristics of the Malagasy suggest that both Africans and Island Southeast Asians were involved in the colonization of Madagascar. Populations from the Indonesian archipelago played an especially important role because linguistic evidence suggests that the Malagasy language branches from the Southeast Barito language family of southern Borneo, Indonesia, with the closest language spoken today by the Ma'anyan. To test for a genetic link between Malagasy and these linguistically related Indonesian populations, we studied the Ma'anyan and other Indonesian ethnic groups (including the sea nomad Bajo) that, from their historical and linguistic contexts, may be modern descendants of the populations that helped enact the settlement of Madagascar. A combination of phylogeographic analysis of genetic distances, haplotype comparisons and inference of parental populations by linear optimization, using both maternal and paternal DNA lineages, suggests that Malagasy derive from multiple regional sources in Indonesia, with a focus on eastern Borneo, southern Sulawesi and the Lesser Sunda islands. Settlement may have been mediated by ancient sea nomad movements because the linguistically closest population, Ma'anyan, has only subtle genetic connections to Malagasy, whereas genetic links with other sea nomads are more strongly supported. Our data hint at a more complex scenario for the Indonesian settlement of Madagascar than has previously been recognized.

  10. Nomadic pastoralism in the Aru basin of Tibet's Chang Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius W. Næss

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Nomadic pastoralists live at the northern extent of human habitation within the ca. 5000 m elevation Aru basin, in the nortwestern part of the Chang Tang Nature Preserve, Tibet. These nomads herd primarily sheep and goats, a lesser number of yaks, and a few horses. Goats are increasing in importance because of the value of cashmere wool in national and international markets. Although sheep wool production is greater per animal than for the cashmere goats, the price obtained for its wool is much lower. Still, households keep more sheep than goats, primarily because sheep meat is preferred for consumption and sheep wool is important for the nomads' own use. The Aru nomads have traditionally depended on hunting to compensate for livestock lost to predators and unpredictable climatic phenomena such as blizzards. The prohibition of hunting in the reserve from 1993 has apparently resulted in a lowering of their standard of living, even with an overall rise in cashmere prices. According to the nomads, without hunting they have thus lost a safety measure important during years with heavy livestock losses. Conservation related development initiatives in the reserve should address this issue.

  11. Les barrières à la demande de service de vaccination chez les populations nomades de Danamadji, Tchad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some interesting themes emerged especially at the end of the individual interviews, focus group discussions as well as after observing the behavior of the nomads during this study. Firstly, among the themes identified is the mistrust towards the vaccinating agents by most simple rescuers or young

  12. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Livelihoods: The Case of Recurrent Droughts among Nomadic Pastoralist of Southeastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.; Desanker, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    Drought is the most injurious impact of climate change that decimates lives and hinders socioeconomic development in most rangelands of Kenya. Several scientific evidences indicate that global climate change will increase frequency and intensity of droughts. This will have important ramification for ecosystems and social systems in the rangelands of southeastern Kenya, and correctly so. These rangelands are fragile and degraded; and the inhabitants are mostly poverty-stricken. Nomadic pastoralism is the chief source of livelihood in this region; it relies on local natural pastures. Besides, pressures from land use change constitute an additional exposure, of nomadic pastoralism, to vulnerabilities of this climatic hazard. This region is highly prone to droughts; it is currently recovering from a devastating drought that started in early 2005 and terminated at the start this year. Most important, and like most societies in sub-Saharan Africa, inadequate adaptive capacity among nomadic pastoralists of Kenya, exacerbates deleterious impacts of drought. The livelihood of these pastoralists, therefore, stands to be destabilized. This study presents findings from an on-going research in Kajiado District of southeastern Kenya. Impacts of and adaptation strategies to recurrent and prolonged droughts among the nomadic Maasai pastoralist are presented. The study concludes with possible future scenarios of this form of pastoralism from which climate change actors can draw from.

  14. NOMAD on the ExoMars TGO 2016 mission: MAIT and characterisation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Neefs, Eddy; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio; Drummond, Rachel; Patel, Manish; Thomas, Ian; Gissot, Samuel; Depiesse, Cedric; Ben Moussa, Ali; Giordanengo, Boris; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    NOMAD, the “Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery” spectrometer suite has been selected by ESA and NASA to be part of the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission 2016. This instrument suite will conduct a spectroscopic survey of Mars’ atmosphere in the UV, visible and IR regions covering the 0.2-0.65 and 2.2-4.3 μm spectral ranges. NOMAD’s observation modes include solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. The NOMAD instrument is composed of 3 channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of observing nadir, solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. The spectral resolution of SO and LNO surpasses previous surveys in the infrared by more than one order of magnitude. NOMAD offers an integrated instrument combination of a flight-proven concept (SO is a copy of SOIR on Venus Express), and innovations based on existing and proven instrumentation (LNO is based on SOIR/VEX and UVIS has heritage from the ExoMars lander), that will provide mapping and vertical profile information at high spatio-temporal resolution. The three channels have each their own ILS and optical bench, but share the same single interface to the S/C. The NOMAD flight model is due for delivery to ESA in January 2015. We will present results so far of the manufacturing, assembly and especially testing of the various components. The UV CCDs have been characterised in thermal-vacuum; optical fibres have been studied with UV exposure to look at transmission degradation; the IR AOTFs have been tested for their transfer functions; lifetime and vibration testing has been carried out on the flip mirror mechanism. These are all vital inputs to the scientific results from NOMAD. Acknowledgements - The research program was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office and the European Space Agency (ESA PRODEX

  15. Doppler Ultrasound Triggering for Cardiovascular MRI at 3T in a Healthy Volunteer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kording, Fabian; Yamamura, Jin; Lund, Gunnar; Ueberle, Friedrich; Jung, Caroline; Adam, Gerhard; Schoennagel, Bjoern Philip

    2017-04-10

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be influenced by electromagnetic interferences with increasing magnetic field strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as an alternative trigger technique for CMR in comparison to ECG and pulse oximetry (POX) at 3T and using different sequence types. Balanced turbo field echo two-dimensional (2D) short axis cine CMR and 2D phase-contrast angiography of the ascending aorta was performed in 11 healthy volunteers at 3T using ECG, DUS, and POX for cardiac triggering. DUS and POX triggering were compared to the reference standard of ECG in terms of trigger quality (trigger detection and temporal variability), image quality [endocardial blurring (EB)], and functional measurements [left ventricular (LV) volumetry and aortic blood flow velocimetry]. Trigger signal detection and temporal variability did not differ significantly between ECG/DUS (I = 0.6) and ECG/POX (P = 0.4). Averaged EB was similar for ECG, DUS, and POX (p ECG/DUS = 0.4, p ECG/POX = 0.9). Diastolic EB was significantly decreased for DUS in comparison to ECG (P = 0.02) and POX (P = 0.04). The LV function assessment and aortic blood flow were not significantly different. This study demonstrated the feasibility of DUS for gating human CMR at 3T. The magnetohydrodynamic effect did not significantly disturb ECG triggering in this small healthy volunteer study. DUS showed a significant improvement in diastolic EB but could not be identified as a superior trigger method. The potential benefit of DUS has to be evaluated in a larger clinical patient population.

  16. Initial studies of the first level muon trigger efficiency for the LHC-ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirca, Z

    2004-01-01

    In this work, initial studies of the first level trigger of muon triggering with the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the barrel region of the muon spectrometer of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) ATLAS experiment are summarized. For these studies, four different simulation data sets with transverse momenta p/sub T/ = 6 GeV/c (low- p/sub T/) and p/sub T/ = 20 GeV/c (high-p/sub T/), both for mu /sup + / and mu /sup -/, were used. Z/sub diff/ variable, calculated using the muon hits in the RPCs, was studied for oppositely charged muons and we showed that it will be possible to tell if it is mu /sup +/ or mu /sup -/ during triggering. The trigger efficiencies for muons with p/sub T/ = 6 GeV/c and P/sub T/ = 20 GeV/c momenta were found to be around 95%.

  17. Genetic data suggests that the Jinggouzi people are associated with the Donghu, an ancient nomadic group of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Chen, Lu; Ge, Binwen; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Nomadic populations have played a significant role in the history of not only China but also in many nations worldwide. Because they had no written language, an important aspect in the study of these people is the discovery of their tombs. It has been generally accepted that Xiongnu was the first empire created by a nomadic tribe in the 3rd century BC. However, little population genetic information is available concerning the Donghu, another flourishing nomadic tribe at the same period because of the restriction of materials until the Jinggouzi site was excavated. In order to test the genetic characteristics of ancient people in this site and to explore the relationship between Jinggouzis and Donghus, two uniparentally inherited markers were analyzed from 42 human remains in this site, which was located in northern China, dated approximately 2500 years ago. With ancient DNA technology, four mtDNA haplogroups (D, G, C, and M10) and one Y chromosome haplogroup (C) were identified using mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms. Those haplogroups are common in North Asia and East Asia. The Jinggouzi people were genetically closest to the Xianbeis in ancient populations and to the Oroqens among extant populations, who were all pastoralists. This might indicate that ancient Jinggouzi people were nomads. Meanwhile, according to the genetic data and the evidences in archaeology, we inferred that Jinggouzi people were associated with Donghu. It is of much value to trace the history of the Donghu tribe and this might show some insight into the ancient nomadic society.

  18. Nomads with Maps: Musical Connections in a Glocalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the author's views on the concepts of the philosophers Deleuze and Guattari on striated (sedentary) space and smooth (mobile) space, asserting that "nomads" can move freely about their space. She relates these concepts to music education, incorporating Deleuze and Guattari's concept of mapping as it…

  19. A magnet takes a nomadic journey to Japan

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A CERN magnet originally built for the UA1 detector and later used by the NOMAD experiment has just set sail for a new life in Japan. Spotlight on an incredible voyage by land and sea. See the video at the end of the article!

  20. Strategies for enhancing access to information provision for nomads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for enhancing access to information provision for nomads in Nigeria. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... It presents strategies such as mobile learning, mobile schools, information repackaging, translation services, book mobile, use of audio visuals, drama and picture ...

  1. Environmental education for survival: the use of radio among nomads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Unesco/UNEP project using radio as a medium of environmental education among nomads is described and evaluated. The project, conducted among the Rendille of northern Kenya, aimed inter alia at creating awareness of environmental problems, specifically desertification, fostering positive attitudes towards ...

  2. Becoming-Nomadic through Experimental Art Making with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The author draws on her own experiences through art, along with her experiences with children, to inform her understanding of art making as nomadic thinking, a means to disrupt the power structures and boundaries that developmental psychology imposes on early childhood practice. The author altered the classrooms of two early childhood centres with…

  3. environmental education for survival: the use of radio among nomads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were some of the comments made by Rendilles after listening to the first of a series of environ- mental radio programmes. Many of them were listen- ing to a radio for the first time. The Rendill e are traditionally nomadic pastoral ists who for generations have been subsisting on their herds of camels, sheep and goats, ...

  4. exiles/nomads: journeys through language and gender in italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In the narrator's own words, the narrative of memory – la canzoncina della memoria e del cuore – ironically suggested ... multiple background that facilitates the girls' nomadic movements through geographical spaces and cultures and .... understand, become for him an annoying background noise, an annoying bla bla bla.

  5. Detailed Performance Study of ATLAS Endcap Muon Trigger with Beam Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, T

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the first beam collision was occurred at the LHC and the ATLAS has started data taking with beam collision at s = 7 TeV since May 2010. This poster will mention the contraptions to take the beam collision data for the electronics of Level1 Endcap Muon Trigger system, and the result and detailed study of LVL1 Endcap Muon Trigger system performance with beam collision.

  6. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  7. The prevalence of medical nomadism of the followed patients in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudali, Aziza; Bahiri, Rachid; Hmamouchi, Ihssane; Abouqal, Redouane; Abouqual, Redouane; Hajjaj Hassouni, Najia

    2012-06-01

    The nomads are defined as patients related to multiple practicians of the same speciality or different specialities for the same symptomatology during a certain period. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the prevalence of medical nomadism of the followed patients in rheumatology and compare their profile with those patients followed in neurology and gastroenterology. A multicentric transverse study (September 2009-March 2010) was conducted in three departments of CHU Ibn Sina Rabat-Salé, Morocco; rheumatology, gastroenterology and neurology. Only patients seen in external consultations were included. Patients' socio-economic and demographic background (familial status, instruction level, monthly revenue, social assistance) were recorded, as well as the clinical parameters related to the pathology (pathology, duration of the illness, diagnosis final time). A questionnaire containing variables on the patients' state concerning diagnosis, satisfaction degree of the patients and other variables evaluated the notion of taking medication and the practice of alternative medicine. Medical nomadism has been defined by the consultation for the same symptomatology of three different practicians, either of the same speciality or of different specialities during the study period of 6 months. There were 250 patients included in this study (150 patients in rheumatology, 50 in gastroenterology and 50 in neurology), the mean age was 46 ± 13 years and females dominated (65.6%). The average duration of the evolution was 7 ± 5 years, 35% of the patients were illiterate, 30% had a primary school education, 22% had a secondary school education and 13% had a university-level education. Sixty-two percent of the patients were jobless, 27% were workers, 9% were the functionary and 2% were the based liberal. Fifty-six percent had no social assistance. Rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative pathology were the most frequent diagnoses in rheumatology, being 20% and

  8. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  9. Long-distance flights and high-risk breeding by nomadic waterbirds on desert salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Ribot, Raoul F H; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2018-02-01

    Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern. Hitherto, Banded Stilts were hypothesized to have only 1-2 chances to breed during their long lifetime, when flooding rain fills desert salt lakes, triggering mass-hatching of brine shrimp. Over 6 years, we satellite tagged 57 individuals, conducted 21 aerial surveys to detect nesting colonies on 14 Australian desert salt lakes, and analyzed 3 decades of Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery to quantify salt-lake flood frequency and extent. Within days of distant inland rainfall, Banded Stilts flew 1,000-2,000 km to reach flooded salt lakes. On arrival, females laid over half their body weight in eggs. We detected nesting episodes across the species' range at 7 times the frequency reported during the previous 80 years. Nesting colonies of thousands formed following minor floods, yet most were subsequently abandoned when the water rapidly evaporated prior to egg hatching. Satellite imagery revealed twice as many flood events sufficient for breeding-colony initiation as recorded colonies, suggesting that nesting at remote sites has been underdetected. Individuals took risk on uncertain breeding opportunities by responding to frequent minor flood events between infrequent extensive flooding, exemplifying the extreme adaptability and trade-offs of species exploiting unstable environments. The conservation challenges of nest predation by overabundant native gulls and anthropogenic modifications to salt lakes filling

  10. Review of recent results from NOMAD and CHORUS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J P

    2000-01-01

    NOMAD and CHORUS are two short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillations in the CERN SPS wide band neutrino beam. CHORUS has analysed about 60% of the data and finds no tau /sup -/ candidate. A limit is set at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<4.0*10/sup -4/ (90% C.L.). NOMAD has almost finished the analysis and sees no excess of events. A limit is set at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<4.2*10 /sup -4/ (90% C.L.). Combining this two results with the unified approach one can set a limit at P/sub osc/( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<1.3*10/sup -4/. (7 refs).

  11. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  12. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  13. Disco’s Revenge: House Music’s Nomadic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hillegonda C. Rietveld

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the role of house music as a nomadic archival institution, constituted by the musical history of disco, invigorating this dance genre by embracing new production technologies and keeping disco alive through a rhizomic assemblage of its affective memory in the third record of the DJ mix. This exploration will be illustrated through a close analysis of a specific DJ set by a Chicago house music producer, Larry Heard, in the setting of Rotterdam, 2007, in which American ho...

  14. Land-Use Conflicts between Settler Farmers and Nomadic Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résumé. Cet article étudie les affrontements violents entre les communautés cultivant des productions et les bergers nomades Fulani dans le district de Kwahu North au Ghana. Le conflit entre les fermiers et les bergers dans ledit district a été provoqué en 2010 avec de graves conséquences pour la coexistence pacifique.

  15. Trigger performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators during assisted ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Chipman, Daniel W; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    To compare the triggering performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators with a standard ICU mechanical ventilator. Experimental bench study. The respiratory care laboratory of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. A computerized mechanical lung model, the IngMar ASL5000. Ten mid-level ICU ventilators were compared to an ICU ventilator at two levels of lung model effort, three combinations of respiratory mechanics (normal, COPD and ARDS) and two modes of ventilation, volume and pressure assist/control. A total of 12 conditions were compared. Performance varied widely among ventilators. Mean inspiratory trigger time was ventilators. The mean inspiratory delay time (time from initiation of the breath to return of airway pressure to baseline) was longer than that for the ICU ventilator for all tested ventilators except one. The pressure drop during triggering (Ptrig) was comparable with that of the ICU ventilator for only two ventilators. Expiratory Settling Time (time for pressure to return to baseline) had the greatest variability among ventilators. Triggering differences among these mid-level ICU ventilators and with the ICU ventilator were identified. Some of these ventilators had a much poorer triggering response with high inspiratory effort than the ICU ventilator. These ventilators do not perform as well as ICU ventilators in patients with high ventilatory demand.

  16. Design studies of the ATLAS muon Level-1 trigger based on the MDT detector for the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O; Nagano, K; Ishino, M; Ikeno, M; Bendtz, K; Domae, T; Sakamoto, H; Kawamoto, T; Fukunaga, C; Shichi, H; Tomoto, M; Sugaya, Y; Tokunaga, K; Kurashige, H; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12021

    2010-01-01

    The present muon Level-1 trigger of the ATLAS detector is given by dedicated detectors; RPC and TGC chambers in barrel and end-cap regions, respectively. The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and the Cathode-Strip Chambers (CSC) are used for precision measurements of muon tracks. The performance of the muon Level-1 trigger is limited by the momentum resolution of the trigger chambers. In order to improve the trigger performance, a muon track finding scheme based on MDT signals is envisaged. Studies of the scheme and the algorithm are presented. The trigger latency is estimated to be approximately 3 μs

  17. Design studies of the ATLAS muon Level-1 trigger based on the MDT detector for the LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, O; Suzuki, Y; Nagano, K; Ishino, M; Ikeno, M [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Bendtz, K; Domae, T; Sakamoto, H; Kawamoto, T [University of Tokyo, International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fukunaga, C [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shichi, H; Tomoto, M [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Science, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku 464-8602 (Japan); Sugaya, Y [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, 1-1 Machikaneyama-machi, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Tokunaga, K; Kurashige, H, E-mail: osamu.sasaki@kek.jp [Kobe University, Graduate School of Science, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 621-8522 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The present muon Level-1 trigger of the ATLAS detector is given by dedicated detectors; RPC and TGC chambers in barrel and end-cap regions, respectively. The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and the Cathode-Strip Chambers (CSC) are used for precision measurements of muon tracks. The performance of the muon Level-1 trigger is limited by the momentum resolution of the trigger chambers. In order to improve the trigger performance, a muon track finding scheme based on MDT signals is envisaged. Studies of the scheme and the algorithm are presented. The trigger latency is estimated to be approximately 3 {mu}s.

  18. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia's Silk Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frachetti, Michael D; Smith, C Evan; Traub, Cynthia M; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-08

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  19. FORMELE DE TURISM PRACTICATE ÎN CADRUL TURISMULUI NOMAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina CAVCALIUC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La nivel mondial există multe forme turistice, aferente turismului nomad, dezvoltate independent sau complementar care promovează toleranţa şi înţelegerea turistică. Aceste forme apar ca rezultat al individualizării serviciilor turistice, determinate atât de motivaţiile, cât şi de comportamentul diferit al turiştilor faţă de fiecare component al produsului turistic oferit. O asemenea individualizare devine tot mai obiectivă, reclamând eforturi considerabile de adaptare a ofertei turistice la cererea actuală şi la cea potenţială. FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE NOMAD TOURISMThere are many forms of tourism related to grey nomad tourism, developed independently or complementary, in order to promote tourism tolerance and understanding. These forms appear as a result of personalization of tourism services, determined by different motivations and tourist behavior to each element of tourism product. Such individualization of tourism products is becoming more objective in order to adjust efforts of tourism supply to the potential demand. 

  20. Russian Scientific Conference with International Participation “Nomadic Peoples of South Russia: Historical Experience and Modernity” (March 16-19, 2016, Elista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komandzhaev Aleksandr N.

    2016-10-01

    affected both domestic nomadic studies in the general and specific historical themes of socio-economic development of the nomadic peoples of the South of Russia and their neighbours. The authors note that during the section sessions participants conducted interesting discussion at a high level. The work of that conference was attended by graduate students and undergraduates, whose performances were also supported by scientists. The article concludes with the resolution of the final plenary session of the conference, which highlighted the importance and necessity of conducting such research activities, it emphasizes the importance of scientific research in the field of nomadic studies. The participants expressed the wish to create the permanent coordinating center for the study of history, ethnography and culture of the nomadic peoples of the South of Russia at Kalmyk State University.

  1. Study of the vertex trigger performance on test-beam data

    CERN Document Server

    Teubert, F

    1999-01-01

    99-030 The performance of the Level-1 vertex trigger algorithm on test-beam data collected with a prototype of the VDET detector is presented. The effect of the detectors misalignment on the Level-1 vertex trigger performance is shown to be a critical issue if the relative position is not controlled better than $100~\\mu$m. The Primary vertex resolution on the longitudinal direction obtained on the test-beam for 2D-tracks ($270~\\mu$m), translates into a resolution close to $80~\\mu$m for the statistics of an LHC event in good agreement with expectations. The discriminating power between B-events and Minimum Bias events is studied using a sample of ``artificial'' events built from events interacting at different targets separated by 1~cm. The results are very encouraging showing the feasibility to trigger on low multiplicity displaced vertices.

  2. NOMAD-Ref: visualization, deformation and refinement of macromolecular structures based on all-atom normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erik; Azuara, Cyril; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) is an efficient way to study collective motions in biomolecules that bypasses the computational costs and many limitations associated with full dynamics simulations. The NOMAD-Ref web server presented here provides tools for online calculation of the normal modes of large molecules (up to 100,000 atoms) maintaining a full all-atom representation of their structures, as well as access to a number of programs that utilize these collective motions for deformation and refinement of biomolecular structures. Applications include the generation of sets of decoys with correct stereochemistry but arbitrary large amplitude movements, the quantification of the overlap between alternative conformations of a molecule, refinement of structures against experimental data, such as X-ray diffraction structure factors or Cryo-EM maps and optimization of docked complexes by modeling receptor/ligand flexibility through normal mode motions. The server can be accessed at the URL http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/nomad-ref.php.

  3. New study shows normally helpful natural bacteria may also trigger lupus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have discovered that a protein produced by bacteria that naturally inhabit our bodies may trigger the autoimmune disease lupus. The results of the study could unveil an entirely new set of drug targets for treating lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Read more…

  4. PBL triggers in relation to students' generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Mean similarities score of students' generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers' skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development.

  5. Nomadic beekeeper movements create the potential for widespread disease in the honeybee industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R; Bresolin-Schott, N; East, I J

    2014-08-01

    To examine the nomadic movements of Australian beekeepers and determine their potential to assist the spread of pests and diseases. A questionnaire was mailed to all beekeepers in Australia who maintained >100 hives, requesting information on the location of their home base, locations used throughout the year and the crops that the bees fed on in each location. The information was analysed using network analysis software and a geographic information system. Nomadic Australian beekeepers formed a connected network linking 288 locations from central Queensland to western Victoria. A second, smaller network included 42 locations in south-eastern South Australia. Almond orchards in Robinvale and Boundary Bend and lucerne seed production in Keith were locations of major hive congregations driven by the opportunity to provide paid pollination services. In the 3 months after completion of almond pollination in August 2008, movement of hives occurred from Robinvale and Boundary Bend to 49 locations, ranging from south-east Queensland to south-west Victoria. The movements identified in this study highlight the potential for rapid spread of disease or pests throughout the beekeeping industry should an incursion occur. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Seroepidemiology of human brucellosis in nomads in a rural area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharafi Chegeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the seroprevalence of brucellosis among nomads in Shoulabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 5 847 person took part by randomized cluster sampling and 312 of them with clinical feature of brucellosis were selected. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made with a standard tube agglutination test (STAT, Coombs test, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME test, and the results with titers equal 1:80 or more were considered positive. Results: The seroprevalnce of anti-Brucella titer was 29.5% for STAT, 29.9% for Coombs test and 21.1% for 2ME test. Overall, 92, 93 and 66 patients had titers of 1:80 or higher in STAT, Coombs test and 2ME test, respectively. Seroprevalence was more among males (54.3% than females (45.7%. There is statistical difference between seroprevalence of infection and age (P<0.05. Based on age group, 10-19 years age group was more affected (37%. Conclusions: This results confirmed the necessity of conducting comprehensive and scheduled program of seroprevalence survey, particularly in nomad area, which aims at reducing the incidence of brucellosis as well as to guide planning programs by decision makers to improve community health.

  7. Preliminary performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Trigger during initial Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, Marilea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The physics program of the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) includes the search for the Higgs Boson and the measurements of its properties, searches for new physics and precision measurements of the Standard Model. Events with high momentum muons in the final state are an important signature of many of these physics topics, then an efficient muon trigger and a deep understanding of its performance are crucial. During Run 1 the ATLAS muon trigger was successfully adapted to the challenging environment, thus reaching an excellent performance. During Run 2 ~100 pb-1 of data with 50 ns bunch spacing have been already collected, while the collection of data with 25 ns bunch spacing is currently ongoing. As the data taking proceeds, the muon trigger performance is being constantly monitored. The muon trigger efficiency, studied both with respect to offline muon reconstruction and with Tag&Probe method applied to the Z decays in muon pairs, is presented here as a function of different kinem...

  8. The User Interface for the ATLAS Trigger and Its Use in Physics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eifert, T; Bold, T; George, S; Goncalo, R; Haller, J; Stelzer, J; Wielers, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a rate of 40 MHz. This rate needs to be reduced to an output rate of 100-200 Hz, compatible with the foreseen storage and analysis capability. To achieve this while retaining the most interesting physics, the trigger uses novel techniques, such as seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. As the luminosity increases more potentially interesting events will be produced than can be kept for analysis. To maximize the physics reach within the available bandwidth, the trigger menu will need to adapt to the increasing luminosity according to the ATLAS physics program. To study the bias introduced by the trigger selection, detailed online information needs to be used in physics analyses. A user interface was developed that, for each recorded event, allows easy access to information produced by the trigger as well as to its configuration. A first version of this interface was made available earlier this ye...

  9. The User Interface for the ATLAS Trigger and Its Use in Physics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eifert, T; Bold, T; George, S; Goncalo, R; Haller, J; Stelzer, J; Wielers, M; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a rate of 40\\,MHz. This rate needs to be reduced to an output rate of 100-200\\,Hz, compatible with the foreseen storage and analysis capability. To achieve this while retaining the most interesting physics, the trigger uses novel techniques, such as seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. As the luminosity increases more potentially interesting events will be produced than can be kept for analysis. To maximise the physics reach within the available bandwidth, the trigger menu will need to adapt to the increasing luminosity according to the ATLAS physics program. To study the bias introduced by the trigger selection, detailed online information needs to be used in physics analyses. A user interface was developed that, for each recorded event, allows easy access to information produced by the trigger as well as to its configuration. A first version of this interface was made available earlier this ...

  10. [Migraine prophylaxis with trigger point therapy and lymphatic drainage : A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedikardachian, Delphine; Quasthoff, Stefan; Lechner, Anita T; Giuliani, Albrecht; Fazekas, Franz

    2017-11-01

    Migraine is a complex, multifactorial, neurovascular disorder of the brain. Patients frequently have pericranial trigger points, but trigger point (TP) therapy for migraine has not yet been adequately studied. In contrast, lymphatic drainage (LD) has been studied in patients with migraine. The multifactorial origin of migraine suggests using a combination of approaches such as TP therapy and lymphatic drainage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of TP therapy alone and in combination with LD in preventing migraine during treatment period and over an 8‑week period after completion of treatment. A wait list control group served as a control group. Patients completed a headache calendar. The results of this pilot study suggest a beneficial effect for TP alone and TP combined with LD for migraine prophylaxis for 8 weeks after completion of treatment.

  11. [Manual trigger point therapy of shoulder pain : Randomized controlled study of effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohns, S; Schnieder, K; Licht, G; von Piekartz, H

    2016-12-01

    Although chronic shoulder pain is highly prevalent and myofascial trigger points (mTrP) are thought to be found in the majority of patients with shoulder complaints, the influence on the pain mechanism remains unclear. There are only very few controlled clinical studies on the effects of manual trigger point compression therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the short-term effects of manual trigger point compression therapy (n = 6) with manual sham therapy (n = 6) in patients with unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial syndrome (MFS). The measurement data were collected before and after two sessions of therapy. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of mTrP and symmetrically located points on the asymptomatic side were measured together with neutral points in order to detect a potential unilateral or generalized hyperalgesia. Additionally, the pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during movement and the neck disability index (NDI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaires were also completed and evaluated. Both treatment modalities led to a significant improvement; however, the manual trigger point compression therapy was significantly more effective in comparison to sham therapy, as measured by different parameters. The significant improvement of PPT values in the interventional group even at sites that were not directly treated, indicates central mechanisms in pain threshold modulation induced by manual compression therapy. The weaker but still measurable effects of sham therapy might be explained by the sham modality being a hands on technique or by sufficient stimulation of the trigger point region during the diagnostics and PPT measurements.

  12. 77 FR 37730 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7928] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan...

  13. 77 FR 7229 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Nomads and Networks: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7794] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan...

  14. Forum on Flexible Education. Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alba

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the Forum on Flexible Education: Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa, which was held in Garissa, Kenya, from 20-23 June 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to share experiences and best practices, create linkages and encourage collaboration in order to make education more accessible to nomadic communities.…

  15. Concept of digital nomad: fundamental risks of digital economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lyudvigovna Iakovleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the key risks of the digital economy development. Methods abstractlogical and dialectical methods. Results a modern individual cannot imagine their life without digital devices which facilitate their functioning and enable them to be included into the virtual space. The role of digital economy in the changes in all spheres of human life is analyzed in the article. With the growing role of the digital economy the approaches to business models formation are changing as well as the role of digital assets. This also leads to the transformation of human behavior the new risks of the digital economy accelerated development. In this regard the article characterizes an individual as a digital nomad defines the features of their behavior in the socioeconomic environment and highlights the main risks that arise in connection with digital nomadism. It is determined that one of the most characteristic features of a modern person is hypermobility eparkourism. In addition the paper describes the problems of anonymity in virtual space and the emergence of systems that provide anonymity of the individual as well as the risks arising in connection with that. The problem of lack of culture and value systems in the virtual space is highlighted as well the problem of developing contradictions in information leading to the alienation of people from the real world. It was determined that the informatization of economy on the one hand leads to faster business processes reduced transaction costs saving of variable costs due to robotization of production and on the other hand it leads to the transformation of competition growth of tension in society in connection with the job cuts. Another problem is personal and national security associated with the development of social networks the developers of which are other countries and also with the emergence of mechanisms of influence on mass consciousness. Scientific novelty it is shown that the risks

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidities and Environmental Triggers in Patients with Chronic Daily Headache: A Lifestyle Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhrudin Faizi; Abbas Tavallaee; Aboulfazl Rahimi; Masoud Saghafinia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH) suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014.Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric com...

  17. Integrating Mobile Learning into Nomadic Education Programme in Nigeria: Issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Aderinoye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Nigerian National Commission for Nomadic Education in 1989 created wider opportunities for an estimated 9.3 million nomads living in Nigeria to acquire literacy skills. This commission was struck to address low literacy rates among pastoral nomads and migrant fishermen, which put literacy rates at 0.28 percent and 20 percent respectively (FME, 2005. To improve the literacy rate among Nigeria’s nomadic populations, the National Commission for Nomadic Education employed various approaches such as onsite schools, ‘shift system’ schools with alternative intake, and Islamiyya (Islamic schools, to provide literacy education to its nomads. A critical appraisal of these approaches by the commission, however, shows that very few of the schools were actually viable. This paper explores why these approaches have not notably helped to improve the literacy rate among Nigeria’s nomadic people. Thus, there remains a need for alternative approaches to educational delivery. In face of the revolutionary trends taking place in information and communication technologies (ICTs in Nigeria, there is now opportunity to embrace mobile learning using low cost mobile technologies (i.e., mobile phones to enhance the literacy rates among Nigeria’s nomadic people, some of whom are enrolled in Nigeria’s current Nomadic Education Programme. Indeed, mobile telephones with simple text messaging features, for example, are prevalent in many parts of Nigeria. This paper explores the needs and advantages of integrating mobile learning into Nomadic Education programmes in Nigeria to ensure a successful implementation and achievement of the goals of the programme.

  18. Triggers for an episode of sudden onset low back pain: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffens Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research on risk factors for low back pain has focused on long term exposures rather than factors immediately preceding the onset of low back pain. The aim of this study is to quantify the transient increase in risk of a sudden episode of low back pain associated with acute exposure to a range of common physical and psychological factors. Methods/design This study uses a case-crossover design. One thousand adults with a sudden onset of low back pain presenting to primary care clinicians will be recruited. Basic demographic and clinical information including exposure to putative triggers will be collected using a questionnaire. These triggers include exposure to hazardous manual tasks, physical activity, a slip/trip or fall, consumption of alcohol, sexual activity, being distracted, and being fatigued or tired. Exposures in the case window (0-2 hours from the time when participants first notice their back pain will be compared to exposures in two control time-windows (one 24-26 hours and another 48-50 hours before the case window. Discussion The completion of this study will provide the first-research based estimates of the increase in risk of a sudden episode of acute low back pain associated with transient exposure to a range of common factors thought to trigger low back pain.

  19. Triggering and W-Polarisation Studies with CMS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marrouche, Jad

    2010-01-01

    Results from studies on the commissioning of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) of the CMS experiment are presented. Event-by-event comparisons of the hardware with a bit-level software emulation are used to achieve 100% agreement for all trigger quantities. In addition, a missing energy trigger based on jets is motivated using a simulation study, and consequently implemented and commissioned in the GCT. Furthermore, a templated-fit method for measuring the polarisation of W bosons at the LHC in the Helicity Frame is developed, and validated in simulation. An analysis of the first 3.2/pb of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV LHC data in the muon channel yields values of (fL − fR)+ = 0.347 ± 0.070, f0+ = 0.240 ± 0.176, and (fL − fR)− = 0.097 ± 0.088, f0− = 0.262 ± 0.196 for positive and negative charges respectively. The errors quoted are statistical. A preliminary systematic study is also presented.

  20. Psychiatric Comorbidities and Environmental Triggers in Patients with Chronic Daily Headache: A Lifestyle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Aboulfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH) suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014. Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric comorbidities, intensity of CDH, environmental factors, and lifestyle derangement. Results: We interviewed 413 (age 16-80 years, mean 40 +/- 14.0) out of 548 patients; 312 (75.5%) were married, and 282 (68.1%) were female. Environmental triggers (374, 90.6%) were the most common cause of CDH, while 214 (51.8%) had no compliance to recommended nutrition. Exercise avoidance (201, 48.7%) was the less prevalent lifestyle factor. Of the patients, 372 (90.1%) were stressed and 162 (39.2%) had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which were the most and less prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, respectively. Intensity of pain was moderate to severe (mean score = 7.1+/- 1.9), while females reported higher VAS scores (ppsychiatric comorbidities were found in patients with CDH, many of which are modifiable such as environmental triggers and unhealthy lifestyle. In heavily populated cities, these factors may double the burden of the CDH by precipitating new or exacerbating previous psychiatric comorbidities. We, thus, suggest conducting more studies on this subject.

  1. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F; Hickner, Robert C; Kohrt, Wendy M; Brewer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiologic change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Subjects (N=2) from a pain clinic who had chronic headache pain. A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, and determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiologic range. After intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Identifying physiologic constituents of MTrPs after intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing that proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disco’s Revenge: House Music’s Nomadic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillegonda C. Rietveld

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of house music as a nomadic archival institution, constituted by the musical history of disco, invigorating this dance genre by embracing new production technologies and keeping disco alive through a rhizomic assemblage of its affective memory in the third record of the DJ mix. This exploration will be illustrated through a close analysis of a specific DJ set by a Chicago house music producer, Larry Heard, in the setting of Rotterdam, 2007, in which American house music is recontextualised. Refining the analysis through close attention to one of the tracks played during that particular set, Grand High Priest’s 2006 “Mary Mary”, the analysis shows how DJ and music production practices intertwine to produce a plurality of unstable cultural and musical connections that are temporarily anchored within specific DJ sets. The conceptual framework draws on the work of Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as Baudrillard’s sense of seduction, with the aim to introduce a fluid notion of mediated nomadic cultural memory, a type of counter-memory, enabled by the third record and thereby to playfully re-imagine the dynamic function of a music archive. Keywords: house music, DJ practices, third record, cultural memory, nomadology

  3. Is There an Association Between Lumbosacral Radiculopathy and Painful Gluteal Trigger Points?: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmanesh, Farhad; Jalali, Ali; Jazayeri Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Ketabchi, Seyed Mehdi; Shir, Yoram

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of gluteal trigger point in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy with that in healthy volunteers. In a cross-sectional, multistage sampling method, patients with clinical, electromyographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with lumbosacral radiculopathy were examined for the presence of gluteal trigger point. Age- and sex-matched clusters of healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The primary outcome of the study was the presence or absence of gluteal trigger point in the gluteal region of the patients and the control group. Of 441 screened patients, 271 met all the inclusion criteria for lumbosacral radiculopathy and were included in the study. Gluteal trigger point was identified in 207 (76.4%) of the 271 patients with radiculopathy, compared with 3 (1.9%) of 152 healthy volunteers (P trigger point matched the side of painful radiculopathy in 74.6% of patients with a unilateral radicular pain. There was a significant correlation between the side of the gluteal trigger point and the side of patients' radicular pain (P trigger point, located at the painful side. Further studies are required to test the hypothesis that specific gluteal trigger point therapy could be beneficial in these patients.

  4. Demographic and Socio-Economic Situation of the Nomadic Population of Chervleny Yar Area in the Middle of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Nikitin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to identify the probable number of people who could have lived in the Don-Khoper interfluve in the middle of the 14th century. The results of demographic observations are based on natural resources, historical and archaeological realities of the region, special characteristics of nomadic economy. The area between the Don and the Khoper in the middle of the 14th century was an administrative unit of the ulus of Jochi (the Horde. The information about the territorial entity was preserved in the Metropolitan Charters for Sarai and Ryazan eparchies. Thanks to contemporary archaeological studies of this area, the nomadic and sedentary population can be claimed to have existed in that area in the middle of the 14th century. The nomadic territory of Chervleny Yar was bounded by the Don in the West, by Khoper in the East, by the mouth of the Hopper in the South, and by the most northern nomadic burials of that period. The information about natural resources of the steppes can be the basis of the demographic model designed. The data of ethnology, history, archaeology and ecology are used as a basis. The author analyzes the provision of the nomads with food as biological resources of the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper rivers. To calculate the probable number of the population, the author takes into account the health calorie intake, the average number of livestock per person in nomadic communities, the size of territory under consideration and the availability of forage for livestock. All the data for calculating the number of population are collected in the Table. Possible number of nomadic population of the Chervleny Yar in the middle of the 14th century can make 26,042–69,444 people, on the condition of the minimum possible yield and optimal load on the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper. The indicated number refers to the group of the population that never left the area between the Don and the Khoper and

  5. Migraine Features, Associated Symptoms, and Triggers: A Principal Component Analysis in the Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürks, Markus; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Aims Migraine has a wide clinical spectrum. Our aim was to group information on migraine characteristics into meaningful components and to identify key components of the migraine phenotype. Methods We performed two principal component analyses, one among participants in the Women's Health Study enrolment cohort and one in a sub-cohort with additional migraine-specific information. Results Among the 9,427 women with migraine attack-related information at enrolment, the three most important components pertained to central nervous system (CNS) sensitization, attack frequency/pain location, and aura/visual phenomena. In the sub-group of 1,675 women with more detailed information, food triggers and unspecific symptoms constituted two principal components that explain more of the variance of the migraine phenotype than the three attack-related components. Conclusions Our results indicate that information on migraine-associated features, symptoms, and triggers is highly correlated allowing the extraction of principal components. Migraine attack-related symptoms are best summarized by symptoms related to CNS sensitization, attack frequency/pain location, and aura/visual phenomena. Taking a more general view, unspecific symptoms and food triggers appear to carry stronger importance in characterizing the migraine phenotype. These components are useful for future research on the pathophysiology and genetics of migraine and may have implications for diagnosing and treating patients. PMID:21398421

  6. Laras concept and its triggers: A case study on garap of jineman Uler Kambang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Widodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laras is one unresolved aesthetic concept and gendhing garap models as the triggers have not been identified yet either. This paper is a case study which discusses a case of jineman garap Uler Kambang pélog lima, the first winner of Sindhèn Idol contest 2012, which is considered to have the most qualified performance to meet laras criteria. The purpose of this research is to figure out the laras concept construction and identify the gendhing garap models as its triggers. Laras concept reconstruction within the aesthetic framework of Javanese karawitan and identification of gendhing garap model are discussed based on concept of garap in Javanese karawitan. This research uses a qualitative-descriptive method. The results show that laras is a beautiful, delicate, and deep karawitan sense containing elements of mat, lega, betah, adhem, ayem, tentrem, jinem, sengsem, and marem. The triggering gendhing garap models include: garap of leres, rempeg, greget-urip, and sarèh-sumèlèh.

  7. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (ptrigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  8. Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-06

    The mountainous Wakhan and Pamir in northeastern Afghanistan is one of the most isolated yet inhabited places in Asia. It is home to the agropastoralist Wakhi and the last Afghan semi-nomadic Kyrgyz. We present a study of plant names and uses, along with comparisons of plant name etymology, origins of plant resources, intra- and intercultural exchanges and relations, and the relative availability of the known and used plants. The fieldwork was conducted as an expedition in the summer of 2010, and visited settlements and pastures in Upper Wakhan and Big and Little Pamir. Semi-structured group interviews, talks and observations gave initial data on names, uses and the relative availability of used plants, and provided foundation for individual interviews using an interview-herbarium containing vouchers of the 72 most frequently used plants or plant groups. Wakhi and Kyrgyz plant names are recorded in western transcription, the new Wakhi alphabet, phonetically and in Cyrillic. The present study documents a large body of endemic, indigenous plant knowledge; on crops, fuel, fodder, cosmetics, dyes, vegetables, veterinary medicine, traditional medicines and other plant uses which sustain life in Wakhan and Pamir. Overall, the Wakhi use considerably more plants than the Kyrgyz, and their materia medica and use thereof is more complex. Although the Wakhi and Kyrgyz are close neighbours, there are few indications of direct knowledge transfer between them. Most shared plant uses are strictly necessary for survival in the mountains. While there are few differences between genders and cultural subgroups within the two cultures, the Wakhi and Kyrgyz exhibit great differences both in their total number of use-plants and the distance from which they obtain them. The agropastoralist Wakhi appear to have their basic needs for wild natural resources covered within half a days travel, while the relatively plant-derived environment of the high Pamir appears to have necessitated the

  9. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  10. Experimental model of trigger finger through A1 pulley constriction in a human cadaveric hand: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kristina J; Thomson, J Grant

    2013-10-01

    Although it can be reasonably assumed that trigger digits occur as the result of a size mismatch in the pulley-tendon system, it is unclear whether locking, histological changes, and nodule formation occur owing to an intrinsically too small pulley or an enlarged digital flexor tendon. Our purposes in this feasibility study were to (1) create a model of trigger digit by pulley constriction in nonpreserved human tissue, (2) measure the change in work of flexion as the force of pulley constriction increased, (3) compare the work of flexion between nontriggering and triggering conditions, and (4) determine whether triggering can occur at the A2, A3, and A4 pulleys under similar conditions. Using a tensiometer, we studied the work of flexion in 4 fingers (thumb, index, middle, and ring) in a human cadaveric hand. The load of flexion was measured as the A1 to A4 pulleys were incrementally constricted in order to induce triggering. Work of flexion was analyzed for differences among trial conditions. Triggering was successfully induced in all 4 digits through constriction of the A1 pulley. No triggering occurred in any of the A2, A3, or A4 pulley systems in this model. We successfully created a trigger model in a human cadaveric hand. Our results demonstrate that the A1 pulley can cause triggering from manual constriction of the pulley alone. A trigger model such as this may allow investigations of pathophysiology, and this may result in novel treatment strategies and modalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-08-02

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6).

  12. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6). PMID:16270930

  13. AHP 37: HERDS ON THE MOVE: TRANSFORMATIONS IN TIBETAN NOMADIC PASTORAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight thousand years ago, an event took place that changed the world. In the mountain valleys where modern Iraq, Turkey, and Iran intersect, some enterprising farmers determined that it was easier to make a living by specializing in raising livestock than growing crops. They left their farms and moved into the grasslands, herding their animals over a vast area, traveling to different seasonal pastures throughout the year with their belongings and homes rolled up and carried on the backs of animals. This was the first stage of what later became known as nomadic pastoralism, and the people that followed the herds were called nomadic pastoralists, or simply, nomads ...

  14. ICT-based communication events as triggers of stress: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Reinke, Kathrin; Gerlach, Gisela; Tarafdar, Monideepa; Stock, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    ICT-based communication brings more flexibility to our lives but likewise can be a source of stress. In this paper, we argue that stress due to ICT-based communication is triggered not only by stable material properties of ICTs but also by characteristics of the usage situation itself. To explore the stress-inducing characteristics of ICT-based communication events, we opt for a developmental mixed methods approach. A qualitative study with 59 participants is used to identify ICT-based commun...

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidities and Environmental Triggers in Patients with Chronic Daily Headache: A Lifestyle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrudin Faizi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014.Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS, we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric comorbidities, intensity of CDH, environmental factors, and lifestyle derangement.Results: We interviewed 413 (age 16-80 years, mean 40 +/- 14.0 out of 548 patients; 312 (75.5% were married, and 282 (68.1% were female. Environmental triggers (374, 90.6% were the most common cause of CDH, while 214 (51.8% had no compliance to recommended nutrition. Exercise avoidance (201, 48.7% was the less prevalent lifestyle factor. Of the patients, 372 (90.1% were stressed and 162 (39.2% had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, which were the most and less prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, respectively. Intensity of pain was moderate to severe (mean score = 7.1+/- 1.9, while females reported higher VAS scores (p<0.02. Patients with previous history of psychotherapy reported higher score of VAS (p<0.001. Those patients living with a person suffering from head pain reported more VAS score (p<0.003.Conclusion: Notable psychiatric comorbidities were found in patients with CDH, many of which are modifiable such as environmental triggers and unhealthy lifestyle. In heavily populated cities, these factors may double the burden of the CDH by precipitating new or exacerbating previous psychiatric comorbidities. We, thus, suggest conducting more studies on this subject.

  16. Nomad Aesthetics of Capoeira and the Deterritorialization of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kasper

    an embodied and aesthetic deterritorialization of the established understanding of ADHD this paper will explore the relationship between the expressive movements of the Afro-Brazilian martial art, capoeira, and the state of the body established by the ADHD diagnosis. Primarily constituted through a classical...... an absolute movement of deterritorialization in relation to the subjective, social and scientific ideas of the body. As Deleuze and Guattari note: “martial arts do not adhere to a code, as an affair of the State, but follow ways, which are so many paths of the affect” (1987, p. 400). In concurrence...... with this description the capoeira scholar Nestor Capoeira has pointed out that capoeira can be considered a “Brazilian nomadic and urban war machine” (Capoeira, 2002, p. 91). As an art of physical and cultural resistance against the oppressing forces of slavery, the expressive bodily aesthetics of capoeira resonates...

  17. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  18. KCA DEUTAG's highly mobile desert rigs: The NOMAD rig class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-09-15

    End of June rig designer and manufacturer BENTEC and international drilling contractor KCA DEUTAG introduced the first of its NOMAD rigs. More than 200 senior executives from international oil operators, drilling contractors and government authorities, attended the rig-up party for T-211, which will be mobilised in the third quarter 2007 to Algeria, North Africa to work for BP/ Sonatrach under a one year contract with options with KCA Deutag. The new NOMAD Class which has been jointly developed bv Bentec and KCA Deutag in Bad Bentheim, Germany, stands for highly mobile rigs designed primarily for North African and Middle East desert terrain conditions. A second identical Nomad Class rig is scheduled for completion in September 2007 with further Nomad rigs currently under consideration. (orig.)

  19. Relational identity and displacement. Nomadic subjectivity from contemporary art and philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu Fabra, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    In the contemporary globalization process context, access to dominant mobility today acts as a mark of social hierarchy and cultural homogenization. Nomadic subjectivity is conceived as a critical strategy that proposes a mobility based on experience, breaking with the centralized, normative and no-situated organization of modern tradition. From contemporary art and philosophy, as well as from an itinerant awareness, nomad subjectivity puts on movement certain concepts that were considered un...

  20. Nomad Biosensors: A New Multiplexed Technology for the Screening of GPCR Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Rosa M; Kortazar, Danel; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Salado, Clarisa; Valcárcel, María; Castilla, Amaia; Villacé, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    Nomad Technology (Innoprot [Innovative Technologies in Biological Systems], Derio, Spain), a novel tool for multiplexing high-throughput cell-based G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) assays, is described in this work. This new technology comprises a family of fluorescent biosensors called Nomad Biosensors that allow for the measurement of responses mediated by G proteins through their interactions with second-messenger transduction proteins. GPCRs are one of the largest protein families of receptors in eukaryotes, and their signaling mediates important physiological processes within cells. Thus, GPCRs are associated with a wide variety of diseases, and considered major targets in therapeutic research. Nomad constitutes a novel tool for unraveling the mechanism of GPCR signal transduction by simultaneously tracing different pathways. GPCR activation changes the structural folding of the biosensor and promotes its vesicularization, as well as an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Based on this technology, the MPX Nomad cellular model was developed to discriminate between the Ca 2+ -mediated pathway and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated pathway. To validate this model, endothelin receptor B (ET B R) was coexpressed into the MPX Nomad cell line and assessed with a specific agonist, an antagonist, and a chemical library of compounds. Nomad Technology optimizes the identification of novel GPCR ligands and enables the testing of large numbers of compounds.

  1. Study on the plasma generation characteristics of an induction-triggered coaxial pulsed plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheng, CUI; Wenzheng, LIU; Jia, TIAN; Xiuyang, CHEN

    2018-02-01

    At present, spark plugs are used to trigger discharge in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), which are known to be life-limiting components due to plasma corrosion and carbon deposition. A strong electric field could be formed in a cathode triple junction (CTJ) to achieve a trigger function under vacuum conditions. We propose an induction-triggered electrode structure on the basis of the CTJ trigger principle. The induction-triggered electrode structure could increase the electric field strength of the CTJ without changing the voltage between electrodes, contributing to a reduction in the electrode breakdown voltage. Additionally, it can maintain the plasma generation effect when the breakdown voltage is reduced in the discharge experiments. The induction-triggered electrode structure could ensure an effective trigger when the ablation distance of Teflon increases, and the magnetic field produced by the discharge current could further improve the plasma density and propagation velocity. The induction-triggered coaxial PPT we propose has a simplified trigger structure, and it is an effective attempt to optimize the micro-satellite thruster.

  2. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  3. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  4. Transition radiation detector of the experience NOMAD for the τ identification in the channel: τ- → e-ν-bare ντ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, T.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a work included in an experiment of research concerning neutrino oscillations in the channel ν μ → ν τ at CERN (NOMAD-WA96). This experiments need several detectors, and particularly a transition radiation detector with specific characteristics. The work consists, in a first part, in the study of neutrino physic and of the NOMAD detector. In a second part, the report presents how was implemented the transition radiation detector and how works the simulation of a such radiation. Then, the detector is optimised by comparing experiments and simulations; the thesis also presents how to control the detector. The last part talks about algorithms of pions-electrons separation. (TEC). 95 refs., 78 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Cutts, Felicity T; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-10-01

    Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2-5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks. Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722-31,505) cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464-735) cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768-91,577) and 744 (612-876) cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation. Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the face of epidemiological and vaccination uncertainty

  6. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  7. The SPS Target Station for CHORUS and NOMAD Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S; Zazula, J M

    1996-01-01

    A new SPS target station, T9, has been constructed for the CHORUS and NOMAD neutrino experiments at CERN. The heart of the station is the target box : 11 beryllium rods are aligned in a cast aluminium box ; they are cooled by a closed circuit helium gas with adjusted flow to each rod. The box is motorised horizontally and vertically at both ends, to remotely optimise the secondary particle production by aligning the target with the incident proton beam. Radiation protection around the station is guaranteed by more than 100 tons of shielding material (iron, copper, marble). This presentation describes briefly the various components of the target station ; it emphasises particularly the thermal and mechanical calculations which define a safe maximum beam intensity on the beryllium rods. Over the first two years of successful operation, the station has received more than 2€1019 protons at 450 GeV/c, with intensity peaks of 2.8€1013 protons per machine cycle.

  8. A Wideband Channel Model for Intravehicular Nomadic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bellens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electronic entertainment equipments within vehicles has rendered the idea of replacing the wired links with intra-vehicle personal area networks. Ultra-wideband (UWB seems an appropriate candidate technology to meet the required data rates for interconnecting such devices. In particular, the multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM is able to provide very high transfer rates (up to 480 MBps over relatively short distances and low transmit power. In order to evaluate the performances of UWB systems within vehicles, a reliable channel model is needed. In this paper, a nomadic system where a base station placed in the center of the dashboard wants to communicate with fixed devices placed at the rear seat is investigated. A single-input single-output (SISO channel model for intra-vehicular communication (IVC systems is proposed, based on reverberation chamber theory. The model is based on measurements conducted in real traffic conditions, with a varying number of passengers in the car. Temporal variations of the wireless channels are also characterized and parametrized. The proposed model is validated by comparing model-independent statistics with the measurements.

  9. The relationship between latent trigger point and muscle strength in healthy subjects: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Yeldan, Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Trigger points on the palpable taut bands of the muscles are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. Our hypothesis was latent trigger points (LTrPs) could decrease muscle strength also in healthy people. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between LTrPs and muscle strength in a group of healthy adults. In total fifty healthy adults (20 women and 30 men) were included in the study. Trigger point examination for upper and middle trapezius, supraspinatus, serratus anterior and rhomboid major and minor were done bilaterally according to four criteria. Subjects who have at least two trigger points in dominant side were assigned to Group 1 (28 subjects), subjects who don't have any trigger points were assigned to Group 2 (23 subjects). Muscle strength for flexion and scaption was assessed with a Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD) as break test on both sides. Both the subjects and the examiners were blind. For statistical analysis, independent sample t test was used to compare the differences between two groups. No significant differences were found in muscle strength between dominant and non-dominant sides in both groups (p >0.05). Significant difference was observed in both sides when comparison of muscle strength between Group 1 and 2, muscle strength was lower in subjects who had trigger points (p trigger points in comparison with healthy subjects. Our results underline the importance of palpation of LTrPs in scapular and shoulder muscles in healthy subjects as they may contribute to the muscle strength. Further research is needed to facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of LTrPs and to test the relationship with muscle strength.

  10. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p Sahel and rural areas.

  11. Genomic Reconstruction of the History of Native Sheep Reveals the Peopling Patterns of Nomads and the Expansion of Early Pastoralism in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Xin; Yang, Ji; Lv, Feng-Hua; Hu, Xiao-Ju; Xie, Xing-Long; Zhang, Min; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Yong-Gang; Ren, Yan-Ling; Wang, Feng; Hehua, EEr; Kantanen, Juha; Arjen Lenstra, Johannes; Han, Jian-Lin; Li, Meng-Hua

    2017-09-01

    China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in > 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of the origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, of Chinese sheep thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia. Originating from the Mongolian Plateau ∼5,000‒5,700 years ago, Chinese sheep were inferred to spread in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River ∼3,000‒5,000 years ago following the expansions of the Di-Qiang people. Afterwards, sheep were then inferred to reach the Qinghai-Tibetan and Yunnan-Kweichow plateaus ∼2,000‒2,600 years ago by following the north-to-southwest routes of the Di-Qiang migration. We also unveiled two subsequent waves of migrations of fat-tailed sheep into northern China, which were largely commensurate with the migrations of ancestors of Hui Muslims eastward and Mongols southward during the 12th‒13th centuries. Furthermore, we revealed signs of argali introgression into domestic sheep, extensive historical mixtures among domestic populations and strong artificial selection for tail type and other traits, reflecting various breeding strategies by nomadic societies in ancient China. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  13. Brucellosis in camels, cattle and humans: associations and evaluation of serological tests used for diagnosis of the disease in certain nomadic localities in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M M; Musa, M T; Bakhiet, M R; Perrett, L

    2010-12-01

    Brucellosis was studied in 2,225 camels, 20 camel nomads and 33 abattoir workers in certain nomadic localities in Sudan, using serum and milk samples. Lymph nodes, testicular tissues and udder tissues from positive camels and hygroma aspirates from three affected cows were used for isolation of Brucella. Serum samples were examined by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and milk by the milk ring test. Overall seroprevalence in camels (milk and serum samples) was 37.5%. The seroprevalence in males was 28.2% and in females 40.1%. Twelve (60%) of the 20 nomads and three (9%) of the 33 abattoir workers had positive antibody titres. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from two camels and three cows. Two isolates, one from each species, were atypical. The bacteriological findings suggested that camels were infected from cattle, the primary hosts of B. abortus. The mRBPT was suitable for screening camel sera for brucellosis, but the cELISA detected 2.1% more positives. The SAT antibody concentrations ranged between < 13 and 3,282 IU/ml.

  14. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  15. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The preliminary study on the inductory signal triggering the error-prone DNA repair function in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zaozhong; Luo Zuyu

    1989-01-01

    The nature of the signal triggering error-prone DNA repair function in mammalian cells was studied from two notions: (1) Does the inducing signal result from the direct hitting the cellular targets by DNA-damaging agents? (2) Is inhibition of DNA replication a prerequisite condition for the triggering effect? Thus, the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated exogenous DNAs were introduced into human and rat cells by transfection. The results showed that this transfection was able to induce the error-prone repair as efficient as direct UV-irradiation to cells. Moreover, the two inductory treaetments expressed similar kinetics and dose-responses. No matter whether the introduced DNAs initiated replication, they exhibited the incuctory activity. Therefore, it can be considered that DNA lesions itself, not the direct interaction of DNA-damaging agents with specific cellular targets, serve as a triggering signal for the inductory process. Inhibition of DNA replication is not a prerequisite for the inductory signal

  17. Experimental study and modelling of X-ray photo-triggering of a discharge for exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, Yolande

    1986-01-01

    As the excitation of the laser medium by using a photo-triggered discharge revealed to be more reliable that an excitation by pre-ionised discharge, this research thesis reports the use of such an excitation and the study of initiation mechanisms for discharges photo-triggered by X rays. The author first recalls the main characteristics of excimer and exciplex systems, and presents the principle of discharge photo-triggering. He presents the experimental set-up, and reports the use of an original method to characterise the X radiation. This method uses theoretical data related to Bremsstrahlung emission, and results are validated by experimental tests. Realistic data regarding X ray properties are introduced into the theoretical model which also takes X-ray-induced ionisation reactions and photo-electron energetic degradation into account. By using this model, the author determines the electron distribution function produced by the X pre-ionisation, and the resulting thermalized electron density [fr

  18. PLASTICITY OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN A NOMADIC EARLY SPRING FOLIVORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective behaviour in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces others constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues.Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among colony members to stay together during foraging. At the group level, these rules lead to cohesive synchronised collective nomadic foraging, in which the colony travels en masse between feeding and resting sites. This paper proposes that synchronized collective locomotion prevents individuals from becoming separated from the colony and hence permits them to reap the advantages of group living, notably collective basking to increase their body temperature above ambient and collective defense against natural enemies.However, this cohesive behaviour also implies conservative foraging, and colonies can become trapped on poor food sources. High fidelity to pheromone trails leads to strong amplification of an initial choice, such that colonies seldom abandon the first food source contacted, even if a better one is nearby. The risk of this trapping is modulated both by consistent inter-individual variations in exploratory behaviour and by inner state. Colonies consisting of active-phenotype or protein-deprived individuals that explore more off trails exhibit greater collective flexibility in foraging.An ontogenetic shift toward more independent movement occurs as caterpillars grow. This leads to colony break-up as the season advances. Selection pressures facing older caterpillars favour solitary living more than in the earlier instars. Caterpillars respond to this predictably changing environment by altering their behavioural rules as they grow.

  19. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  20. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2-5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks.Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722-31,505 cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464-735 cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768-91,577 and 744 (612-876 cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation.Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the face of epidemiological and vaccination

  1. A Comparative Study of Nomadic Mobile Service Provisioning Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, P.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Srirama, Satish; van Halteren, Aart

    2007-01-01

    In today’s world of pervasive computing, the mobile devices are enriched with a variety of features and being used as a personal information delivery platform. The increased processing, storage and communication capabilities of these devices combined with the latest developments in the area of

  2. Profil des lipides sériques des peuls adultes nomades du Nord-Bénin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Décrire le profil des lipides sériques des sujets adultes peuls nomades du Nord-Bénin. Méthodes et résultats : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale à visée descriptive et analytique ayant concerné 58 sujets adultes peuls nomades et 61 non peuls. Les paramètres lipidiques ont été dosés par la méthode ...

  3. Cosmic ray oriented performance studies for the JEM-EUSO first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, G.; Abe, S.; Acheli, A.; Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ahriche, A.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Alonso, G.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Aouimeur, W.; Arai, Y.; Arsene, N.; Asano, K.; Attallah, R.; Attoui, H.; Ave Pernas, M.; Bacholle, S.; Bakiri, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Bartocci, S.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, A.; Belov, K.; Benadda, B.; Benmessai, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Bisconti, F.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Boudaoud, R.; Bozzo, E.; Briggs, M. S.; Bruno, A.; Caballero, K. S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Capel, F.; Caramete, A.; Caramete, L.; Carlson, P.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellina, A.; Castellini, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, O.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Chiritoi, G.; Christl, M. J.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Contino, G.; Cordero, G.; Cotto, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Di Martino, M.; Djemil, T.; Djenas, S. A.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Dutan, I.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Eser, J.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-González, S.; Fernández-Soriano, J.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Forza, R.; Fouka, M.; Franceschi, A.; Franchini, S.; Fuglesang, C.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; García-Ortega, E.; Garipov, G.; Gascón, E.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Genci, J.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guardone, N.; Guarino, F.; Guehaz, R.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Haiduc, M.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Hidber, W.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Jammer, T.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Jochum, J.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kalli, S.; Kaneko, I.; Kang, D.; Kanouni, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Kedadra, A.; Khales, H.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmar, H.; Lakhdari, F.; Larsson, O.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López Campano, L.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mackovjak, S.; Mahdi, M.; Manfrin, M.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marcos, J. L.; Marini, A.; Martens, K.; Martín, Y.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Matthews, J. N.; Mebarki, N.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mehrad, L.; Mendoza, M. A.; Merino, A.; Mernik, T.; Meseguer, J.; Messaoud, S.; Micu, O.; Mignone, M.; Mimouni, J.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Nadji, B.; Nagano, M.; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Painter, W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panico, B.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Pérez-Grande, I.; Perfetto, F.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Pindado, S.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Placidi, L.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pliego, S.; Pollini, A.; Popescu, E. M.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Rabanal, J.; Radu, A. A.; Rahmani, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Rezazadeh, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Sahnoune, Z.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sanchez, J. C.; Sánchez, J. L.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz-Andrés, A.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Stan, I.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tahi, H.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Talai, M. C.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Traïche, M.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; von Ballmoos, P.; Vrabel, M.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weigand Muñoz, R.; Weindl, A.; Weiler, T. J.

    2017-09-01

    JEM-EUSO is a space mission designed to investigate Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos (E > 5 ṡ 1019 eV) from the International Space Station (ISS). Looking down from above its wide angle telescope is able to observe their air showers and collect such data from a very wide area. Highly specific trigger algorithms are needed to drastically reduce the data load in the presence of both atmospheric and human activity related background light, yet retain the rare cosmic ray events recorded in the telescope. We report the performance in offline testing of the first level trigger algorithm on data from JEM-EUSO prototypes and laboratory measurements observing different light sources: data taken during a high altitude balloon flight over Canada, laser pulses observed from the ground traversing the real atmosphere, and model landscapes reproducing realistic aspect ratios and light conditions as would be seen from the ISS itself. The first level trigger logic successfully kept the trigger rate within the permissible bounds when challenged with artificially produced as well as naturally encountered night sky background fluctuations and while retaining events with general air-shower characteristics.

  4. Study on current limiting characteristics of SFCL with two trigger current levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two trigger current levels was suggested and its effectiveness through the analysis on the current limiting characteristics was described. The proposed SFCL, which consists of the triggering and the limiting components, can limit the fault current by generating the limiting impedance through two steps according to the amplitude of the initial fault current. In case that the fault happens, the lower initial fault current causes the only superconducting element of the triggering component to be quenched. On the other hand, the higher initial fault current makes both the superconducting elements comprising the triggering and the limiting components of the SFCL to be quenched, which contributes to the higher impedance of the SFCL. Therefore, the effective fault current limiting operation of the SFCL can be performed by generating the SFCL's impedance in proportion to the amplitude of the initial fault current. To confirm the current limiting operation of the proposed SFCL, the short-circuit tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle were carried out and its effective fault current limiting operations could be discussed.

  5. Upward Lightning in Rapid City, SD and the First Season of the Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, C. A.; Warner, T. A.; Helsdon, J. H.; Schumann, C.; Alves, J.; Saba, M. M.; Cummins, K. L.; Orville, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    For the past three years, upward lightning from ten towers located along the front range of the Black Hills have been observed using both standard- and high-speed cameras and electric field measurements. Multiple towers arranged in close proximity to each other combined with high cloud bases common during the warm season allow Rapid City, South Dakota to be an ideal location to observe upward lightning. The UPward LIGHtning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) was developed at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in cooperation with the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil, to expand the instrumentation available for observation and analysis of the triggering flash type, component, and mechanism along with weather conditions that are favorable for upward lightning development. This project combines local weather observations, multiple electric field meters and field change sensors, and two interferometers with the previously used cameras. UPLIGHTS main goal is to use these resources to better understand the triggering/initiation of upward lightning from tall objects. Based on the analysis of previous years' observations, we proposed that the primary triggering flash type is a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) in the vicinity of the towers. UPLIGHTS will attempt to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by either 1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a +CG return stroke and/or 2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network that is near the towers. The study will also examine the mechanism behind the initiation of upward leaders from multiple tall objects during same flash. This talk will touch on some concepts of previous work along with a summary of summer 2012, the first of three UPLIGHTS seasons.

  6. GnRH agonist ovulation trigger and hCG-based, progesterone-free luteal support: a proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is now well established that a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) ovulation trigger completely prevents ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, early studies, using conventional luteal support, showed inferior clinical results following a GnRHa trigger compared with a conventional hCG trigger...... in normal responder IVF patients. We here present a novel approach for luteal support after a GnRHa trigger. METHODS Normal responder patients who failed at least one previous IVF attempt, during which a conventional hCG trigger was used, were consecutively enrolled in the study. A GnRH antagonist......-based ovarian stimulation protocol was used in combination with a GnRHa trigger (Triptorelin 0.2 mg). The luteal phase was supported with a total of two boluses of 1500 IU hCG: on the day of oocyte retrieval and 4 days later. Neither progesterone nor estradiol was administered for luteal support. RESULTS...

  7. Study of Event Topology for a new Fast Primary Vertex Finder for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)739389; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This document presents a transform-based approach to primary vertex finding and a feasibility analysis. The feasibility analysis first shows theoretical distinguishability of different signal events and pileup with a metric devised for this purpose. The results show high distinguishability for the majority of event types with expectedly low distinguishability for special cases. The algorithm is intended for use in the high level trigger. At this stage of computation, event types can be distinguished through the trigger, allowing choosing this algorithm only for appropriate events. An implementation of the algorithm with different increasingly realistic settings shows the impact of the different factors on efficiency. With realistic settings, distinguishability only reduces by a small margin, remaining for applicable events between 95% and 100% depending on the scenario. By gradually increasing the degree of realism of the setting, efficient countermeasures could be devised for different problems, which are al...

  8. Studies for a Level 2 Trigger for H.E.S.S. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tluczykont, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The first phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment is completed with 4 telescopes fully operational since December 2003. After a very successful beginning with many sources detected, the second phase of the experiment is being planned. The objective is to build a very large telescope in the center of the array of the 4 existing ones. Operating the very large telescope in coincidence (stereoscopy) with the 4 H.E.S.S. I telescopes allows to reduce the energy threshold from 100 GeV to 50 GeV. In order to make optimum use of an additional very large telescope and to lower the energy threshold further, one has to consider the single telescope events of this telescope as well. The data acquisition of these events requires a second level trigger for the reduction of the data flow. The concepts for the realization and first results for a second level trigger are presented

  9. Preparation of earthquake-triggered landslide inventory maps using remote sensing and GIS technologies: Principles and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides can be constructed using several methods, which are often subject to obvious differences due to lack of commonly accepted criteria or principles. To solve this problem, the author describes the principles for preparing inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides, focusing on varied methods and their criteria. The principles include the following key points: all landslides should be mapped as long as they can be recognized from images; both the boundary and source area position of landslides should be mapped; spatial distribution pattern of earthquake-triggered landslides should be continuous; complex landslides should be divided into distinct groups; three types of errors such as precision of the location and boundary of landslides, false positive errors, and false negative errors of earthquake-triggered landslide inventories should be controlled and reduced; and inventories of co-seismic landslides should be constructed by the visual interpretation method rather than automatic extraction of satellite images or/and aerial photographs. In addition, selection of remote sensing images and creation of landslides attribute database are also discussed in this paper. Then the author applies these principles to produce inventory maps of four events: the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9, 14 April 2010 Yushu, China Mw 6.9, 12 January 2010 Haiti Mw 7.0, and 2007 Aysén Fjord, Chile Mw 6.2. The results show obvious differences in comparison with previous studies by other researchers, which again attest to the necessity of establishment of unified principles for preparation of inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides.

  10. Optical and EUV studies of laser triggered Z-pinch discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with two geometries of laser assisted discharge plasma. Both devices are designed for fast Z-pinch discharge, triggered by laser produced plasma generated by ablation of one or both electrodes. The laser plasma parameters are adjusted to control the plasma load while the discharge parameters are adjusted to yield a rate of rise of current greater than 1010 A/s. The expansion dynamics and emission characteristics of the plasma were analysed, wit...

  11. Study of the performances of the ALICE muon spectrometer trigger at LHC; Etude des performances du Trigger du spectrometre a muons d'ALICE au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A.

    2010-10-15

    The QCD theory (Quantum Chromodynamics) predicts the presence of a new phase of the nuclear matter at very high temperature. This phase, characterized by a deconfinement of quarks within hadrons, is called QGP (Quark Gluon Plasma). The muon spectrometer of the ALICE experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) aims at investigating the properties of the QGP at the extreme energy density reached in heavy ion collisions at LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The trigger system of the Muon Spectrometer, called MUON TRG mainly come under the responsibility of the Clermont-Ferrand ALICE team. It consists of four planes of RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors with a total area of 140 m{sup 2}, 21 k front-end channels and fast-decision electronics. It is designed to reconstruct (muon) tracks online, in a large background environment. A fast trigger decision, for both single-muons and dimuons, is delivered each 25 ns (40 MHz) with a latency with respect to the interaction of about 800 ns. The performances, especially the ones related to trigger decision, obtained with dedicated test tools, cosmic rays, first LHC injection beams and first proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 900 GeV will be presented. (author)

  12. Almajiri education: Policy and practice to meet the learning needs of the nomadic population in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Sunday Olawale

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the provision of education opportunities to a disadvantaged group in Nigeria known as Almajiris. The word Almajiri derives from the Arabic word Almuhajirun, meaning emigrant. The nomadic pastoralists of northern Nigeria constitute a major socio-economic group. According to a recent report released by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Almajiris own more than 90 per cent of Nigeria's estimated 15.3 million heads of cattle. Beef from their herds constitutes over 45 per cent of the animal protein consumed by Nigerians. However, despite the Almajiris' immense contributions to the economy of Nigeria, these nomads are highly disadvantaged in terms of access to education. To respond to the educational needs of this group, the Nigerian government established the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989 to coordinate programmes aimed at improving the lives and livelihood of the Almajiris. This article examines the strategies employed by the NCNE towards making education accessible to nomads. It also highlights some of the challenges facing the Almajiris, and suggests remedies to prioritise education for this and other disadvantaged groups.

  13. Almajiri education: Policy and practice to meet the learning needs of the nomadic population in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Sunday Olawale

    2018-02-01

    This article explores the provision of education opportunities to a disadvantaged group in Nigeria known as Almajiris. The word Almajiri derives from the Arabic word Almuhajirun, meaning emigrant. The nomadic pastoralists of northern Nigeria constitute a major socio-economic group. According to a recent report released by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Almajiris own more than 90 per cent of Nigeria's estimated 15.3 million heads of cattle. Beef from their herds constitutes over 45 per cent of the animal protein consumed by Nigerians. However, despite the Almajiris' immense contributions to the economy of Nigeria, these nomads are highly disadvantaged in terms of access to education. To respond to the educational needs of this group, the Nigerian government established the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989 to coordinate programmes aimed at improving the lives and livelihood of the Almajiris. This article examines the strategies employed by the NCNE towards making education accessible to nomads. It also highlights some of the challenges facing the Almajiris, and suggests remedies to prioritise education for this and other disadvantaged groups.

  14. Ganglionated plexi stimulation induces pulmonary vein triggers and promotes atrial arrhythmogenecity: In silico modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS on atrial fibrillation (AF is difficult to demonstrate in the intact human left atrium (LA due to technical limitations of the current electrophysiological mapping technique. We examined the effects of the ANS on the initiation and maintenance of AF by employing a realistic in silico human left atrium (LA model integrated with a model of ganglionated plexi (GPs.We incorporated the morphology of the GP and parasympathetic nerves in a three-dimensional (3D realistic LA model. For the model of ionic currents, we used a human atrial model. GPs were stimulated by increasing the IK[ACh], and sympathetic nerve stimulation was conducted through a homogeneous increase in the ICa-L. ANS-induced wave-dynamics changes were evaluated in a model that integrated a patient's LA geometry, and we repeated simulation studies using LA geometries from 10 different patients.The two-dimensional model of pulmonary vein (PV cells exhibited late phase 3 early afterdepolarization-like activity under 0.05μM acetylcholine (ACh stimulation. In the 3D simulation model, PV tachycardia was induced, which degenerated to AF via GP (0.05μM ACh and sympathetic (7.0×ICa-L stimulations. Under sustained AF, local reentries were observed at the LA-PV junction. We also observed that GP stimulation reduced the complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE-cycle length (CL, p<0.01 and the life span of phase singularities (p<0.01. GP stimulation also increased the overlap area of the GP and CFAE areas (CFAE-CL≤120ms, p<0.01. When 3 patterns of virtual ablations were applied to the 3D AF models, circumferential PV isolation including the GP was the most effective in terminating AF.Cardiac ANS stimulations demonstrated triggered activity, automaticity, and local reentries at the LA-PV junction, as well as co-localized GP and CFAE areas in the 3D in silico GP model of the LA.

  15. Study of muon triggers and momentum reconstruction in a strong magnetic field for a muon detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Della Negra, Michel; Eggert, Karsten; Hervé, A; Wittgenstein, F; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, Ritva; Pimiä, M; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Dau, D; Ferrando, A; Torrente-Lujan, E; Bettini, A; Centro, Sandro; Martinelli, R; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Zotto, P L; Bacci, Cesare; Ceradini, F; Ciapetti, G; Lacava, F; Nisati, A; Petrolo, E; Pontecorvo, L; Veneziano, Stefano; Zanello, L; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Santonico, R; Cline, D; Lazic, S; Mohammadi, M; Park, J; Szoncsó, F; Walzel, G; Wulz, Claudia Elisabeth; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    We propose to construct a small fraction of a muon detector in a strong magnetic field, for possible use in an LHC experiment, and to test it in a beam containing hadrons and muons. Properties of muons from hadron decays and of hadron punch-through, i.e. angle, momentum and timing distributions of the outgoing particles, will be measured for various absorber thicknesses, including the effect of strong magnetization of the absorber. The efficiency of different muon triggers and the rejection against hadron punch-through and decay muons will be studied. Reconstruction of muons and their momentum measurement in magnetized iron will be investigated, including the effect of catastrophic energy losses of high momentum muons. The performance of resistive plate chambers (RPC) as fast trigger hodoscopes will be studied.

  16. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  17. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring...... and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  18. GnRH agonist trigger with intensive luteal phase support vs. human chorionic gonadotropin trigger in high responders: an observational study reporting pregnancy outcomes and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Vlismas, Antonios; Carby, Anna; Lavery, Stuart; Trew, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective, cohort study of high-risk patients undergoing IVF treatment was performed to assess if there is a difference in clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger with intensive luteal support is compared to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with standard luteal support. The control group consisted of 382 high-risk patients having a GnRH antagonist protocol with 194 receiving an hCG trigger. All patients had ≥18 follicles ≥11mm or serum oestradiol >18,000pmol/l on the day of trigger. Patients had a single or double embryo transfer at cleavage or blastocyst stage. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences between the groups. An intention-to-treat analysis of all cycles was performed. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of positive pregnancy test, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Only one patient (0.3%) was hospitalized with severe OHSS in the GnRHa group, compared to 26 patients (13%) in the hCG group. In conclusion, GnRHa trigger is associated with similar pregnancy rates with hCG trigger and a significant reduction in hospitalization for severe OHSS after an intention to treat analysis was performed.

  19. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  20. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  1. Randomized Controlled Study on Safety and Feasibility of Transfusion Trigger Score of Emergency Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Peri-operative Transfusion Trigger Score-E evaluation scheme is used to guide the application of RBC. There are no differences in the recent prognosis of patients with the traditional transfusion guidelines. This scheme is safe; Compared with doctor experience-based subjective assessment, the scoring scheme was closer to patient physiological needs for transfusion and more reasonable; Utilization rate and the per capita consumption of RBC are obviously declined, which has clinical significance and is feasible. Based on the abovementioned three points, POTTS-E scores scheme is safe, reasonable, and practicable and has the value for carrying out multicenter and large sample clinical researches.

  2. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (pShoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (pshoulder pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Vertex finding performance studies for the Phase II CMS Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Udrescu, Silviu Marian

    2017-01-01

    At the HL-LHC, a significant increase in the luminosity delivered to CMS will result in a pileup per bunch crossing of 140-200. This provides a difficult environment to obtain reliable physics results and keep trigger rates manageable. In order to mitigate this problem, tracker information will be used, for the first time, at the Level-1 (L1) trigger. This will allow the primary vertex reconstruction at L1. In this report, an investigation into the vertex finding performance of a potential algorithm is presented. The vertex finding efficiency was measured as a function of several variables, such as the percentage of tracks associated to the primary vertex within the barrel and the pT of the tracks. The efficiency was found to not depend significantly on the pileup for the samples analyzed, however, a strong dependence was observed on the number of tracks associated with the primary vertex.

  4. Statistical analysis and a case study of tropical cyclones that trigger the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen

    2017-10-06

    This paper addresses whether a tropical cyclone can trigger the onset of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SM). We conducted a statistical analysis of tropical cyclones (TCs) generated over the western North Pacific (WNP) between late-April and May. The results showed that there were cases in which TCs were generated before the onset of the SCSSM, accounting for 43.2% of the TCs generated during this season. This study examined a representative case, Super Typhoon Chanchu (0601), which was determined to be influential in the onset of the SCSSM. With a northwestward track, Chanchu brought strong convection and westerly winds to the SCS on 12 May, which triggered the intrusion of the southwesterly winds from the Bay of Bengal and the eastward retreat of the western Pacific subtropical high. Super Typhoon Chanchu provides an example in which a TC triggered the onset of the SCSSM. The negative correlation between the onset date of the SCSSM and the number of TCs generated over the WNP used to be interpreted as the influence of the monsoon trough on TC genesis. This work provides a supplementary illustration that this relationship also includes the impact of TCs on the onset of the SCSSM.

  5. Hypervigilance or avoidance of trigger related cues in migraineurs? - A case-control study using the emotional stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puschmann Anne-Katrin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Negative affect" is one of the major migraine triggers. The aim of the study was to assess attentional biases for negative affective stimuli that might be related to migraine triggers in migraine patients with either few or frequent migraine and healthy controls. Methods Thirty-three subjects with frequent migraine (FM or with less frequent episodic migraine, and 20 healthy controls conducted two emotional Stroop tasks in the interictal period. In task 1, general affective words and in task 2, pictures of affective faces (angry, neutral, happy were used. For each task we calculated two emotional Stroop indices. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Results The expected attentional bias in migraine patients was not found. However, in task 2 the controls showed a significant attentional bias to negative faces, whereas the FM group showed indices near zero. Thus, the FM group responded faster to negative than to positive stimuli. The difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The findings in the FM group may reflect a learned avoidance mechanism away from affective migraine triggers.

  6. Physically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo forest, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lepore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a rainfall-triggered landslide module within an existing physically based spatially distributed ecohydrologic model. The model, tRIBS-VEGGIE (Triangulated Irregular Networks-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator and Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution, is capable of a sophisticated description of many hydrological processes; in particular, the soil moisture dynamics are resolved at a temporal and spatial resolution required to examine the triggering mechanisms of rainfall-induced landslides. The validity of the tRIBS-VEGGIE model to a tropical environment is shown with an evaluation of its performance against direct observations made within the study area of Luquillo Forest. The newly developed landslide module builds upon the previous version of the tRIBS landslide component. This new module utilizes a numerical solution to the Richards' equation (present in tRIBS-VEGGIE but not in tRIBS, which better represents the time evolution of soil moisture transport through the soil column. Moreover, the new landslide module utilizes an extended formulation of the factor of safety (FS to correctly quantify the role of matric suction in slope stability and to account for unsaturated conditions in the evaluation of FS. The new modeling framework couples the capabilities of the detailed hydrologic model to describe soil moisture dynamics with the infinite slope model, creating a powerful tool for the assessment of rainfall-triggered landslide risk.

  7. Physically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, C.; Arnone, E.; Noto, L. V.; Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rainfall-triggered landslide module within an existing physically based spatially distributed ecohydrologic model. The model, tRIBS-VEGGIE (Triangulated Irregular Networks-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator and Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution), is capable of a sophisticated description of many hydrological processes; in particular, the soil moisture dynamics are resolved at a temporal and spatial resolution required to examine the triggering mechanisms of rainfall-induced landslides. The validity of the tRIBS-VEGGIE model to a tropical environment is shown with an evaluation of its performance against direct observations made within the study area of Luquillo Forest. The newly developed landslide module builds upon the previous version of the tRIBS landslide component. This new module utilizes a numerical solution to the Richards' equation (present in tRIBS-VEGGIE but not in tRIBS), which better represents the time evolution of soil moisture transport through the soil column. Moreover, the new landslide module utilizes an extended formulation of the factor of safety (FS) to correctly quantify the role of matric suction in slope stability and to account for unsaturated conditions in the evaluation of FS. The new modeling framework couples the capabilities of the detailed hydrologic model to describe soil moisture dynamics with the infinite slope model, creating a powerful tool for the assessment of rainfall-triggered landslide risk.

  8. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...

  9. Study, realisation and experimental test of an hyper frequency gun triggered by a subpicosecond laser (CANDELA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1995-12-01

    The photo-injector technique is the only one capable of generating very short ( picosecond range) electron pulses. A photocathode illuminated by short pulses of laser radiation (sapphire laser) is placed in a high frequency cavity resonator. The generated electrons can reach relativistic speeds in a few centimeters length, if an accelerating field of several MV / m (here 600 MV / m) is applied to extract them. CANDELA, designed thanks to Parmela code, is the only photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. The first experimental results are in agreement with the design and prove that the gun is working properly. A maximum photo-emitted charge of two nano coulombs was obtained from a dispenser photocathode, with a quantum efficiency of one per mil, and a lifetime of a dozen hours. More detailed measurements have to check it works in complete agreement with computerized simulations. (D.L.). 657 refs., 123 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Multi-wavelength study of triggered star formation around the mid-infrared bubble N14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2013-02-01

    We present multi-wavelength analysis around the mid-infrared (MIR) bubble N14 to probe the signature of triggered star formation as well as the formation of new massive star(s) and/or cluster(s) at the borders of the bubble by the expansion of the H II region. Spitzer Infrared Array Camera ratio maps reveal that the bubble is traced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission following an almost circular morphology except in the south-west direction towards the low molecular density environment. The observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material have been found around the bubble. We have detected 418 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region around the bubble N14. Interestingly, the detected YSO clusters are associated with the collected molecular and cold dust material at the borders of the bubble. One of the clusters is found with deeply embedded intermediate mass and massive Class I YSOs associated with one of the dense dust clumps in the east of the bubble N14. We do not find good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the fragmentation time of the accumulated molecular materials to explain the possible `collect-and-collapse' process around the bubble N14. Therefore, we suggest the possibility of triggered star formation by compression of the pre-existing dense clumps by the shock wave and/or small-scale Jeans gravitational instabilities in the collected materials. We have also investigated 5 young massive embedded protostars (8-10 M⊙) and 15 intermediate mass (3-7 M⊙) Class I YSOs which are associated with the dust and molecular fragmented clumps at the borders of the bubble. We conclude that the expansion of the H II region is also leading to the formation of these intermediate and massive Class I YSOs around the bubble N14.

  11. Acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months of the nomadic population in Hadaleala district, Afar region, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Woldu, Wondwoson; Bitew, Bikes Destaw

    2018-02-07

    Acute malnutrition to be a major health burden in the world, particularly in the developing world. Acute malnutrition is associated with more than one third of the global disease burden for children. Malnourished children are physically, emotionally and intellectually less productive and suffer more from chronic illnesses and disabilities. The nature, magnitude and determinants of acute malnutrition are determined among the general populations; however, there is a lack of evidence in the nomadic communities. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude and factors associated with acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Hadaleala district, Afar Region. A total of 591 under-five children were included in this study, and subjects were recruited by the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and a simple anthropometric index so called mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with acute malnutrition on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p water sources (AOR = 3.78, p water sources, latrine availability, hand washing practice before food preparation and child feeding, childhood diarrheal disease, and child vaccination were identified as factors affecting the childhood acute malnutrition in the nomadic community. Protecting drinking water sources from possible contaminants, improving hand washing practices, utilization of latrine, preventing diarrheal diseases and vaccinating children integrated with the access of nutrition education is important to improve nutrition of children of the nomadic people.

  12. Study of breath-holding spell and its triggering factors in Children’s Hospital Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi MR

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate breath-holding spell (BHS) and its triggering factors, 47 children with BHS admitted to the out patients clinic of Children's hospital medical center, between Sept 1998-June 1999, were included in this prospective study. Diagnosis of BHS was made for cases by medical history, pediatric physical examination, EEG, ECG and lab findings. 4 cases were excluded from study because of paroxysmal epileptic discharges at their EEGs. Of 43 cases having BHS (M:F: 1.15:1), 74.4% were less...

  13. Las ciudades invisibles: heterotopías nómadas y postpatriarcado The invisible cities: nomadic heterotopies and post patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Silva Echeto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Muchas ciudades se pueden encontrar en una ciudad: algunas visibles y otras invisibles, pero todas ellas se producen en lo heterotópico del espacio otro (heterogéneo y nómada. Diversas formas de imaginar las ciudades (desde la literatura, el cine, la música permiten transgredir las ciudades postpatriarcales, desde una concepción del feminismo nómada, rizomática y transversal, y responderles creativa y estéticamente a las ciudades que se han ido diseñando bajo el alero del capitalismo tardío: homogéneas, (indiferentes, no lugarizadas, machistas (sin identidad, ni relaciones, ni historias. Frente a ellas, sin duda, surge y brota la figura de las ciudades otras, de la multiplicidad de las diferencias y las singularidades, de lo dejado de lado: los estudios de género y la reivindicación que ellos hacen (ciudades sexuales y nómadas, ciudades diferentes, ambiguas, ambivalentes, excéntricas, deseantes y heterotópicas (de espacios heterogéneos, cambiantes y fracturados.Many cities may be found in one city: some of them are visible and some others are invisible, but all of them are produced in the heterotopic space of the (heterogenic and nomadic other. The diverse ways of imagining the cities (from literature, cinema, music allow to transgress the postpatriarchal cities, from a nomadic rhizomatic and transversal conception of feminism, and answer creatively and aesthetically to the cities which have been designed under the auspices of late capitalism: homogeneous, (indifferent, non localized, male chauvinist (without identity, neither relationships, nor histories places. When facing them, the figure of the other cities, of the multiplicity of the differences and singularities, of what has been cast aside, certainly sprouts: gender studies and their demands (sexual and nomadic cities, different, ambiguous, ambivalent, eccentric, wanting and heterotopic cities (with heterogeneous, changing and fractured spaces.

  14. Out of the Desert: My Journey from Nomadic Bedouin to the Heart of Global Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naimi, Ali Ibrahim

    2017-01-08

    His Excellency Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi, former Ministry of Oil in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, will comment on his forthcoming autobiography "Out of the Desert: My Journey from Nomadic Bedouin to the Heart of Global Oil". Ali Ibrahim Al-Naimi is the former Saudi oil minister - and OPEC kingpin - a position he held for the two decades between August 1995 and May 2016. He was born into extreme poverty as a nomadic Bedouin in the 1930s, just as US companies were discovering vast quantities of oil under Arabian deserts. From his first job as a shepherd boy to his appointment to one of the most powerful political and economic jobs in the world, Out of the Desert charts Al-Naimi\\'s extraordinary rise to power.

  15. "Grey nomads" in Australia: are they a good model for successful aging and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul F D; Quirk, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Lifestyle factors have been identified as being very important in determining health in later life. Nutrition, exercise, and social environment all interact to promote, or to limit, opportunities for an active and healthy post-working life. Not only are rates of chronic illness and disability reduced through the promotion of healthy lifestyles, but also quality of life is maintained through the compression of morbidity. Governments in Australia, as in the European Union and North America, have highlighted the importance of behavioral change in health promotion strategies with the aim of having an impact on the health-related lifestyles of their populations. This paper examines the example of a group of older Australians, the "grey nomads," who may present opportunities for examining health-related lifestyle changes. The term grey nomad refers to a portion of the older population in Australia who choose to use their later years and retirement as opportunities for travel and leisure, mainly within the confines of the Australian continent. As such, they are similar to groups in North America, such as the "snow birds," who travel to the southern United States to escape the colder winters of more northerly latitudes. Similar seasonal migrations occur from Northern to Southern Europe. What all share in common is an active culture/lifestyle of attempting to "age successfully." Grey nomads also participate in the creation of what can be termed postmodern communities, where they and other regular travelers may develop a sense of community feeling with others who are also regularly returning to the same spot year after year. Social support is highly predictive of health outcomes and such mobile communities may prove a positive factor in promoting good health. In this paper we examine whether the "grey nomads" represent a good model for improving health-related lifestyles in later life.

  16. mtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to Neighboring Sedentary Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Hájek, Martin; Bromová, Markéta; Čmejla, R.; Diallo, I.; Brdička, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2006), s. 9-27 ISSN 0018-7143 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA404/03/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * HVS-I * Fulani nomads * sub - Saharan populations * Chad * Cameroon * Burkina Faso Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2006

  17. Study of the CSC anode self-trigger ability with P3 ME1/1 prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, N.; Khabarov, V.; Mojsenz, P.; Movchan, S.; Perelygin, V.; Sergeev, S.; Smolin, D.; Zarubin, A.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the high background rates on the Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) anode trigger has been studied. The investigation has been made with P3 prototype of the CSC of the ME1/1 endcap muon station of the CMS experiment (CERN). The work has been done at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF, CERN). P3 has been installed at the X5c muon beam line in the background field of the 137 Cs source. The CSC timing resolution and track registration efficiency as a function of the gamma rate are presented

  18. Study of Rapid Self-triggering Extinguishing Bomb Fuze Based on the Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained and stable development of forest resources has been focused on world attention, prevention and control of forest fires have also been widespread attention around the world. To extinguish the fire in the forest-fire spot quickly and effectively, a self-triggering fire-extinguishing bomb fuze sensor is designed, and which properties are simulation and analysis. Simulation results show that fire-extinguishing bomb is being placed in the fire, fusible link burn out quickly in high temperature conditions, compressed spring is released, the firing pin was ejected to impact percussion cap so as to detonate explosives, powder extinguishing agent is uniformly blasted, powder is coated on the combustion source to make it extinguished so that the quick and reliable long-range extinguishment is achieved. The abilities of extinguishing fire bombs are significantly improved, it is not only energy- efficient and environmental but also solving problems about the long-range out fire effectively. Therefore, it has good application value to protect the safety of life and property indeed.

  19. The Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section In NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Jun

    2010-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) was a short baseline neutrino experiment conducted at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle physics) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) with a neutrino beam provided by the super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerator. In this dissertation, we present a measurement of muon-neutrino induced quasi-elastic cross section and its axial-mass off an isoscalar target in the NOMAD detector. The incident neutrino energy in NOMAD experiment spans from 2.5 to 300 GeV. The measurement of cross-section is conducted in two seperate kinematic-based topology, two-track and one-track topologies, where a proton is not properly reconstructed. The QEL cross-section as a function of the incoming neutrino energy is consistent for the two different topologies, and within errors , constant as a function of the neutrino energy. We determine the energy-averaged cross-section. From the shape-comparisons of kinematics of QEL-like events, the parameter of QEL axial mass is estimated. It i...

  20. Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zong Xuan; Cheong, Kang Hao

    2017-01-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral or phenotypic diversity to improve population fitness in the face of environmental variability. When each behavior or phenotype is individually maladaptive, alternating between these losing strategies can counter-intuitively result in population persistence–an outcome similar to the Parrondo’s paradox. Instead of the capital or history dependence that characterize traditional Parrondo games, most ecological models which exhibit such paradoxical behavior depend on the presence of exogenous environmental variation. Here we present a population model that exhibits Parrondo’s paradox through capital and history-dependent dynamics. Two sub-populations comprise our model: nomads, who live independently without competition or cooperation, and colonists, who engage in competition, cooperation, and long-term habitat destruction. Nomads and colonists may alternate behaviors in response to changes in the colonial habitat. Even when nomadism and colonialism individually lead to extinction, switching between these strategies at the appropriate moments can paradoxically enable both population persistence and long-term growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21673.001 PMID:28084993

  1. Patagonia, Land of Nomads: A Glance at a Territory Shaped by Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chiuminatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the nineteenth century, as global voyages became popular, and transcontinental empires settled, remote corners of the third world such as Patagonia began to be explored and became the subject of European travel literatures. The opening of this region to the global scenario produced profound transformations in its territorial conformation, poetic imaginary, and local culture. As Patagonia became a land of travellers, local nomads which had inhabited this land for centuries became extinguished. The historical context of this re-shaping is conceptualised in literary theory through notions such as nomadism, elaborated by Gilles Deleuze and its aesthetical counterpart, geo-poetics, by Kenneth White. The travel literature about Patagonia, such as that produced by Charles Darwin, Lady Florence Dixie, and Bruce Chatwin, depicts the difficulties these travellers faced in trying to endow their writings of adequate descriptions and images. Instead, they recurred to images from their homeland, and thus created an imaginary of Patagonia through displacement: their own, and that of images brought by themselves to this land. When Chilean poets like Gabriela Mistral and Pablo Neruda begun to write about Patagonia, they found it already populated by strange images, shaped indeed, by nomads, travellers and dis-located identities.

  2. Study of breath-holding spell and its triggering factors in Children’s Hospital Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi MR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate breath-holding spell (BHS and its triggering factors, 47 children with BHS admitted to the out patients clinic of Children's hospital medical center, between Sept 1998-June 1999, were included in this prospective study. Diagnosis of BHS was made for cases by medical history, pediatric physical examination, EEG, ECG and lab findings. 4 cases were excluded from study because of paroxysmal epileptic discharges at their EEGs. Of 43 cases having BHS (M:F: 1.15:1, 74.4% were less there 24 months of age (Mean age 18.4 mo. 77% of patients had onset of BHS within 12 months of age. Family history of BHS in first degree relatives were found in 51% of patients. Parent consanguinity were found in 30% of cases. The commonest type of BHS were cyanotic (79.1%. Pallid (11.6% and mixed (9.3% were other types. Pain and anger were the commonest triggering factors. 78% of cases were iron deficient and 53% of cases had iron deficiency anemia.

  3. The Combination of Nomadic and Hierarchic Principles within the State Organization in the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the state system of the Golden Horde inherits a number of features from the former political culture of the Turkic states. On the other hand, it brings fundamental changes that determine the characteristics of the Eurasian empire. We introduce the concept of zero-point of history to explain periodization of Tatar history. In the history, the smooth flow of events breaks near the bifurcation point, when society enters into an unstable phase and a radical dismantling of social structures begins. Elements of the past remain as invariants. But they find themselves in the new assembly, which cannot be reduced to the same combinations of social elements. This is essentially new historical phase, in which one coordinate system of space-time is replaced by another and history launches a new countdown. The Golden Horde is the pinnacle of a nomadic civilization. Its prosperity was based on metallurgy, agriculture, and trade. Moreover, its main export was corn. Hundreds of cities and seaports were built in the Golden Horde, which distinguishes it from the Great Steppe. At the same time, despite the increase in sedentary population, the Golden Horde civilization retained its nomadic mentality. Chinese or European models of governance were basically impossible due to the presence of nomadic economy: it was necessary to control precisely the clans occupying certain territories. Clans were able to ensure both the collection of taxes from the mobile population and training of soldiers for the army. The clan system gave stability in the conditions of semi-nomadic life, while also allowing to control the sedentary population. The Golden Horde was a highly developed State with a strong financial system, with the state apparatus divided into two parts, one of which was associated with control of the nomadic population, and the other with the sedentary one. Territory, state structures, traditions, and political culture of the Golden Horde became the

  4. Study of banana (Musa aaa Cavendish cv Nanica trigger ripening for small scale process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Donato Soares Larotonda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuse on the impact of O2, CO2 and ethylene concentrations on ripening rate control of bananas as a contribution for the development of domestic equipments that could allow the user to drive the fruit shelf live. It represented the adjustment of metabolic activity rates in order to manage the maturity process. Ripening variables such as ethylene and CO2 concentrations and temperature were adjusted to accelerate or slow down the process, while the maturity degree was monitored through the physical and chemical parameters and sensorial analysis. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of these parameters to manage the banana ripening. The optimum temperature was at 25 ºC of storage. The presence of oxygen, CO2 withdraws and ethylene injection were relevant for the ripening process. The "ready-to-eat" quality was achieved in 6 days in confined system. The use of ethylene as trigger was adequate to accelerate the ripening process with advantages in fruit color.O presente trabalho foca no impacto da concentração de O2, CO2 e etileno no controle da taxa de amadurecimento de bananas, como contribuição para o desenvolvimento de equipamentos domésticos que permitam o controle pelo próprio usuário da vida de prateleira de frutas. Isto representa o ajuste das atividades metabólicas para garantir o controle do amadurecimento. Variáveis como concentração de etileno e CO2 e temperatura foram ajustadas para acelerar ou reduzir o processo, enquanto que o grau de maturação foi monitorado através de parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência destes parâmetros para controlar o amadurecimento de banana. A temperatura ótima de amadurecimento foi 25ºC. A presença de O2, a retirada de CO2 e a injeção de etileno foram relevantes no processo. A qualidade "pronto-para-consumo" foi obtida em 6 dias em sistema confinado. O uso de etileno

  5. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Kheradmandi; Maryam Ebrahimian; Farahnaz Ghaffarinejad; Venous Ehyaii; Mohammad Reza Farazdaghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (a...

  6. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  7. Triggering in Thermoacoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Juniper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions, the flow in a combustion chamber can sustain large amplitude oscillations even when its steady state is linearly stable. Experimental studies show that these large oscillations can sometimes be triggered by very low levels of background noise. This theoretical paper sets out the conditions that are necessary for triggering to occur. It uses a weakly nonlinear analysis to show when these conditions will be satisfied for cases where the heat release rate is a function of the acoustic velocity. The role played by non-normality is investigated. It is shown that, when a state triggers to sustained oscillations from the lowest possible energy, it exploits transient energy growth around an unstable limit cycle. The positions of these limit cycles in state space is determined by nonlinearity, but the tangled-ness of trajectories in state space is determined by non-normality. When viewed in this dynamical systems framework, triggering in thermoacoustics is seen to be directly analogous to bypass transition to turbulence in pipe flow.

  8. Search on neutrino oscillation νμ→νe in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav

    1998-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: ν μ →ν τ and ν μ →ν e . This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations ν μ →ν e with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of ν e by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the ν μ →ν e data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin 2 (2θ) -3 (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for Δm 2 > 15 eV 2 and gives the most constraining world limit on sin 2 (2θ) for Δm 2 > 20 eV 2

  9. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: A prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Njoo (Khing Hua); E. van der Does (Emiel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger

  10. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  11. Ethical Norms of Traditional Nomadic Culture as Bases for Political Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахыт Даулетхановна Жумакаева

    2011-03-01

    Only by cultivating a sense of community, leader's actions would be viewed as standards to follow. So the collective nature of Kazakh nomadic-age ethics was congruent with Soviet interpretation of Marxism, which accounted for their convergence in the Soviet age. However, as the paper argues these moral bases ceased to reflect the reality of present-day Kazakhstan, which urges reconsidering its ethical norms for political behavior to be grounded on the new societal organization, national character, pursuit of individual wealth as a factor of progress, and the global information age.

  12. Modern wildlife conservation initiatives and the pastoralist/hunter nomads of northwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Fox

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR of China established the 300 000 km2 Chang Tang Nature Preserve on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, an action precipitated by rapidly diminishing populations of chiru (Tibetan antelope and wild yak. Some 30 000 nomadic pastoralists use areas within this reserve for livestock grazing, with many having traditionally depended in part on hunting for supplementary subsistence and trade. Following a 1997 request from TAR leaders for international assistance in addressing the conservation issues associated with the creation of this reserve, the TAR Forestry Bureau and the Network for University Co-operation Tibet — Norway began a 3-year research collaboration program in 2000 to outline human-wildlife interactions and conservation priorities in the western part of the reserve. To date, four excursions (2-6 weeks each have been made to the western Chang Tang region, and investigations of interactions between pastoralists and wildlife conservation objectives have been initiated in an area of about 5000 km2, including the 2300 km2 Aru basin located at 5000 m elevation at the northern edge of pastoralist inhabitation. The Aru site is unique in that nomads have only recently returned to this previously off-limits basin. But, as in surrounding areas, the people's lives are undergoing changes recently influenced by the introduction of permanent winter houses, changing international trade in shahtoosh and cashmere wool, and a move towards stricter hunting regulations. The northwestern Chang Tang, with the Aru basin as a prime site, represents one of the last strongholds of the endangered chiru and wild yak, as well as home to Tibetan gazelle, kiang, Tibetan argali, blue sheep, wolf, snow leopard and brown bear. In autumn 2000, for example, with approximately 12 000 of the wild ungulates (mostly the migratory chiru within the Aru basin along with some 8000 domestic livestock, issues of land use overlap and possible

  13. The Salvage from Postmodernism: Nomadic Subjectivity in Contemporary Women’s Poetry in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ZAMORANO LLENA

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The nomad’s identity is a map of where s/he has already been; s/he can always reconstruct it a posteriori, as a set of steps in an itinerary. (Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Subjectivity 14 “As a woman I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman my country is the whole world.” This is the quote from Virginia Wolf’s Three Guineas (1938 that Adrienne Rich decided not to use in a talk given at a “Conference on Women, Feminist Identity and Society in the 1980s” held in Utrecht, Holland...

  14. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  15. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  16. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  17. Bose-Einstein correlations in charged current muon-neutrino interactions in the NOMAD experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.C.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Goessling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, B.D.; Zaccone, H.; Zei, R.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2004-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied, with high statistics, in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with the NOMAD detector at CERN. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov-Podgoretskii phenomenological parametrizations. The Goldhaber parametrization gives the radius of the pion emission region R G =1.01±0.05(stat) +0.09 -0.06 (sys) fm and for the chaoticity parameter the value λ=0.40±0.03(stat) +0.01 -0.06 (sys). Using the Kopylov-Podgoretskii parametrization yields R KP =2.07±0.04(stat) +0.01 -0.14 (sys) fm and λ KP =0.29±0.06(stat) +0.01 -0.04 (sys). Different parametrizations of the long-range correlations have been also studied. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal comoving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions is observed. The high statistics of the collected sample allowed the study of the Bose-Einstein correlations as a function of rapidity, charged particle multiplicity and hadronic energy. A weak dependence of both radius and chaoticity on multiplicity and hadronic energy is found

  18. Production of strange neutral particles and measurement of the polarization of Λ in the NOMAD experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaud, C.

    2000-05-01

    The experiment NOMAD (CERN) is dedicated to the study of the neutrino-nucleon interaction. In these interactions many strange particles are produced: particularly K s 0 , Λ and Λ-bar that are more easily detectable and this work is dedicated to them. The study of the polarization of Λ allows to go back to the measurements of spin transfer that are not well known. The identification of strange particles is difficult, 2 methods have been used in this work: likelihood ratios and α-asymmetry method. Once neutral strange particles were identified, their production rate (global and differential) have been made out, K *± , and Σ *± resonances and the decay of Ξ have been revealed. The second part of this work deals with the measurement of Λ polarization. The quality of the reconstruction of events and the cumulated statistics data allowed to give an accurate value of Λ polarization. A thorough study of the transverse polarization has been made and we see a dependence of the transverse impulse of Λ on the hadronic jet similar to that observed in hadronic collisions

  19. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  20. Possible Triggers and Temporal Patterns of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Discharges: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-20

    carefully studied cardiac parameters in response to snow shoveling in the cold in 10 sedentary men and found the subjects attained hean rate...e.g. sprinting . fast running. fast jogging, or jogging uphill. pushing and pulling with all your might. usually extreme work) Heavy exertion, with...in: time interval : exact time and date: Extreme o r peak exertion (e.g. sprinting , fast running, fast time: joggi ng, o r jogging uphill. pushing

  1. Role of grounded ship 'MV River Princess' in triggering erosion: A case study from Candolim Sinquerim Coast, Goa.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.; Sudhesh, K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Vethamony, P.

    Multi-temporal satellite imageries of 1997, 2001 and 2006, wave model results and field observations were used to evaluate effect of the grounded vessel MV River Princess. Erosion was triggered along the Candolim-Sinquerim shoreline due...

  2. An observational study of a shallow gravity current triggered by katabatic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adachi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations from a wind profiler and a meteorological tower are utilized to study the evolution of a gravity current that passed over the Meteorological Research Institute's (MRI field site in Tsukuba, Japan. The gravity current was created by katabatic flow originating on the mountainous slopes west of the field site. The passage of the shallow current was marked by a pronounced pressure disturbance and was accompanied by vertical circulations seen in the tower and profiler data. Direct vertical-beam measurements are difficult, especially at low heights during high-gradient events like density currents. In this study vertical velocities from the profiler are derived from the four oblique beams by use of the Minimizing the Variance of the Differences (MVD method. The vertical velocities derived from the MVD method agree well with in situ vertical velocities measured by a sonic anemometer on the tower.

    The gravity current is analyzed with surface observations, the wind profiler/RASS and tower-mounted instruments. Observations from the profiler/RASS and the tower-mounted instruments illustrate the structure of the gravity current in both wind and temperature fields. The profiler data reveal that there were three regions of waves in the vertical velocity field: lee-type waves, a solitary wave and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. The lee-type waves in the head region of the gravity current seem to have been generated by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to prefrontal flow. The solitary wave was formed from the elevated head of the gravity current that separated from the feeder flow. Profiler vertical-motion observations resolve this wave and enable us to classify it as a Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO type solitary wave. The ducting mechanism that enabled the solitary wave to propagate is also revealed from the wind profiler/RASS measurements. The combination of high-resolution instruments at the MRI site allow us to

  3. An observational study of a shallow gravity current triggered by katabatic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adachi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations from a wind profiler and a meteorological tower are utilized to study the evolution of a gravity current that passed over the Meteorological Research Institute's (MRI field site in Tsukuba, Japan. The gravity current was created by katabatic flow originating on the mountainous slopes west of the field site. The passage of the shallow current was marked by a pronounced pressure disturbance and was accompanied by vertical circulations seen in the tower and profiler data. Direct vertical-beam measurements are difficult, especially at low heights during high-gradient events like density currents. In this study vertical velocities from the profiler are derived from the four oblique beams by use of the Minimizing the Variance of the Differences (MVD method. The vertical velocities derived from the MVD method agree well with in situ vertical velocities measured by a sonic anemometer on the tower. The gravity current is analyzed with surface observations, the wind profiler/RASS and tower-mounted instruments. Observations from the profiler/RASS and the tower-mounted instruments illustrate the structure of the gravity current in both wind and temperature fields. The profiler data reveal that there were three regions of waves in the vertical velocity field: lee-type waves, a solitary wave and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. The lee-type waves in the head region of the gravity current seem to have been generated by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to prefrontal flow. The solitary wave was formed from the elevated head of the gravity current that separated from the feeder flow. Profiler vertical-motion observations resolve this wave and enable us to classify it as a Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO type solitary wave. The ducting mechanism that enabled the solitary wave to propagate is also revealed from the wind profiler/RASS measurements. The combination of high-resolution instruments at the MRI site allow us to develop a uniquely detailed picture of

  4. Spatial Attention Triggered by Eye Gaze: Evidence from a Microsaccade Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemasa Yokoyama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although human spatial attention is elicited toward gaze direction of another, it remains one unanswered question whether shift of spatial attention elicited by gaze direction of another is exogenous or endogenous orienting. The purpose of this study is to examine which type of attentional orienting is related to attentional shift elicited by gaze direction. To pursue this question, we conducted the attentional cuing paradigm and measured microsaccades during the task. In experiment 1, a facial stimulus was positioned in the center of the screen as a gaze cue whose direction showed the validity of the target presentation. We measured microsaccades after presentation of the cue. In the result, microsaccade direction was toward cue direction only in the 200 – 400ms time window after presentation of the cue. In experiment 2, we conducted the anti-saccade task for directionally separating exogenous and endogenous orienting, thus, gaze direction and cue direction were different unlike experiment 1. The result of experiment 2 agreed with the results of experiment 1, therefore, microsaccade direction was toward cue direction, not gaze direction. These results indicate that spatial attention elicited by gaze direction is endogenous orienting, not exogenous orienting.

  5. Two particle correlations with photon triggers to study hot QCD medium in ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yaxian, Mao; Shou, Daicui; Schutz, Yves

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)at the end of 2009, the new accelerator at CERN collides protons and heavy-ions at unprecedented high energies. ALICE , one of the major experiment installed at LHC, is dedicated to the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of energy density with the opportunity of creating a partonic medium called the Quark- Gluon-Plasma (QGP). This new experimental facility opens new avenues for the understanding of fundamental properties of the strong interaction and its vacuum. To reach the objectives of this scientific program, it is required to select a set of appropriate probes carrying relevant information on the properties of the medium created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Based on the information delivered by all the observables and guided by modelization of the fundamental principles in action, a coherent picture will emerge to interpret the observed phenomena. In the first part of the present document I describe the context of the scientif...

  6. Factors that trigger emergency physicians to contact a poison centre: findings from a Swiss study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Jahns, Maximilian; Haberkern, Monika; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Eriksson, Urs; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    Poison centres offer rapid and comprehensive support for emergency physicians managing poisoned patients. This study investigates institutional, case-specific and poisoning-specific factors which influence the decision of emergency physicians to contact a poison centre. Retrospective, consecutive review of all poisoning-related admissions to the emergency departments (EDs) of a primary care hospital and a university hospital-based tertiary referral centre during 2007. Corresponding poison centre consultations were extracted from the poison centre database. Data were matched and analysed by logistic regression and generalised linear mixed models. 545 poisonings were treated in the participating EDs (350 (64.2%) in the tertiary care centre, 195 (35.8%) in the primary care hospital). The poison centre was consulted in 62 (11.4%) cases (38 (61.3%) by the tertiary care centre and 24 (38.7%) by the primary care hospital). Factors significantly associated with poison centre consultation included gender (female vs male) (OR 2.99; 95% CI 1.69 to 5.29; p1 vs 1) (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.9; ppoison centre consultation. Poison centre consultation was significantly higher during the week, and significantly less during night shifts. The poison centre was consulted significantly more when patients were admitted to intensive care units (OR 5.81; 95% CI 3.25 to 10.37; ppoison centre consultation by emergency physicians. It appears that intensive care unit admission and other factors reflecting either complexity or uncertainty of the clinical situation are the strongest predictors for poison centre consultation. Hospital size did not influence referral behaviour.

  7. The social nature of environmental knowledge among the nomadic WoÉ - aaÉ"e of Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Schareika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral nomads such as West Africa's WoÉ - aaÉ"e are renowned for the impressive environmental knowledge they apply to successfully raise animal herds in arid and variable environments. We looked at such herders' knowledge not as based on individual learning and expertise but as ultimately social in the sense that it is formed, made available, and linked to pastoral decision making in the public and interactive space of permanent talking, discussing, and negotiating among peers. Drawing on theoretical ideas from science and technology studies, a number of concrete social situations of information management and pastoral decision making were explored in detail to reveal the distinctly social character of WoÉ - aaÉ"e knowledge. Special emphasis has been given to the institutional framework of knowledge exchange; the blending of moral values and empirical facts in particular statements of knowledge; the dialogic and collaborative nature of information procurement and assessment; and the contingency of decisions reached after lengthy rounds of discussion among herders.

  8. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  9. Outils numériques nomades : les effets sur l’attention des étudiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guichon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur le numérique en éducation est parvenue à une étape où peut être dressé un portrait plus nuancé des usages des outils numériques en contexte d’apprentissage. S’inscrivant dans une perspective sociocritique (Selwyn, 2007, cet article vise à apprécier les effets éventuellement négatifs résultant de l’utilisation des outils numériques nomades pendant le face-à-face didactique. Une enquête par questionnaire a été conduite auprès d’un échantillon d’étudiants internationaux (n=227 poursuivant leurs études dans un Centre de Langues en France. Cette recherche a permis d’examiner leurs habitudes de connexion en mettant au jour la fréquence et la motivation d’utilisation d’outils numériques pendant et hors le face-à-face avec leurs enseignants. Elle a également donné l’occasion de saisir l’impact ressenti de l’utilisation des outils numériques en classe par les participants sur leur attention. Les résultats de cette recherche permettent, in fine, d’examiner de quelle façon le contrat didactique est questionné par l’usage des outils numériques nomades.

  10. Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Bruce C; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Laptander, Roza; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Zetterberg, Pentti; Verdonen, Mariana; Skarin, Anna; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Boisvert, Linette N; Stroeve, Julienne C; Bartsch, Annett

    2016-11-01

    Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense. Here, we review evidence for autumn atmospheric warming and precipitation increases over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to BKS ice loss. Two major ROS events during November 2006 and 2013 led to massive winter reindeer mortality episodes on the Yamal Peninsula. Fieldwork with migratory herders has revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from the catastrophic 2013 event will unfold for years to come. The suggested link between sea ice loss, more frequent and intense ROS events and high reindeer mortality has serious implications for the future of tundra Nenets nomadism. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  12. The ATLAS Missing ET trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few months, the ATLAS detector collected 900 GeV LHC collision events which allowed for the study the performance of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ). With the 7 TeV collision data collected recently, the performance studies of the trigger system are critical for a successful physics program. In particular a large spectrum of physics results will rely on the capacity of the ATLAS TDAQ system to collect events based on the estimate of the missing transverse energy (MET) contained in each event. The MET trigger would be, for example, the primary trigger to be used in new physics searches for processes involving new weakly interacting particles, which could account for the astronomically observed dark matter. In addition to discovery perspectives, the MET trigger can also be used in combination with other triggers to control the rate of signatures involving low energy objects. For example, the MET trigger is necessary in order to measure non-boosted W in the tau channel. Finally...

  13. Detector tests in a high magnetic field and muon spectrometer triggering studies on a small prototype for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bergsma, F; Castro, H; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; De Pasquale, S; Gálvez, J; Gentile, S; Giusti, P; Laurent, G; Levi, G; Lin, Q; Maccarrone, G D; Mattern, D; Nania, R; Rivera, F; Schioppa, M; Sharma, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    The "Large Area Devices" group of the LAA project is working on R&D for muon detection at a future super-collider. New detectors are under development and the design of a muon spectrometer for an LHC experiment is under study. Our present choice is for a compact, high field, air-core toroidal muon spectrometer. Good momentum resolution is achievable in this compact solution, with at least one plane of detection elements inside the high field region. A new detector, the Blade Chamber, making use of blades instead of wires, has been developed for the forward and backward regions of the spectrometer, where polar coordinate readings are desirable.The assembling of a CERN high energy beam line, equipped with high resolution drift chambers and a strong field magnet could give us the opportunity to test our chambers in a high magnetic field and to study the muon trigger capabilities of a spectrometer, like the one proposed, on a small prototype.

  14. Glucose-Triggered Insulin Release from Fe3+ -Cross-linked Alginate Hydrogel: Experimental Study and Theoretical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Sabrina; Domanskyi, Sergii; Gamella, Maria; Wormwood, Kelly L; Darie, Costel C; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Melman, Artem; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2017-06-20

    We study the mechanisms involved in the release, triggered by the application of glucose, of insulin entrapped in Fe 3+ -cross-linked alginate hydrogel particles further stabilized with a polyelectrolyte. Platelet-shaped alginate particles are synthesized containing enzyme glucose oxidase conjugated with silica nanoparticles, which are also entrapped in the hydrogel. Glucose diffuses in from solution, and production of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by the enzyme within the hydrogel. We argue that, specifically for the Fe 3+ -cross-linked systems, the produced hydrogen peroxide is further converted to free radicals via a Fenton-type reaction catalyzed by the iron cations. The activity of free radicals, as well as the reduction of Fe 3+ by the enzyme, and other mechanisms contribute to the decrease in density of the hydrogel. As a result, while the particles remain intact, void sizes increase and release of insulin ensues and is followed experimentally. A theoretical description of the involved processes is proposed and utilized to fit the data. It is then used to study the long-time properties of the release process that offers a model for designing new drug-release systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  16. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Guang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs and in acetylcholine (ACh, acetylcholine receptor (AChR, and acetylcholine esterase (AChE levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M, whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM. Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. Results. The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN and endplate spike (EPS significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Conclusion. Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs.

  17. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  18. Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

  19. Performance of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Fobes, R; Gorski, T; Grogg, K; Grothe, M; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Weinberg, M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) receives eight-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs). The RCT uses these trigger primitives to find e/γ candidates and calculate regional calorimeter sums that are sent to the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) for sorting and further processing. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT electronics have been completely installed since 2007. The RCT has been integrated into the CMS Level-1 Trigger chain. Regular runs, triggering on cosmic rays, prepare the CMS detector for the restart of the LHC. During this running, the RCT control is handled centrally by CMS Run Control and Monitor System communicating with the Trigger Supervisor. Online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) evaluates the performance of the RCT during these runs. Offline DQM allows more detailed studies, including trigger efficiencies. These and other r...

  20. L'ADN mitochondrial des Peuls nomades, témoin de leur origine en Afrique de l’Ouest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Bromová, Markéta; Čmejla, R.; Diallo, I.; Brůžek, J.; Brdička, R.; Hájek, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, 3/4 (2005), s. 227-228 ISSN 0037-8984. [1830e reunion scientifique de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. 19.01.2005-21.01.2005, Paříž] Keywords : nomads * West Africa Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Context-Aware Middleware Support for the Nomadic Mobile Services on Multi-homed Handheld Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, Pravin; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan; Peddemors, Arjan; van Halteren, Aart

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, a variety ofhandheld mobile devices are capable of connecting to the Internet using multiple network interfaces. This is referred to as multi-homing. In addition to this, enriched computation resources allow them to host nomadic mobile services and provide these services to the clients

  2. The Nomadic Existence of the Eternal Improviser and Diasporic Co-Poiesis in the Era of Mega-Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurze'ev, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    The history of transcendence and nomadism in face of the call for "home-returning" is marked figuratively by four milestones: (1) the "era" of immanence and dwelling in total harmony as a manifestation of self-sustained holiness; (2) the "era" of relating to holiness by mediation of God, especially in the monotheistic religions; (3) the "era" of…

  3. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grass Other Triggers If you have asthma, an asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “asthma ... a second person. Secondhand smoke can trigger an asthma attack. If you have asthma, people should never smoke ...

  4. The Contemporary Socio-Economic Crisis Situation and the Implementation of Inclusive Education for Nomadic Children with Disabilities in Nigeria: Implications for Guidance and Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester MwandarYakwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present socio-economic crisis situation in Nigeria has affected so many facets of life of the people generally not least of all the life of nomadic children with disabilities. Presently, a lot of focus is being directed at the provision of educational services for children with special needs (including nomadic children through inclusive education. This paper attempts to identify some of the ways that teaching and learning can be effectively carried out for nomadic children with disabilities in Nigeria with particular emphasis on its implications for guidance and counseling. The paper will attempt to identify the methods that can be used in the nomadic education classroom as well as establish the expected roles that guidance and counselling can play in the provision of such programmes for the enhancement of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities in the Nigerian educational system. Furthermore, it will strive to identify the problems emanating from the socio-economic crisis situation and how it affects nomadic children with disabilities. In particular, it will attempt to identify the counseling strategies that can be used for the insurance of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities generally and make far reaching recommendations to that effect.

  5. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  6. Steam explosion triggering phenomena: stainless steel and corium-E simulants studied with a floodable arc melting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.; Buxton, L.D.

    1978-05-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments on the thermal interaction of light water reactor core materials with water have been performed. Samples (10--35 g) of Type 304 stainless steel and Corium-E simulants were each flooded with approximately 1.5 litres of water to determine whether steam explosions would occur naturally. Many of the experiments also employed artificially induced pressure transients in an attempt to initiate steam explosions. Vigorous interactions were not observed when the triggering pulse was not applied, and for stainless steel the triggering pulse initiated only coarse fragmentation. Two-stage, pressure-producing interactions were triggered for an ''oxidic'' Corium-E simulant. An impulse-initiated gas release theory has been simulated to explain the initial sample fragmentation. Although the delayed second stage of the event is not fully understood, it does not appear to be readily explained with classical vapor explosion theory. Rather, some form of metastability of the melt seems to be involved

  7. The KLOE trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 μs decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement

  8. A Computational Study of the Factors Influencing the PVC-Triggering Ability of a Cluster of Early Afterdepolarization-Capable Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimik, Soling; Nayak, Alok Ranjan; Pandit, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), which are abnormal impulse propagations in cardiac tissue, can develop because of various reasons including early afterdepolarizations (EADs). We show how a cluster of EAD-generating cells (EAD clump) can lead to PVCs in a model of cardiac tissue, and also investigate the factors that assist such clumps in triggering PVCs. In particular, we study, through computer simulations, the effects of the following factors on the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump: (1) the repolarization reserve (RR) of the EAD cells; (2) the size of the EAD clump; (3) the coupling strength between the EAD cells in the clump; and (4) the presence of fibroblasts in the EAD clump. We find that, although a low value of RR is necessary to generate EADs and hence PVCs, a very low value of RR leads to low-amplitude EAD oscillations that decay with time and do not lead to PVCs. We demonstrate that a certain threshold size of the EAD clump, or a reduction in the coupling strength between the EAD cells, in the clump, is required to trigger PVCs. We illustrate how randomly distributed inexcitable obstacles, which we use to model collagen deposits, affect PVC-triggering by an EAD clump. We show that the gap-junctional coupling of fibroblasts with myocytes can either assist or impede the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump, depending on the resting membrane potential of the fibroblasts and the coupling strength between the myocyte and fibroblasts. We also find that the triggering of PVCs by an EAD clump depends sensitively on factors like the pacing cycle length and the distribution pattern of the fibroblasts. PMID:26675670

  9. A Comparative Study of Trigger Point Therapy with Local Anaesthetic (0.5 % Bupivacaine) Versus Combined Trigger Point Injection Therapy and Levosulpiride in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined local anesthetic injection with 0.5 % bupivacaine and levosulpiride versus local anesthetic injection alone on outcome measures including levels of pain intensity and depression in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in orofacial region. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label comparative clinical study. Seventy-four patients diagnosed to have myofascial pain syndrome and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A received local anesthetic injection (0.5 % bupivacaine) on trigger points and Group B received combined trigger point injection therapy and 50 mg of tablet Levosulpiride orally B.I.D. They were assessed for pain intensity and depression at baseline and at follow-up of 1, 4, 6 and 12 week intervals. The mean age of patients was 44.54 + 15.977 years in group A and 39.97 + 14.107 years in group B ( P value = 0.2). Group A comprised of 25 females (67.567 %) and 12 males (32.432 %) while group B had 27 females (75 %) and 9 males (25 %). 70.27 % were diagnosed with moderate depression in group A and 75 % in group B. 18.91 % in group A and 19.44 % in group B were diagnosed with severe depression. When the VAS score and BDI score was compared at the follow-up intervals with the baseline scores in both treatment groups, the mean difference was highly significant at all the follow-up intervals. However when the relative efficacies of two interventions were compared between the two groups, improvement in pain was significant at all the follow-up intervals except the 1st week follow-up whereas the improvement in depression was non-significant at 1st and 4th week interval while it was highly significant at 6th and 12th week intervals. The combined therapy with trigger point injection and levosulpiride as antidepressant significantly reduces pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic

  10. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  11. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  12. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  14. A Search for nu_mu to nu_e oscillations in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Godley, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment is a neutrino oscillation experiment. capable of identifying Vμ, -Vμ, Ve, -Ve and Vt for use in oscillation analyses. A search for Vμ --> Ve oscillations is conducted, emphasising the development of two separate beam simulators, to provide the background, (no oscillation), lie signal. Both beam descriptions include fits to the results of the SPY experiment that measured hadron production from a 450 GeV proton beam on beryllium target. An independent analysis of the raw SPY data to produce the particle yield is reported. A series of criteria are described for the selection and classification of neutrino events. These produce the data samples necessary for both tuning the beam simulation and determining the oscillation signal. The development of a GEANT and FLUKA based Monte Carlo beam simulator is presented; providing good agreement to the measured neutrino beam. This simulation method has sizeable variations depending on the beamline geometry, which is not knonm precisely. This causes ...

  15. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Forbes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  16. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  17. First measurements of water and D/H on Mars with ExoMars / NOMAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Mumma, Michael J.; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Thomas, Ian; Smith, Michael D.; Daerden, Frank; Ristic, Bojan; Patel, Manish; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Lopez-Moreno, Jose; NOMAD Team

    2017-10-01

    We present preliminary data collected by the high-resolution NOMAD (Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery) instrument onboard the ExoMars / Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) targeting several lines of water (H2O), deuterated water (HDO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). TGO is the first spacecraft on Mars specifically tailored to search for trace constituents, with the NOMAD instrument providing high spectral resolution (λ/dλ~ 20,000) over the 2-5 um spectral region. Such capabilities allow us to probe with unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity a multitude of organic species (e.g., CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6) and to map isotopic signatures (e.g., D/H, 13C/12C) across the whole planet.In particular, isotopic ratios are among the most valuable indicators for the loss of volatiles from an atmosphere. Because the escape rates for each isotope are slightly different (larger for the lighter forms), over long times the atmosphere becomes enriched in the heavy isotopic forms. By probing the current isotopic ratios, one can then infer the amount of matter lost to space over the planet’s evolution. Deuterium fractionation also reveals information about the cycle of water on the planet and informs us of its stability on short- and long-term scales, including its release from active regions on Mars having a characteristic D/H signature.Upon its successful launch in March/2016, we acquired critical calibration data in Apr/2016 and in June/2016, while during the Mars-Orbit-Capture phase, we also acquired Mars nadir data in Nov/2016 and in Feb-Mar/2017. Full science operations are expected to start upon final orbit insertion in early 2018. In this paper, we report initial retrievals of water and D/H derived during the Mars-Orbit-Capture phase and discuss the prospects for mapping of isotopic signatures during the nominal science phase.

  18. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbehusen, Cristiane L.; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Palacio, Glaucia A.S.; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  19. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  20. Minimum Bias Interaction Triggers in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic ppcollisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presente...

  1. Steam explosion triggering phenomena: stainless steel and corium-E simulants studied with a floodable arc melting apparatus. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.S.; Buxton, L.D.

    1978-05-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments on the thermal interaction of light water reactor core materials with water have been performed. Samples (10--35 g) of Type 304 stainless steel and Corium-E simulants were each flooded with approximately 1.5 litres of water to determine whether steam explosions would occur naturally. Many of the experiments also employed artificially induced pressure transients in an attempt to initiate steam explosions. Vigorous interactions were not observed when the triggering pulse was not applied, and for stainless steel the triggering pulse initiated only coarse fragmentation. Two-stage, pressure-producing interactions were triggered for an ''oxidic'' Corium-E simulant. An impulse-initiated gas release theory has been simulated to explain the initial sample fragmentation. Although the delayed second stage of the event is not fully understood, it does not appear to be readily explained with classical vapor explosion theory. Rather, some form of metastability of the melt seems to be involved.

  2. Remoteness influences access to sexual partners and drives patterns of viral sexually transmitted infection prevalence among nomadic pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Ashley; Holland Jones, James

    2018-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprise a significant portion of the infectious-disease burden among rural people in the Global South. Particular characteristics of ruralness-low-density settlements and poor infrastructure-make healthcare provision difficult, and remoteness, typically a characteristic of ruralness, often compounds the difficultly. Remoteness may also accelerate STI transmission, particularly that of viral STIs, through formation of small, highly connected sexual networks through which pathogens can spread rapidly, especially when partner concurrency is broadly accepted. Herein, we explored the effect of remoteness on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) epidemiology among semi-nomadic pastoralists in northwestern (Kaokoveld) Namibia, where, in 2009 we collected HSV-2-specific antibody status, demographic, sexual network, and travel data from 446 subjects (women = 213, men = 233) in a cross-sectional study design. HSV-2 prevalence was high overall in Kaokoveld (>35%), but was heterogeneously distributed across locally defined residential regions: some regions had significantly higher HSV-2 prevalence (39-48%) than others (21-33%). Using log-linear models, we asked the following questions: 1) Are sexual contacts among people in high HSV-2-prevalence regions more likely to be homophilous (i.e., from the same region) than those among people from low-prevalence regions? 2) Are high-prevalence regions more "functionally" remote, in that people from those regions are more likely to travel within their own region than outside, compared to people from other regions? We found that high-prevalence regions were more sexually homophilous than low-prevalence regions and that those regions also had higher rates of within-region travel than the other regions. These findings indicate that remoteness can create contact structures for accelerated STI transmission among people who are already disproportionately vulnerable to consequences of untreated STIs.

  3. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis is a common and disabling condition, which has a detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of plantar heel pain, the optimal treatment for this disorder remains unclear. Consequently, an alternative therapy such as dry needling is increasingly being used as an adjunctive treatment by health practitioners. Only two trials have investigated the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain, however both trials were of a low methodological quality. This manuscript describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. Methods Eighty community-dwelling men and woman aged over 18 years with plantar heel pain (who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited. Eligible participants with plantar heel pain will be randomised to receive either one of two interventions, (i real dry needling or (ii sham dry needling. The protocol (including needling details and treatment regimen was formulated by general consensus (using the Delphi research method using 30 experts worldwide that commonly use dry needling for plantar heel pain. Primary outcome measures will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and "first step" pain as measured on a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures will be health related quality of life (assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire - Version Two and depression, anxiety and stress (assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - short version. Primary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and secondary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Conclusion This study is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. The trial will

  4. Search for neutrino oscillations νμ→ντ in the decay channel: τ→ρ of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the τ - issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the τ - decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: τ - → ρ - is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of ρ. (A.C.)

  5. Day two post retrieval 1500 IUI hCG bolus, progesterone-free luteal support post GnRH agonist trigger - a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetik, Sharon; Segal, Linoy; Breizman, Tatiana; Kol, Shahar

    2018-02-01

    Small dose of hCG (1500 IU) on the day of oocyte retrieval, followed by daily progesterone administration, is currently the preferred way to secure adequate luteal support following GnRH agonist trigger. In the current proof-of-concept study, we explored the possibility that a bolus of 1500 IU hCG, given two days after oocyte retrieval, may be sufficient to sustain adequate luteal support without additional progesterone treatment. From February 2015 to August 2016, we obtained 44 pregnancies following GnRHa trigger followed by day 2 hCG (1500 IU) support only (study group). Data from these 44 cycles were compared with the latest 44 pregnancies obtained following hCG (6500 IU) trigger followed by conventional progesterone luteal documented (control group). Mean progesterone levels (14 days postoocyte retrieval) in the study and control groups were 197 nmol/l and 173 nmol/l, respectively (NS). Mean E 2 levels (14 days post oocyte retrieval) in the study group was 6937 pmol/l, significantly higher (p hCG, administered 2 days after retrieval, can provide excellent support, without the need to further supplement with progesterone.

  6. Ecological thresholds as a basis for defining management triggers for National Park Service vital signs: case studies for dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Miller, Mark E.; Belote, R. Travis; Garman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    understanding and estimating of threshold dynamics for terrestrial dryland ecosystems in national parks of the Colorado Plateau. We provide a structured approach to identify and describe degradation processes associated with threshold behavior and to estimate indicator levels that characterize the point at which a threshold crossing has occurred or is imminent (tipping points) or points where investigative or preventive management action should be triggered (assessment points). We illustrate this method for several case studies in national parks included in the Northern and Southern Colorado Plateau NPS I&M networks, where historical livestock grazing, climatic change, and invasive species are key agents of change. The approaches developed in these case studies are intended to enhance the design, effectiveness, and management-relevance of monitoring efforts in support of conservation management in dryland systems. They specifically enhance National Park Service (NPS) capacity for protecting park resources on the Colorado Plateau but have applicability to monitoring and conservation management of dryland ecosystems worldwide.

  7. ATLAS Trigger and DAQ Upgrades for High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system will be significantly upgraded to explore new physics beyond the standard model in the High-Luminosity LHC environment with instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5⨯1034cm-2 s-1. Two general trigger schemes are under study and their prospects and concerns are discussed. The muon trigger and readout electronics will be totally replaced to cope with a longer latency and a higher trigger rate. At the same time, new trigger algorithms using the precision tracker will be introduced to sharpen efficiency turn-ons and suppress fake triggers. The algorithm and the expected performance of the muon trigger are described. The hardware based track trigger is one of the major items introduced in the upgrade program. It will improve the trigger performance of various trigger items with a combination of the calorimeter or muon signature. The procedure for processing track information and an expected performance on the electron trigger are presented.

  8. An electronic trigger tool to optimise intravenous to oral antibiotic switch: a controlled, interrupted time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin A. H. Berrevoets

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely switch from intravenous (iv antibiotics to oral therapy is a key component of antimicrobial stewardship programs in order to improve patient safety, promote early discharge and reduce costs. We have introduced a time-efficient and easily implementable intervention that relies on a computerized trigger tool, which identifies patients who are candidates for an iv to oral antibiotic switch. Methods The intervention was introduced on all internal medicine wards in a teaching hospital. Patients were automatically identified by an electronic trigger tool when parenteral antibiotics were used for >48 h and clinical or pharmacological data did not preclude switch therapy. A weekly educational session was introduced to alert the physicians on the intervention wards. The intervention wards were compared with control wards, which included all other hospital wards. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed to compare the pre-intervention period with the post-intervention period using ‘% of i.v. prescriptions >72 h’ and ‘median duration of iv therapy per prescription’ as outcomes. We performed a detailed prospective evaluation on a subset of 244 prescriptions to evaluate the efficacy and appropriateness of the intervention. Results The number of intravenous prescriptions longer than 72 h was reduced by 19% in the intervention group (n = 1519 (p < 0.01 and the median duration of iv antibiotics was reduced with 0.8 days (p = <0.05. Compared to the control group (n = 4366 the intervention was responsible for an additional decrease of 13% (p < 0.05 in prolonged prescriptions. The detailed prospective evaluation of a subgroup of patients showed that adherence to the electronic reminder was 72%. Conclusions An electronic trigger tool combined with a weekly educational session was effective in reducing the duration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy.

  9. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  10. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Stenosing tenosynovitis is a condition commonly known as “trigger finger.” It is sometimes also called “trigger thumb.” The tendons that bend the fingers glide easily with ...

  11. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  12. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Hayta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized studyin MPS patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger points, the effects of dry needling (n=28 and kinesiotaping (n=27 was compared with regard to the visual analog scale (VAS, neck disability index (NDI, and Nottingham health profile (NHP scores measured at the weeks 0, 4, and 12. Results: Both dry needling and kinesiotaping comparably reduced VAS scores measured at the weeks 4 and 12 and their efficacies were more remarkable at the week 12 (p<0.05. These interventions significantly reduced the NDI and NHP score and their effects were also more remarkable at the week 12; however, dry needling was found more effective (p<0.05. Conclusion: Overall, in current clinical settings, during the management of MPS, pain can be reduced comparably by both dry needling and kinesiotaping; however, restriction in the range of motionin neck region and quality of life are more remarkably reduced by dry needling. Both dry needling and kinesiotaping can provide an increasing effectiveness up to 12 weeks.

  13. Reconsideration of the nomadic condition of the southernmost Guachichiles based on the relationship with their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Rivera-Villanueva, José Antonio

    2018-04-02

    The Guachichiles were a group of Chichimeca people that inhabited the southern and central parts of the Mexican Plateau. In the southern area of their distribution, they occupied and used the tunales, extensive forests of arborescent nopales (Opuntia spp.). Their pre-Columbian distribution was dissected by the Royal Silver Road established by the Spaniards, and this lead to them being main protagonists in the so-called Chichimeca War, during the sixteenth century. With very little first-hand documentation, the Guachichiles were described as savage, warring, primitive, hunting nomads, but little efforts have been done to understand their daily life habits. Based on the relationship of pre-Columbian southern Guachichiles with their environment, we re-valuate whether they were nomads, as the Chichimecas collectively have been labeled, or whether those living in tunales could live year-round in this habitat. As part of our analysis, we propose the primary plant and animal species that integrated their diet. We draw information from a review of bibliographic sources, complemented with extensive searches in all pertinent Mexican archives. We carried out field work to define the geographical extent of the pre-Columbian territory of the southernmost Guachichiles, based on the Spanish Chronicles, remnant fragments of vegetation, landscape characteristics, and geographic names related with nopales. Using approaches from wildlife ecology, historical sciences and ethnobiological information on wild resources currently or recently used in the area, we proposed which resources were available to the southernmost Guachichiles, and how their primary diet might have been. The habitat of the southern Guachichiles, the tunal forest, was exuberant and rich in resources, having provided numerous plant products, of which tunas (prickly pears) and mesquite pods were of uttermost importance. At least 10 plant foods were available within the tunales. They would have consumed at least seven

  14. The triggering effect of alcohol and illicit drugs on violent crime in a remand prison population: a case crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Lena; Haggård, Ulrika; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Thiblin, Ingemar

    2013-04-01

    The association between substance abuse, particularly alcohol abuse, and violence has been well established. However, since substance abuse co-occurs with several other risk factors for violence, the causal link between substance abuse and violence and the extent to which the acute influence of alcohol, illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, and anabolic androgenic steroids have a triggering effect on violent behavior are more uncertain. Case-crossover design was used based on data from structured face to face interviews with remand prisoners (n=194; 172 men, 22 women) suspected of violent crimes. odds ratio (OR 95% CI) for a violent crime, 24h after exposure to different substances, compared to periods of no exposure was calculated using conditional logistic regression and a Mantel-Haenszel estimator with confidence intervals for sparse data. Intake of alcohol (OR 6.41 CI 4.24-9.67) and large doses of benzodiazepines (OR 36.32 CI 7.14-183.65) triggered interpersonal violence. Stratified analyses of possible effect modifiers were sex, conduct/behavioral problems, trauma experiences; psychiatric vulnerability did not reveal any substantial differences. Influences of alcohol and unusually high doses of benzodiazepines are proximal risk factors for violent crime. Improved knowledge of short-term (and dose-related) risk factors may contribute to treatment planning and risk assessment of violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ischemic compression after trigger point injection affect the treatment of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. SIXTY PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (ptrigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point.

  16. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  17. Rosacea Triggers: Alcohol and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, Hossein; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Patel, Nupur U; Patel, Nishit; Awosika, Olabola; Bahrami, Naeim; Cardwell, Leah A; Richardson, Irma; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-04-01

    A variety of triggers are thought to exacerbate rosacea. A validated self-assessment tool and survey was used to study the relationship between rosacea severity and triggers. Subjects were adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of rosacea. Increased severity of disease was significantly associated with consumption of many alcoholic beverages in 1 day and employment at a job requiring extensive sun exposure. The authors' findings may inform physician counseling practices; patients may be provided with practical measures for managing their rosacea, such as limiting alcohol consumption over short periods of time and increasing sun protection, especially in the summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility studies on the L1 trigger for large b-quark multiplicity events with the CMS Phase-II detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes Jacques Da Costa, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The HL-LHC will collide protons at √s = 14 TeV, with a peak luminosity of 5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, allowing an integrated luminosity of 250 fb−1 per year [1]. The large amount of statistics collected will allow the study of processes with low cross sections such as hh and tth, where we can have final states with high multiplicity of b quarks. Events will be characterised by high pileup : 140 − 200, which will require new approaches in order to discriminate signal from background. For the Phase-II the CMS detector will be upgraded and the L1 Trigger will exploit new features such as the use of tracks. A new trigger algorithm searching for µ inside jets was developed in this internship with the goal of efficiently pass events with b quarks and low rates involved. It is not yet possible to attest the improvement of this algorithm against the already implemented ones in the trigger menu.

  19. Usefulness of a myofascial trigger point injection for groin pain in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Suk; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Yoon, Jeong-Gyu; Lee, Sang Chul

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of trigger point injection into the muscles around the groin in patients with clinically diagnosed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Prospective, unicenter trial. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=21) with clinically diagnosed CP/CPPS who are suspected of having myofascial pain syndrome. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injection. Visual analog scale (VAS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, and injection-associated complications. Ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and lower abdominal muscles resulted in excellent outcomes. The mean values of the NIH-CPSI score decreased significantly from 20.2 pretreatment to 12.5 after the first treatment (Ptrigger point injections of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and abdominal muscles are safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of groin pain is suspected to originate from muscles. In particular, the iliopsoas muscle was affected in all patients in this study. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of trigger algorithms and studies for the measurement of the Higgs boson self-coupling in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlhoff, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    At the LHC in Geneva the ATLAS experiment will start at 2007. The first part of the present work describes the implementation of trigger algorithms for the Jet/Energy Processor (JEP) as well as all other required features like controlling, diagnostics and read-out. The JEP is one of three processing units of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger. It identifies and finds the location of jets, and sums total and missing transverse energy information from the trigger data. The Jet/Energy Module (JEM) is the main module of the JEP. The JEM prototype is designed to be functionally identical to the final production module for ATLAS. The thesis presents a description of the architecture, required functionality, and jet and energy summation algorithm of the JEM. Various input test vector patterns were used to check the performance of the comlete energy summation algorithm. The test results using two JEM prototypes are presented and discussed. The subject of the second part is a Monte-Carlo study which determines the ...

  1. A Comparative Pilot Study to Evaluate the Adjunctive Role of Levosulpride with Trigger Point Injection Therapy in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of therapy with levosulpride combined with conventional trigger point injection therapy in terms of pain and depression in the chronic myofascial pain syndrome patients. This was a comparative prospective study in which subjects with at least one trigger point and symptom duration of at least 3 months were recruited and randomized into two groups. Group A subjects received trigger point injections with 0.5 % bupivacaine and tablet levosulpride and group B received trigger point injections and a placebo. Subjects were assessed for pain with visual analog scale (VAS) and depression with Beck's depression inventory (BDI) at the follow-up periods of 1, 4, 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effect was measured in terms of mean difference of BDI and VAS scores at various studied intervals from the baseline values. The sample was composed of 15 subjects with 8 in group A (6 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 41.88 ± 15.13 years, disease duration of 12.37 ± 16.11 months) and 7 in group B (6 females and 1 male, with a mean age of 43.86 ± 12.34 years, disease duration of 9.64 ± 9.34 months). The mean baseline VAS score and BDI score was 6.75 ± 1.03 in group A and 6.86 ± 1.06 in group B and 24.25 ± 10.20 in group A and 24.43 ± 11.16 in group B respectively. The mean difference of VAS scores at 12th week interval from the baseline values was highly significant. Although the mean difference of VAS scores at all the other intervals and mean difference of BDI scores at all the intervals was statistically nonsignificant, there was improvement in the mean differences at all the follow-up intervals in terms of both pain as well as depression. The combined therapy with conventional trigger point injection and levosulpride as antidepressant significantly reduce pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic myofascial pain with moderate to severe depression in the orofacial region.

  2. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  3. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  4. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the next generation proton-proton collider, the LHC. The high rate of interactions and the large number of read-out channels make the trigger system for ATLAS a challenging task. The initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz has to be reduced to about 200 Hz while preserving the physics signals against a large background. ATLAS uses a three-level trigger system, with the first level implemented in custom hardware, while the high level trigger systems are implemented in software on commodity hardware. This note describes the physics motivation, the various selection strategies for different channels as well as the physical implementation of the trigger system.

  5. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  6. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your house and may trigger asthma. Your asthma or your child's asthma may be worse around products such as ... You Can Take If you find that your asthma or your child's asthma gets worse when you use a certain ...

  7. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Rhys Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment employs a complex trigger system to enable the collaborations physics program. The LHC is now well in to its second running period delivering proton proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with high instantaneous luminosity. This talk will describe the two level hardware and software trigger used to select events in this environment including recent improvements and the latest performance results.

  8. 2017 Tau Trigger Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Triggers selecting events with hadronically decaying $\\tau$ leptons ($\\tau_h$) are used in a wide variety of CMS analyses, in particular those targeting processes with a $H \\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$ decay. The performance of the $\\tau_h$ triggers is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5\\,fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV, and compared with simulation.

  9. Managing the Risk of Triggered Seismicity: Can We Identify (and Avoid) Potentially Active Faults? - A Practical Case Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Alt, R. C., II; Walsh, F. R.; Walters, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that throughout the central and eastern U.S. there has been a marked increase in seismicity since 2009, at least some of which appears to increased wastewater injection. No area has seen a greater increase in seismicity than Oklahoma. In this paper, we utilize newly available information on in situ stress orientation and relative magnitudes, the distribution of high volume injection wells and knowledge of the intervals used for waste water disposal to identify the factors potentially contributing to the occurrence of triggered seismicity. While there are a number of sites where in situ stress data has been successfully used to identify potentially active faults, we are investigating whether this methodology can be implemented throughout a state utilizing the types of information frequently available in areas of oil and gas development. As an initial test of this concept, we have been compiling stress orientation data from wells throughout Oklahoma provided by private industry. Over fifty new high quality data points, principally drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in image logs, result in a greatly improved understanding of the stress field in much of the state. A relatively uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress is observed, although stress orientations (and possibly relative stress magnitudes) differ in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. The proposed methodology can be tested in the area of the NE-trending fault that produced the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011, and the Meers fault in southwestern OK, that produced a M~7 reverse faulting earthquake about 1100 years ago. This methodology can also be used to essentially rule out slip on other major faults in the area, such as the ~N-S trending Nemaha fault system. Additional factors leading to the occurrence of relatively large triggered earthquakes in Oklahoma are 1) the overall increase in injection volumes throughout the state in recent

  10. Evaluation of Physically-based Model’s Predictive Skill for Hurricane-triggered Landslides: Case Study in North Carolina and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Hong, Y.; Fukuoka, H.; Sassa, K.

    2009-12-01

    The key to advancing the predictability of rainfall-triggered landslides is to use physically-based, slope-stability models that simulate the dynamical response of the subsurface moisture to the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall in complex terrain. In the first study we quantitatively evaluate the spatiotemporal predictability of a Matlab version of TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-Stability Analysis) in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina where Hurricane Ivan triggered widespread landslides in September, 2004. A high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (6-meter LiDAR), USGS STATSGO soil database, and NOAA/NWS combined radar and gauge precipitation are used as inputs to the model. A local landslide inventory database from the North Carolina Department of Transportation is used to evaluate the model’s predictive skill for the landslide locations and timing over a 30-hour period of Hurricane Ivan’s passage. This study shows that TRIGRS demonstrates acceptable skill for landslide occurrences within a 120-meter radius. Real-time predictions with this model offer the potential to serve as a landslide warning system in areas where accurate rainfall forecasts and detailed field data are available. In the second study, a prototype early warning system has been developed to predict typhoon-induced shallow landslides over Java Island, Indonesia. The system utilizes a newly developed physically-based model that accounts for the contribution of rainfall infiltration and partial saturation to the shear strength of the soil in topographically complex catchments. geomorphological data are primarily based on a 30-meter ASTER DEM and 1-km soil maps, where precipitation forcing comes from satellite-based TRMM nowcasts and Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) forecasts. Model performance has been evaluated using a local landslide inventory, and it shows potential for predicting future typhoon-triggered landslides.

  11. A hybrid breath hold and continued respiration-triggered technique for time-resolved 3D MRI perfusion studies in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintze, C.; Stemmer, A.; Bock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of lung cancer perfusion is impaired by respiratory motion. Imaging times for contrast agent wash-out studies often exceed breath hold capabilities, and respiration triggering reduces temporal resolution. Temporally resolved volume acquisition of entire tumors is required to assess heterogeneity. Therefore, we developed and evaluated an MR measurement technique that exceeds a single breath hold, and provides a variable temporal resolution during acquisition while suspending breath-dependent motion. 20 patients with suspected lung cancer were subjected to perfusion studies using a spoiled 3D gradient echo sequence after bolus injection of 0.07 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA. 10 acquisitions in expiratory breath hold were followed by 50 navigator-triggered acquisitions under free breathing. Post-processing allowed for co-registration of the 3D data sets. An ROI-based visualization of the signal-time curves was performed. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm 3 , voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm 3 ) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration. The tumors showed fast wash-in, followed by rapid signal decay (8 / 20) or a plateau. The feasibility of a perfusion study with hybrid breath hold and navigator-triggered time-resolved 3D MRI which combines high initial temporal resolution during breath hold with a long wash-out period under free breathing was demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  13. Supine Breast MRI Using Respiratory Triggering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Natasja N. Y.; ter Beek, Leon C.; Loo, Claudette E.; Winter-Warnars, Gonneke; Lange, Charlotte A. H.; van Loveren, Marjolein; Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Nijkamp, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate if navigator-echo respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance acquisition can acquire supine high-quality breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Supine respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance imaging (Trig-MRI) was compared to supine non-Trig-MRI to evaluate

  14. Angioedema Triggered by Medication Blocking the Renin/Angiotensin System: Retrospective Study Using the French National Pharmacovigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisant, Charles; Armengol, Guillaume; Bouillet, Laurence; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Villier, Céline; Lévesque, Hervé; Cottin, Judith; Massy, Nathalie; Benhamou, Ygal

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin-mediated angioedema (AE) is a rare side effect of some medications, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). In France, side-effects to treatments are reported to the national pharmacovigilance database. The national MedDRA database was searched using the term "angioedema". Patients were included if they met the clinical criteria corresponding to bradykinin-mediated AE, if their C1-inhibitor levels were normal, and if they were treated with an ACEi or an ARB. 7998 cases of AE were reported between 1994 and 2013. Among these, 112 met the criteria for bradykinin-mediated AE with normal C1-inhibitor levels. On the 112 drug-AE, patients were treated with an ARB in 21% of cases (24 patients), or an ACEi in 77% of cases (88 patients), in combination with another treatment in 17 cases (mTORi for 3 patients, iDPP-4 for 1 patient, hormonal treatment for 7 patients). ENT involvement was reported in 90% of cases (tongue: 48.2%, larynx: 23.2%). The median duration of treatment before the first attack was 720 days, and the mean duration of attacks was 36.6 h. Forty-one percent (19/46) of patients relapsed after discontinuing treatment. Angioedema triggered by medication blocking the renin/angiotensin system is rare but potentially severe, with a high risk of recurrence despite cessation of the causative drug.

  15. Search for neutrino oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the decay channel: {tau}{yields}{rho} of the NOMAD experiment; Recherche d'oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} dans le canal de desintegration {tau}{yields}{rho} aupres de l'experience NOMAD au Cern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, N

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the {tau}{sup -} issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the {tau}{sup -} decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: {tau}{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup -} is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of {rho}. (A.C.)

  16. Search on neutrino oscillation {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} in the NOMAD experiment; Recherches des oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} dans l`experience NOMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuev, Viatcheslav [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-07-07

    The NOMAD experiment is a search for neutrino oscillations using the large band neutrino beams of SPS at CERN. It is dealing with the two oscillation modes: {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e}. This thesis presents the results obtained in the search of oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} with the data produced by NOMAD in 1995 and 1996. The first two chapters deal with the short presentation of the neutrino oscillation phenomenology and a summary of the experimental situation. The third chapter describes the experimental setup of the NOMAD detector at CERN, designed to identify the interactions of {nu}{sub e} by means of the charged current. This is done with the transition radiation detector (TRD) designed to separate the electrons from pions with a rejection factor higher then 1000 at an electron efficiency of 90%, in the 1 - 50 GeV region. Details about the TRD operation are given in chapter four. The fifth chapter gives the algorithms of electron-pion separation as well as their performances. The last two chapters present the analysis of the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} data obtained in 1995 and 1996 and the final results. The conclusion is that the available data give no evidence for the neutrino oscillations. The upper limit obtained for the mixing angle is sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) < 1.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -3} (90% C.L.). This result eliminates completely the oscillation region of LSND experiment (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) at LAMPF for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 15 eV{sup 2} and gives the most constraining world limit on sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 20 eV{sup 2} 123 refs., 82 figs., 37 tabs.

  17. Do Physical Activities Trigger Flare-ups During an Acute Low Back Pain Episode?: A Longitudinal Case-Crossover Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; de Schepper, Evelien; Martha, Julia; Hartigan, Carol; Hunter, David J

    2018-03-15

    Prospective, longitudinal case-crossover study. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activities trigger flare-ups of pain during the course of acute low back pain (LBP). .: There exist no evidence-based estimates for the transient risk of pain flare-ups associated with specific physical activities, during acute LBP. Participants with LBP of duration up, defined as "a period of increased pain lasting at least 2 hours, when your pain intensity is distinctly worse than it has been recently." Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for associations between potential triggers during the past 24 hours, and the risk of LBP flare-ups, using conditional logistic regression. Of 48 participants followed longitudinally, 30 participants had both case ("flare") and control periods and contributed data to the case-crossover analysis. There were 81 flare periods and 247 control periods, an average of 11 periods per participant. Prolonged sitting (>6 hours) was the only activity that was significantly associated with flare-ups(OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0-9.7; P ups (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.0; P = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, prolonged sitting (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.9-9.1; P up risk. Among participants with acute LBP, prolonged sitting (>6 hours) and stress or depression triggered LBP flare-ups. PT was a deterrent of flare-ups. 2.

  18. Child feeding practices and diarrheal disease among children less than two years of age of the nomadic people in Hadaleala District, Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Woldu, Wondwoson; Bitew, Bikes Destaw

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Ethiopia. It is responsible for 24-30% of all infant deaths and there is a lack of evidence on the health burdens among the nomadic people. This study was therefore designed to assess the prevalence of diarrhea among children less thanvtwo year's of age and its association with feeding practices among the nomadic people in Hadaleala district, northeast Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadaleala district. A total of 367 children less than two years of age were included using the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with diarrheal disease. The prevalence of diarrhea among children less than two year's of age during the two week period was 31.3% (95% CI, 25.9, 36.1%). Diarrhea occurrence was associated with; children aged between 6-11 months (AOR 6.28, 95% CI, 3.00, 13.12), aged between 12-24 months (AOR 6.21, 95% CI, 3.13, 12.30), illiterate mothers (AOR 6.61, 95% CI, 2.27, 19.21), delay to initiate early breastfeeding for children aged less than six months (AOR 9.13, 95% CI, 1.78, 46.72), children less than six months of age not currently exclusively breastfed (AOR 13.33, 95% CI, 1.59, 112.12), delay to initiate early breastfeeding for children aged 6-24 months (AOR 2.87, 95% CI, 1.49, 5.51), no breastfeeding at the time of the survey (AOR 3.51, 95% CI, 1.57, 7.82), children aged 6-24 months who didn't exclusively breastfeed in the first six months (AOR 19.24, 95% CI, 8.26, 44.82), consuming uncooked foods (AOR 6.99, 95% CI, 2.89, 16.92), not eating cooked foods immediately after cooking (AOR 3.74, 95% CI, 1.48, 9.45), hand washing with only water (AOR 24.94, 95% CI, 6.68, 93.12), and rotavirus vaccination (AOR 0.09, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.29). The prevalence of diarrhea among children less than two year's of age in Hadaleala district was high. To prevent diarrhea

  19. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....

  20. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  1. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; 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Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; 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Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; 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Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  2. A case study utilizing myofascial release, acupressure and trigger point therapy to treat bilateral "Stringhalt" in a 12 year old Akhal-Teke horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Tammy

    2017-07-01

    "Stringhalt" is a horse condition that causes one or both hind legs to spasm when walking, trotting or backing. The condition is thought to be related to a neurological cause from either plant toxicity or peripheral nerve injury. The prognosis is poor and the horse's performance and quality of life can be affected. Treatment has included surgically cutting the digital extensors with varied results. The objective of the study is to utilize soft tissue release via acupressure, trigger point and myofascial release to decrease symptoms of stringhalt. The case study is a 12 year old Akhal-Teke horse of excellent pedigree. In 2011, she was caught in barbed wire overnight and sustained lacerations to the bone in her hindlimbs. Shortly after the injury the horse was placed in a stall for several months and was unable to walk or run, developing stringhalt. Currently, her condition is aggravated by stress and alleviated by certain types of massage (myofascial, acupressure, and trigger point release). The incidence of stringhalt occurs every 3-5 min, with more frequent and severe symptoms on the right hindlimb. The horse is unable to run or back up. Six 1 to 1½ hour bi-weekly treatments were performed. The treatments consisted of myofascial release at the cervical, sacrum and iliums, acupressure of the bladder meridian (including c-spine, t-spine, l-spine, and hamstring), and trigger point release of the iliacus. The stringhalt symptoms were monitored for 30 min prior to each of the 6 treatment sessions. After 6 treatments, the horse was observed running and standing in a position that promotes hip extension. She has not been able to do either since the injury. The frequency and severity of the spasms have decreased to every 10-20 min. The horse's owners report that her disposition, stress and quality of life are much improved. The results suggest that myofascial release, acupressure and trigger point therapy may be utilized to provide a positive treatment outcome in the

  3. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kheradmandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (aged 20 - 45 years old were recruited after primary evaluation by an orthopedist. They entered the study if they had pain in the lateral aspect of elbow of the dominant hand for more than 3 months along with the presence of myofascial trigger points in any muscles of supra spinatus, infra spinatus, sub scapularis or scalenes. Pain pressure threshold, maximal grip force and pain intensity of the hand extensors on lateral epicondyle of elbow were measured before and after treatment. Pain intensity was measured on a one to ten scale of visual analogue scale (VAS. A hand dynamometer used to measure the maximal grip force value of the affected hand in 0˚shoulder flexion/ abduction, 90˚ elbow extension and mid-poison of forearm in sitting position. A pressure algometer was applied on hand extensor muscles to define their trigger point sensitivity. For the control group, treatment regimens consisted of routine physical therapy of tennis elbow. This regime was accompanied by dry needling of mentioned muscles for the intervention group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Comparison of the results after intervention showed that the patients’ pain significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001; but the patient’s PPT and grip force significantly increased solely in the intervention group (P<0.05. Mann Whitney test showed significant pain differences in both groups (P=0.001. The comparison of differences

  4. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound identified trigger point injection in myofascial pain syndrome: A pilot study in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is described as sensory symptoms, sometimes with motor and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TPs. Injection at TPs is most likely to benefit patients with such disorder. The identification of TPs is usually clinical. However, in sites where there are major vital structures, ultrasound guidance and real-time visualization may help in decreasing complications. Methodology: Twenty patients who presented to pain clinic with classic symptoms of MPS in the neck and shoulder area with clinically detectable TPs were selected. The points were imaged with ultrasound to find correlation with clinical positions. They were injected with a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid on TPs with real-time ultrasound guidance and needle visualization. Pretreatment visual analog scale (VAS scores and posttreatment (immediate and after 1 month were noted. The mean reduction in VAS scores was analyzed with paired Student′s t-test. Any side effect was observed and managed. Results: Clinically detectable TPs coincided with an echogenic point on the undersurface of the trapezius. There was a significant reduction in pain scores at both times. The needle sign was positive in all the cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: The clinically identified TPs in trapezius muscle coincided well with ultrasound imaged echogenic structure in the muscle in all the cases. Ultrasound-assisted injections also produced the needle sign in all the cases. The achieved analgesia both immediately after the injection and a month later was satisfactory in the majority of cases. The echogenic mass corresponding to the TP is found to be on the undersurface of the muscle rather than inside the mass of the muscle.

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  6. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  7. Development of trigger software for the silicon and fibre trackers and a study of B meson lifetimes for the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illingworth, Robert Arthur [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    The D0 detector has recently undergone a major upgrade to maximize its potential to fully exploit Run II at the Tevatron 2 TeV proton-antiproton collider. The upgrade includes a completely new central tracking system with an outer scintillating fiber tracker and an inner silicon vertex detector. This thesis describes the development of the software to ''unpack'' the raw data from the central tracking detectors into a useful form, and the development of the Level 3 trigger algorithms to cluster the hit information from these detectors. One of the many areas of physics that is being studied by the D0 experiment is the physics of B mesons, particularly that involving CP violation. The second part of the thesis details a constrained mass fitting tool written to aid the reconstruction of B particles, and a Monte Carlo study into measuring the lifetime of B+ and B0 mesons. This thesis lays the foundations for the means by which physics is extracted from the vast amount of Tevatron data--the trigger--and illustrates how analyses will proceed through the key reconstruction of heavy quarks.

  8. Study of muon trigger scenarios for the measurement of $B_{s}^{0}$ oscillations in the channels $B_{s}^{0}\\to D_{s}^{-}\\pi^{+}$ and $B_{s}^{0}\\to D_{s}^{-}a_1^{+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Jussel, P; Epp, B; Kneringer, E; Walkowiak, W

    2006-01-01

    Within the ATLAS $B$-physics programme it is foreseen to study $B_s^0$ oscillations and measure the mixing parameter \\dms. The measurement of this parameter is an important input for the determination of other $B_s^0$ parameters from e.g. the decay $B_s^0 \\to J/\\Psi \\phi$, in particular the lifetime difference $\\Delta \\Gamma_s$ and the weak phase $\\phi_s$. The hadronic $B_s^0$ decay modes to $D_s^- \\pi^+$ and $D_{s}^{-} a_{1}^{+}$ with \\hbox{$D_{s}^{-}\\to \\phi(\\to K^{+}K^{-})\\pi^{-}$} and $a_1^+ \\to \\rho^0 (\\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-) \\pi^+$ are used in this analysis to evaluate the number of signal events expected for an integrated luminosity of \\mbox{30~\\ifb} and to determine the \\dms \\ sensitivity using the amplitude fit method. Four classes of trigger scenarios are considered, each with different trigger conditions: a single-muon trigger, a di-muon trigger, a muon-electron trigger and a combined muon-lepton trigger. This analysis, performed on Monte Carlo particle-level, shows that besides the single-muon trigger th...

  9. Post-Soviet Tuvan Throat-Singing (Xöömei) and the Circulation of Nomadic Sensibility

    OpenAIRE

    Beahrs, Robert Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Guttural singing practices in the Sayan-Altai region of south-central Siberia have been historically framed as possessing "nomadic" qualities linked with pastoral population groups indigenous to the region. As these singing practices were incorporated into a genre of national folk music for Tannu Tuva (1921-1944) and the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1961-1991)--and then later reformulated as the centerpiece of an exotic genre of world music--xöömei throat-singing was shaped by ...

  10. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  11. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  12. ATLAS level-1 jet trigger rates and study of the ATLAS discovery potential of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in b-jet decay channels

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, Kambiz

    2001-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS calorimeters to electrons, photons and hadrons, in terms of the longitudinal and lateral shower development, is parameterized using the GEANT package and a detailed detector description (DICE). The parameterizations are implemented in the ATLAS Level-1 (LVL1) Calorimeter Trigger fast simulation package which, based on an average detector geometry, simulates the complete chain of the LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. In addition, pile-up effects due to multiple primary interactions are implemented taking into account the shape and time history of the trigger signals. An interface to the fast physics simulation package (ATLFAST) is also developed in order to perform ATLAS physics analysis, including the LVL1 trigger effects, in a consistent way. The simulation tools, the details of the parameterization and the interface are described. The LVL1 jet trigger thresholds corresponding to the current trigger menus are determined within the framework of the fast simulation, and the LVL1 jet tr...

  13. Solated Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    An Isolated Muon L1 Trigger is proposed to reject muons from decays of b and c-quarks preserving high efficiency for muons from heavier objects. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is feasible and significant rejection factor ( 3-10) can be achieved. Similar algorithm can be applied at L2.

  14. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  15. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  16. A triggering system on a given neutron missing mass for the study of the π-p→nX0 reaction (1430MeV/c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinsignon, Jean.

    1976-10-01

    A general description of the electronics associated with the experiment is first given. A detailed study of the technical solutions which have been adopted to solve two specific requirements of the experiment is presented. The magnetic fields of the various magnets have been measured and monitored over a long period of time by means of simple and inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance probes, in order to insure the stability of the momentum of the incoming pion beam. Neutrons have been detected and their time of flight measured in large detectors associated with constant fraction of pulse height triggering discriminations. The resolution obtained is +-0.8ns for a 100: 1 amplitude dynamic range [fr

  17. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  18. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  19. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  20. Image quality and radiation exposure with prospectively ECG-triggered axial scanning for coronary CT angiography: the multicenter, multivendor, randomized PROTECTION-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausleiter, Jörg; Meyer, Tanja S; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Spagnolo, Pietro; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Carrascosa, Patricia; Anger, Thomas; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hein, Franziska; Bischoff, Bernhard; Kuse, Miriam; Schömig, Albert; Achenbach, Stephan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dose using a prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered axial scan protocol compared with standard retrospective ECG-gated helical scanning for coronary computed tomography angiography. Concerns have been raised regarding radiation exposure during coronary computed tomography angiography. Although the use of prospectively ECG-triggered axial scan protocols may effectively lower radiation dose compared with helical scanning, it is unknown whether image quality is maintained in a clinical setting. In a prospective, multicenter, multivendor trial, 400 patients with low and stable heart rates were randomized to either an axial or a helical coronary computed tomography angiography scan protocol. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate noninferiority in image quality with the axial scan protocol, which was assessed on a 4-point scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent image quality). Secondary endpoints included radiation dose and the rate of downstream testing during 30-day follow-up. Image quality in patients scanned with the axial scan protocol (score 3.36 ± 0.59) was not inferior compared with helical scan protocols (3.37 ± 0.59) (p for noninferiority <0.004). Axial scanning was associated with a 69% reduction in radiation exposure (dose-length product [estimated effective dose] 252 ± 147 mGy · cm [3.5 ± 2.1 mSv] vs. 802 ± 419 mGy · cm [11.2 ± 5.9 mSv] for axial vs. helical scan protocols, p < 0.001). The rate of downstream testing did not differ (13.8% vs. 15.9% for axial vs. helical scan protocols, p = 0.555). In patients with stable and low heart rates, the prospectively ECG-triggered axial scan protocol maintained image quality but reduced radiation exposure by 69% compared with helical scanning. Axial computed tomography data acquisition should be strongly recommended in suitable patients to avoid unnecessarily high radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 American College of

  1. Laboratory Column Studies to Evaluate the use of pH Triggered Polymers for Hydraulically Isolating Contaminated Vadose Zone Sediments and Perched Water Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K.

    2006-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conduced to evaluate the use of polyacrylic polymers to hydraulically isolate contaminants in vadose zone saturated and unsaturated geologic materials. Similar polymers have been successfully used in the petroleum industry for analogous applications, but this technology has not been applied to environmental remediation activities. Polymers are capable of swelling thousands of times their original size when triggered by changes in pH and ionic strength while exhibiting a very low permeability. Therefore, polymers have the potential to significantly reduce permeability of geologic media, redirecting water infiltration away from contaminated regions of the subsurface. These polymers are polyacrylic acids that when mixed with water, exhibit initial fluid properties similar to water at pH between 2.0 4.0. The solutions are introduced into geologic materials where the acidic solution reacts with the minerals and in situ pore water, altering the pH and the ionic strength of the solution. These changes trigger an increase in solution viscosity as the polymers swell, plugging pores and reducing permeability. The polymer kinetics of these reactions are controlled by the geologic mineralogy, solution flux rate, polymer concentrations, and solvent chemistry. Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center evaluated field emplacement methods that impact polymer rheology kinetics by conducting soil batch experiments and column studies with two commercially available polymers. The researchers were able to identify appropriate polymer and solvent concentrations, solution flux rates, and reaction times required to significantly reduce soil permeability. This poster presentation will present the laboratory methods developed to evaluate the use of polymers for environmental remediation activities and results of these tests.

  2. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  3. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  4. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detector at the international linear collider (ILC) should be able to run 'trig- gerless' which means that all events can be read out and then be analysed with the offline reconstruction program in a trigger farm. The event rates for 'high Q2' events like W-pairs or q¯q are low, about 0.1/train. However, there is a significant.

  6. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  7. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  8. GnRH agonist for triggering of final oocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Kol, S; Papanikolaou, E G

    2011-01-01

    GnRH agonist (GnRHa) triggering has been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) compared with hCG triggering; however, initially a poor reproductive outcome was reported after GnRHa triggering, due to an apparently uncorrectable luteal phase...... deficiency. Therefore, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. Studies now report a luteal phase rescue, with a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering....

  9. A reward for patience and suffering – Ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Rossi, D.; Dentoni, D.

    2013-01-01

    A Reward for Patience and Suffering: Ethnomycology and Commodification of Desert Truffles among Sahrawi Refugees and Nomads of Western Sahara. This paper reflects on the role of ethnobiological knowledge and practices for refugees’ agency by focusing on the use and commodification of desert truffles

  10. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  11. LHCb Calorimeter from Trigger to Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deschamps, O

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is a second generation experiment for CP violation study in B decays. It consists in a 20 meters long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition with a per- formant trigger system able to cope with high flux. This document addresses the use of the calorimeter data for the LHCb trigger and the physics analyses.

  12. Can an aversive, extinction-resistant memory trigger impairments in walking adaptability? An experimental study using adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, FM; Myskiw, J; Baptista, P; Neves, L; Martins, LA; Izquierdo, I; Furini, C; Xavier, L; Hollands, KL; Mestriner, RG

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first pa...

  13. Application of the GAMS-2000 hodoscopic spectrometer for triggering an installation for study on the neutral meson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldi, D.; Binon, F.; Guanehr, M.

    1991-01-01

    System for analog signal summation of 1532 counters of the GAMS-200 hodoscopic spectrometer intended for fast (30 ns) determination of γ-quanta (electron) energy is described. The system is based on active summators connected into three summation cascades. Differential discriminator with regulated threshold and fast parallel analog-to-digital converter with noise suppression scheme are applied for amplitude analysis of signals under conditions of coherent noise. The system was used in the experiment on studying meson production by hadron central collisions at the 70 GeV accelerator of the Institute of High Energy Physics

  14. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Kirchmann, M; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  15. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  16. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Hanna; Hallqvist, Johan; Alexanderson, Kristina; Johansson, Gun; Lindholm, Christina; Lundberg, Ingvar; Möller, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52). This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  17. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hultin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. METHODS: A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. RESULTS: Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  18. Production of strange neutral particles and measurement of the polarization of {lambda} in the NOMAD experiment at CERN; Etude de la production des particules neutres etranges et mesure de la polarisation du {lambda} dans l'experience NOMAD au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, C

    2000-05-01

    The experiment NOMAD (CERN) is dedicated to the study of the neutrino-nucleon interaction. In these interactions many strange particles are produced: particularly K{sub s}{sup 0}, {lambda} and {lambda}-bar that are more easily detectable and this work is dedicated to them. The study of the polarization of {lambda} allows to go back to the measurements of spin transfer that are not well known. The identification of strange particles is difficult, 2 methods have been used in this work: likelihood ratios and {alpha}-asymmetry method. Once neutral strange particles were identified, their production rate (global and differential) have been made out, K{sup *{+-}}, and {sigma}{sup *{+-}} resonances and the decay of {xi} have been revealed. The second part of this work deals with the measurement of {lambda} polarization. The quality of the reconstruction of events and the cumulated statistics data allowed to give an accurate value of {lambda} polarization. A thorough study of the transverse polarization has been made and we see a dependence of the transverse impulse of {lambda} on the hadronic jet similar to that observed in hadronic collisions.

  19. Attenuation of cortical activity triggering descending pain inhibition in chronic low back pain patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yohei; Kurata, Jiro; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yoshida, Katsuhiro; Nikaido, Takuya; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    A considerable portion of chronic low back pain (cLBP) patients lack anatomical abnormality, resist conventional therapeutic interventions, and their symptoms are often complicated with psychological and social factors. Such patients have been reported to show cerebral abnormalities both in anatomy and function by neuroimaging studies. Here we examined differences in cerebral reactivity to a simulated low back pain stimulus between cLBP patients and healthy controls by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and their behavioral correlates from a psychophysical questionnaire. Eleven cLBP patients and 13 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. After psychophysical evaluation on-going pain with McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form (MPQ), they underwent whole-brain fMRI in a 3-Tesla MRI scanner while receiving three blocks of 30-s mechanical pain stimuli at the left low back with a 30-s rest in between, followed by a three-dimensional anatomical imaging. Functional images were analyzed with a multi-subject general linear model for blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with pain. Individual BOLD signal amplitudes at activated clusters were examined for correlation with psychophysical variables. Two in the cLBP and five data sets in the HS groups were excluded from analysis because of deficient or artifactual data or mismatch in age. The HS group showed LBP-related activation at the right insular cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left precuneus; and deactivation in a large area over the parietal and occipital cortices, including the bilateral superior parietal cortex. On the other hand, the cLBP group did not show any significant activation at those cortical areas, but showed similar deactivation at the bilateral superior parietal cortex and part of the premotor area. An HS > cLBP contrast revealed significantly less activity at the ACC and DLPFC in the c

  20. Trigger system study of the dimuon spectrometer in the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC; Etude du systeme de declenchement du spectrometre dimuons de l'experience alice au Cern-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, O

    1999-12-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC with ALICE. The aim of this experiment is to search for a new phase of matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The dimuon forward spectrometer should measure one of the most promising probes of the QGP, the production of heavy quark vector mesons (J/{psi}, {gamma}, {gamma}', {gamma}'') through their muonic decays. The dimuon trigger selects the interesting events performing a cut on the transverse momentum of the tracks. The trigger decision is taken by a dedicated electronics using RPC (''Resistive Plate Chambers'') detector information. We have made our own R and D program on the RPC detector with various beam tests. We show the performances obtained during these tests of a low resistivity RPC operating in streamer mode. The ALICE requirements concerning the rate capability, the cluster size and the time resolution are fulfilled. We have optimised the trigger with simulations which include a complete description of the read-out planes and the trigger logic (algorithm). In particular, a technique of clustering is proposed and validated. A method called ''Ds reduction'' is introduced in order to limit the effects of combinatorial background on the trigger rates. The efficiencies and the trigger rates are calculated for Pb-Pb, Ca-Ca, p-p collisions at the LHC. Other more sophisticated cuts, on the invariant mass for example, using again the RPC information have been simulated but have not shown significant improvements of the trigger rates. (author)

  1. Elevated heart rate triggers action potential alternans and sudden death. translational study of a homozygous KCNH2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigmann, Ulrich; Biliczki, Peter; Ramirez, Rafael J; Marschall, Christoph; Takac, Ina; Brandes, Ralf P; Kotzot, Dieter; Girmatsion, Zenawit; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Ehrlich, Joachim R

    2014-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) leads to arrhythmic events and increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Homozygous KCNH2 mutations underlying LQTS-2 have previously been termed "human HERG knockout" and typically express severe phenotypes. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations of an LQTS type 2 mutation identified in the homozygous index patient from a consanguineous Turkish family after his brother died suddenly during febrile illness. Clinical work-up, DNA sequencing, mutagenesis, cell culture, patch-clamp, in silico mathematical modelling, protein biochemistry, confocal microscopy were performed. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous C-terminal KCNH2 mutation (p.R835Q) in the index patient (QTc ∼506 ms with notched T waves). Parents were I° cousins - both heterozygous for the mutation and clinically unremarkable (QTc ∼447 ms, father and ∼396 ms, mother). Heterologous expression of KCNH2-R835Q showed mildly reduced current amplitudes. Biophysical properties of ionic currents were also only nominally changed with slight acceleration of deactivation and more negative V50 in R835Q-currents. Protein biochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed similar expression patterns and trafficking of WT and R835Q, even at elevated temperature. In silico analysis demonstrated mildly prolonged ventricular action potential duration (APD) compared to WT at a cycle length of 1000 ms. At a cycle length of 350 ms M-cell APD remained stable in WT, but displayed APD alternans in R835Q. Kv11.1 channels affected by the C-terminal R835Q mutation display mildly modified biophysical properties, but leads to M-cell APD alternans with elevated heart rate and could precipitate SCD under specific clinical circumstances associated with high heart rates.

  2. Can an aversive, extinction-resistant memory trigger impairments in walking adaptability? An experimental study using adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Filipe Mello; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Neves, Laura Tartari; Martins, Lucas Athaydes; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Izquierdo, Iván; Xavier, Léder Leal; Hollands, Kristen; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca

    2018-02-05

    Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber. In the second, rats (n=20) were assessed in a neutral room using the ladder rung walking test before and tree days after inducing an extinction-resistance memory. In addition, the elevated plus-maze test was used to control the influence of the anxiety-like status on gait adaptability. Our results revealed the shock group exhibited worse walking adaptability (lower skilled walking score), when compared to the sham group. Moreover, the immobility time in the ladder rung walking test was similar to the controls, suggesting that gait adaptability performance was not a consequence of the fear generalization. No anxiety-like behavior was observed in the plus maze test. Finally, correlation coefficients also showed the skilled walking performance score was positively correlated with the number of gait cycles and trial time in the ladder rung walking test and the total crossings in the plus maze. Overall, these preliminary findings provide evidence to hypothesize an aversive, extinction-resistant experience might change the emotional load, affecting the ability to adapt walking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Seasonal Variations of Polarization Diversity Gain in a Vegetated Area considering High Elevation Angles and a Nomadic User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kvicera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of the polarization diversity gain are addressed for a nomadic user in a vegetated area taking high elevation angles and nongeostationary satellites into consideration. Corresponding experimental data were obtained at a frequency of 2.0 GHz at Stromovka Park in Prague, the Czech Republic, within the full in-leaf and out-of-leaf periods of 2013 and 2014, respectively. By detecting copolarized and cross-polarized components of the transmitted left- and right-handed circularly polarized signals, the corresponding diversity gain was obtained for multiple-input single-output (MISO, single-input multiple-output (SIMO, and combined MISO/SIMO cases. It was found that tree defoliation results in a significant decrease of the polarization diversity gain achieved for low time percentages in particular scenarios.

  4. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  5. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  6. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Trigger Sysmtem

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the original design value to explore higher energy scale. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW provide precise track segment information to the muon Level-1 trigger to reduce fake triggers. This contribution will summarize a detail of the NSW trigger decision system, track reconstruction algorithm implemented into the trigger processor and results of performance studies on the trigger system.

  7. Average Characteristics of Triggered and Nontriggered Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic field data from ground stations, geosynchronous orbit, and magnetotail are examined to study the response to substorm activity with and without apparent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) perturbations. Global substorms are identified using a sudden, persistent decrease in the AL index. The onset of this global expansion is taken to be the time of the Pi2 burst nearest to the beginning of the AL decrease. IMF triggers were identified subjectively through visual scanning of the data. Both northward turnings of the IMF B, and decreases in the amplitude of the By component were considered as possible triggers. Two different solar wind monitors were used in the investigation: IMP 8 in a circular orbit with a distance between approx.12 and approx.35 R(sub E) from the Earth-Sun line and ISEE 2 in an elliptical orbit with a distance of only approx.5- 10 R(sub E) from the Earth-Sun line. The results of superposed epoch analysis show that the temporal response from ground stations, geosynchronous orbit, and magnetotail are nearly identical for triggered (with apparent IMF perturbation) and nontriggered (without apparent IMF perturbation) substorms. It is therefore concluded that the nontriggered substorms are not a different form of activity than triggered substorms. However, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the response is different for the two types of substo&. By every measure considered, triggered substorm are systematically larger than nontriggered substorms. We interpret the fact that nearly 40% of all substorms cannot be associated with an IMF trigger as evidence that substorms are caused by an internal instability. However, the fact that so many appear to be triggered suggests that this internal instability is susceptible to external perturbations by the IMF. The fact that triggered substorms are larger than nontriggered substorms is counterintuitive, and we have no explanation for the observation.

  8. Method for a top quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector at LHC: Study of the ATLAS level-1 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC (CERN) is designed to study the Standard Model, with the precise measurement of its parameters and the search of the Higgs boson, and the physics beyond the Standard Model with the search of new particles predicted by several theories such as Supersymmetry. The top quark is distinguished in the Standard Model by its mass close to the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking and is therefore a good probe to study physics beyond the Standard Model. A precise measurement of the top quark mass is also required to constrain the mass of the Higgs boson via the radiative corrections to the W boson propagator what would be a test of consistency of the standard Model if the Higgs boson is discovered. The first part of this thesis presents the theoretical aspects of the top quark mass. The second part is devoted to the calibration of the ATLAS level-1 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger, and more specifically to the processing of the analogue signal coming form the calorimeter. The performances of this system with cosmic muons and first LHC collisions are also described. At last, the third part describes the methods for a top quark mass measurement which have been developed in the lepton plus jets and dilepton channels. (author) [fr

  9. Development of vertexing and lifetime triggers and a study of Bs mixing using hadronic decays at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Christopher P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The D0 detector underwent a major upgrade to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron, the world's highest energy collider. The upgrade included a completely new central tracking system with an outer scintillating fiber tracker and an inner silicon vertex detector all within a 2T superconducting solenoid. This thesis describes the development of high level trigger algorithms including vertexing, impact parameter significance and invariant mass, that utilize tracks from these detectors. One of the main physics goals of Run II is the observation of Bs oscillations. This measurement, which cannot be performed at the B factories, will significantly constrain the ''unitarity triangle'' associated with Cp violation and so probe the Standard Model of particle physics. Furthermore this is an interesting measurement as the study of mixing in meson systems has a long history for revealing new physics. The second part of this thesis presents a study of the hadronic decay Bs → Dsπ. This important mode provides the best proper time resolution for Bs mixing and is reconstructed for the first time at D0. Projections on the sensitivity to Bs oscillations are then presented.

  10. A Hardware Track Trigger (FTK) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The design and studies of the performance for the ATLAS hardware Fast TracKer (FTK) are presented. The existing trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is deployed to reduce the event rate from the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to < 1 KHz for permanent storage at the LHC design luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The LHC has performed exceptionally well and routinely exceeds the design luminosity and from 2015 is due to operate with higher still luminosities. This will place a significant load on the High Level trigger (HLT) system, both due to the need for more sophisticated algorithms to reject background, and from the larger data volumes that will need to be processed. The Fast TracKer is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accepted rate of 100 KHz and provide high quality tracks at the beginning of processing in the HLT. This will be performing by track reconstruction using hardware with massive parallelism using associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. The availability of the full...

  11. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  12. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  13. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Mora-Relucio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE. Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB and extensor digitorum communis (EDC muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE.

  14. The Effect of Auricular and Systemic Acupuncture on the Electromyographic Activity of the Trapezius Muscle with Trigger Points—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva de Camargo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare intra and intergroup the immediate effect of the auricular and LR8 systemic acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the trapezius with the trigger points. This is an experimental clinical trial; 40 people were split in 4 distinct groups (n = 10: GI mustard seed application in the auricular acupoint; GII bilateral needle application in the LR8 acupoint; GIII combination of the techniques; GIV/Control Group mustard seed application in an acupoint not linked to the muscle tension. The EMG was used to assess the muscle contraction for 5 seconds during the resting time and during the isometric contraction time. The EMG signal was first collect without the acupuncture intervention; then both techniques were applied for 5 minutes; and the EMG was collected again right after these applications. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used, the t test was paired with the Wilcoxon test to the intragroup comparison; One-way analysis of variance test for intergroup comparison. There was no statistical difference in the intragroup comparison for the groups. The same happened to the intergroup comparison before and after application. Systemic and auricular acupuncture did not promote immediate changes in the EMG activity of the trapezius muscle in individuals with MTrPs.

  15. The design and performance of the ATLAS jet trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shima

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS jet trigger is an important element of the event selection process, providing data samples for studies of Standard Model physics and searches for new physics at the LHC. The ATLAS jet trigger system has undergone substantial modifications over the past few years of LHC operations, as experience developed with triggering in a high luminosity and high event pileup environment. In particular, the region-of-interest based strategy has been replaced by a full scan of the calorimeter data at the third trigger level, and by a full scan of the level-1 trigger input at level-2 for some specific trigger chains. Hadronic calibration and cleaning techniques are applied in order to provide improved performance and increased stability in high luminosity data taking conditions. In this note we discuss the implementation and operational aspects of the ATLAS jet trigger during 2011 and 2012 data taking periods at the LHC.

  16. Development and Online Operation of Minimum Bias Triggers in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, T A D

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has recorded inelastic $p - p$ collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle multiplicities. These measurements will help to constrain various phenomenological models describing soft parton interactions. Understanding trigger efficiencies for different event types is therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, utilizing complementary detector components and trigger levels. A hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions of $2.1 < |eta| < 3.8$ has been proven to select $p - p$ collisions with high efficiency. A complementary Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources wi...

  17. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  18. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ATLAS Trigger and DAQ Upgrades for High-Luminosity LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishino M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system will be significantly upgraded to explore new physics beyond the standard model in the High-Luminosity LHC environment with instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5⨯1034cm-2 s-1. Two general trigger schemes are under study and their prospects and concerns are discussed. The muon trigger and readout electronics will be totally replaced to cope with a longer latency and a higher trigger rate. At the same time, new trigger algorithms using the precision tracker will be introduced to sharpen efficiency turn-ons and suppress fake triggers. The algorithm and the expected performance of the muon trigger are described. The hardware based track trigger is one of the major items introduced in the upgrade program. It will improve the trigger performance of various trigger items with a combination of the calorimeter or muon signature. The procedure for processing track information and an expected performance on the electron trigger are presented.

  20. ATLAS trigger: Design and commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. The trigger system and its design parameters will be described with focus on computing and data aquision challenges. The results from both commissioning cosmic runs and first experiences from the LHC beam in 2008 will be overviewed. These running periods allowed us to exercise the trigger system online, including its configuration and monitoring infrastructure, as well as reconstruction and selection algorithms. The details on the plans for commissioning the ATLAS trigger when the LHC starts operations will be presented.

  1. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb‑1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  2. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified...

  4. Level 1 Tau trigger performance in 2016 data and VBF seeds at Level 1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the first long shutdown, the LHC has restarted at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. In 2016, the LHC achieved an instantaneous luminosity larger than $10^{34}$ $\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\cdot \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and a peak average pile-up of more than 40. The CMS Level-1 trigger architecture has undergone a full upgrade in order to maintain and improve the trigger performance under these new conditions. It allows CMS to keep the trigger rate under control and to avoid a significant increase in trigger thresholds that would have a negative impact on the CMS physics program. Studies of the performance of the calorimeter trigger upgrade for tau leptons, using the full 2016 dataset (35.9 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$), are shown. Details of the Level-1 trigger algorithms and commissioning may be found in CMS-DP-2015-009, CMS-DP-2015-003, CMS-DP-2015-051 and the CMS Technical Design Report for the Level-1 Trigger upgrade: CERN-LHCC-2013-011, CMS-TDR-12 (2013). Previous performance results, based on the ICHEP 2016 dataset (12.9 ...

  5. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  6. Thermally activated trigger device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Camaret, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear space reactor, a thermally activated trigger device for rendering the reactor subcritical upon reentry to the earth's atmosphere, the device comprising: a closed vessel, a piston slideably mounted in the vessel to divide it into first and second compartments, an inert gas contained within each of the compartments at substantially the same pressure, a connecting rod operatively connected to the piston and to actuator means, the actuator means providing for moving means for rendering the reactor subcritical upon movement of the connecting rod; a bellows having opposite ends, one of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the connecting rod and the other of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the vessel for permitting linear movement of the connecting rod and preventing any escape of the inert gas from the closed vessel; and normally closed pipes communicating with one of the compartments for venting the inert gas therefrom when any of the pipes is open, the pipes being located at different parts of the nuclear space reactor so that the closed ends thereof are exposed to the atmosphere upon reentry of the reactor to the atmosphere. The pipes are designed to open at a selected temperature resulting from the reentry so that the gas leaves the communicating compartment via an open pipe to cause a difference in pressure between the compartments sufficient for the higher pressure in the other compartment to move the piston and thereby activate the actuator means

  7. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  8. Randomised feasibility study of a more liberal haemoglobin trigger for red blood cell transfusion compared to standard practice in anaemic cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, D.; Frandsen, K. B.; Christensen, I. J.

    2017-01-01

    L and symptoms between randomisation arms. Background: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with decreased QoL. One treatment option is red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). However, the optimal haemoglobin trigger for transfusion is unknown. Methods: Patients were randomised...

  9. Central Sensitization Is Modulated Following Trigger Point Anesthetization in Patients with Chronic Pain from Whiplash Trauma. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, N Ake; Freeman, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS) with low peripheral pain thresholds (PPTs) is a common finding among patients with chronic pain after whiplash (CPWI). While it has been proposed that myofascial myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) may act as modulators of central sensitization, previously reported findings are conflicting and inconclusive. The present study was designed to investigate immediate responsiveness of CS to alterations in nociceptive input. Controlled, double-blind, cross-over. Thirty-one patients with chronic pain (trapezius myalgia) and CS after whiplash. Participants were referred by randomization to group A for injection of a single peripheral pain generator (MTrP or other discrete tender point) with local anesthetic or to group B for sham injection and cross-over. Documentation of PPT (Algometer), maximum jaw opening (caliper), and grip strength (Vigorimeter), as well as subjective overall pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), was made before and after each intervention. Statistical analysis of data (Student's t test, analysis of variance) confirmed that peripheral pain thresholds were significantly higher and maximum jaw opening significantly greater after anesthetizing a focal pain generator in the trapezius, but not after a sham injection. In contrast with the objective variables, subjective generalized pain improved (VAS) after not only an injection of local anesthetic, but also, and to a similar extent, after a sham injection. CS, as expressed by lowered PPT, is a rapidly adjusting physiological response to nociceptive stimuli in some patients with chronic pain after whiplash. PPT are likely modulated by myofascial tender points in selected patients with CS. With reference to the present findings, surgical ablation of MTrPs is discussed as a potential treatment modality for CS. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  11. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  12. A self seeded first level track trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöning, A

    2012-01-01

    For the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming to increase the instantaneous luminosity to 5 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 , the implementation of a first level track trigger has been proposed. This trigger could be installed in the year ∼ 2021 along with the complete renewal of the ATLAS inner detector. The fast readout of the hit information from the Inner Detector is considered as the main challenge of such a track trigger. Different concepts for the implementation of a first level trigger are currently studied within the ATLAS collaboration. The so called 'Self Seeded' track trigger concept exploits fast frontend filtering algorithms based on cluster size reconstruction and fast vector tracking to select hits associated to high momentum tracks. Simulation studies have been performed and results on efficiencies, purities and trigger rates are presented for different layouts.

  13. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  14. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Isolation of Electrons and Photons on the Second Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wielers, M

    2000-01-01

    In this note the possible gain in jet rejection in the second levele/gamma trigger is studied by applying isolation cuts. So far,isolation of electromagnetic showers is only required in the firstlevel trigger. On the second level trigger the information of allcalorimeter cells is available. Hence, improved isolation criteriacompared to the first level trigger can be applied. To minimise datatrnasfer isolation is studied in a maximal window of (deta x dphi) = (0.4 x 0.4) around the shower core.

  16. Alcoholic drinks as triggers in primary headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro; Franchini, Michela; Bartolozzi, Maria Letizia; Mugnai, Stefania; Guidi, Leonello

    2013-08-01

    This project aims to investigate the role of alcoholic drinks (ADs) as triggers for primary headaches. Patients followed in the Headache Centre and presenting with migraine without aura, migraine with aura (MA), chronic migraine (CM), and tension-type headache (TH) were asked if their headache was precipitated by AD and also about their alcohol habits. Individual characteristics and drink habits were evaluated within two binary logistic models. About one half (49.7%) of patients were abstainers, 17.6% were habitual consumers, and 32.5% were occasional consumers. Out of 448 patients, only 22 (4.9%), all with migraine, reported AD as a trigger factor. None of 44 patients with MA and none of 47 patients with TH reported AD as a trigger factor. Among those patients with migraine who consume AD, only 8% reported that AD can precipitate their headache. Multivariate analyses showed that AD use, both occasional and habitual, is unrelated to TH. Moreover, analysis performed among migraine patients, points out that occasional and habitual drinkers have a lower risk of presenting with CM than abstainers, although statistical significance occurred only among occasional drinkers. Only 3% of migraine patients who abstain from AD reported that they do not consume alcohol because it triggers their headache. Our study shows that AD acts as headache triggers in a small percentage of migraine patients. Differing from some prior studies, our data suggest that AD do not trigger MA and TH attacks. Moreover, the percentage of abstainers in our sample is higher compared with that reported in general population surveys. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measurement of the inclusive pp{yields}Z/{gamma}{sup *}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} cross section at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment and design studies for a first level track trigger for the ATLAS trigger upgrade at the future high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Sebastian

    2013-10-31

    This dissertation presents in the first part a measurement of the inclusive pp{yields} Z/gamma{sup *}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} production cross section with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For this, proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV collected in 2011 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb{sup -1} are analyzed. The cross section is determined in three regions of Z/{gamma}{sup *} mass, 46-66 GeV, 66-116 GeV and 116-150 GeV; and in addition differentially in Z/{gamma}{sup *} rapidity. The mass determines the scale of the interaction, whereas the rapidity gives information about the momentum fractions of the initial protons the interacting partons carry. This makes the measurement valuable for the study of the proton structure, i.e. as input to fits of parton density functions (PDF). Backgrounds are taken from simulation with the exception of the multi-jet background which is estimated using a data-driven technique. The resulting cross sections are compared to predictions of next-to next-to-leading order QCD calculations using different PDFs. Differences are observed and only some PDFs show good agreement with the data. The presented measurement can thus be used in future PDF fits to better constrain the quark and gluon densities in the proton. The second part studies a possible design for adding track information to the first level trigger of the ATLAS detector in the scope of the proposed upgrade of the LHC, the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The planned increase in luminosity by a factor 5-10 w.r.t. the nominal LHC conditions puts strong demands on the rejection capability of the trigger. Using track information in conjunction with information from the calorimeter and muon system helps to maintain pT thresholds at the electroweak scale. A fast decision within the trigger latency can be achieved exploiting hardware based pattern matching using Content-Addressable-Memories. The number of

  18. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  19. ATLAS Trigger: design and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Pastore, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. Based on calorimeter information and hits in dedicated muon-trigger detectors, the LVL1 decision is made by the central-trigger processor yielding an output rate of less than 100 kHz. The allowed latency for the trigger decision at this stage is less than 2.5 micro seconds. The two subsequent levels, called, High-Level Trigger (HLT) further reduce the rate to the offline storage rate while retaining the most interesting physics. The HLT is implemented in software running in commercially available computer farms and consists of Level 2 and Event Filter. To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to managea...

  20. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with right ventricular sense triggered left ventricular pacing benefits for the hemodynamics compared with standard CRT for chronic congestive heart failure: A cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Li-Jin; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Ling; Luo, Zhi-Ling; Hua, Bao-Tong; Han, Ming-Hua; Li, Shu-Min; Yang, Jun; Li, Lin; Peng, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with right ventricular (RV) sense triggered left ventricular (LV) pacing for chronic heart failure (CHF). Thirty patients who were eligible for the Class I indication of CRT were enrolled and the informed consents were signed. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), diastolic mitral flow velocity time integral (VTI), mitral regurgitation flow VTI, and aortic valve flow VTI were measured with GE Vivid 7 (GE Medical, Milwaukee, WI, USA) before and after CRT. The echocardiographic measurements and the average annual costs of the device use were compared. The duration of QRS complex, the length of time used for optimization, and the average annual cost of the device use under RV sense triggered LV pacing were significantly less than that under standard biventricular (BiV) pacing (p < 0.01), while the average battery lifetime was longer. Subgroup analysis showed that LVEF, diastolic mitral flow VTI, and aortic valve flow VTI under RV sense triggered LV pacing were greater than that under standard BiV pacing with right or LV pre-activation. The average battery lifetime was significantly longer and the average annual cost of the device use was less. The mitral regurgitation flow VTI under RV sense triggered LV pacing was less than that under standard BiV pacing with RV pre-activation. RV sense triggered LV provides benefits for CHF patients over standard CRT in terms of maintaining the physiological atrio-ventricular delay of atrio-ventricular node and improving the acute hemodynamic effects.

  1. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00399900; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC will increase up to a factor of seven with respect to the original design value to explore physics at higher energy scale. The inner station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system (Small Wheel) will be replaced by the New Small Wheel (NSW) to benefit from the high luminosity. The NSW will provide precise track-segment information to the Level-1 trigger system in order to suppress the trigger rate from fake muon tracks. This article summarizes the NSW trigger decision system and track-segment finding algorithm implemented in the trigger processor, and discusses results of performance studies on the trigger system. The results demonstrate that the NSW trigger system is capable of working with good performance satisfying the requirements.

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Marcus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Events containing muons in the final state are an important signature for many analyses being carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), including both standard model measurements and searches for new physics. To be able to study such events, it is required to have an efficient and well-understood muon trigger. The ATLAS muon trigger consists of a hardware based system (Level 1), as well as a software based reconstruction (High Level Trigger). Due to high luminosity and pile up conditions in Run 2, several improvements have been implemented to keep the trigger rate low while still maintaining a high efficiency. Some examples of recent improvements include requiring coincidence hits between different layers of the muon spectrometer, improvements for handling overlapping muons, and optimised muon isolation. We will present an overview of how we trigger on muons, recent improvements, and the performance of the muon trigger in Run 2 data.

  3. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  4. Ultrasound-guided myofascial trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (ptrigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle.

  5. Is stress a trigger factor for migraine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, G.G.; Evers, D.J.; Ballieux, B.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.; de Kloet, E.R.; Terwindt, G.M.; van Dijk, J.G.; Ferrari, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although mental stress is commonly considered to be an important trigger factor for migraine, experimental evidence for this belief is yet lacking. Objective: To study the temporal relationship between changes in stress-related parameters (both subjective and objective) and the onset of

  6. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  7. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  8. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Amerio, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Andreazza, A; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Bevacqua, V; Bogdan, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Cavaliere, V; Canelli, F; Blazey, G; Cervigni, F; Cheng, Y; Citterio, M; Crescioli, F; Dell’Orso, M; Drake, G; Dunford, M; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, F; Hoff, J; Kapliy, A; Kasten, M; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; McCarn, A; Melachrinos, C; Meroni, C; Negri, A; Neubauer, M; Penning, B; Piendibene, M; Proudfoot, J; Riva, M; Roda, C; Sabatini, F; Sacco, I; Shochet, M; Stabile, A; Tang, F; Tang, J; Tripiccione, R; Tuggle, J; Vercesi, V; Verzocchi, M; Villa, M; Vitillo, R A; Volpi, G; Webster, J; Wu, J; Yorita, K; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    A track reconstruction system for the trigger of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is described. The Fast Tracker is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level-1 trigger output rate. It will provide high-quality tracks reconstructed over the entire inner detector by the start of processing in the Level-2 trigger. The system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGA’s for track reconstruction. Its design and expected performance under instantaneous luminosities up to 3 × 10^34/cm^2/s are discussed.

  9. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  10. The HLT inclusive B triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorov, Vladimir V; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The inclusive HLT strategy relies on triggering any B decay based on two signatures: a single significantly displaced, high transverse momentum track, and a significantly displaced vertex containing this track and 1-3 other tracks, with high total transverse momentum. In order to provide optimal signal efficiency and background rejection the displaced vertex selection is implemented in a novel boosted decision tree algorithm incorporating information about the experimental resolution in the boosting procedure to protect against overtraining. The performance of these triggers has been commissioned using data taken during 2011 LHCb running and is evaluated here in a data-driven manner. The HLT inclusive triggers are found to have a rejection factor of around 1000 with respect to events selected by the L0 hardware trigger and a bbar purity close to 100%.

  11. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages......, including virtually complete prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), the introduction of a surge of FSH in addition to the LH surge and finally the possibility to individualize luteal-phase supplementation based on ovarian response to stimulation. We maintain that the automatic HCG...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...

  12. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  13. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  14. B physics triggers at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Starodumov, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The CMS detector is mainly designed to investigate hard events. Only few Level-1 Trigger conditions are suitable to select soft B-meson decays. The B-physics potential of CMS depends strongly on a selection strategy at High-Level Trigger. The selection algorithms for some benchmark B-decay channels that allow CMS to perform competitive B-physics program are presented.

  15. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  16. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trigger finger is a common disorder of upper extremity. Majority of the patients can be treated conservatively but some resistant cases eventually need surgery. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of percutaneous trigger finger release under local anesthesia. Subjects and Methods: This is a ...

  17. An overview of the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Le Dû, P

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. This paper gives an overview of the event selection for ATLAS, prior to event building, with the emphasis on the level-2 trigger. (A further stage of selection after event building is described in a separate presentation-ref Event Filter overview.) The level-1 trigger based on custom hardware processes coarse-grain data from the calorimeters and dedicated muon trigger chambers to give a selection of approximately one interaction in 10**5 (one bunch crossing in 10**3). The level-2 trigger processes selected fine-grain data from all detectors to give a further selection of one in 10**2. Studies of the estimated physics rates and detector data volumes have led to a sequential level-2 selection strategy guided by Region of Interest pointers from level-1. The influence of low luminosity (b physics) and high luminosity (high pT) running on the strategy and the architectural options is discussed. The models and testbeds used in developing and testing the strategy are described. Finally the t...

  18. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; /CERN; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Adragna, P.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Aleksandrov, E.; /Dubna, JINR; Aleksandrov, I.; /Dubna, JINR; Amorim, A.; /Lisbon, LIFEP; Anderson, K.; /Chicago U., EFI; Anduaga, X.; /La Plata U.; Aracena, I.; /SLAC; Asquith, L.; /University Coll. London; Avolio, G.; /CERN; Backlund, S.; /CERN; Badescu, E.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Baines, J.; /Rutherford; Barria, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Bartoldus, R.; /SLAC; Batreanu, S.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /CERN; Beck, H.P.; /Bern U.; Bee, C.; /Marseille, CPPM; Bell, P.; /Manchester U.; Bell, W.H.; /Glasgow U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Regina U. /CERN /Annecy, LAPP /Paris, IN2P3 /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /Argonne /CERN /UC, Irvine /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /CERN /Montreal U. /CERN /Glasgow U. /Michigan State U. /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /New York U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /UC, Irvine /CERN /Glasgow U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /UC, Irvine /Valencia U. /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /University Coll. London /New York U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  19. Triggered star formation and its consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shule; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Star formation can be triggered by compression from wind or supernova-driven shock waves that sweep over molecular clouds. Because these shocks will likely contain processed elements, triggered star formation has been proposed as an explanation for short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRIs) in the Solar system. Previous studies have tracked the triggering event to the earliest phases of collapse and have focused on the shock properties required for both successful star formation and mixing of SLRIs. In this paper, we use adaptive mesh refinement simulation methods, including sink particles, to simulate the full collapse and subsequent evolution of a stable Bonnor- Ebert sphere subjected to a shock and post-shock wind. We track the flow of the cloud material after a star (a sink particle) has formed. For non-rotating clouds, we find robust triggered collapse and little bound circumstellar material remaining around the post-shock collapsed core. When we add initial cloud rotation, we observe the formation of discs around the collapsed core which then interact with the post-shock flow. Our results indicate that these circumstellar discs are massive enough to form planets and are long lived, in spite of the ablation driven by post-shock-flow ram pressure. As a function of the initial conditions, we also track the time evolution of the accretion rates and particle mixing between the ambient wind and cloud material. The latter is maximized for cases of highest Mach number.

  20. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R; Asquith, L; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Barria, P; Batreanu, S

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10 9 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system

  1. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  2. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  3. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, J J; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-01-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system. (0 refs).

  4. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  5. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfer after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles among high responder women: A randomized, multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of embryo cryopreservation excludes the possible detrimental effects of ovarian stimulation on the endometrium, and higher reproductive outcomes following this policy have been reported. Moreover, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist cycles as a substitute for standard human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, minimizes the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in fresh as well as frozen embryo transfer cycles (FET. Objective: To compare the reproductive outcomes and risk of OHSS in fresh vs frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization triggered with a bolus of GnRH agonist. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, multi-centre study, 121 women undergoing FET and 119 women undergoing fresh ET were investigated as regards clinical pregnancy as the primary outcome and the chemical pregnancy, live birth, OHSS development, and perinatal data as secondary outcomes. Results: There were no significant differences between FET and fresh groups regarding chemical (46.4% vs. 40.2%, p=0.352, clinical (35.8% vs. 38.3%, p=0.699, and ongoing (30.3% vs. 32.7%, p=0.700 pregnancy rates, also live birth (30.3% vs. 29.9%, p=0.953, perinatal outcomes, and OHSS development (35.6% vs. 42.9%, p=0.337. No woman developed severe OHSS and no one required admission to hospital. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GnRHa trigger followed by fresh transfer with modified luteal phase support in terms of a small human chorionic gonadotropin bolus is a good strategy to secure good live birth rates and a low risk of clinically relevant OHSS development in in vitro fertilization patients at risk of OHSS.

  6. Empty follicle syndrome after GnRHa triggering versus hCG triggering in COS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan C; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; Humaidan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG.......This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG....

  7. RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode has many advantages as an injector of the linear colliders since it can generate a low emittance and high current pulsed beam. The experimental facility for the RF gun, such as an RF system, a laser system and a photocathode have been fabricated to study the fundamental characteristics. The dynamics of the RF gun has also studied by the 1D sheet beam model. (author)

  8. Discrete element modeling of triggered slip in faults with granular gouge: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdowsi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent seismological observations based on new, more sensitive instrumentation show that seismic waves radiated from large earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes globally. This phenomenon is called dynamic earthquake triggering and is well-documented for over 30 of the largest earthquakes worldwide. Granular materials are at the core of mature earthquake faults and play a key role in fault triggering by exhibiting a rich nonlinear response to external perturbations. The stick-slip dynamics in sheared granular layers is analogous to the seismic cycle for earthquake fault systems. In this research effort, we characterize the macroscopic scale statistics and the grain-scale mechanisms of triggered slip in sheared granular layers. We model the granular fault gouge using three dimensional discrete element method simulations. The modeled granular system is put into stick-slip dynamics by applying a conning pressure and a shear load. The dynamic triggering is simulated by perturbing the spontaneous stick-slip dynamics using an external vibration applied to the boundary of the layer. The influences of the triggering consist in a frictional weakening during the vibration interval, a clock advance of the next expected large slip event and long term effects in the form of suppression and recovery of the energy released from the granular layer. Our study suggests that above a critical amplitude, vibration causes a significant clock advance of large slip events. We link this clock advance to a major decline in the slipping contact ratio as well as a decrease in shear modulus and weakening of the granular gouge layer. We also observe that shear vibration is less effective in perturbing the stick-slip dynamics of the granular layer. Our study suggests that in order to have an effective triggering, the input vibration must also explore the granular layer at length scales about or less than the average grain size. The energy suppression and the subsequent recovery and increased

  9. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  10. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  11. Hydrogeochemical modelling of fluid–rock interactions triggered by seawater injection into oil reservoirs: Case study Miller field (UK North Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yunjiao; Berk, Wolfgang van; Schulz, Hans-Martin

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical model is presented and applied to quantitatively elucidate interdependent reactions among minerals and formation water–seawater mixtures at elevated levels of CO 2 partial pressure. These hydrogeochemical reactions (including scale formation) occur within reservoir aquifers and wells and are driven by seawater injection. The model relies on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics and reproduces the compositional development of the produced water (formation water–seawater mixtures) of the Miller field, UK North Sea. This composition of the produced water deviates from its calculated composition, which could result solely from mixing of both the end members (formation water and seawater). This indicates the effect of hydrogeochemical reactions leading to the formation and/or the dissolution of mineral phases. A fairly good match between the modelled and measured chemical composition of produced water indicates that hydrogeochemical interactions achieve near-equilibrium conditions within the residence time of formation water–seawater mixtures at reservoir conditions. Hence the model enables identification of minerals (including scale minerals), to quantitatively reproduce and to predict their dissolution and/or formation. The modelling results indicate that admixing of seawater into formation water triggers the precipitation of Sr–Barite solid solution, CaSO 4 phases and dolomite. In contrast, calcite and microcrystalline quartz are dissolved along the seawater flow path from the injection well towards the production well. Depending on the fraction of seawater admixed, interdependent reactions induce profound modifications to the aquifer mineral phase assemblage. At low levels of seawater admixture, Ba–Sr sulfate solid solution is precipitated and coupled to concurrent dissolution of calcite and microcrystalline quartz. Massive dissolution of calcite and the formation of CaSO 4 phases and dolomite are triggered by intense seawater admixture

  12. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    To date, habitual entrepreneurship research has mainly focused on comparing novice with habitual business founders and creating typologies. The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the underlying reasons why habitual entrepreneurs establish new businesses repeatedly and continually....... The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  13. Combined respiratory and cardiac triggering improves blood pool contrast-enhanced pediatric cardiovascular MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics P.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRA suffers from cardiac motion artifacts and often requires a breath-hold. This work develops and evaluates a blood pool contrast-enhanced combined respiratory- and ECG-triggered MRA method. An SPGR sequence was modified to enable combined cardiac and respiratory triggering on a 1.5-T scanner. Twenty-three consecutive children referred for pediatric heart disease receiving gadofosveset were recruited in HIPAA-compliant fashion with IRB approval and informed consent. Children underwent standard non-triggered contrast-enhanced MRA with or without suspended respiration. Additionally, a free-breathing-triggered MRA was acquired. Triggered and non-triggered studies were presented in blinded random order independently to two radiologists twice. Anatomical structure delineation was graded for each triggered and non-triggered acquisition and the visual quality on triggered MRA was compared directly to that on non-triggered MRA. Triggered images received higher scores from each radiologist for all anatomical structures on each of the two reading sessions (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P < 0.05). In direct comparison, triggered images were preferred over non-triggered images for delineating cardiac structures, with most comparisons reaching statistical significance (binomial test, P < 0.05). Combined cardiac and respiratory triggering, enabled by a blood pool contrast agent, improves delineation of most anatomical structures in pediatric cardiovascular MRA. (orig.)

  14. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and ...

  15. A new look at trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  16. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  17. NOMAD and the usage of Megha-Tropique data-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ) Study on temperature and ozone variabilities over tropical and subtropical UTLS region using TRENDRUN ( a multi-parameter code ). Study on trace gases ( O3, H2O and Aerosol ) variability and its horizontal transport using satellite ( TOMS, SAGE 2, ODIN...

  18. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Akatsuka, Shunichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Proceedings for TIPP 2017, on Phase-1 Upgrade of the Level-1 Endcap Muon trigger. The document describes the requirements, strategy, hardware development/test status and the results on trigger performance study.

  19. Glacier surge triggered by massive rock avalanche: Teleseismic and satellite image study of long-runout landslide onto RGO Glacier, Pamirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. P.; Wolovick, M.; Ekstrom, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glacier surges are thought to result from changes in resistance to sliding at the base of the ice mass. The reasons for such changes in basal conditions are not entirely understood, and this is in part because empirical constraints are severely limited. Recent work in the Karakoram and Pamir mountains, home to the majority of Earth's surging mountain glaciers, has boosted observational data, but has led to diametrically opposed interpretations of their glacier surging mechanics, ranging from thermal to hydrological switching. In this context we describe a surge of the RGO (Russian Geographical Society) Glacier in the Pamirs triggered by a massive rock avalanche off Mt Garmo in 2001. Initial reports pegged the RGO Glacier landslide as having been triggered in 2002 by strong ground motion originating from a nearby tectonic earthquake. We used multitemporal satellite imagery to establish failure must have struck in August-September 2001. This revised date was confirmed by reexamining teleseismic data recorded at stations in central Asia: it became clear that a landslide seismic source of magnitude Msw≈5.4 on 2001/09/02 had been misinterpreted as two tectonic sources located within kilometers of Mt Garmo. Exploiting a new technique we have developed for inverting long-period seismic waveforms, we show that a mass of rock and ice around 2.8×{}1011 kg collapsed to the SSE from an elevation of around 5800m, accelerated to a peak speed of about 60m/s, collided with the valley wall ˜ 2 km to the south and turned east to run out a further 6km over significant fractions of the accumulation and ablation zones of the RGO Glacier. Based on this estimate of landslide mass, we deduce that the supraglacial debris blanket generated by this rock avalanches averaged about 20m in thickness. By this reckoning, the Mt Garmo landslide is one of the largest in the last 33 years. Next we mapped the velocity field of the RGO Glacier over time using multitemporal satellite imagery. We

  20. Learning through Nomadic Interiors - Villa Rotonda through the lenses of Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    The question of the critical role of our built heritage to the complex and interdisciplinary processes that govern the current development of the built environment define a continuous challenge in interior studies and education: Can a study of the fundamental interior elements of Villa Rotonda fo......-designed in caramelized sugar can create a parallel learning space; an interior that make a utopian space possible....

  1. Total body Na(+)-depletion without hyponatraemia can trigger overtraining-like symptoms with sleeping disorders and increasing blood pressure: explorative case and literature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M C; Bedarf, J R; Russ, M; Grosch-Ott, S; Thiele, S; Unger, J K

    2012-12-01

    experienced before, typical symptoms such as sleeping disorders, harassed feeling, high diuresis, thirst and increasing blood pressure developed within 2 weeks with the increased training loads and the usual low Na(+)-nutrition. This was before plasma sodium decreased below the physiological range. High Na(+)-substitution instead of a resting period enabled the recovery from OR symptoms within some days. Out of various articles we choose and report some interesting further medical phenomenon where our hypothesis of Na(+)-depletion as a trigger mechanism might give new ideas for identifying pathophysiological mechanisms. The hypothesis: Tissue Na(+)-depletion triggers OR- and OTS- development via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which initiate at first a stimulation and then exhaustion of the sympathetic system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  3. Nomads in Diaspora Space: Exploring Women's Identity Work in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    How individuals position themselves as "students" within the university landscape can provide insight into the personal experience of entering this environment. This article will explore how one group of female students narrated their identity work as they moved through the first year of study in an Australian university. These students…

  4. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  5. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  6. Ciprofloxacin triggered glutamate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-10-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a well-studied bacterium which naturally overproduces glutamate when induced by an elicitor. Glutamate production is accompanied by decreased 2-oxoglutatate dehydrogenase activity. Elicitors of glutamate production by C. glutamicum analyzed to molecular detail target the cell envelope. Ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, was shown to inhibit growth of C. glutamicum wild type with concomitant excretion of glutamate. Enzyme assays showed that 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity was decreased due to ciprofloxacin addition. Transcriptome analysis revealed that this inhibitor of DNA gyrase increased RNA levels of genes involved in DNA synthesis, repair and modification. Glutamate production triggered by ciprofloxacin led to glutamate titers of up to 37 ± 1 mM and a substrate specific glutamate yield of 0.13 g/g. Even in the absence of the putative glutamate exporter gene yggB, ciprofloxacin effectively triggered glutamate production. When C. glutamicum wild type was cultivated under nitrogen-limiting conditions, 2-oxoglutarate rather than glutamate was produced as consequence of exposure to ciprofloxacin. Recombinant C. glutamicum strains overproducing lysine, arginine, ornithine, and putrescine, respectively, secreted glutamate instead of the desired amino acid when exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin induced DNA synthesis and repair genes, reduced 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity and elicited glutamate production by C. glutamicum. Production of 2-oxoglutarate could be triggered by ciprofloxacin under nitrogen-limiting conditions.

  7. Triggers and Their Influence on Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Christine S

    2017-05-01

    This article provides a conceptual definition of the concept trigger within the context of health behaviors and applies it to the highly significant health issue of obesity. Healthy behaviors are essential to life and happiness, but they do not just happen. They are triggered, and an inner drive keeps them alive. To help patients gain and retain optimal health, nurses must understand the triggers of healthy behaviors. Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis is used as the basis for defining the concept of trigger. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequences of trigger are identified. Findings suggest that nurses can play a role in triggering health behavior change through simple motivational efforts.

  8. A Neural Network Approach to Muon Triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Livneh, Ran; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to make precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. This poses a complicated inverse problem, arising from the inhomogeneous nature of the magnetic fields in ATLAS. This thesis presents a study of an application of Artificial Neural Networks to the muon triggering problem in the ATLAS end-cap. A comparison with realistic results from the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network, but this is mainly due to superior resolution available off-line. Other options for applying a neural network to this problem are discussed.

  9. Noise and trigger efficiency characterization of cooled silicon pad detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, A C; Correia, J G; Silva, M R; Rudge, A; Weilhammer, P; Soares, J C

    2007-01-01

    Technical progress on silicon pad electron detectors, currently used in emission channelling experiments to study lattice location of radioactive dopants and impurities in single crystals, is reported. Noise and trigger efficiency improvements are achieved by using 500 μm and 1 mm thick detectors coupled to a cooled readout system. The static properties, noise, gamma ray and electron trigger efficiency and energy resolution for different temperatures under air and vacuum were measured. The advantages of the future implementation of 1 mm silicon pad detectors with cooled self-triggering readout chips are discussed.

  10. Serum Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and Procalcitonin Can Reflect Sepsis Severity and Predict Prognosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prognostic significance of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP, C-reactive protein (CRP, cytokines, and clinical severity scores in patients with sepsis. Methods. A total of 102 patients with sepsis were divided into survival group (n=60 and nonsurvival group (n=42 based on 28-day mortality. Serum levels of biomarkers and cytokines were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 after admission to an ICU, meanwhile the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA scores were calculated. Results. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and IL-6 levels of patients in the nonsurvival group were significantly higher than those in the survival group on day 1 (P<0.01. The area under a ROC curve for the prediction of 28 day mortality was 0.792 for PCT, 0.856 for sTREM-1, 0.953 for SOFA score, and 0.923 for APACHE II score. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that serum baseline sTREM-1 PCT levels and SOFA score were the independent predictors of 28-day mortality. Serum PCT, sTREM-1, and IL-6 levels showed a decrease trend over time in the survival group (P<0.05. Serum NT-pro-BNP levels showed the predictive utility from days 3 and 5 (P<0.05. Conclusion. In summary, elevated serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels provide superior prognostic accuracy to other biomarkers. Combination of serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels and SOFA score can offer the best powerful prognostic utility for sepsis mortality.

  11. LHCb detector and trigger performance in Run II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Dordei

    2017-12-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the LHC, designed to perform high precision studies of b- and c- hadrons. In Run II of the LHC, a new scheme for the software trigger at LHCb allows splitting the triggering of events into two stages, giving room to perform the alignment and calibration in real time. In the novel detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II, data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The larger timing budget, available in the trigger, allows to perform the same track reconstruction online and offline. This enables LHCb to achieve the best reconstruction performance already in the trigger, and allows physics analyses to be performed directly on the data produced by the trigger reconstruction. The novel real-time processing strategy at LHCb is discussed from both the technical and operational point of view. The overall performance of the LHCb detector on the data of Run II is presented as well.

  12. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    pilot field test, a number of design changes are proposed to increase the robustness of the system for extended field studies and commercialization.

  13. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  14. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  15. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  17. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injectio...

  18. GnRH agonist for triggering of final oocyte maturation: time for a change of practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, P; Kol, Stefan; Papanikolaou, E G

    2011-01-01

    GnRH agonist (GnRHa) triggering has been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) compared with hCG triggering; however, initially a poor reproductive outcome was reported after GnRHa triggering, due to an apparently uncorrectable luteal phase...... deficiency. Therefore, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. Studies now report a luteal phase rescue, with a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering....

  19. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions with a maximum centre of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch collision rate of 40MHz. In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large farms of standard computers and network devices. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying u...

  20. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  1. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and

  2. Nomads and Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    The dissertation describes and analyses Fluxus acivities in Germany, Denmark and Holland during the period 1962-66. Its protagonists are Tomas Schmit, Wolf Vostell and Joseph Beuys (Germany), Arthur Køpcke, Eric Andersen and Henning Christiansen (Denmark) and Willem de Ridder and Wim T. Schippers...... to a general tendency in post-World War II art to create infrastructures - in the work of art as well as in other products (communal activity, book projects, various organisational forms) - that link artist and audience in a system of distribution and exchange....... (Holland), all eight local artists who first met Fluxus as a foreign (American) phenomenon and who who continued to represent Fluxus after its originator, George Maciunas, returned to the USA in late 1963. The main question that is addressed is, how these artists represented and developed Fluxus after...... artists and being together as the result of a work of art. Both modes are defined with the help of the alternative organisational form that Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari describe in the Nomadology (1986) as the "War Machine". The word "infrastructure" in the subtitle of the dissertation refers...

  3. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  4. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms...... are particularly likely to exercise such real options triggered by the introduction of the Euro. The results go beyond the immediate trade effects, which empirical studies have shown to be weak and without trade diversion as to the three non-adopters, and provide important insights about the potential long...

  5. "Triggers" for referral to neurology palliative care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Richard Shek-Kwan; Poon, Wai Shuen

    2017-08-31

    In neurology, many diseases are still incurable and have a fatal outcome. Palliative care (PC) definitely has a role in neurology. We discuss the screening criteria for PC referral, known as 'triggers' in different neurological diseases. Different clinical settings including in-patient and out-patient are covered. We hope this review can remind clinicians to involve PC in the appropriate patient group. Further clinical studies are expected to validate the triggers and trajectories of various neurological diseases.

  6. A first-level calorimeter trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, V.; Edwards, J.; Gee, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the RD27 collaboration the authors have carried out system studies on the implementation of the first level calorimeter trigger processor system for the ATLAS experiment to be mounted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. A demonstrator trigger system operated successfully with the RD3 and RD33 calorimeters at the full 40 MHz LHC bunch crossing (BC) rate. The prototype application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in this system each processed data from only a single trigger cell and its environment, which would lead to an extremely large system for ATLAS. Using eight-bit parallel data even the use of ASICs, processing multiple trigger cells would demand unacceptably large numbers of input pins and module connections. Initial studies of this I/O problem produced a solution based on asynchronous transmission of zero-suppressed and BC-tagged data on 160 Mbit/s serial links. This approach appeared to be feasible but would have introduced additional latency of about 20 BCs. Further studies have led to the design of a fully-synchronous calorimeter trigger processor system using commercial high-speed optical links. The links will terminate in multi-chip modules (MCMs) incorporating custom-designed integrated optics, and the trigger algorithms will be implemented in ASICs

  7. Repeat dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing In Vitro fertilization cycles provides a better cycle outcome - a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Deepika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003 undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone (P4, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as proportions where applicable. Independent sample t-test was used for continuous variables which were normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables where appropriate. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs was calculated. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the post-trigger LH, P4, and FSH values at 12 h as predictors of oocyte maturity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: maturity rate of the oocytes. Secondary outcomes: oocyte yield, fertilization rate, availability of good quality embryos on day 3, blastocyst conversion, OHSS rates, post-trigger serum LH (IU/L, FSH (IU/L, and P4 (ng/mL levels implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: A higher number of mature (metaphase II oocytes were obtained in Group B compared to Group A (OR of 0.47; CI: 0.38–0

  8. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Plans for a physics-driven upgrade of the LHC foresee staged increases of the accelerator's average instantaneous luminosity, of up to a factor of five compared to the original design. In order to cope with the sustained luminosity increase, and the resulting higher detector occupancy and particle interaction rates, the ATLAS experiment is planning phased upgrades of the trigger system and of the DAQ infrastructure. In the new conditions, maintaining an adequate signal acceptance for electro-weak processes will pose unprecedented challenges, as the default solution to cope with the higher rates would be to increase thresholds on the transverse momenta of physics objects (leptons, jets, etc). Therefore the possibility to apply fast processing at the first trigger level in order to use tracking information as early as possible in the trigger selection represents a most appealing opportunity, which can preserve the ATLAS trigger's selectivity without reducing its flexibility. Studies to explore the feasibility o...

  9. Implementation and Performance of the ATLAS Jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the challenges of the ATLAS jet trigger and describes its implementation and expected performance. The ATLAS trigger is organized in three levels: the first one (L1) is implemented in custom made electronic modules, while the High-Level Trigger (HLT) system, which groups the second (L2) and third (Event Filter, EF) trigger levels, is based on software running in commercial computers. Both L1 and the HLT perform reconstruction of physic objects, like leptons, photons or jets. A precise hadronic calibration is applied at the HLT with the aim of accurately determining the jet energy. This optimizes the behavior of our selection criteria. A dedicated calibration scheme is implemented at L2, while the EF uses offline algorithms. We discuss the strategies used to perform the hadronic calibration for the HLT. We review the current physics signatures, expected rates and efficiencies as obtained from MC studies.

  10. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  11. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  12. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  13. Skier triggering of backcountry avalanches with skilled route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinickas, Alexandra; Haegeli, Pascal; Jamieson, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Jamieson (2009) provided numerical estimates for the baseline probabilities of triggering an avalanche by a backcountry skier making fresh tracks without skilled route selection as a function of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e., hazard levels Low, Moderate, Considerable, High and Extreme). Using the results of an expert survey, he showed that triggering probabilities while skiing directly up, down or across a trigger zone without skilled route selection increase roughly by a factor of 10 with each step of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e. hazard level). The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of skilled route selection on the relationship between triggering probability and hazard level. To assess the effect of skilled route selection on triggering probability by hazard level, we analysed avalanche hazard assessments as well as reports of skiing activity and triggering of avalanches from 11 Canadian helicopter and snowcat operations during two winters (2012-13 and 2013-14). These reports were submitted to the daily information exchange among Canadian avalanche safety operations, and reflect professional decision-making and route selection practices of guides leading groups of skiers. We selected all skier-controlled or accidentally triggered avalanches with a destructive size greater than size 1 according to the Canadian avalanche size classification, triggered by any member of a guided group (guide or guest). These operations forecast the avalanche hazard daily for each of three elevation bands: alpine, treeline and below treeline. In contrast to the 2009 study, an exposure was defined as a group skiing within any one of the three elevation bands, and consequently within a hazard rating, for the day (~4,300 ratings over two winters). For example, a group that skied below treeline (rated Moderate) and treeline (rated Considerable) in one day, would receive one count for exposure to Moderate hazard, and one count for

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Single Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox®) Injection for Relief of Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Point: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwanchuay, Photsawee; Petchnumsin, Thavatchai; Yiemsiri, Pichet; Pasuk, Nakkamol; Srikanok, Wannarat; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injection has been applied for pain relief in various chronic pain syndromes. Recently, systematic review studies reported inconclusive effects of Botulinum toxin in myofascial pain management. The present study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) (Botox®) injection for pain reduction in myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-three patients with 48 MTrP on the upper trapezius muscles over three months with moderate to severe pain intensity diagnosed at physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient department were recruited between December 2011 and March 2012. Eligible patients were blinded and randomly injected with single 0.2 ml (20 IU) of BTxA for 24 MTrP and 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 MTrP at the most tender trigger point on the upper trapezius muscle. All patients were advised for stretching exercise and ergonomic adaptation throughout the study. At 3- and 6-week after injections, visual analogue scale (VAS), the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and reported adverse effects were measured. Both BTxA and control groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in VAS reduction and increased PPT after 3 weeks and 6 weeks compared with before treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS reduction from baseline between the two groups at 3- and 6-week after treatment. A statistically significant difference in improvement of PPT from baseline and 6-week after BTxA injection compared with 0.9% NaCl group was shown (1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.036). There was mild degree side-effects that spontaneous resolved within one week in both groups without significant difference in percentage. No severe adverse effects were reported during the study. The efficacy in VAS reduction of a single 20 IU of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection was not different from 0.9% NaCl for myofascial trigger point at the upper trapezius muscle. However

  15. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  16. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  17. Configuration of the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, M; Armstrong, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual overview is given of the software foreseen to configure the ATLAS trigger system. Two functional software prototypes have been developed to configure the ATLAS Level-1 emulation and the High-Level Trigger software. Emphasis has been put so far on following a consistent approach between the two trigger systems and on addressing their requirements, taking into account the specific use-case of the `Region-of-Interest' mechanism for the ATLAS Level-2 trigger. In the future the configuration of the two systems will be combined to ensure a consistent selection configuration for the entire ATLAS trigger system.

  18. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Upward Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballweber, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Alana Ballweber, John H. Helsdon Jr., and Tom A. Warner South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Ten tall communication towers lining the ridge in Rapid City, South Dakota provide a unique opportunity to study the phenomenon of lightning-triggered upward lightning. The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS), seeks to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by: (1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) return stroke, and/or (2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network near the towers. As part of the UPLIGHTS research, two separate lightning mapping devices were used to aid in a 3D re-creation of the triggering flash, a 3D digital interferometer and a Lightning Mapping Array. Through the use of these two devices, we present findings founded on the analysis of data collected from these assets during the 2013 storm season. Specifically, we quantify the spatial and temporal relationship of the triggering flash leader activity relative to the tall objects when upward leaders develop and when upward leaders fail to develop. Furthermore, the lightning mapping devices were correlated with high-speed optical and electrical field observations to provide a further insight as to why certain flashes trigger upward lightning from tall structures and others do not.

  19. Comparison of acupuncture to injection for myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Miriam C B; Issy, Adriana M; Avila, Ilíada P; Sakata, Rioko K

    2011-01-01

    Many treatments have been proposed for myofascial pain syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of acupuncture to trigger point injection combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone. A randomized study was performed in 30 patients divided into 2 groups: G1 received trigger point injection with 0.25% bupivacaine twice weekly, and both cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate 10 mg/day and sodium dipyrone 500 mg every 8 hours; G2 received classical and trigger point acupuncture twice weekly. All patients were instructed in physical exercise. The following parameters were evaluated: pain intensity rated on a numerical scale, number of trigger points, and quality of life before and 4 weeks after treatment. The pain scores and the number of trigger points reduced significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Significant improvement in the quality of life scores was observed for some of the functional domains in the 2 groups, whereas there was no improvement of the general health status domain in either group or of the emotional domain in G1. Acupuncture, when compared with trigger point injection, combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone provided similar pain relief and improvement in quality of life measures at 4 weeks.  © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  20. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...