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Sample records for noao bootes field

  1. NOAO Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; De La Pena, Michele; Zarate, Nelson; Lauer, Tod R.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) is a step toward building a comprehensive scientific archive of the optical and infrared data holdings of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Earlier efforts included the NOAO Save the Bits archive (more properly a data store) with current raw data holdings from telescopes at both Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory of more than 3 million images, totaling in excess of 20 terabytes. The NOAO Science Archive builds on the foundation provided by the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey (NDWFS) Archive that offers sophisticated analysis tools -- as well as the coherent and extensive NDWFS data set. NSA is an initiative of the NOAO Data Products Program aimed at identifying scientifically useful datasets from the large and growing NOAO holdings and making these data available to the astronomical community, while providing tools for data discovery, mining and exploration. The goals for the NSA are: to immediately create a scientifically useful archive of NOAO Survey data, to develop in-house expertise in the relevant technologies, to identify and document requirements for NOAO's future comprehensive archive by providing a design study, and to create a high level of visibility and utility for both the NOAO Archive and NOAO Surveys (for example, with web services available at http://archive.noao.edu). The archive and associated NOAO assets are expected to grow into a resource of the National Virtual Observatory.

  2. XBootes: An X-Ray Survey of the NDWFS Bootes Field - Paper I Overview and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, S S; Forman, W R; Jones, C; Green, P J; Kochanek, C S; Vikhlinin, A; Fabricant, D; Fazio, G; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Najita, J; McNamara, B; Shields, J; Rieke, M; Murray, Stephen S.; Kenter, Almus; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Green, Paul J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fabricant, Daniel; Fazio, Giovani; Brand, Kate; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Najita, Joan; Namara, Brian Mc; Shields, Joseph; Rieke, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    We obtained a 5 ksec deep Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-I map of the 9.3 square degree Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Here we describe the data acquisition and analysis strategies leading to a catalog of 4642 (3293) point sources with 2 or more (4 or more) counts, corresponding to a limiting flux of roughly 4(8)x10^{-15} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} in the 0.5-7 keV band. These Chandra XBootes data are unique in that they consitute the widest contiguous X-ray field yet observed to such a faint flux limit. Because of the extraordinarily low background of the ACIS, we expect only 14% (0.7%) of the sources to be spurious. We also detected 43 extended sources in this survey. The distribution of the point sources among the 126 pointings (ACIS-I has a 16 x 16 arcminute field of view) is consistent with Poisson fluctuations about the mean of 36.8 sources per pointing. While a smoothed image of the point source distribution is clumpy, there is no statistically significant evidence of large scale filamentary s...

  3. The Allen Telescope Array Pi GHz Sky Survey I. Survey Description and Static Catalog Results for the Bootes Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Keating, Garrett; Whysong, David; Ackermann, Rob; Atkinson, Shannon; Backer, Don; Backus, Peter; Barott, Billy; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bradford, Tucker; Cheng, Calvin; Cork, Chris; Davis, Mike; DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matt; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Fleming, Matt; Forster, R James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Harp, G R; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Hull, Chat; Jordan, Jane; Jorgensen, Susanne; Kilsdonk, Tom; Law, Casey; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; McMahon, Peter; Milgrome, Oren; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Shostak, Seth; Siemion, Andrew; Smolek, Ken; Tarter, Jill; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; Vitouchkine, Artyom; Wadefalk, Niklas; Weinreb, Sandy; Welch, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter K G; Wright, Melvyn

    2010-01-01

    The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5-year campaign, PiGSS will twice observe ~250,000 radio sources in the 10,000 deg^2 region of the sky with b > 30 deg to an rms sensitivity of ~1 mJy. Additionally, sub-regions of the sky will be observed multiple times to characterize variability on time scales of days to years. We present here observations of a 10 deg^2 region in the Bootes constellation overlapping the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey field. The PiGSS image was constructed from 75 daily observations distributed over a 4-month period and has an rms flux density between 200 and 250 microJy. This represents a deeper image by a factor of 4 to 8 than we will achieve over the entire 10,000 deg^2. We provide flux densities, source sizes, and spectral indices for the 425 sources d...

  4. A UV Ultra-luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at Z=2.78 in NDWFS Bootes Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We present one of the most ultraviolet (UV) luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) (J1432+3358) at z=2.78, discovered in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) Bootes field. The R-band magnitude of J1432+3358 is 22.29 AB, more than two magnitudes brighter than typical L* LBGs at this redshift. The deep z-band image reveals two components of J1432+3358 separated by 1.0" with flux ratio of 3:1. The high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum shows Lya emission line and interstellar medium absorption lines. The absence of NV and CIV emission lines, the non-detection in X-ray and radio wavelengths and mid-infrared (MIR) colors indicate no or weak active galactic nuclei (AGN) (<10%) in this galaxy. The galaxy shows broader line profile with the full width half maximum (FWHM) of about 1000 km/s and larger outflow velocity (~500 km/s) than those of typical z~3 LBGs. The physical properties are derived by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar synthesis models. The dust extinction, ...

  5. The 172 ks Chandra Exposure of the LALA Bootes Field: X-Ray Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Brown, M. J. I.; Dey, A.; Heckman, T. M.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Norman, C. A.; Tiede, G. P.; Tozzi, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep, 172 ks Chandra observation of the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey (LALA) Bootes field, obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. This is one of the deepest Chandra images of the extragalactic sky; only the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field North (CDF-N) and 1 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) are substantially deeper. In this paper we present the X-ray source catalog obtained from this image, along with an analysis of source counts and optical identifications. The X-ray image is composed of two individual observations obtained in 2002 and reaches 0.5-2.0 and 2.0-10.0 keV flux limits of 1.5×10-16 and 1.0×10-15 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively, for point sources near the aim point. A total of 168 X-ray sources were detected: 160 in the 0.5-7.0 keV band, 132 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band, and 111 in the 2.0-7.0 keV band. The X-ray source counts were derived and compared with those from other Chandra deep surveys; the hard X-ray source density of the LALA Bootes field is 33% higher than that of CDF-S at the flux level of 2.0×10-15 ergs cm-2 s-1, confirming the field-to-field variances of the hard-band source counts reported by previous studies. The deep exposure resolves >~72% of the 2.0-10.0 keV X-ray background. Our primary optical data are R-band imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), with a limiting magnitude of R=25.7 (Vega, 3 σ, and 4" diameter aperture). We have found optical counterparts for 152 of the 168 Chandra sources (90%); 144 of these are detected in the R-band image, and eight have optical counterparts in other bands (either BW, V, I, or z'). Among the R-band nondetected sources, not more than 11 of them can possibly be at z>5, based on the hardness ratios of their X-ray emission and nondetections in bluer bands (BW, V). The majority (~76%) of the X-ray sources are found to have log(fX/fR) within 0.0+/-1 these are believed to be AGNs. Most of the X

  6. Physical parameters of seven field RR Lyrae Stars in Bootes

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, J H; Miller, R Peña; Sareyan, J P; Alvarez, M

    2009-01-01

    Str\\"omgren uvby-beta photometry is reported for the RR Lyrae stars AE, RS, ST, TV, TW, UU, and XX in Bootes. The physical parameters M/Mo, log (L/Lo), M_V, log T_eff and [Fe/H], have been estimated from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves and the empirical calibrations developed for this type of stars. Detailed behavior of the stars along the cycle of pulsation has been determined from the observed photometric indices and the synthetic indices from atmospheric models. The reddening of the zone is found to be negligible, as estimated from the reddening of several objects in the same region of the sky. Hence the distances to the individual objects are also estimated.

  7. The LBT Bootes Field Survey: I. The Rest-frame UV and Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dave, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Bootes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of $z\\sim3$ quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z~3 LBGs based on the R-band and IRAC [4.5 micro m]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z~7 and z~3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR),which fo...

  8. The NOAO Data Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Olsen, K.; Stobie, E. B.; Mighell, K. J.; Norris, P.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the NOAO Data Lab to help community users take advantage of current large surveys and prepare them even larger surveys in the era of LSST. The Data Lab will allow users to efficiently utilize catalogs of billions of objects, combine traditional telescope image and spectral data with external archives, share custom results with collaborators, publish data products to other users, and experiment with analysis toolkits. Specific science cases will be used to develop a prototype framework and tools, allowing us to work directly with scientists from survey teams to ensure development remains focused on scientifically productive tasks.

  9. The NOAO KOSMOS Data Handling System

    CERN Document Server

    Seaman, Rob

    2015-01-01

    KOSMOS and COSMOS are twin high-efficiency imaging spectrographs that have been deployed as NOAO facility instruments for the Mayall 4-meter telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona and for the Blanco telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile, respectively. The NOAO Data Handling System (DHS) has seen aggressive use over several years at both the Blanco and Mayall telescopes with NEWFIRM (the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager) and the Mosaic-1.1 wide-field optical imager. Both of these instruments also rely on the Monsoon array controller and related software, and on instrument-specific versions of the NOAO Observation Control System (NOCS). NOCS, Monsoon and DHS are thus a well-tested software suite that was adopted by the KOSMOS project. This document describes the specifics of the KOSMOS implementation of DHS, in particular in support of the original two-amplifier e2v 2Kx4K CCD detectors with which the instruments were commissioned. The emphasis will be on the general layout of the DHS software components and th...

  10. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  11. Ski Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In cooperation with Raichle Molitor USA Inc. and the international Raichle organization, Comfort Products developed the Raichle Flexon concept in ski boots. The Flexon concept is an adaptation of the accordion-like corrugations of extravehicular space suit joints, which allows ski boots to flex without significant distortion. The design provides immediate transmission of power and therefore precision skiing. Comfort Products also applied heating element circuitry from Apollo astronaut's clothing to foot-warming devices in their boots in the 1970s.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer/IRAC variability survey of Bootes field (Kozlowski+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Assef, R. J.; Brodwin, M.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stern, D.

    2016-04-01

    A detailed description of Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is presented in Ashby et al. (2009, see J/ApJ/716/530). The first epoch was taken on 2004 January 10-14 as the IRAC Shallow Survey (Eisenhardt et al. 2004ApJS..154...48E). Then, we added three more epochs on 2007 August 8-13, 2008 February 2-6, and 2008 March 6-10 as the SDWFS (Ashby et al. 2009, see J/ApJ/716/530; D. Stern PI, PID 40839). The new, fifth epoch was taken on 2014 April 23-29 as the Decadal IRAC Bootes Survey (DIBS; M.L.N. Ashby PI, PID 10088). The intervals between any two epochs span the range from 1 month to 10 years. (3 data files).

  13. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P

    2007-07-20

    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  14. LOFAR 150-MHz observations of the Bo\\"otes field: Catalogue and Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, W L; Röttgering, H J A; Best, P; Dijkema, T J; de Gasperin, F; Hardcastle, M J; Heald, G; Prandoni, I; Sabater, J; Shimwell, T W; Tasse, C; van Bemmel, I M; Brüggen, M; Brunetti, G; Conway, J E; Enßlin, T; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Ferrari, C; Haverkorn, M; Jackson, N; Jarvis, M J; Kapinska, A D; Mahony, E K; Miley, G K; Morabito, L K; Morganti, R; Orrú, E; Retana-Montenegro, E; Sridhar, S S; Toribio, M C; White, G J; Wise, M W; Zwart, J T L

    2016-01-01

    We present the first wide area (19 deg$^2$), deep ($\\approx120-150$ {\\mu}Jy beam$^{-1}$), high resolution ($5.6 \\times 7.4$ arcsec) LOFAR High Band Antenna image of the Bo\\"otes field made at 130-169 MHz. This image is at least an order of magnitude deeper and 3-5 times higher in angular resolution than previously achieved for this field at low frequencies. The observations and data reduction, which includes full direction-dependent calibration, are described here. We present a radio source catalogue containing 6276 sources detected over an area of $19$\\,deg$^2$, with a peak flux density threshold of $5\\sigma$. As the first thorough test of the facet calibration strategy, introduced by van Weeren et al., we investigate the flux and positional accuracy of the catalogue. We present differential source counts that reach an order of magnitude deeper in flux density than previously achieved at these low frequencies, and show flattening at 150 MHz flux densities below 10 mJy associated with the rise of the low flux...

  15. Searching for intermediate groups of galaxies with Suzaku in Bootes field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate redshift evolution of groups of galaxies is significant also in terms of galaxy evolution. Recent observational studies show that an AGN fraction and a magnitude gap between the first and the second brightest group galaxies increase in group environments at lower redshifts (Oh et al. 2014 & Gozaliasl et al. 2014). Thus, comprehension for the evolution of the systems will bring us to hints on both morphological evolution of galaxies and galaxy-galaxy interactions. However, observational samples of groups of galaxies at higher redshifts are limited due to its low flux and surface brightness. Thus, we aimed at searching for new samples using both X-ray and optical data. To identify the group systems at higher redshifts, deep optical imaging and spectroscopic data are needed. Bootes field is one of the best regions for this purpose because there are up to 17 bands of data available per source from infrared, optical, UV, and X-ray (e.g., Kenter et al. 2005, Chung et al. 2014). XBootes survey was conducted in 2003 using Chandra (Murray et al. 2005) and X-ray extended sources were detected around intermediate optically-identified groups of galaxies even though Chandra could not reveal their origins due to poor photon statistics. Thus, we conducted X-ray follow-up observations using Suzaku which has low and stable background and thus is optimum for such low surface brightness sources for brightest 6 group candidates with redshifts of 0.15-0.42. Consequently, Suzaku detected excess emissions from all the targets in their images and spectral analysis reveals that 6 sources are originated from group- or poor-cluster-scale halos with temperatures, abundances and luminosities of 1.6-3.0 keV, conference, we will report on the details of our analysis and results using multiwavelength data such as radio, optical and X-ray to examine the AGN fractions and magnitude gaps in our samples and discuss the redshift evolution.

  16. Commitment to Broadening Participation at NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmany, Catharine D.; Norman, D.

    2011-01-01

    AURA and NOAO take seriously the importance of Broadening Participation in Astronomy. At the request of the AURA President, each of the AURA centers (NOAO, NSO, STSCI, Gemini) appointed a Diversity Advocates (DA). At NOAO this job is shared by Dara Norman and Katy Garmany, who were appointed by Dave Silva in Jan 2009. The DA's are members of the AURA Committee on Workforce and Diversity (WDC), a designated subcommittee of the AURA Board of Directors. The role of this committee includes reviewing activities and plans on an AURA wide basis aimed at broadening the participation within AURA, and reviewing AURA wide policies on the workforce. At NOAO, the role of the DAs spans a number of departments and activities. They serve on observatory search committees, and offer suggestions on how NOAO job searches can reach the most diverse audience. The DA's job is to insure that NOAO actively pursues every opportunity to increase diversity: to this end they are involved in outreach and educational activities that focus on workplace development and encourage inclusion of woman, minorities and persons with disabilities.

  17. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  18. Frostbite in Ski Boots for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Geh-simulator. Ski boot without gaiter, test 1: Water just above lasting margin Cycles New boot Used boot 3360 Dry water in the boot, test stopped...boot 2260 Dry feels wet 4375 Dry water in the boot, test stopped 8500 Humid 16600 water in the boot Water absorption 5.0% 8.5% Hiking shoe

  19. The NOAO NVO Portal: Overall Design & Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E.; Miller, C. J.; Gasson, D.

    2007-10-01

    We present an overview and design of the NOAO National Virtual Observatory (NVO) Portal. This is a web application providing one-stop discovery, analysis, and access to VO-compliant imaging data and services. It strictly follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and relies heavily on Asynchronous Javascript And XML (AJAX) in the browser. Because of the heavy use of AJAX, the relatively simple database schemas, and, most importantly, the rapid development/iteration schedule, Ruby-on-Rails (RoR) was chosen as the implementation language and PostgreSQL as the database engine.

  20. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  1. The NOAO NVO Portal: Client-Side VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, D.; Fuentes, E.; Miller, C. J.

    2007-10-01

    The NOAO National Virtual Observatory (NVO) portal is a recently deployed web application for one-stop discovery, analysis, and access to VO-compliant imaging data and services. The NOAO NVO portal utilizes Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP) services provided by some astronomical archives. The portal also utilizes a number of SOAP-based VO web services (WESIX, Sesame, etc). We discuss the design decisions and technology choices that were made in the NOAO NVO portal code to facilitate the use of IVOA standards and VO data/services. This includes a new Virtual Observatory library written for Ruby: an interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. We provide an overview of VORuby and how it is utilized in the NOAO NVO Portal.

  2. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  3. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-07-01

    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  4. BOOTES-3 STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Tello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BOOTES-3 es el primer observatorio rob ́otico ubicado en el h emisferio sur de la red BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System. Fu ́e inaugurado e n febrero del 2009, y prontamente inici ́o sus op- eraciones. Est ́a ubicado cerca de Blenheim, Nueva Zelanda. Su objetivo cient ́ıfico principal es la observaci ́on y segui miento de las contrapartidas ́opticas de los GRB (Estal- lidos de Rayos Gamma, por sus siglas en ingl ́es, respondien do a las alertas de manera r ́apida y completamente aut ́onoma. Para esto est ́a equipado con una montura de alta v elocidad (6-10 segundos, y todo el observatorio est ́a controlado por el software RTS-2 (Remote Telescope Sy stem 2.

  5. LOFAR low-band antenna observations of the 3C295 and Bootes fields: source counts and ultra-steep spectrum sources

    CERN Document Server

    van Weeren, R J; Tasse, C; Rottgering, H J A; Rafferty, D A; van der Tol, S; Heald, G; White, G J; Shulevski, A; Best, P; Intema, H T; Bhatnagar, S; Reich, W; Steinmetz, M; van Velzen, S; Ensslin, T A; Prandoni, I; de Gasperin, F; Jamrozy, M; Brunetti, G; Jarvis, M J; McKean, J P; Wise, M W; Ferrari, C; Harwood, J; Oonk, J B R; Hoeft, M; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Horellou, C; Wucknitz, O; Bonafede, A; Mohan, N R; Scaife, A M M; Klockner, H -R; van Bemmel, I M; Merloni, A; Chyzy, K T; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Avruch, I M; Beck, R; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W N; Bruggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eisloffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Horandel, J; van der Horst, A; Iacobelli, M; Jackson, N J; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Maat, P; Mann, G; McKay-Bukowski, D; Mevius, M; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey, V N; Pietka, G; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Renting, A; Rowlinson, A; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Zarka, P

    2014-01-01

    We present LOFAR Low Band observations of the Bootes and 3C295 fields. Our images made at 34, 46, and 62 MHz reach noise levels of 12, 8, and 5 mJy beam$^{-1}$, making them the deepest images ever obtained in this frequency range. In total, we detect between 300 and 400 sources in each of these images, covering an area of 17 to 52 deg$^{2}$. From the observations we derive Euclidean-normalized differential source counts. The 62 MHz source counts agree with previous GMRT 153 MHz and VLA 74 MHz differential source counts, scaling with a spectral index of $-0.7$. We find that a spectral index scaling of $-0.5$ is required to match up the LOFAR 34 MHz source counts. This result is also in agreement with source counts from the 38 MHz 8C survey, indicating that the average spectral index of radio sources flattens towards lower frequencies. We also find evidence for spectral flattening using the individual flux measurements of sources between 34 and 1400 MHz and by calculating the spectral index averaged over the so...

  6. Automated Detection of Dwarf Galaxies and Star Clusters in SMASH through the NOAO Data Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Knut A.; Nidever, David L.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; SMASH Collaboration; NOAO Data Lab Team

    2017-01-01

    We present an automated method, using the NOAO Data Lab environment, for the detection of dwarf galaxy-scale objects in catalog data from the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH). SMASH has imaged ~480 square degrees of the southern sky, over a partially filled area of 2400 square degrees, to 24th mag in gri (uz~23) using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). The NOAO Data Lab (http://datalab.noao.edu) is being developed to support community research of the massive data sets now being derived from NOAO’s wide-field telescopes, in particular DECam. A key feature of the Data Lab is the ability to perform efficient automated analysis of catalog and imaging data. Our method, which is an example of this feature, allows for the rapid search of candidate dwarf galaxies and stellar clusters in deep catalog data. Using SMASH as the catalog data source, we easily recover the previously discovered Hydra II dwarf galaxy and SMASH-I LMC globular cluster, as well as a number of other potentially interesting candidate stellar systems.

  7. Introducing the All-sky NOAO Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidever, David L.; NOAO DataLab

    2017-06-01

    Most of the sky has been imaged with NOAO's telescopes from both hemispheres. While the large majority of these data were obtained for PI-led projects only a small fraction have been released to the community via well-calibrated and easily accessible catalogs. We are remedying this by created a catalog of sources from most of the public data taken on CTIO-4m+DECam as well as KPNO-4m+Mosaic3. This catalog, called the NOAO Source Catalog (NSC), already contains 2.3 billion unique objects, 19 billion source measurements, covers ~25,000 square degrees of the sky, has 10-sigma depths of ~23rd magnitude in most broadband filters, and astrometric accuracy of ~20 mas. We plan to release the catalog via the new NOAO Data Lab service in the near future.

  8. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  9. The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Rezek, T.; Hudec, R.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de La Morena, B.; Berná, J. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Peña, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, A.

    1999-09-01

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) is considered as a part of the preparations for the ESA's satellite INTEGRAL, and is currently being developed in Spain, in collaboration with two Czech institutions. It makes use of two sets of wide-field cameras 240 kms apart, and two robotic 0.3-m telescopes. The first observing station (BOOTES-1) is located in Huelva (Spain) and the first light was obtained in July 1998. During the test phase, it has provided rapid follow-up observations for 5 GRBs detected by the BATSE aboard the CGRO. The system will fully operate in late 1999.

  10. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  11. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  12. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this

  13. The NOAO data lab: science-driven development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Graham, Matthew J.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Norris, Patrick; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-08-01

    The NOAO Data Lab aims to provide infrastructure to maximize community use of the high-value survey datasets now being collected with NOAO telescopes and instruments. As a science exploration framework, the Data Lab allow users to access and search databases containing large (i.e. terabyte-scale) catalogs, visualize, analyze, and store the results of these searches, combine search results with data from other archives or facilities, and share these results with collaborators using a shared workspace and/or data publication service. In the process of implementing the needed tools and services, specific science cases are used to guide development of the system framework and tools. The result is a Year-1 capability demonstration that (fully or partially) implements each of the major architecture components in the context of a real-world science use-case. In this paper, we discuss how this model of science-driven development helped us to build a fully functional system capable of executing the chosen science case, and how we plan to scale this system to support general use in the next phase of the project.

  14. The spectral world coordinate systems in IRAF/NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, F.

    1992-01-01

    The world coordinate system (WCS) for dispersion calibrated spectra used in the IRAF/NOAO spectroscopy packages is described. In particular, the image header keywords which define the coordinates in an 'image' pixel array. These keywords appear both as part of the IRAF image structure and map directly to FITS format. The types of spectra include multidimensional images with spectral dispersion as one axis, one dimensional images, and a special 'multispec' format consisting of multiple, semi-independent, one dimensional spectra in two or three dimensional images. The types of coordinate systems include multidimensional linear coordinates with individual keywords and one dimensional linear and nonlinear coordinates for the 'multispec' images stored in IRAF WCS attributes. The nonlinear world coordinate systems include polynomial, spline, sampled table, and look-up table function representations.

  15. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  17. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  18. Photometric Metallicities in Bootes I

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J; Dotter, A; Geisler, D

    2014-01-01

    We present new Stromgren and Washington data sets for the Bootes I dwarf galaxy, and combine them with the available SDSS photometry. The goal of this project is to refine a ground-based, practical, accurate method to determine age and metallicity for individual stars in Bootes I that can be selected in an unbiased imaging survey, without having to take spectra. We produce photometric metallicities from Stromgren and Washington photometry, for stellar systems with a range of $-1.0>[Fe/H]>-3.5$. To avoid the decrease in sensitivity of the Stromgren metallicity index on the lower red-giant branch, we replace the Stromgren v-filter with the broader Washington C-filter; we find that $CT_1by$ is the most successful filter combination, for individual stars with $[Fe/H]<-2.0$, to maintain ~0.2 dex $[Fe/H]$-resolution over the whole red-giant branch. We demonstrate that we can break the isochrones' age-metallicity degeneracy with these filters, using stars with log g=2.5-3.0, which have less than a 2% change in th...

  19. First Results from the NOAO Survey of the Outer Limits of the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Abhijit; Brondel, Brian; Olsen, Knut; Knezek, Patricia; Harris, Jason; Smith, Chris; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Claver, Jennifer; Rest, Armin; Seitzer, Patrick; Cook, Kem H; Minniti, Dante; Suntzeff, Nicholas B

    2010-01-01

    [abridged] We describe the first results from the NOAO Outer Limits Survey. The survey consists of deep images of 55 0.6x0.6 degree fields at distances up to 20 degrees from the LMC/SMC, and 10 controls. The fields probe the outer structure of the Clouds, the Magellanic Stream, the Leading Arm, and the wake of the new LMC orbit. Images were taken in 5 filters on the CTIO Blanco 4-m and Mosaic2 camera, with calibration at the CTIO 0.9-m. The CRI images reach depths below the oldest LMC/SMC main sequence (MS) turnoffs, yielding probes of structure combined with ability to measure stellar ages and metallicities. M and DDO51 images allow for discrimination of LMC and SMC giant stars from foreground dwarfs, allowing us to use giants as additional probes. From photometry of 8 fields at radii of 7-19 degrees N of the LMC bar, we find MS stars associated with the LMC to 16 degrees from the LMC center, while the much rarer giants can only be convincingly detected out to 11 degrees. In one control field, we see the sig...

  20. The Publications Tracking and Metrics Program at NOAO: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) is the U.S. national research and development center for ground-based nighttime astronomy. The NOAO librarian manages the organization’s publications tracking and metrics program, which consists of three components: identifying publications, organizing citation data, and disseminating publications information. We are developing methods to streamline these tasks, better organize our data, provide greater accessibility to publications data, and add value to our services.Our publications tracking process is complex, as we track refereed publications citing data from several sources: NOAO telescopes at two observatory sites, telescopes of consortia in which NOAO participates, the NOAO Science Archive, and NOAO-granted community-access time on non-NOAO telescopes. We also identify and document our scientific staff publications. In addition, several individuals contribute publications data.In the past year, we made several changes in our publications tracking and metrics program. To better organize our data and streamline the creation of reports and metrics, we created a MySQL publications database. When designing this relational database, we considered ease of use, the ability to incorporate data from various sources, efficiency in data inputting and sorting, and potential for growth. We also considered the types of metrics we wished to generate from our publications data based on our target audiences and the messages we wanted to convey. To increase accessibility and dissemination of publications information, we developed a publications section on the library’s website, with citation lists, acknowledgements guidelines, and metrics. We are now developing a searchable online database for our website using PHP.The publications tracking and metrics program has provided many opportunities for the library to market its services and contribute to the organization’s mission. As we make decisions on collecting, organizing

  1. KOSMOS and COSMOS: New facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Paul; Points, S; Sprayberry, D; Derwent, M A; Gonzalez, R; Mason, J A; O'Brien, T P; Pappalardo, D P; Pogge, R W; Stoll, R; Zhelem, R; Daly, P; Fitzpatrick, M; George, J R; Hunten, M; Marshall, R; Poczulp, G; Rath, S; Seaman, R; Trueblood, M; Zelaya, K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  2. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference.

  3. Recent Developments in the BOOTES Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Páta, P.; Bernas, M.; Jelinek, M.; Hudec, R.; McBreen, S.; Berná, J. Á.; García Dabó, C. E.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Soria, T.; de La Morena, B. A.; Torres Riera, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2003-04-01

    BOOTES, the Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System, is mostly a Spanish-Czech international collaboration that works to fill the space that there actually exists in the rapid variability Astronomy. It is specially aimed towards the detection and study of the optical transients that are generated in conjunction with the elusive GRBs (Gamma Ray Bursts). Since 1998 BOOTES has provided follow ups for more than 60 of these phenomena with the first of its observatories; the most important results obtained so far are the detection of an OT (Optical Transient) in the GRB 000313 error box and the non detection of optical emission simultaneous to the GRB 010220 event. With the recent inauguration of a second observatory BOOTES multiplies its science capabilities.

  4. CONTINUOUS MONITORING USING BOOTES WORLDWIDE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hiriart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los avances en la instalaci ́on del quinto teles copio de la red mundial de telescopios rob ́oticos BOOTES. Este telescopio, denominado BOOTES–5, se instalar ́a en el Observatorio Astron ́omico Nacional en la sierra San Pedro M ́artir, en Baja California, M ́exico. La operaci ́on coordinada de este telescopio con los de la red BOOTES operando en China y Espa ̃na permitir ́a un monit oreo continuo de fuentes astron ́omicas.

  5. A Comprehensive Approach to Dark Skies Research and Education at NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    NOAO and its Education and Public Outreach group play an important role locally, nationally, and internationally in raising dark skies awareness. For the past 3 years NOAO has co-hosted the international “Earth and Sky” photo contest. In 2012 there were over 600 entries contributed within 3 weeks. NOAO also created a series of audio podcasts based on serial-type skits featuring a caped dark-skies hero who typically “saves the night” by mitigating upward directed lights with shields, thereby saving sea turtles, minimizing health effects, conserving energy, or keeping the public safe. To help understand the effects of light pollution, a citizen-science campaign called GLOBE at Night was started seven years ago. The worldwide campaign involves the public in recording night sky brightness data by matching the view of a constellation like Orion with maps of progressively fainter stars. Every year, NOAO adds more opportunities for participation: more campaigns during the year, Web applications for smart phones, objective measurements with sky brightness meters, and a GLOBE at Night Facebook page. Campaigns will run roughly the first 10 days of January through May in 2013. The EPO group created “Dark Skies Rangers”, a suite of well-tested and evaluated hands-on, minds-on activities that have children building star-brightness “readers,” creating glow-in-the-dark tracings to visualize constellations, and role-playing confused sea turtles. They also created a model city with shielded lights to stop upward light, examine different kinds of bulbs for energy efficiency, and perform an outdoor lighting audit of their school or neighborhood to determine ways to save energy. In the REU program at NOAO North, the undergraduate students have been doing research over the last 3 summers on effect of light pollution on endangered bats and characterizing the behavior of sky brightness over time across Tucson and on nearby astronomical mountaintops. For more information

  6. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  7. Frostbite in ski boots for marines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Schols, E.; Kistemaker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research have showed that cold injuries of feet occur more often than cold injuries of hands. Recently, an unexpectedly large number of cold injuries were observed during military training in Norway and a relationship between cold injuries and the use of the Alico ski boot was suspected. Th

  8. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  9. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  10. Frostbite in ski boots for marines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Schols, E.; Kistemaker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research have showed that cold injuries of feet occur more often than cold injuries of hands. Recently, an unexpectedly large number of cold injuries were observed during military training in Norway and a relationship between cold injuries and the use of the Alico ski boot was suspected.

  11. AN INNOVATIVE SKI-BOOT: DESIGN, NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Corazza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing. A simplified model of the effect of ski-boot deformation on skiing behavior is used to evaluate the minimal stiffness the system must have. An experimental analysis on the ski slopes was carried out to provide ski-boot deformations and loading data in different skiing conditions, to be used in numerical simulations. Finite Elements Method (FEM simulations were performed for optimal design of the joint between ski-boot and sole. The active loads and local ski-boot deformations during small- and large-radius turns were experimentally determined and used to validate a FEM model of the ski-boot. The model was used to optimize the design for maximum stiffness and to demonstrate the efficacy of virtual design supported by proper experimental data. Mean loads up to 164% body weight were measured on the outer ski during turning. The new SGS design system allows the adjustment of lateral stance before using the ski-boot, optimizing the ski-boot stiffness through FEM analysis. Innovative aspects of this work included not only the stance geometry system ski-boot but also the setup of a virtual design environment that was validated by experimental evidence. An entire dataset describing loads during skiing has been obtained. The optimized SGS ski-boot increases intrinsic knee stability due to proper adjustment of lateral stance, guaranteeing appropriate stiffness of the ski-boot system

  12. The Age and Metallicity of the Bootes I System

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Joanne; Bossi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    We present Washington photometry of a field central to the Bootes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy, which was discovered as a stellar overdensity in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR5). We show that the Washington filters are much more effective than the Sloan filters in separating the metal-poor turn-off stars in the dwarf galaxy from the foreground stars. We detect 165 objects in the field, and statistically determine that just over 40% of the objects are non-members. Our statistical analysis mostly agrees with radial velocity measurements of the brighter stars. We find that that there is a distinct main-sequence turn-off and subgiant branch, where there is some evidence of a spread in chemical abundance. Any evidence of an age spread is limited to a few billion years. The brightest 7 Bootes I members give a (photometric-color derived) weighted mean iron-abundance of [Fe/H]=-2.1+/-0.4, and the best-fit isochrone is the 14.1 Gyr, Z=0.0002 model, with DM=19.11 and E(B-V)=0.02.

  13. NOAO and LSST: Illuminating the Path to LSST for All Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Knut A.; Matheson, T.; Ridgway, S. T.; Saha, A.; Lauer, T. R.; NOAO LSST Science Working Group

    2013-01-01

    As LSST moves toward construction and survey definition, the burden on the user community to begin planning and preparing for the massive data stream grows. In light of the significant challenge and opportunity that LSST now brings, a critical role for a National Observatory will be to advocate for, respond to, and advise the U.S. community on its use of LSST. NOAO intends to establish an LSST Community Science Center to meet these common needs. Such a Center builds on NOAO's leadership in offering survey-style instruments, proposal opportunities, and data management software over the last decade. This leadership has enabled high-impact scientific results, as evidenced by the award of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of Dark Energy, which stemmed directly from survey-style observations taken at NOAO. As steps towards creating an LSST Community Science Center, NOAO is 1) supporting the LSST Science Collaborations through membership calls and collaboration meetings; 2) developing the LSST operations simulator, the tool by which the community's scientific goals of are tested against the reality of what LSST's cadence can deliver; 3) embarking on a project to establish metrics for science data quality assessment, which will be critical for establishing faith in LSST results; 4) developing a roadmap and proposal to host and support the capability to help the community manage the expected flood of automated alerts from LSST; and 5) starting a serious discussion of the system capabilities needed for photometric and spectroscopic followup of LSST observations. The fundamental goal is to enable productive, world-class research with LSST by the entire US community-at-large in tight collaboration with the LSST Project, LSST Science Collaborations, and the funding agencies.

  14. Disinfection of three wading boot surfaces infested with New Zealand mudsnails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    New Zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum (NZMS) have been introduced into many continents and are easily transported live while attached to wading and other field gear. We quantified the relative attachment by different life stages of NZMS to felt, neoprene, and rubber-soled boots exposed to two densities of NZMS in experimental exposure totes. Attachment by NZMS occurred on boots of all surfaces, but the highest numbers of all life stages occurred on boots with felt surfaces. We found a 15–20-min bath application of 20 g/L Virkon Aquatic was a reliable tool to disinfect boot surfaces infested with NZMS and other aquatic invertebrates. Our studies support that spray application of this disinfectant was not reliable to provide complete mortality of attached adult NZMS or neonates. Wading gear surfaces exposed to repeated bath disinfections showed little deterioration. Our results provide strong evidence that bath disinfections with Virkon Aquatic are helpful to assure biosecurity in field and hatchery settings, but applications should be coupled with cleaning procedures to remove organic materials that can deactivate the reagent.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Follow Up Observations with BOOTES in 1998--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, J. M. Castro; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Hudec, R.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Sanguino, T. J. Mateo; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Berná, J. Á.; Nekola, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Morena, B. A. De La; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, Á.; Riera, J. Torres

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) provides an automated realtime observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Error box size depending, it uses wide field cameras attached to small robotic telescopes or the telescopes themselves. To date we have acquired photometry for about 30 events with the Ultra Wide (UWFC) and the Narrow Field Cameras (NFC) and about 50 events with the Wide Field Camera (WFC).

  16. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  17. An Innovative Ski-Boot: Design, Numerical Simulations and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Corazza; Claudio Cobelli

    2005-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the design of an innovative ski-boot. In order to optimize ergonomics and biomechanical behavior of the ski-boot it is important to take into account the orientation of the leg with respect to the ground. The SGS system (Stance Geometry System) developed in this work allows the skier to adjust for posture in the frontal plane by rotating the sole of the boot about the antero-posterior axis (ski-boot is then locked in the desired position before skiing). A si...

  18. FPGA Boot Loader and Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Randall S.; Jones, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    A computer program loads configuration code into a Xilinx field-programmable gate array (FPGA), reads back and verifies that code, reloads the code if an error is detected, and monitors the performance of the FPGA for errors in the presence of radiation. The program consists mainly of a set of VHDL files (wherein "VHDL" signifies "VHSIC Hardware Description Language" and "VHSIC" signifies "very-high-speed integrated circuit").

  19. Accelerated Drying of Wet Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    in the field. Resume De nombreux documents sur les mat6riaux dits «( super absorbants >> traitent de la capacit6 de ces derniers A garder la peau ...chaussure contre la peau devient mouill~e A cause de l’eau qui entre de l’ext~rieur par le haut de la botte ou A travers la botte ou A cause de la... peau seche en pr6sence d’humidit6. Le polyacrylate de sodium est un de ces mat6riaux. Puisque de r6cents essais en conditions r6elles avec les soldats

  20. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  1. First results from the Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System station 1 (BOOTES-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Hudec, R.; Sanguino, T. M.; de La Morena, B.; Berná, J. A.; de Ugarte, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, A.

    2000-09-01

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) is considered as a part of the preparations for ESA's INTEGRAL satellite, and is currently being developed in Spain, in collaboration with two Czech institutions. It makes use of two sets of wide-field cameras, 240 km apart, and two robotic 0.3-m telescopes. The first observing station (BOOTES-1) is located in Huelva (Spain) and the first light was obtained in July 1998. During the test phase, it has provided rapid follow-up observations with the wide-field cameras for 19 GRBs detected by BATSE aboard CGRO, and narrow-field imaging for 6 bursts. Limiting magnitudes for any GRB optical afterglow are I~13 and R~16.5, a few minutes after the events. .

  2. The NOAO Data Products Program: Developing an End-to-End Data Management System in Support of the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.; Boroson, T.; Seaman, R.

    2007-10-01

    The NOAO Data Products Program (DPP) is responsible for the development and operation of the data management system for NOAO and affiliated observatories, and for the scientific support of users accessing our data holdings and using our tools and services. At the core of this mission is the capture of data from instruments at these observatories and the delivery of that content to both the Principle Investigators (PIs) who proposed for the observations and, after an appropriate proprietary period, to users worldwide who are interested in using the data for their own (often very different) scientific projects. However, delivery of raw and/or reduced images to users only scratches the surface of the extensive potential which the international Virtual Observatory (VO) initiative has to offer. By designing the whole NOAO/DPP program around not only VO standards, but more importantly around VO principles, the program becomes not an exercise in data management and NOAO user support, but rather a VO-centric program which serves the growing world-wide VO community. It is this more global aspect that drives NOAO/DPP planning, as well as more specifically the design, development, and operations of the various components of our system. In the following sections we discuss these components and how they work together to form our VO-centric program.

  3. Effect of flow material ski boots on foot circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflin, F; Kempi, V; van der Linden, W; Ringquist, I

    1976-01-01

    The effect of modern "flow material" ski boots on foot circulation was studied. Pressure inside a flow material ski boot was found to be markedly higher than in a conventional ski boot. In some places the pressure exceeded the diastolic pressure in the foot. 113mIndium chloride, which when injected intravenously is bound to transferrin was used for blood pool scanning. In healthy young volunteers the uptake of radioactivity in the two feet--one with and one without a ski boot--was compared. The activity level of the foot with the ski boot was significantly lower than in the other foot. After corrections were made for absorption by the boot, a significant difference remained. Plethysmographic studies were performed with a mercury strain gauge using a ski boot in which a hole was cut over the big toe. No difference was demonstrated between the blood pressure at the leg just above the boot top and at the big toe. The arterial pulse wave at the big toe was altered; i.e., there was an absence of a dichrotic wave. Intramuscular perfusion was studied with 133xenon. The disappearance curve in a foot with a boot was more shallow than that in a bare foot. Unbuckling resulted in an immediate fall in radioactivity, the disappearance curve then becoming identical to that of the bare foot. The results indicate that when flow material ski boots are to be used by skiers who are not in the habit of unbuckling for short intervals, buckle tension should not be too high.

  4. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (P<.001), knot tying (P=.017), casting and splinting (P<.001), arthrocentesis (P=.01), basics of internal fixation (P<.001), and compartment syndrome evaluation (P=.004). After the camp, PGY-1 and -2 scores in task-specific measures were not significantly different. A 3-month simulation-based boot camp instituted early in orthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents.

  5. NOAO E2E Integrated Data Cache Initiative Using iRODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, I.; Scott, D.; Timmermann, E.

    2011-07-01

    The NOAO Mass Storage System (MSS) holds astronomical data collected from about two dozen different scientific instruments at eleven telescopes on three mountain tops in two different countries both north and south of the Equator. Data are transferred via the net, from each mountain to Data Centers in La Serena, Chile and Tucson, Arizona. Then replicated across both hemispheres. A third copy is saved on tape at NCSA. This system is collectively called the End-to-End system (E2E). The data flow and file repository management is accomplished using a collection of custom code built on top of the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) developed by Data Intensive Cyber Environments (DICE) research group at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the Institute for Neural Computation at the University of California, San Diego. iRODS, the Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System, is a data grid software system developed by DICE and collaborators and the successor to SRB. Both SRB and iRODS provide the ability to manage large amounts of data which can be distributed across data centers. This paper will describe why NOAO Science Data Management (SDM) chose iRODS as the next generation file repository management system for the E2E data management system.

  6. Dark Skies Yuma: An NOAO and APS Program on Light Pollution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Walker, C. E.; Dugan, C.; Roddy, W. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen Yuma 6th grade teachers participated in a dark skies preservation and energy conservation professional development and classroom program delivered by NOAO during 2013. Two teacher professional development workshops and a culminating Family Science Night for students to display projects occurred. Between workshops, support was provided through real-time video conferencing using iPads. In the first workshop the teachers were provided foundational, scaffolded activities in accordance with STEM standards, resource materials in kits to facilitate the activities, and firsthand experiences in doing the activities with students. The second workshop focused on dark skies and energy education projects done in March and April. Teachers received training on how to work with classes on outdoor lighting in their communities and distinguish between energy efficient and wasteful outdoor lighting. In May, 2013, student projects were presented to parents and the school community as part of a Family Science Night and served as a form of authentic assessment of the students’ work. Participants will take away from this presentation new techniques for using iPads to sustain a community of educators as well as immersing them (and in turn, their students) in Project Based Learning after a scaffolded sequence of activities on dark skies preservation and energy conservation. View a video of the Family Science Night event at http://www.noao.edu/education/video/Dark-Skies-A-Night-of-Light/.

  7. Boot Loader para Microcontroladores PIC serie 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Villalobos Piña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo expone el diseño de un boot loader, programa que permanece residente en un microcontrolador PIC18F452. Dicho programa permite grabar cualquier aplicación en el PIC sin el uso de un programador. Esta ventaja, no solo facilita el diseño de aplicaciones de control digital mediante la familia 18 de Microchip, sino que evita que el procesador se monte y desmonte continuamente, debido a lo cual, disminuyen los daños que por mal manejo pudiera sufrir el procesador. Se reporta igualmente el programa en visual Delphi, que permite leer, grabar y ejecutar los archivos hexadecimales del procesador, y probar la integridad del dispositivo

  8. Two years of gamma-ray burst follow up observations with BOOTES-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cerón, José María; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Soldán, Jan; Hudec, René; Bernas, Martin; Páta, Petr; Mateo Sanguino, Tomás De Jesús; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Berná, José Angel; Nekola, Martin; Gorosabel, Javier; de La Morena, Benito A.; Más-Hesse, J. Miguel; Giménez, Alvaro; Torres Riera, José

    2001-09-01

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System exeriment (BOOTES) is designed to provide a real time observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray bursts (GRBs) using wide field cameras imaging in the I, R and V bands and, later on, deeper imaging with small robotic telescopes. It is part, within the framework of a Spanish-Czech collaboration, of a wide ongoing effort to prepare for ESA's satellite INTEGRAL. We provide a brief technical description of BOOTES. Furthermore, a table listing the results for the BOOTES 1B-Narrow Field Camera (1B-NFC), of near simultaneous observations and others, starting 5 minutes after the events, is given since first light (July 98). Additionally we discuss other scientific objectives (regular monitoring of selected objects like variable stars, nearby galaxies and bright QSOs/AGNs for flaring behaviour) and results. To date we have obtained images for about 30 events with the 1B-NFC. In one of the last searches we detected an optical transient, candidate to be the optical counterpart of the GRB 000313, although such relation has not been established to absolute certainty yet.

  9. Dark Skies Africa: an NOAO and IAU OAD Program on Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Tellez, D.; Pompea, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The IAU’s Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) awarded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with a grant to deliver a “Dark Skies Outreach to Sub-Saharan Africa” program to institutions in 12 African countries during 2013. The program helped students identify wasteful and inefficient lighting and provided ways to reduce consumption and to keep energy costs in check. The goal was to inspire students to be responsible stewards in helping their community safeguard one of Africa’s natural resources - a dark night sky. Thirteen kits made by the NOAO Education and Public Outreach group were sent to coordinators at university, science center and planetarium-type institutions in 12 African countries and to the IAU OAD. The program’s kit included complete instructional guides and supplies for six activities and a project on energy conservation and responsible lighting. The six activities were taught to the coordinators in a series of six Google+ Hangout sessions scheduled from June to mid-November. The coordinators at the institutions in the twelve countries in turn trained local teachers in junior and senior high schools. The Google+ Hangout sessions also included instruction on carrying out evaluations. From the end of November until mid-December students from the different African countries shared final class projects (such as posters or powerpoints) on the program’s website. The entire program was designed to help coordinators and educators work with students, parents and the community to identify dark sky resource, lighting and energy issues and to assess their status, efficiency and effectiveness. Participants will take away from the presentation new techniques on using Google+ Hangout sessions to instruct and sustain a community of coordinators and educators through distance learning as well as immersing them (and their students) in Project Based Learning after a scaffolded sequence of activities.

  10. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  11. Search for gamma ray burst quasi simultaneous optical emission with BOOTES-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Soldán, J.; Hudec, R.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Berná, J. Á; Nekola, M.; Gorosabel, J.; de la Morena, B. A.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, Á.; Torres Riera, J.

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System experiment (BOOTES) has been designed to provide an automatic real time observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). It achieves such response by using wide field cameras attached to small robotic telescopes and imaging in the B,I and R bands. To date we have obtained images for about 50 events with the Wide Field Camera (WFC), starting, in several ocasions, 3 minutes after the burst commenced. One of the last searches resulted in the detection of an optical transient, candidate to be the optical counterpart of the GRB 000313, although such relation has not been established to absolute certainty yet.

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  13. Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Sacks, Loren D; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2017-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.

  14. ANTARES: The Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Snodgrass, R.; Kececioglu, J.

    The Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System (ANTARES) is a joint project of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Arizona. The goal is to build the software infrastructure necessary to process and filter alerts produced by time-domain surveys, with the ultimate source of such alerts being the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). ANTARES will add value to alerts by annotating them with information from external sources such as previous surveys from across the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, the temporal history of annotated alerts will provide further annotation for analysis. These alerts will go through a cascade of filters to select interesting candidates. For the prototype, 'interesting' is defined as the rarest or most unusual alert, but future systems will accommodate multiple filtering goals. The system is designed to be flexible, allowing users to access the stream at multiple points throughout the process, and to insert custom filters where necessary. We will describe the basic architecture of ANTARES and the principles that will guide development and implementation.

  15. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet the...

  16. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals.

  17. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  18. Effect of work boot type on work footwear habits, lower limb pain and perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal mining. Consequently, this study aimed to determine whether boot type (gumboot, leather lace-up boot) influenced work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb pain, lower back pain, or perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners. Chi-squared tests were applied to 358 surveys completed by underground coal miners to determine whether responses differed significantly (p underground coal mining work boot that is comfortable and reduces the high incidence of foot problems and lower limb pain suffered by underground coal miners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a pneumatic boot deicing system on a general aviation wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, A. E.; Kohlman, D. L.; Schweikhard, W. G.; Evanich, P.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a typical modern general aviation airfoil were investigated with and without a pneumatic boot ice protection system. The ice protection effectiveness of the boot was studied. This includes the change in drag on the airfoil with the boot inflated and deflated, the change in drag due to primary and residual ice formation, drag change due to cumulative residual ice formation, and parameters affecting boot effectiveness. Boot performance was not affected by tunnel total temperature or velocity. Marginal effect in performance was associated with angle of attack. Significant effects on performance were caused by variations in droplet size, LWC, ice cap thickness inflation pressure, and surface treatment.

  20. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  1. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  2. Outburst from SS 433 observed with BOOTES-2/COLORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.; et al.

    2014-08-01

    In light of the recent extreme outburst of SS 433 (ATELs #6347, #6355) and follow-up by SWIFT (ATEL #6364) the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 (+COLORES) astronomical station in Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-08-01 and ending at 2014-08-07.

  3. Microclimate in ski boots--temperature, relative humidity, and water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick; Hasler, Michael; Fauland, Gulnara; Bechtold, Thomas; Nachbauer, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Ski boot quality is determined by mechanical properties and comfort. Comfort is strongly affected by cold feet. The purpose of this study was to determine the microclimate in ski boots. Climate chamber tests with five male subjects and field tests with two male subjects were conducted. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using four sensors placed on the foot and one on the liner. Absorbed water in liners and socks was measured with a precision balance. The subjects gave subjective ratings for comfort. The toe sensor temperature dropped below 20 °C at an ambient temperature of 0 °C, -10 °C, and -20 °C. Relative humidity values at the foot were as high as 78% in the climate chamber and 93% in the field. Water absorption in socks and liners ranged from 4 to 10 g in the climate chamber and 19 to 45.5 g in the field. The results reveal the importance of keeping the feet and in particular the toes warm during skiing. One possible improvement may be to construct the liner so that sweat and melted snow are kept as far away as possible from the foot. Liner material with high water absorption capacity and hydrophobic socks were suggested to prevent wet feet.

  4. Optical spectra of UX Ari with BOOTES-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.

    2014-07-01

    Following the detection and subsequent monitoring of the new outburst from the RS CVn UX Ari by SWIFT and MAXI (ATEL#5907, #6315 , #6319 ), the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 astronomical station Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-07-19, 01:32:24.382 UT and ending at 04:25:55.652 UT.

  5. A Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp improves trainee confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine K; Tannous, Paul; DeWitt, Elizabeth; Farias, Michael; Mansfield, Laura; Ronai, Christina; Schidlow, David; Sanders, Stephen P; Lock, James E; Newburger, Jane W; Brown, David W

    2016-12-01

    Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities. A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly. We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.

  6. Rootkit Detection Using a Cross-View Clean Boot Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    bootmgr.exe while the boot sector loads. VBootkit disables full volume encryption and patches Multilingual User Interface (MUI) resources. eEye...SubVirt does [31]. Blue Pill installs by inserting a driver into the kernel that enables AMD - V’s Secure Virtual Machine (SVM). The driver then sets up...identify any malware that does not match a signature in the database. Another disadvantage is that an attacker could disable the security software before

  7. Boots on horses: limb protection or hyperflexion training aids in the showjumping horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal hind limbs to alter equine JSK has become popular. There are two broad categories of PE boots: weighted and pressure. Some riders use so-called weighted boots on the horses' hind limbs during training and in competition to improve the jump stride. The application of so-called pressure boots may be little more than an adaptation of this technique. It appears that the PE boots induce hyperflexion of the hind limbs and incline the horse to jump fences cleanly. In the absence of scientific appraisal, it is unclear if such boots are acceptable and innovative training aids within equitation.

  8. Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather; Christidis, Les; Gamauf, Anita; Griffiths, Carole; Haring, Elisabeth; Huddleston, Christopher J; Kabra, Sonia; Kocum, Annett; Krosby, Meade; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Mindell, David; Rasmussen, Pamela; Røv, Nils; Wadleigh, Rachel; Wink, Michael; Gjershaug, Jan Ove

    2017-01-09

    We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their monotypic genera, due to their distinctive morphology. We apply the recently resurrected genus Clanga for the spotted eagles (previously Aquila spp.) to resolve the paraphyly of the genus Aquila such that the clade including the Booted Eagle (H. pennatus), Little Eagle (H. morphnoides), Pygmy Eagle (H. weiskei), Ayres's Eagle (H. ayresii) and Wahlberg's Eagle (H. wahlbergi) can remain in the genus Hieraaetus. The Rufous-bellied Eagle should be retained in the genus Lophotriorchis. For consistency in English names, we recommend that the term "hawk-eagles" be used only for the species in the genera Nisaetus and Spizaetus. We suggest following new or modified English names: Cassin's Eagle (Aquila africana), Bonaparte's Eagle (A. spilogaster), Ayres's Eagle (Hieraaetus ayresii), and Black-and-chestnut Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus isidori).

  9. An HI survey of the bootes void; 2, the analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Szomoru, A; Gregg, M D; Strauss, M A

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the results of a VLA HI survey of the Bootes void and compare the distribution and HI properties of the void galaxies to those of galaxies found in a survey of regions of mean cosmic density. The Bootes survey covers 1100 Mpc^{3}, or \\sim 1\\% of the volume of the void and consists of 24 cubes of typically 2 Mpc * 2 Mpc * 1280 km/s, centered on optically known galaxies. Sixteen targets were detected in HI; 18 previously uncataloged objects were discovered directly in HI. The control sample consists of 12 cubes centered on IRAS selected galaxies with FIR luminosities similar to those of the Bootes targets and located in regions of 1 to 2 times the cosmic mean density. In addition to the 12 targets 29 companions were detected in HI. We find that the number of galaxies within 1 Mpc of the targets is the same to within a factor of two for void and control samples, and thus that the small scale clustering of galaxies is the same in regions that differ by a factor of \\sim 6 in density on larger scales. A ...

  10. 一种新的烧写BootLoader的方法%New Method of Burning BootLoader

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明飞

    2010-01-01

    介绍了以J-Link 烧写BootLoader 的方法,利用s3c2440内部集成的4k Sram(steppingstone)运行特制程序初始化SDRAM并使其可用,再把支持NandFlash烧写功能的特制Uboot下载到SDRAM运行,达到通过间接的方法烧写NandFlash的目的,使没有并口的计算机也可烧写BootLoader.设计的方法易于应用,可简化嵌入式系统开发.

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Boots on the Ground: Maricopa County

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-09

    In this podcast, we talk to CDC career epidemiology field officer Rebecca Sunenshine about her response efforts to a suspected tuberculosis case aboard a US Airways flight and the development of an airport emergency response plan.  Created: 4/9/2014 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 4/9/2014.

  13. An H I survey of the Bootes void .2. The analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szomoru, A; vanGorkom, JH; Gregg, MD; Strauss, MA

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the results of a VLA(2) [Napier et al., Proc. IEEE 71, 1295 (1983)] H I survey of the Bootes void and compare the distribution and H I properties of the void galaxies to those of galaxies found in a survey of regions of mean cosmic density. The Bootes survey covers 1100 Mpc(3), or similar

  14. Simulation-based otolaryngology - head and neck surgery boot camp: 'how I do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C J; Chin, C A; Roth, K; Rotenberg, B W; Fung, K

    2016-03-01

    In otolaryngology, surgical emergencies can occur at any time. An annual surgical training camp (or 'boot camp') offers junior residents from across North America the opportunity to learn and practice these skills in a safe environment. The goals of this study were to describe the set-up and execution of a simulation-based otolaryngology boot camp and to determine participants' confidence in performing routine and emergency on-call procedures in stressful situations before and after the boot camp. There were three main components of the boot camp: task trainers, simulations and an interactive panel discussion. Surveys were given to participants before and after the boot camp, and their confidence in performing the different tasks was assessed via multiple t-tests. Participants comprised 22 residents from 12 different universities; 10 of these completed both boot camp surveys. Of the nine tasks, the residents reported a significant improvement in confidence levels for six, including surgical airway and orbital haematoma management. An otolaryngology boot camp gives residents the chance to learn and practice emergency skills before encountering the emergencies in everyday practice. Their confidence in multiple skillsets was significantly improved after the boot camp. Given the shift towards competency-based learning in medical training, this study has implications for all surgical and procedural specialties.

  15. Optimization of CernVM early boot process

    CERN Document Server

    Mazdin, Petra

    2015-01-01

    CernVM virtual machine is a Linux based virtual appliance optimized for High Energy Physics experiments. It is used for cloud computing, volunteer computing, and software development by the four large LHC experiments. The goal of this project is proling and optimizing the boot process of the CernVM. A key part was the development of a performance profiler for shell scripts as an extension to the popular BusyBox open source UNIX tool suite. Based on the measurements, costly shell code was replaced by more efficient, custom C programs. The results are compared to the original ones and successful optimization is proven.

  16. Nasal cancer in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D; Cowdell, R H; Jolles, B

    1970-02-14

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources.The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry.The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear.Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry-one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54.6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41.7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed.There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory factor

  17. Stored-grain insect population commingling densities in wheat and corn from pilot-scale bucket elevator boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain elevator boot and pit areas facilitate the commingling of insects with the grain moving through the elevator leg. A removable boot was developed to facilitate residual grain removal and preservation in the boot and to quantify the commingling magnitude as a function of stored-product insect de...

  18. Versatile retraction mechanics: Implant assisted en-masse retraction with a boot loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Philip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain the versatility offered by the use of arch wires with boot loops in retraction mechanics while taking direct anchorage from mini-screws. Materials and Methods: The materials include the mini screws placed at the appropriate location and retraction arches made of 0.019 X 0.025 SS with boot loops placed distal to the lateral incisors. Mini screw provides a stable anchorage for enmasse retraction of the anterior teeth with the help of a boot loop using sliding and/or loop mechanics. Results: The arch wires with boot loops have a definite advantage over the soldered/ crimpable hooks because of the versatility it offers during the process of retraction. Conclusion: An innovative approach combining the advantages of absolute anchorage using mini implants and a retraction arch with boot loop is presented here.

  19. Materials, Designs and Standards Used in Ski-Boots for Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Moncalero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article reports the recent advances in the study, design and production of ski-boots for alpine skiing. An overview of the different designs and the materials used in ski-boot construction is provided giving particular emphasis to the effect of these parameters on the final performances and on the prevention of injuries. The use of specific materials for ski-boots dedicated to different disciplines (race skiing, mogul skiing, ski-mountaineering etc. has been correlated with the chemical and physical properties of the polymeric materials employed. A review of the scientific literature and the most interesting patents is also presented, correlating the results reported with the performances and industrial production of ski-boots. Suggestions for new studies and the use of advanced materials are also provided. A final section dedicated to the standards involved in ski-boot design completes this review article.

  20. The BOOTES-5 telescope at San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, D.; Valdez, J.; Martínez, B.; García, B.; Cordova, A.; Colorado, E.; Guisa, G.; Ochoa, J. L.; Nuñez, J. M.; Ceseña, U.; Cunniffe, R.; Murphy, D.; Lee, W.; Park, Il H.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    BOOTES-5 is the fifth robotic observatory of the international network of robotic telescopes BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring Optical System). It is located at the National Astronomical Observatory at Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. It was dedicated on November 26, 2015 and it is in the process of testing. Its main scientific objective is the observation and monitoring of the optic counterparts of gamma-ray bursts as quickly as possible once they have been detected from space or other ground-based observatories. BOOTES-5 fue nombrado Telescopio Javier Gorosabel en memoria del astrónomo español Javier Gorosabel Urkia.

  1. Extended stellar substructure surrounding the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Roderick, T A; Jerjen, H; Da Costa, G S

    2016-01-01

    We present deep stellar photometry of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy in g and i band filters, taken with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo in Chile. Our analysis reveals a large, extended region of stellar substructure surrounding the dwarf, as well as a distinct over-density encroaching on its tidal radius. A radial profile of the Bo\\"otes I stellar distribution shows a break radius indicating the presence of extra-tidal stars. These observations strongly suggest that Bo\\"otes I is experiencing tidal disruption, although not as extreme as that exhibited by the Hercules dwarf spheroidal. Combined with revised velocity dispersion measurements from the literature, we see evidence suggesting the need to review previous theoretical models of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  2. A Decade of GRB Follow-Up by BOOTES in Spain (2003–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers ten years of GRB follow-ups by the Spanish BOOTES stations: 71 follow-ups providing 23 detections. Follow-ups by BOOTES-1B from 2005 to 2008 were given in a previous article and are here reviewed and updated, and additional detection data points are included as the former article merely stated their existence. The all-sky cameras CASSANDRA have not yet detected any GRB optical afterglows, but limits are reported where available.

  3. A decade of GRB follow-up by BOOTES in Spain (2003-2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Jelínek, Martin; Cunniffe, Ronan; Gorosabel, Javier; Vítek, Stanislav; Kubánek, Petr; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Guziy, Sergey; Tello, Juan C; Páta, Petr; Sánchez-Ramírez, Rubén; Oates, Samantha; Jeong, Soomin; Štrobl, Jan; Castillo-Carrión, Sebastián; Sanguino, Tomás Mateo; Rabaza, Ovidio; Pérez-Ramírez, Dolores; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Carretero, Benito A de la Morena; Hudec, René; Reglero, Víctor; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2016-01-01

    This article covers ten years of GRB follow-ups by the Spanish BOOTES stations: 71 follow-ups providing 23 detections. Follow-ups by BOOTES-1B from 2005 to 2008 were given in the previous article, and are here reviewed, updated, and include additional detection data points as the former article merely stated their existence. The all-sky cameras CASSANDRA have not yet detected any GRB optical afterglows, but limits are reported where available.

  4. JuliBootS: a hands-on guide to the conformal bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Paulos, Miguel F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce {\\tt JuliBootS}, a package for numerical conformal bootstrap computations coded in {\\tt Julia}. The centre-piece of {\\tt JuliBootS} is an implementation of Dantzig's simplex method capable of handling arbitrary precision linear programming problems with continuous search spaces. Current supported features include conformal dimension bounds, OPE bounds, and bootstrap with or without global symmetries. The code is trivially parallelizable on one or multiple machines. We exemplify u...

  5. INITIAL FOLLOW-UP OF OPTICAL TRANSIENTS WITH COLORES USING THE BOOTES NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Caballero-Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES is a network of telescopes that allows the continuous monitoring of transient astrophysical sources. It was originally devoted to the study of the optical emissions from gamma-raybursts (GRBs that occur in the Universe. In this paper we show the initial results obtained using the spectrograph COLORES (mounted on BOOTES-2, when observing optical transients (OTs of a diverse nature.

  6. Clinical Boot Camp: An Innovative Simulation Experience to Prepare Nursing Students for Obstetric and Pediatric Clinicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogewood, Connie; Smith, Tedra; Etheridge, Sherita; Britt, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Obstetric and pediatric patients require unique specialized care not included in traditional adult health education. To prepare nursing students for clinical rotations beginning the second week of class, faculty developed an innovative one-day simulation seminar, the OB/PEDS Boot Camp, in which groups of students rotated through six stations of obstetric and pediatric simulation exercises. This article provides insight on the development and implementation of the OB/PEDS Boot Camp.

  7. Effect of rain boot shaft length on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the extent of lower extremity muscle activity before and after walking based on rain boot shaft length. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects, 12 young and healthy females, were divided into three groups based on rain boot shaft length (long, middle, and short). They walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius was measured using electromyography before and after walking. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the muscle activities of each group. [Results] There were no significant differences in terms of the interactive effects between group and time for all muscles, the main effects of group, or the main effects of time. [Conclusion] The results of this study may indicate that movement of the lower extremities was not significantly limited by friction force based on the characteristics of the boot material or the circumference of the boot shaft. Thus, it may be helpful instead to consider the material of the sole or the weight of the boots when choosing which rain boots to wear. PMID:27799685

  8. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  9. The Booting-Type ADRC of Airborne Photoelectrical Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customary disturbance rejection in the photoelectrical platform is “passive,” which makes it difficult to further improve the isolation degree owning to the strict restriction of mechanical resonance frequency. In this paper, a booting-type ADRC is proposed, whose disturbance estimation process is guided by target value to reduce the overshoot and lag in the estimated value of disturbance. All kinds of disturbance in the system are modeled in a unified way by using the equivalent disturbance voltage to avoid the complex modeling process. Based on the simplified model, extended state observer (ESO is designed to realize a real-time estimation of the disturbance. Then, the disturbance compensation is added to generate the final control value by combining the customary square lead-lag controller. Experiments are implemented to test the proposed control strategy by mounting the photoelectrical platform on a flight simulator and generating a motion perturbation. Compared with the case of only traditional lead-lag controller, the isolation degree of disturbance is enhanced obviously. And the experiments also illustrate strong robustness of ADRC.

  10. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  11. Nearby groups of galaxies in the Hercules-Bootes constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G.; Karachentseva, V. E.

    2017-04-01

    We consider a sample of 412 galaxies with radial velocities $V_{\\rm LG} sky region of ${\\rm RA}=13^h\\hspace{-0.4em}.\\,0$ ... $19^h\\hspace{-0.4em}.\\,0$, ${\\rm Dec}=+10^{\\circ}$ ... $+40^{\\circ}$ between the Local Void and the Supergalactic plane. One hundred and eighty-one of them have individual distance estimates. Peculiar velocities of the galaxies as a function of Supergalactic latitude SGB show signs of Virgocentric infall at $SGB 60^{\\circ}$. A half of the Hercules-Bootes galaxies belong to 17 groups and 29 pairs, with the richest group around NGC5353. A typical group is characterized by the velocity dispersion of $67$ km s$^{-1}$, the harmonic radius of $182$ kpc, the stellar mass of $4.3 \\times10^{10} M_{\\odot}$ and the virial-to-stellar mass ratio of $32$. The binary galaxies have the mean radial velocity difference of $37$ km s$^{-1}$, the projected separation of $96$ kpc, the mean integral stellar mass of $2.6\\times 10^9 M_{\\odot}$ and the mean virial-to-stellar mass ratio of about $8$. The total dark-matter-to-stellar mass ratio in the considered sky region amounts to $37$ being almost the same as that in the Local Volume.

  12. Finite element modeling of a 3D coupled foot-boot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian-Xia; Teo, Ee-Chon; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt the finite element (FE) modeling and analysis approaches to create a state-of-the-art 3D coupled foot-boot model for future studies on biomechanical investigation of stress injury mechanism, foot wear design and parachute landing fall simulation. In the modeling process, the foot-ankle model with lower leg was developed based on Computed Tomography (CT) images using ScanIP, Surfacer and ANSYS. Then, the boot was represented by assembling the FE models of upper, insole, midsole and outsole built based on the FE model of the foot-ankle, and finally the coupled foot-boot model was generated by putting together the models of the lower limb and boot. In this study, the FE model of foot and ankle was validated during balance standing. There was a good agreement in the overall patterns of predicted and measured plantar pressure distribution published in literature. The coupled foot-boot model will be fully validated in the subsequent works under both static and dynamic loading conditions for further studies on injuries investigation in military and sports, foot wear design and characteristics of parachute landing impact in military.

  13. An Innovative Clinical Skills “Boot Camp” for Dental Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Castillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During a 1-year hospital-based residency, dental residents are required to rotate through many departments including surgery, medicine, and emergency medicine. It became apparent that there was a gap between clinical skills knowledge taught in dental school curriculum and skills required for hospital-based patient care. In response, a simulation-based intensive clinical skill “boot camp” was created. The boot camp provided an intensive, interactive 3-day session for the dental residents. During the 3 days, residents were introduced to medical knowledge and skills that were necessary for their inpatient hospital rotations but were lacking in traditional dental school curriculum. Effectiveness of the boot camp was assessed in terms of knowledge base and comfort through presession and postsession surveys. According to resident feedback, this intensive introduction for the dental residents improved their readiness for their inpatient hospital-based residency.

  14. Optimization of shearer sliding boots by plasma cladding with Cr4MnTi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongtao; Wang Luping; Ge Shirong; Cao Shoufan; JinJing; Gao Jiping

    2011-01-01

    Severe production conditions in coal mines cause damage and failure problems with the oriented sliding boots of the mechanical shearer.Wear has been an especially vexing problem.Plasma cladding methods were used to study optimized sliding boot design.By cladding the substrate steel the surface may be made of a material more resistant to wear.The iron based alloy Cr4MnTi was coated onto a modified 45 steel matrix material in these tests.The results show that the alloy cladding layer is high strength,has high hardness,and is highly resistant to wear.After hardening and tempering,45 steel substrate has great tenacity so the combined structure meets the performance requirements for the construction of shearer sliding boots.

  15. Pemanfaatan minarex sebagai secondary plasticizer untuk pembuatan kompon sepatu boot PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find out optimum amount of minarex (side product from Pertamina Jakarta as secondary plasticizer which can be added to PVS compound in order to obtain boots compound conforming to SII 1990-86: Sepatu boot PVC. Research yield is a slab made by hydraulic press machine. 1700 C and pressure 150 kg/cm2 and the time must be suitable with the thickness. From various types of minarex used for the research, four of them can be applied as secondary plasticizer at PVC compound for boots which conforms to SII 1909-89, i.e. minarex C type 2, minarex C type 3, minarex D type 3 for five parts each.

  16. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J; Mohseni, B Tanya; Hill, Derek C; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Leo, Jonathan T; Langley, Natalie R

    2016-09-23

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school. No grade is assigned for the course, therefore participants can study without the fear of potentially affecting grades. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the LMU-DCOM ABC course using data from four consecutive summers. Independent two-sample t-tests were used to compare ABC to non-ABC students for the following variables: incoming grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, MGA written and laboratory practical examination grades, and final MGA course grade. Additionally, a 26-question survey was administered to 2012-2014 boot camp participants. There were no significant differences in incoming GPA and MCAT scores. However, boot campers scored significantly higher on the first two lecture and laboratory examinations (P < 0.05) for each year of the study. Thereafter scores varied less, suggesting a faster head start for boot camp participants. Mean MGA final grade was on average 3% higher for the boot camp cohort. The survey feedback supports that the ABC course assists with the academic and social transition into medical school. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. THE BOOTES-5 TELESCOPE AT SAN PEDRO MARTIR NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    David Hiriart; Jorge Valdez; Benjamín Martínez; Benjamín García; Antolín Cordova; Enrique Colorado; Gerardo Guisa; José Luís Ochoa; Juan Manuel Nuñez; Urania Ceseña; Ronan Cunniffe; David Murphy; William Lee; Park, Il H.; Alberto J. Castro\\u2013Tirado

    2016-01-01

    BOOTES-5 es el quinto observatorio rob ́otico de la red internacional de telescopios r ob ́oticos BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System). Se encuentra ubicado en el Observatorio As tron ́omico Nacional en la sierra de San Pedro M ́artir, Baja California, M ́exico. Fue i naugurado el 26 de noviembre de 2015 y se encuentra en proceso de prueba. Su principal objetivo cient ́ıfico es la observaci ́on y seguimiento a la brevedad posible de las contrapartes ́opticas de los...

  18. JuliBootS: a hands-on guide to the conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F

    2014-01-01

    We introduce {\\tt JuliBootS}, a package for numerical conformal bootstrap computations coded in {\\tt Julia}. The centre-piece of {\\tt JuliBootS} is an implementation of Dantzig's simplex method capable of handling arbitrary precision linear programming problems with continuous search spaces. Current supported features include conformal dimension bounds, OPE bounds, and bootstrap with or without global symmetries. The code is trivially parallelizable on one or multiple machines. We exemplify usage extensively with several real-world applications. In passing we give a pedagogical introduction to the numerical bootstrap methods.

  19. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J.; Mohseni, B. Tanya; Hill, Derek C.; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A.; Leo, Jonathan T.; Langley, Natalie R.

    2017-01-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group…

  20. Effects of a Developmental Boot Camp: Improving Student Performance on a College Placement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, students are entering college unprepared for college-level work. Recent high school graduates are placing into developmental courses at an alarming rate. The purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of a developmental boot camp on standardized placement test scores of students enrolling at a community college in North…

  1. Design, Manufacturing, and Commissioning of BIRCAM (Bootes InfraRed CAMera)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the various aspect of design, manufacturing and commissioning of the infrared camera BIRCAM, installed at BOOTES-IR, the 60 cm robotic infrared telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN, Granada, Spain). We describe how we achieved a quality astronomical image, moving from the scientific requirements.

  2. The response of the MiL-Lx leg fitted with combat boots under impact loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ) or even a side-attack IED. This impact causes significant soft tissue and/or bony injuries, leading to a long recovery, medical complications and may require limb amputation if not mitigated [1]. The military boots which the occupants wear...

  3. PROPOSAL OF PHOTOMETRIC REVERBERATION MAPPING WITH BOOTES-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available R e v e r b e r a t i o n m a p p i n g ( R M e s u n a t ́ e c n i c a p o d e r o s a p a r a m e d i r l a m a s a d e a g u j e r o s n e g r o s e n n ́ u c l e o s d e galaxias act ́ıvas (AGNs. Sin embargo los programas de RM cl ́asicos, que utilizan espectroscop ́ıa para moni- t o r e a r l a s l ́ ı n e a s d e e m i s i ́ o n d e l a r e g i ́ o n d e l i n e a s a n c h a s ( B L R , g e n e r a l m e n t e e s t ́ a n l i m i t a d o s s ́ o l o p a r a l o s a g u j e r o s n e g r o s s u p e r m a s i v o s c o n t e l e s c o p i o s d e l a c l a s e d e 2 - m . E n a ̃ n o s r e c i e n t e s , u n a v a n c e e x t r a o r d i n a r i o h a s i d o l o g r a d o c o n l a t ́ e c n i c a d e R M f o t o m ́ e t r i c a , q u e a b r e l a p u e r t a p a r a m e d i r e fi c i e n t e m e n t e e l t a m a ̃ n o d e l B L R y l a l u m i n o s i d a d r e s t a d a d e l a g a l a x i a a n fi t r i o n a , i n c l u s o c o n t e l e s c o p i o s p e q u e ̃ n o s . C o n s i d e r a n d o la disponibilidad de otros telescopios BOOTES alrededor del mundo, consideramos proponer colaboraciones i n t e r n a c i o n a l e s c o m o u n o d e l o s p r o g r a m a s d e m o n i t o r e o d e l a r g o p l a z o p a r a t e l e s c o p i o s r o b ́ o t i c o s.

  4. Research of Embedded Soft PLC Operation System Based on Boot Loader Technology%基于Boot Loader技术的嵌入式软PLC运行系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓文; 刘强; 吕茂超

    2011-01-01

    According to principle that writing a Boot Loader program in single-chip microcomputer can realize on-line self-programming updating of ladder diagram of PLC by user, the paper introduced a design of Boot Loader program of ATmega128 based on PLC application. The program writes object code of ladder diagram of PLC into FLASH of single-chip microcomputer through RS232 interface with imitatingmitsubishi communication protocol. The experiment showed that it makes design of PLC application software be more flexible and improves development efficiency that applying Boot Loader in PLC to realize downloading and updating of ladder diagram.%根据在单片机上利用Boot Loader引导加载程序可以实现用户对PLC梯形图在线自编程更新的原理,介绍了一种基于PLC应用的ATmega128的Boot Loader程序的设计.该程序采用仿三菱通信协议将PLC梯形图目标代码通过RS232接口更新写入到单片机的FLASH中.实验表明,将Boot Loader应用于PLC实现梯形图的下载更新,使PLC应用软件设计更具灵活性,同时提高了开发效率.

  5. 基于ARM7TDMI的嵌入式系统BootLoader的设计与实现%The Design and Realization of BootLoader Based on Imbedded System of ARM7TDMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金宝; 陶玉贵; 陈付龙

    2011-01-01

    After the ARM7TDMI core board is designed, the USB interface expanded and increased, and BootLoader principle analyzed, detailed analysis and sophisticated design in a series of key technologies such as the start mode, interrupt handling, hardware initialization, booting linux kernel, etc eventually lead to a BoatLoader that supports the U-disk-loading embedded linux system image. By comparing the experimental results of the analysis, the BootLoader will better meet the requirements of users and developers.%通过设计ARM7TDMI核心板,扩展和增加USB接口,分析BootLoader原理,以及在启动模式、中断处理、硬件初始化和最终引导linux内核上的一系列关键技术,最终实现了一个支持从U盘加载嵌入式linux系统镜像的BootLoader,通过对实验结果的分析,该BootLoader能更好地满足用户和开发人员的要求.

  6. Effect of firefighter boots and viscoelastic insoles on the impact force of the ground reaction force’s vertical component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara-Tobalina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of firefighter's boots on the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF at heel strike, also known as heel strike transient and to analyze the effect of the viscoelastic insoles placed into the firefighter’s boots on this force during the gait. The magnitude of the impact force (FZI from the vertical ground reaction force, the time to the production of this force (TZI and the loading rate (GC were registered. 39 firefighters without any pathology during 2 years before the study were recruited. Three different walking conditions were tested: 1 gait with firefighter's boots, 2 gait with firefighter's boots and viscoelastic insoles and 3 gait with sport shoes. The results showed a higher production and magnitude of the impact force during gait with firefighter's boots than during gait with sport shoes (13,1 vs. 2,6 % of occurrence of the impact force and 61,39 ± 35,18 %BW (body weight vs. 49,38 ± 22,99 %BW, respectively. The gait with viscoelastic insoles placed into the firefighter's boots did not show significant differences in any of the parameters characterizing the impact force compared to the gait without insoles. The results of this study show a lower cushioning of the impact force during the gait with firefighter's boots in comparison to the gait with sport shoes and the inefficiency of the viscoelastic insoles placed inside the firefighter's boots to ameliorate the cushioning of the impact force at natural walking speed.

  7. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Ferro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy, Madeline D. Davis, Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community (1993. New York: Routledge, 2014.   La recensione sottolinea la rilevanza del volume Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold a vent’anni dalla pubblicazione, sia perché raccoglie e preserva testimonianze di butches e femmes degli anni ’40 e ’50, sia perché chiarisce il ruolo sociale della comunità butch-femme in quanto sede di resistenza pre-politica. Inoltre, si evidenzia l’utilità di modelli interpretativi informati dagli studi queer e transgender nell’ambito della ricerca storica su identità non normative come quelle butch e femme.

  8. Information and Communication Technology: Design, Delivery, and Outcomes from a Nursing Informatics Boot Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleib, Manal; Simpson, Nicole; Rhodes, Beverly

    2016-05-31

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is integral in today’s healthcare as a critical piece of support to both track and improve patient and organizational outcomes. Facilitating nurses’ informatics competency development through continuing education is paramount to enhance their readiness to practice safely and accurately in technologically enabled work environments. In this article, we briefly describe progress in nursing informatics (NI) and share a project exemplar that describes our experience in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a NI educational event, a one-day boot camp format that was used to provide foundational knowledge in NI targeted primarily at frontline nurses in Alberta, Canada. We also discuss the project outcomes, including lessons learned and future implications. Overall, the boot camp was successful to raise nurses’ awareness about the importance of informatics in nursing practice.

  9. 一种新的烧写BootLoader的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明飞

    2010-01-01

    介绍了以J-Link烧写Boot Loader的方法,利用s3c2440内部集成的4k Sram(stepping stone)运行特制程序初始化SDRAM并使其可用,再把支持Nand Flash烧写功能的特制Uboot下载到SDRAM运行,达到通过间接的方法烧写Nand Flash的目的,使没有并口的计算机也可烧写Boot Loader。设计的方法易于应用,可简化嵌入式系统开发。

  10. Simulation-based education: understanding the socio-cultural complexity of a surgical training 'boot camp'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Walker, Kenneth G; Gale, Michael; Nicol, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    The focus of simulation-based education (SBE) research has been limited to outcome and effectiveness studies. The effect of social and cultural influences on SBE is unclear and empirical work is lacking. Our objective in this study was to explore and understand the complexity of context and social factors at a surgical boot camp (BC). A rapid ethnographic study, employing the theoretical lenses of complexity and activity theory and Bourdieu's concept of 'capital', to better understand the socio-cultural influences acting upon, and during, two surgical BCs, and their implications for SBE. Over two 4-day BCs held in Scotland, UK, an observer and two preceptors conducted 81 hours of observations, 14 field interviews and 11 formal interviews with faculty members (n = 10, including the lead faculty member, session leaders and junior faculty members) and participants (n = 19 core surgical trainees and early-stage residents). Data collection and inductive analysis for emergent themes proceeded iteratively. This paper focuses on three analytical themes. First, the complexity of the surgical training system and wider health care education context, and how this influenced the development of the BC. Second, participants' views of the BC as a vehicle not just for learning skills but for gaining 'insider information' on how best to progress in surgical training. Finally, the explicit aim of faculty members to use the Scottish Surgical Bootcamp to welcome trainees and residents into the world of surgery, and how this occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study of a surgical BC that takes a socio-cultural approach to exploring and understanding context, complexities, uncertainties and learning associated with one example of SBE. Our findings suggest that a BC is as much about social and cultural processes as it is about individual, cognitive and acquisitive learning. Acknowledging this explicitly will help those planning similar enterprises and

  11. Classical limits of boot-rotation symmetric spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Kofron, David

    2010-01-01

    Boost-rotation symmetric spacetimes are exceptional as they are the only exact asymptotically flat solutions to the Einstein equations describing spatially bounded sources ("point-like" particles, black holes) undergoing non-trivial motion ("uniform acceleration") with radiation. We construct the Newtonian limit of these spacetimes: it yields fields of uniformly accelerated sources in classical mechanics. We also study the special-relativistic limit of the charged rotating C-metric and so find accelerating electromagnetic magic field.

  12. Improvements to the implementation method of U-Boot supporting boot from multiple flashes%支持多种闪存启动的U-Boot实现方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞芸; 王波

    2012-01-01

    The standard U-Boot does not support boot from NAND Flash yet at present,and the existing method of enabling U-Boot to boot from NAND Flash cannot recognize new NAND Flash with large pagesize and does not perform the bad block detection.To solve the above problems,this paper presents a general method of acquiring the pagesize and blocksize information of NAND Flash, and implements the function of detecting bad blocks.Furthermore,this paper presents an improvement to the existing method of automatically identifying whether the system are booting from NOR Flash or from NAND Flash after power on.After modifying and porting the U-Boot-2010.09 to mini2440 development board which is based on S3C2440A processor,the running result shows that UBoot supporting dual-boot from NOR and NAND Flash has been implemented,and the function of U-Boot has been extended.%标准的U-Boot目前不支持从NAND Flash启动,而现有的修改U-Boot实现从NAND Flash启动的方法无法识别新的大页NAND Flash,也没有进行坏块检测。针对上述问题,提出获取NAND Flash页大小和块大小信息的通用方法,并实现了坏块检测功能。此外,对现有的上电后自动识别系统是从NOR还是从NAND Flash启动的方法进行了改进。将U-Boot-2010.09修改并移植到基于S3C2440A处理器的mini2440开发板上,运行结果表明,实现了U-Boot从NOR和NAND Flash的双启动,扩展了U-Boot的功能。

  13. The $z < 1.2$ optical luminosity function from a sample of $\\sim410 \\, 000$ galaxies in bootes

    CERN Document Server

    Beare, Richard A; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Bian, Fuyan; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of ~410 000 galaxies to depth I_AB = 24 over 8.26 deg^2 in the Bootes field (~10 times larger than z~1 luminosity function studies in the prior literature), we have accurately measured the evolving B-band luminosity function of red galaxies at z<1.2 and blue galaxies at z<1.0. In addition to the large sample size, we utilise photometry that accounts for the varying angular sizes of galaxies, photometric redshifts verified with spectroscopy, and absolute magnitudes that should have very small random and systematic errors. Our results are consistent with the migration of galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence as they cease to form stars, and with downsizing in which more massive and luminous blue galaxies cease star formation earlier than fainter less massive ones. Comparing the observed fading of red galaxies with that to be expected from passive evolution alone, we find that the stellar mass contained within the red galaxy population has increased by a factor of ~3.6 from z~1.1 ...

  14. SweetSpot: A 3-year NOAO Survey to Observe 150 Type Ia Supernovae in the Near Infrared in the Nearby Hubble Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Weyant, A.; Allen, L.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jahan, N.; Jha, S.; Joyce, R. R.; Matheson, T.; Rest, A.

    2014-01-01

    SweetSpot is an NOAO Survey program from 2012B-2015A that will observe 150 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Hubble flow to obtain reliable near-infrared (NIR) luminosities free from peculiar-velocity confusion and the uncertainties of dust. A key part of the program is a focus on accurate calibration incorporating recently demonstrated techniques for characterization of telescope systems and the Earth's atmosphere. Our full SweetSpot program will (1) extend the NIR Hubble diagram past currently available samples; (2) quantitatively demonstrate the degree to which SNe Ia are robust standard candles in the NIR; (3) provide key insights about the color evolution and intrinsic properties of SNe Ia and their host galaxies; and (4) establish a well-calibrated low-redshift anchor for future NIR supernova surveys from JWST, Euclid, and WFIRST/NEW. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of 0.05 to 1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift. We will present the results from our pilot survey in 2011B and discuss our first year of full observations from 2012B-2013A.

  15. Impact of compression therapy using Unna's boot on the self-esteem of patients with venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salome, G M; de Brito, M J A; Ferreira, L M

    2014-09-01

    To assess self-esteem in patients with venous leg ulcers treated with Unna's boot. • A descriptive, analytic, clinical study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 in an outpatient wound care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients of both sexes, aged ≥18 years, who had had a venous leg ulcer for more than one year and a Doppler ankle brachial index ranging from 0.8-1.0 were consecutively selected for inclusion. Patients were treated with wound dressings and Unna's boot. Self-esteem was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) at inclusion (baseline) and after 4, 8, and 12 months of compression therapy using Unna's boot. The scale is reverse-scored; thus lower scores indicate higher levels of self-esteem. • The patients showed a slight but significant improvement in self-esteem after 4 months of treatment (mean RSE score=17.12) compared with baseline (mean RSE score=24.90). However, a marked and significant improvement in self-esteem was observed after 8 months (mean RSE score=7.40) and 12 months (mean RSE score=2.10) of compression therapy using Unna's boot. • Patients with venous leg ulcers treated with Unna's boot for 12 months showed a significant improvement in self-esteem • All authors declare that no competing financial interests exist. There was no external funding for this study.

  16. Offloading diabetic foot wounds using the scotchcast boot: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E Ann; Armstrong, David G; Hayat, Sajad A; Khawaja, Kashif I; Malik, Rayaz A; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2002-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate treatment outcomes associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers using the Scotchcast boot. Data were extracted from the records of 180 patients with diabetes, 150 (83.3%) male, with a mean age of 55.3 +/- 10.9 years undergoing treatment for noninfected, non-ischemic neuropathic diabetic foot wounds at a university teaching hospital's tertiary care outpatient clinic. All patients who met the criteria were treated with the Scotchcast boot as the sole form of pressure relief. The average follow-up for each patient was 85.9 +/- 30.6 months (range 34.2 to 147.7 months). The mean time to healing for all patients was 130.5 +/- 106.7 days. Superficial (Grade 1) wounds healed significantly faster than deep (Grade 3) wounds (111.5 +/- 98.2 versus 180.8 +/- 138.8 days, P = 0.01) and 144 (80%) wounds healed during the follow-up period. Of the 36 (20%) that did not heal with Scotchcast boot therapy, 10 went on to more proximal amputation (5.6% of total population), two required surgical intervention to heal their wounds (0.6% of total population), one patient died with an unhealed wound (0.6% of total population), 23 patients (12.8% of total population) were lost to follow-up, and 47 (26%) died. Experience and the results of this and other studies suggest that this removable modality may be useful in outpatient care of deeper or complex wounds that require frequent inspection, but a device that ensures compliance may be the preferred treatment of superficial wounds.

  17. Genetic analysis of cold tolerance at the germination and booting stages in rice by association mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Pan

    Full Text Available Low temperature affects the rice plants at all stages of growth. It can cause severe seedling injury and male sterility resulting in severe yield losses. Using a mini core collection of 174 Chinese rice accessions and 273 SSR markers we investigated cold tolerance at the germination and booting stages, as well as the underlying genetic bases, by association mapping. Two distinct populations, corresponding to subspecies indica and japonica showed evident differences in cold tolerance and its genetic basis. Both subspecies were sensitive to cold stress at both growth stages. However, japonica was more tolerant than indica at all stages as measured by seedling survival and seed setting. There was a low correlation in cold tolerance between the germination and booting stages. Fifty one quantitative trait loci (QTLs for cold tolerance were dispersed across all 12 chromosomes; 22 detected at the germination stage and 33 at the booting stage. Eight QTLs were identified by at least two of four measures. About 46% of the QTLs represented new loci. The only QTL shared between indica and japonica for the same measure was qLTSSvR6-2 for SSvR. This implied a complicated mechanism of old tolerance between the two subspecies. According to the relative genotypic effect (RGE of each genotype for each QTL, we detected 18 positive genotypes and 21 negative genotypes in indica, and 19 positive genotypes and 24 negative genotypes in japonica. In general, the negative effects were much stronger than the positive effects in both subspecies. Markers for QTL with positive effects in one subspecies were shown to be effective for selection of cold tolerance in that subspecies, but not in the other subspecies. QTL with strong negative effects on cold tolerance should be avoided during MAS breeding so as to not cancel the effect of favorable QTL at other loci.

  18. Forge, Arquillian, Swarm and Spring Boot: All play and no effort makes Simon a productive boy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    During this live coding session, Simon will shine some light on a range productivity tools that make software development a pleasure rather than a chore. Simon will live code 2 applications; a Java EE application, with JBoss Forge which uses JPA, Bean Validation, REST and Angular. We’ll test this application using Arquillian from within JBoss Forge. We’ll also show how a Java EE microservice can be developed in Forge and run using JBoss Swarm. The second application will be developed on Spring Boot and using JRebel we’ll rapidly develop and run a Spring application. Attendees will learn how to write code productively using tools designed for developers.

  19. Four Years of Real-Time GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years of BOOTES-1B GRB follow-up history are summarised for the first time in the form of a table. The successfully followed events are described case by case. Further, the data are used to show the GRB trigger rate in Spain on a per-year basis, resulting in an estimate of 18 triggers and about 51 hours of telescope time per year for real-time triggers. These numbers grow to about 22 triggers and 77 hours per year if we include also the GRBs observable within 2 hours after the trigger.

  20. A Practical Hardware-Assisted Approach to Customize Trusted Boot for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Hölzl, Michael; Riedl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is maintained with the components that have been loaded in the boot process for later audit. The first approach is often criticized for locking down devices, thus reducing users’ freedom to choose software. The second lacks the mechanisms to enforce any form of run-time verification. In this paper, we present...... their security requirements. This is a first step towards supporting usage control primitives for running applications. Our approach relies on off-the-shelf secure hardware that is available in a multitude of mobile devices: ARM TrustZone as a Trusted Execution Environment, and Secure Element as a tamper...

  1. V404 Cyg optical spectroscopic evolution with BOOTES-2/TELMA (+COLORES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Oates, S.; Galindo, P.; Tello, J. C.; et al.

    2015-07-01

    In light of the recent extreme outburst of V404 Cyg (GCN#17929) and follow-up by SWIFT, MAXI, INTEGRAL and many other ground-based observatories (ATELs from #7646 to #7763) the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 astronomical station in Malaga (Spain), obtained 6 optical 4000-9000 A spectra using the COLORES spectrograph during the nights 2015-06-17 (22:35:11 UT), 2015-06-26 (03:45:13 UT), 2015-06-28 (23:54:16 UT) and 2015-06-29 (00:03:26, 00:12:33, 00:21:36 UT).

  2. Influence of new military athletic footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in relation to army boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in the lower extremities are common in military recruits. Army boots have frequently been cited as a potential mechanism behind these high injury rates. In response to this, the British Army introduced new footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), which are issued to each new recruit in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematic of the PT-03 and PT1000 footwear in relation to conventional army boots. Thirteen participants ran at 4.0 m·s in each footwear condition. Three-dimensional kinematics from the hip, knee, and ankle were measured using an 8-camera motion analysis system. In addition, simultaneous ground reaction forces were obtained. Kinetic parameters were obtained alongside joint kinematics and compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The kinetic analysis revealed that impact parameters were significantly greater when running in the army boot compared with the PT-03 and PT1000. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison with the PT-03 and PT1000, running in army boots was associated with significantly greater eversion and tibial internal rotation. It was also found that when running in the PT-03 footwear, participants exhibited significantly greater hip adduction and knee abduction compared with the army boots and PT1000. The results of this study suggest that the army boots and PT-03 footwear are associated with kinetic and kinematic parameters that have been linked to the etiology of injury; thus, it is recommended that the PT1000 footwear be adopted for running exercises.

  3. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  4. The chemical evolution of the Bootes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Bootes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo I-980, with [Fe/H]=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements while Boo I-127, with [Fe/H]=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Bootes I stars, as well as those of most other Boootes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend, and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correctio...

  5. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.  

  6. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.

  7. Variable stars in the newly discovered Milky Way satellite in Bootes

    CERN Document Server

    Dall'Ora, M; Kinemuchi, K; Ripepi, V; Marconi, M; Fabrizio, L D; Greco, C; Rodgers, C T; Kuehn, C; Smith, H A

    2006-01-01

    We present $V,I$ light curves for 12 variable stars identified in the newly discovered satellite of the Milky Way in the Bootes constellation (Belokurov et al. 2006).Our sample includes 11 RR Lyrae stars (5 first overtone, 5 fundamental mode and 1 double mode pulsator),and one long period variable close to the galaxy red giant branch tip. The RR Lyrae stars trace very well the average $V$ luminosity of the galaxy horizontal branch, leading to a true distance modulus for the galaxy of $\\mu_0$=19.11 $\\pm$ 0.08 mag for an assumed metal abundance of [Fe/H]=-2.5 (Monoz et al. 2006), and for $E(B-V)$=0.02 mag. Average periods are =0.69 d and =0.37 d for {\\it ab-} and {\\it c-} type RR Lyrae stars, respectively, making of Bootes the second pure Oosterhoff type II (OoII) dSph after Ursa Minor. The location of the double mode RR Lyrae (RRd) in the Petersen diagram is consistent with RRd stars in OoII clusters, and corresponds to an intrinsic luminosity of $log L/logL\\odot$=1.72 (for Z=10$^{-4}$ and M=0.80 M$\\odot$) acc...

  8. A Randomized Evaluation of the Maryland Correctional Boot Camp for Adults: Effects on Offender Antisocial Attitudes and Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ojmarrh; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Perez, Deanna M.

    2005-01-01

    This research addresses the question: Does the military atmosphere of a treatment-oriented boot camp lead to greater reductions in antisocial attitudes and cognitions than a standard correctional facility that is also treatment-oriented? A self-report measure of antisocial attitudes and cognitions was collected from 118 inmates randomly assigned…

  9. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  10. Security Through Amnesia: A Software-Based Solution to the Cold Boot Attack on Disk Encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Disk encryption has become an important security measure for a multitude of clients, including governments, corporations, activists, security-conscious professionals, and privacy-conscious individuals. Unfortunately, recent research has discovered an effective side channel attack against any disk mounted by a running machine\\cite{princetonattack}. This attack, known as the cold boot attack, is effective against any mounted volume using state-of-the-art disk encryption, is relatively simple to perform for an attacker with even rudimentary technical knowledge and training, and is applicable to exactly the scenario against which disk encryption is primarily supposed to defend: an adversary with physical access. To our knowledge, no effective software-based countermeasure to this attack supporting multiple encryption keys has yet been articulated in the literature. Moreover, since no proposed solution has been implemented in publicly available software, all general-purpose machines using disk encryption remain vu...

  11. Installation and first light of the BOOTES-IR near-IR camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Vítek, S.; Gorosabel, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Riva, A.; Zerbi, F.; Claret, A.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.

    2008-07-01

    BIRCAM is a near-infrared (0.8-2.5um) cryogenic camera based on a 1Kx1K HgCdTe array. It was designed for - and is now mounted at - one of the Nasmyth foci of the fast-slewing 0.6 m BOOTES-IR telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN) in Spain. The primary science mission is prompt Gamma Ray-Burst afterglow research, with an implied demand for extremely time-efficient operation. We describe the challenges of installing a heavy camera on a small high-speed telescope, of integrating the dithering mechanism, the filterwheel, and the array itself into a high-efficiency instrument, the design of the software to meet the requirements.

  12. Low Resolution Spectral Templates For AGNs and Galaxies From 0.03 -- 30 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Brodwin, M; Cool, R; Forman, W; González, A H; Hickox, R C; Jones, C; Le Floc'h, E; Moustakas, J; Murray, S S; Stern, D

    2009-01-01

    We present a set of low resolution empirical SED templates for AGNs and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 to 30 microns based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Bootes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14448 galaxies in the redshift range 0~ 3.4.

  13. The BOOTES experiment in support of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in the study of the high energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cerón, J. M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; Páta, P.; Bernas, M.; Jelínek, M.; Hudec, R.; Berná, J. Á.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    A GTC target of opportunity program (ToO) for gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows will be a very powerful tool for studying the primitive Universe. Photometry and spectroscopy of GRBs are very suitable for tracing the star formation rate of the Universe at high redshifts (prompt optical and near-infrared observations with the GTC could detect GRBs to z <˜ 17; Castro-Tirado et al., this volume, p. 252; Gorosabel et al., this volume, p. 288). BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System) can very efficiently support a ToO at the GTC through its robotized, extremely fast response capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the ongoing effort to finalize a real time, online, automatic data analysis system for BOOTES. Such a system will be able to provide early, reliable, and accurate GRB positions (confirmed by satellite) to trigger a GTC ToO.

  14. Nand Flash启动模式下的Uboot移植%Porting of Uboot for Booting from NAND Flash Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素秋

    2013-01-01

    BootLoader移植是嵌入式系统开发中的一个重要环节,而Uboot是一个支持多处理器多操作系统较为通用的BootLoader.分析了Uboot的启动过程,并对s3c2440A如何支持驱动代码在外部Nand Flash上的执行,以及在s3c2440A平台上如何实现Nand Flash启动模式下的Uboot移植进行了介绍.具体操作和编译在fedora9操作系统和arm-linux-gcc4.3.2交叉编译下完成.

  15. Lower Extremity Disorders among Men and Women in Army Basic Training and Effects of Two Types of Boots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    27 R.R. Protzman and C.G. Griffis. Stress fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977...was dropped on the rearfoot or the forefoot regions of the boots. de Moya found that the impact cushioning and energy absorption characteristics of the...fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 59A, 825, 1977. 28. K. A. Reinker ane S. A. Ozburne. A

  16. Designon P4080 Platform Secure Boot%P4080平台安全启动实现设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆; 赖韬; 余海

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the P4080 secure boot chain of trust creation and transfer process. With P4080 secure boot and credible structure, and as the digital signatures and authentication technology,the secureboot mechanism of two-level trust chain system from ISBC toUboot and from Uboot to Linux system is designed, and by modifying theboot image content and replacing the kernel image, the effectiveness of secureboot mechanisms is verified. With the equipment platform of this design, the tampering on boot code, configuration file, or operating system could be detected in the boot process, and thus the platform security of computing environments be protected.%介绍了P4080安全启动信任链建立和传递的过程;利用P4080安全启动和可信结构,采用数字签名及验证技术设计了从ISBC到Uboot、从Uboot到Linux系统的两级信任链系统安全启动机制,并采用修改启动映像内容和替换内核映像的方法验证了安全启动机制的有效性。采用该设计设备平台在启动过程中可检查到启动程序、配置文件、操作系统等程序文件是否被篡改过,从而保障平台计算环境的安全。

  17. Evaluating the impact of a Canadian national anatomy and radiology contouring boot camp for radiation oncology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Jasbir; D'Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Tay, KengYeow; Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony; Landis, Mark; Leung, Eric; Kassam, Zahra; Willmore, Katherine; D'Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy; Palma, David A

    2015-03-15

    Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course ("boot camp") designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, Pradiology in addition to enhancing their confidence and accuracy in contouring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Career Boot Camp: a novel mechanism for enhancing early career development for psychologists in academic healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran-Tuller, Kelly; Robiner, William N; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Otey-Scott, Stacie; Wryobeck, John; King, Cheryl; Sanders, Kathryn

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot mentoring program for Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) working in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and synthesize the lessons learned to contribute to future ECP and AHC career development training programs. The authors describe an early career development model, named the Early Career Boot Camp. This intensive experience was conducted as a workshop meant to build a supportive network and to provide mentorship and survival tools for working in AHCs. Four major components were addressed: professional effectiveness, clinical supervision, strategic career planning, and academic research. Nineteen attendees who were currently less than 5 years post completion of doctoral graduate programs in psychology participated in the program. The majority of boot camp components were rated as good to excellent, with no component receiving below average ratings. Of the components offered within the boot camp, mentoring and research activities were rated the strongest, followed by educational activities, challenges in AHCS, and promotion and tenure. The article describes the purpose, development, implementation, and assessment of the program in detail in an effort to provide an established outline for future organizations to utilize when mentoring ECPs.

  19. A study of the Unna Boot compared with the elastic bandage in venous ulcers: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Matos de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to analyze the process of tissue repair in patients with venous ulcers using inelastic compression therapy (the Unna Boot, in comparison with the use of the elastic bandage.Method: a controlled randomized clinical trial in which the patients (n=18 were allocated to two groups, those who used the Unna Boot (group B and those who used the elastic bandage (group A. The study's follow-up period was 13 weeks.Results: a significant reduction took place, at the level of 5%, in the area, in square centimeters, of the ulcers of group B (p<0.0001 throughout the treatment, and there was a tendency of group A for reduction in the area of the ulcer, in centimeters squared (p=0.06, only after the fifth week.Conclusion: the treatment with the Unna Boot presented better results in venous ulcers with areas over 10cm², and the elastic bandage with Petrolatum(r gauze in venous ulcers below 10cm². Brazilian Clinical Trials Register: Trial (req: 195 and WHO UTN U1111-1122-5489.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of a Canadian National Anatomy and Radiology Contouring Boot Camp for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaswal, Jasbir [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Tay, KengYeow [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony [Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, London, Ontario (Canada); Willmore, Katherine [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Background: Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course (“boot camp”) designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. Methods: The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Results: Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, P<.001). Across all contoured structures, there was a 0.20 median improvement in students' average Dice score (P<.001). For individual structures, significant Dice improvements occurred in 10 structures. Residents self-reported an improved ability to contour OARs and interpret radiographs in all anatomic sites, 92% of students found the MDT format effective for their learning, and 93% found the boot camp

  1. The Efficacy of Mammography Boot Camp to Improve the Performance of Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nami [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of a mammography boot camp (MBC) to improve radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in Korea. Between January and July of 2013, 141 radiologists were invited to a 3-day educational program composed of lectures and group practice readings using 250 digital mammography cases. The radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms were evaluated using a pre- and post-camp test set of 25 cases validated prior to the camp by experienced breast radiologists. Factors affecting the radiologists' performance, including age, type of attending institution, and type of test set cases, were analyzed. The average scores of the pre- and post-camp tests were 56.0 ± 12.2 and 78.3 ± 9.2, respectively (p < 0.001). The post-camp test scores were higher than the pre-camp test scores for all age groups and all types of attending institutions (p < 0.001). The rate of incorrect answers in the post-camp test decreased compared to the pre-camp test for all suspicious cases, but not for negative cases (p > 0.05). The MBC improves radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms irrespective of age and type of attending institution. Improved interpretation is observed for suspicious cases, but not for negative cases.

  2. Exploring boot camps for ‘gatekeeper’ service courses in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Campbell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure to increase the throughput of university students in ethical ways has been a catalyst for innovations to improve learning and student success. Student dropout occurs mostly in the first year of study and poor performance is a major contributor to dropout even if the underlying reason for the poor performance is not academic under-preparedness. This article discusses the design and implementation of a mathematics tutored reassessment programme (TRP or ‘boot camp’ to improve the pass rate of students writing supplementary examinations for first year engineering mathematics. Interviews with students and tutors suggest that the TRP cultivated positive affective changes in students. A notable result from this case study was that students who qualified for a reassessment with marks in the range 40%–44% (and who would not normally have been granted a supplementary examination outperformed students qualifying with marks of 45%–49%, for whom attendance at the TRP was optional. Theoretical motivations for five principles guiding the design of the TRP are discussed.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF MACHINES FOR THE FOOTWEAR PULL ON BOOT TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pascari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of manufacturing of footwear have undergone a long evolutionary way, beginning with the manual work and finishing with the automated. The first sewing machine that had come to help the manappeared in ХVIII century. The Industrial progress of development and of the equipment it is possible to divide conditionally into three stages: from 60 till 90th years where it is attempt the two-operational power engine; from 90 till 2000 two machines were applied to an inhaling; and the modern period when inhaling processallows using less machines. The new machines had new patented system that allows the operator to put the position for preparation of the top of footwear according to the design of model that is applied to each size of footwear. The system provides an automatic centering of a narrow site of footwear that by means of a followingbeam of light the operator could guarantee each time exact width of capture of a long edge in beam parts ofpreparation of top. In a similar way the system provides exact positioning of the sample in toe cap footwear parts. Except the equipment by the modern electronic devices, the new machines have fashionable design, in particular, the polished black panel and the automated tray for the footwear, covered with genuine leather. Theappointment of these machines is universal: on them it is possible to carry out process of an inhaling for various types of footwear (boots, low shoes, shoes, etc. both as daily socks as model sports. Thus the footwear can be various groups of people– man, female, and children.

  4. 工作靴内底特性检测%Testing Insoles Properties for Work Boots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jana Durisova

    2006-01-01

    该文研究内底革的实用性,尤其是用于工作靴的内底.因为该类鞋用于条件恶劣的环境,要求穿着舒适,利于健康.重要的两方面是:环境卫生性能和关于明确的肌肉运动体系的物理性能.人们的脚每天频繁运动,容易失水且使表面硬化,如果鞋内底能解决此问题则是既耗费低又简单的方法.对各种材料的内底进行检测发现能承受最大撞击力的材料是硅内底和胶原填充内底.%This study is oriented to the insoles, especially the utility properties of insoles which were tested in single-purpose all-rubber work boots. This type of footwear demands comfort and good health promoting properties because it is used in a hard terrain and conditions. Two aspects are important: the environmental hygiene and physical demand concerning the musculature of the foot and of the whole kinetic system thereof.The loss of damping abilities of hard surfaces, on which people mostly move nowadays, is replaced so by the absorbing ability of footwear bottom parts especially insoles because this is the cheapest and easiest way how to fix the problem. Among the samples of the foot inserts tested, the best results, namely the ability of elimination in maximum the shocks when walking and the subsequent pressures, have been found with the silicone insoles and gel-filled insoles.

  5. Estimating sensitivity and specificity of a PCR for boot socks to detect Campylobacter in broiler primary production using Bayesian latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, Monika; Nordentoft, Steen; Ian, Kopacka

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares three different assays for sample collection and detection of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks, based on (i) the collection of faecal samples from intestinal organs (caecum), (ii) individual faecal droppings collected from the bedding and (iii) faecal material...... collected by socks placed on the outside of a pair of boots (boot socks) and used for walking around in the flock. The two first methods are examined for Campylobacter using a culture method (ISO-10272-2:2006), while the boot socks are tested using PCR. The PCR-assay is a genus specific multiplex PCR...... samples were collected at slaughter.The results were evaluated in the absence of a gold standard using a Bayesian latent class model. Austrian results showed higher sensitivity for PCR detection in sock samples (0.98; Bayesian credible interval (BCI) [0.93-1]) than for culture of faecal droppings (0...

  6. Boot cAMP: educational outcomes after 4 successive years of preparatory simulation-based training at onset of internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gladys L; Page, David W; Coe, Nicholas P; Lee, Patrick C; Patterson, Lisa A; Skylizard, Loki; St Louis, Myron; Amaral, Marisa H; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E

    2012-01-01

    Preparatory training for new trainees beginning residency has been used by a variety of programs across the country. To improve the clinical orientation process for our new postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents, we developed an intensive preparatory training curriculum inclusive of cognitive and procedural skills, training activities considered essential for early PGY-1 clinical management. We define our surgical PGY-1 Boot Camp as preparatory simulation-based training implemented at the onset of internship for introduction of skills necessary for basic surgical patient problem assessment and management. This orientation process includes exposure to simulated patient care encounters and technical skills training essential to new resident education. We report educational results of 4 successive years of Boot Camp training. Results were analyzed to determine if performance evidenced at onset of training was predictive of later educational outcomes. Learners were PGY-1 residents, in both categorical and preliminary positions, at our medium-sized surgical residency program. Over a 4-year period, from July 2007 to July 2010, all 30 PGY-1 residents starting surgical residency at our institution underwent specific preparatory didactic and skills training over a 9-week period. This consisted of mandatory weekly 1-hour and 3-hour sessions in the Simulation Center, representing a 4-fold increase in time in simulation laboratory training compared with the remainder of the year. Training occurred in 8 procedural skills areas (instrument use, knot-tying, suturing, laparoscopic skills, airway management, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, central venous catheter, and chest tube insertion) and in simulated patient care (shock, surgical emergencies, and respiratory, cardiac, and trauma management) using a variety of high- and low-tech simulation platforms. Faculty and senior residents served as instructors. All educational activities were structured to include preparatory materials

  7. Novel Sampling Method for Assessing Human-Pathogen Interactions in the Natural Environment Using Boot Socks and Citizen Scientists, with Application to Campylobacter Seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalia R; Millman, Caroline; van der Es, Mike; Hukelova, Miroslava; Forbes, Ken J; Glover, Catherine; Haldenby, Sam; Hunter, Paul R; Jackson, Kathryn; O'Brien, Sarah J; Rigby, Dan; Strachan, Norval J C; Williams, Nicola; Lake, Iain R

    2017-07-15

    This paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. It uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. Wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). This sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the North West (NW) and East Anglian (EA) regions of England. To validate this methodology, we report the successful implementation of this citizen science approach, the observation that Campylobacter bacteria were detected on 47% of boot socks, and the observation that multiple boot socks from individual walks produced consistent results. The findings indicate higher Campylobacter levels in the livestock-dominated NW than in EA (55.8% versus 38.6%). Seasonal differences in the presence of Campylobacter bacteria were found between the regions, with indications of winter peaks in both regions but a spring peak in the NW. The presence of Campylobacter bacteria on boot socks was negatively associated with ambient temperature (P = 0.011) and positively associated with precipitation (P method for sampling human-pathogen interactions using boot socks and citizen science techniques, which enable us to sample human-pathogen interactions that may occur through visits to natural environments. This contrasts with traditional environmental sampling, which is based on spot sampling techniques and does not sample human-pathogen interactions. Our methods are of practical value to scientists trying to understand the transmission of pathogens from the environment to people. Our findings provide insight into the risk of Campylobacter exposure from recreational visits and an understanding of seasonal differences in risk and the factors behind these patterns. We highlight the Campylobacter species

  8. QTLs conferring cold tolerance at the booting stage of rice using recombinant inbred lines from a japonica x indica cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, V C; Mackill, D J

    2003-04-01

    Low temperature stress is common for rice grown in temperate regions and at high elevations in the tropics. The most senstive stage to this stress is booting, about 11 days before heading. Japonica cultivars are known to be more tolerant than indicas. We constructed a genetic map using 191 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a temperate japonica, M-202, and a tropical indica, IR50, in order to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring cold tolerance. The map with a total length of 1,276.8 cM and an average density of one marker every 7.1 cM was developed from 181 loci produced by 175 microsatellite markers. Cold tolerance was measured as the degree of spikelet sterility of treated plants at a 12 degrees C temperature for 5 days in the growth chamber. QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 12 were identified to confer cold tolerance at the booting stage. The QTL contribution to the phenotypic variation ranged from 11 to 17%. The two QTLs with the highest contribution to variation, designated qCTB2a and qCTB3, were derived from the tolerant parent, M-202, each explaining approximately 17% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the eight QTLs for cold tolerance were contributed by IR50.

  9. Writing Together to Get AHEAD: an interprofessional boot camp to support scholarly writing in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Isenburg, Megan; Lee, Linda S; Oermann, Marilyn H

    2017-04-01

    Writing for publication is an integral skill for both sharing research findings and career advancement, yet many faculty lack expertise, support, and time to author scholarly publications. Health professions educators identified writing as an area in which a new educators' academy could offer support. To address this need, a writing task force was formed consisting of a librarian, a School of Medicine faculty member, and a School of Nursing faculty member. The task force launched two initiatives to motivate and support faculty writing and publication over two academic years. In the first year, a structured interprofessional "boot camp" consisting of a sequenced, modularized approach to manuscript completion was offered. In the second year, community building, in-person writing sessions, and incentives were added to the structured tasks. In year one, twenty participants enlisted in the boot camp, nine of whom completed a manuscript for submission by the end of the program. Qualitative feedback indicated potential improvements, which were put in place in the second program. In year two, twenty-eight participants enrolled, and eleven submitted thirteen manuscripts for publication by the end of the program. Structured tasks, frequent deadlines, and professional editorial assistance were highly valued by participants. Time remains a barrier for faculty seeking to complete manuscripts. As experts in many facets of the publication process, librarians are well positioned to partner with others to facilitate faculty and staff development in writing.

  10. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara Tobalina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

  11. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  12. Self-Control, Gender, and Age: A Survival Analysis of Recidivism among Boot Camp Graduates in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Brent B.; Toombs, Nancy J.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2005-01-01

    This study of 572 male and 120 female graduates of a boot camp investigates the potency of self-control as a predictor of recidivism in comparison to gender, age, and elements of life-course theory. It also examines whether the effects of self-control on recidivism are commensurate within the categories of gender. Recidivism is defined as a felony…

  13. Laat ons niet buiten de boot vallen, een onderzoek naar het maatschappelijk en sociaal functioneren van mensen met een IQ tussen de 80 en 90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borren, W.; Stellema, G.; Wijck, E.E.E. van; Bouma, J.

    2001-01-01

    Het vertrekpunt van het onderzoek "Laat ons niet buiten de boot vallen" is een gespreksnotitie van een overleg tussen het Stichting Maatschappelijk Werk Fryslan (AMW) en de Sociaal Pedagogische Dienst Friesland Ït buro Kingma" (auteurs Ate Prozee SPD en Marianne Bouma AMW). Deze notitie werd later g

  14. Treatment of chronic plantar ulcer of the diabetic foot using an irremovable windowed fibreglass cast boot: prospective study of 177 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha Van, Georges; Michaux, Caroline; Parquet, Hugues; Bourron, Olivier; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Hartemann, Agnes

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of healing of chronic neuropathic plantar ulcers, using an irremovable windowed fibreglass cast boot, which is only opened after healing. A single-centre prospective study of a cohort of 177 diabetic patients with chronic neuropathic plantar ulcers was carried out. The duration of neuropathic plantar ulcers was 604 ± 808 days, with a mean surface area of 4.6 ± 6.5 cm(2) , a mean depth of 1.04 ± 1.08 cm and a mean volume of 5.9 ± 17.7 cm(3) . After a mean of 96 days of wearing a windowed fibreglass cast boot (min 9 days, max 664 days and median 68 days), the level of healing reached 83.6%, although 29 patients did not heal (16.4%). The compliance was at 95%. NPUs with bigger volumes (p = 0.037) and those located at the heels ( p = 0.004) had significantly lower healing levels. Twenty-one patients had moderate peripheral arterial disease (12%), and 24 patients were ostectomized for underlying osteomyelitis (14%), before inclusion. Moderate peripheral arterial disease (p = 0.970) or operated osteomyelitis (p = 0.128) did not modify the level of healing significantly, which were of 81% and 70.8%, respectively. Complications include 12 ulcers due to the windowed fibreglass cast boot (i.e. 7%) and two other ulcers being moderately infected, resulting in 2% of toe amputation, but there was no major amputation or phlebitis. The treatment of old and deep NPUs of the diabetic foot by wearing a windowed fibreglass cast boot without opening the boot prior to healing offers very high ulcer recovery levels. Windowed fibreglass cast boots were changed in only 26 cases (14.6%). In addition, compliance was excellent and of the order of 95%. Furthermore, moderate peripheral arterial disease or a recent ostectomy did not affect the efficacy of windowed fibreglass cast boot.

  15. Configuration of SoC FPGA, Booting of HPS and running Bare Metal Application from SD card.

    CERN Document Server

    Zahid Rasheed, Awais

    2016-01-01

    First, a hardware design is created using Qsys in Quartus 16.0. Creation of the hardware design consists of configuring Hard Processor System (HPS) inside FPGA and adding necessary hardware blocks to the design. After generating the Qsys design, it is then instantiated in top level module in Verilog or VHDL. After setting up all pin assignments and adding all necessary files in the design, project is compiled to have a complete hardware design. Second part comprises full software design in correspondence with the hardware design and booting the HPS from SD card. Software includes enabling the different bridges used by HPS to communicate with FPGA, configuring FPGA from HPS and embedded application itself. Finally, everything is added in the SD card to get a complete automatic bare metal application running on the host board without any configuration what so ever.

  16. The boot software of the control unit of the near infrared spectrograph of the Euclid space mission: technical specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sáenz-de-Tejada, Jaime; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Pérez-Lizán, David; Fernández-Conde, Jesús; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the instruments on board the ESA EUCLID mission. The Boot Software (BSW) is in charge of initialization and communications after a reset occurs at hard- ware level. The Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena and Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias are responsible of the Instrument Control Unit of the NISP (NI-ICU) in the Euclid Consortium. The NI-ICU BSW is developed by Universidad de Alcaĺa, and its main functions are: communication with the S/C for memory management, self-tests and start of a patchable Application Software (ASW). This paper presents the NI-ICU BSW status of definition and design at the end of the Technical Specification phase.

  17. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.

  18. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014 show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.

  19. The u-boot mutation identifies a Hedgehog-regulated myogenic switch for fiber-type diversification in the zebrafish embryo

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Developmental programs that govern the embryonic diversification of distinct kinds of muscles in vertebrates remain obscure. For instance, the most widely recognized attribute of early diversity among skeletal myoblasts is their ability to differentiate exclusively into fibers with slow or fast contractile properties. However, we know little about the developmental basis and genetic regulation of this seminal event in vertebrate myogenesis. Here we show that in the zebrafish, the u-boot gene ...

  20. U-Boot在S3C2440上移植和设置%Porting and Setting Method of U-Boot on S3C2440 Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之磊; 李临生

    2012-01-01

    BootLoader是嵌入式系统开发的重要环节,是操作系统和硬件平台联系的桥梁,对嵌入式系统的后继开发十分重要.简介了BootLoader U-Boot目录结构、工作流程及其移植的思路和引导内核的方法;给出了移植uboot-2010-03到ARM微处理器S3C2440上,所需操作环境的搭建、具体代码的修改、具体参数的设置、所需的操作命令及常见错误的处理方法等要点.最后将编译生成了U-Boot.bin文件下载到ARM微处理器S3C2440上,经过测试U-Boot可以达到设计的功能要求并能够稳定的运行而且通过对其正确的配置成功的引导了内核.

  1. Implementation of an intern boot camp curriculum to address clinical competencies under the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education supervision requirements and duty hour restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Aleksandra; Filippa, Dawn; Staff, Ilene; Singh, Rekha; Kirton, Orlando C

    2013-08-01

    Today's general surgery interns are faced with increased duty hour restrictions and stringent competency-based supervision milestone requirements (ie, from direct to indirect supervision). Working within these constraints, we instituted a unique 2-month intern curriculum (boot camp) incorporating knowledge-based, experiential, and practical components. To describe our curriculum and the effect on resident performance and teaching faculty and nursing staff perceptions. All interns underwent a 2-month (July and August 2011) boot camp curriculum consisting of two 2½-hour knowledge-based and procedural skills (SimMan) didactic sessions per week and completion of 25 core intensive introductory American College of Surgeons Fundamentals of Surgery web-based self-study modules, followed by a standardized patient clinical skills assessment. Integrated general surgery residency program at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington. Postgraduate year 1 general surgery categorical and preliminary residents. We used several assessment tools, including an intern boot camp survey, clinical skills assessment scores, intern American Board of Surgeons In-Training Examination scores, and nursing staff and teaching faculty surveys of intern performance and aptitudes compared with the previous year's interns. Data were analyzed by independent group t test, χ2 tests of proportions, and Fisher exact test for small sample cross tables. In total, 84% (91 of 108) of intern respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the usefulness, relevance, and execution of the boot camp. Compared with the previous year's interns, the nursing staff agreed or strongly agreed that the cohort interns were better at patient assessment, collaboration, and effective communication and provided compassionate and respectful patient care. More than 40% (7 of 17) of surveyed teaching faculty agreed or strongly agreed that the cohort interns demonstrated better patient care and procedural skills

  2. Characteristics of Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Different Position Leaves at Booting Stage in Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Yi-wei; JIN Song-heng; WANG Zhong; WANG Pin-mei; QIAN Shan-qin; ZHAO Kai; GU Yun-jie; YANG Yi-qing; YAO Sheng; JIANG De-an

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the senescence of rice leaves at different positions at booting stage, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence properties in leaves at different positions were examined by using six rice materials. The net rates of photosynthesis (Pn),stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and water use efficiency (WUE) decreased significantly with lowering of leaf positions,while intercellular CO2 concentration (Cj) had a little change, indicating that the decrease of photosynthetic rate was not resulted from the decrease of gs. The decrease of SPAD reading which had a close correlation with chlorophyll content was one of apparent reasons resulting in the decease of Pn. Further evidence by chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ and its electron transport rate (ETR) decreased substantially with lowering of the leaf positions but the variable-to-maximum fluorescence ratio(Fv/Fm) and efficiency of energy conversion of open PS Ⅱ (Fv'/Fm') remained rather stable, suggesting that primary limitation of Pn was suppression of electron transport of PS Ⅰ, and probably associated with carbon assimilation.

  3. Ten million and one penguins, or, lessons learned from booting millions of virtual machines on HPC systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, Ronald G.; Rudish, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe Megatux, a set of tools we are developing for rapid provisioning of millions of virtual machines and controlling and monitoring them, as well as what we've learned from booting one million Linux virtual machines on the Thunderbird (4660 nodes) and 550,000 Linux virtual machines on the Hyperion (1024 nodes) clusters. As might be expected, our tools use hierarchical structures. In contrast to existing HPC systems, our tools do not require perfect hardware; that all systems be booted at the same time; and static configuration files that define the role of each node. While we believe these tools will be useful for future HPC systems, we are using them today to construct botnets. Botnets have been in the news recently, as discoveries of their scale (millions of infected machines for even a single botnet) and their reach (global) and their impact on organizations (devastating in financial costs and time lost to recovery) have become more apparent. A distinguishing feature of botnets is their emergent behavior: fairly simple operational rule sets can result in behavior that cannot be predicted. In general, there is no reducible understanding of how a large network will behave ahead of 'running it'. 'Running it' means observing the actual network in operation or simulating/emulating it. Unfortunately, this behavior is only seen at scale, i.e. when at minimum 10s of thousands of machines are infected. To add to the problem, botnets typically change at least 11% of the machines they are using in any given week, and this changing population is an integral part of their behavior. The use of virtual machines to assist in the forensics of malware is not new to the cyber security world. Reverse engineering techniques often use virtual machines in combination with code debuggers. Nevertheless, this task largely remains a manual process to get past code obfuscation and is inherently slow. As part of our cyber security work at

  4. Effect of hoof boots and toe-extension shoes on the forelimb kinetics of horses during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Fernando N; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D; Schaeffer, David J

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine and compare the effect of hoof boots (HBs) and shoes with a toe extension on stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length in contact with the ground in nonlame horses during walking. ANIMALS 6 nonlame Standardbreds. PROCEDURES Force plate gait analyses of the forelimbs were performed while the horses were walking barefoot before manipulation of feet (baseline), while the horses were walking fitted with HBs, while the horses were walking shod with toe-extension shoes, and while the horses were walking barefoot after shoe removal. Horses underwent radiography of both forelimb feet to determine the sole length in contact with the ground when barefoot, wearing HBs, and shod with toe-extension shoes. Stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length were compared among the various walking sessions. RESULTS Compared with baseline findings, stance duration increased significantly when horses were fitted with HBs (7%) or toe-extension shoes (5%). Peak forelimb ground reaction force was similar among walking sessions; however, time of braking force peak was significantly greater during the stance phase only when horses wore HBs. Also, the sole length in contact with the ground was significantly longer in horses fitted with HBs (14.3 cm) or shod with the toe-extension shoes (17.6 cm), compared with that for one of the barefoot hooves (12.7 cm). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In nonlame horses, use of HBs prolonged the stance time and time of braking force peak, which is indicative of a slower deceleration phase during limb impact with the ground. Also, the use of HBs prolonged the deceleration phase of the stride and increased the sole length in contact with the ground.

  5. Interpreting performance of mammograms by radiology residents trained in breast imaging: Comparison with radiologists who attend mammography boot camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seon Hyeong [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the interpreting performance of mammograms between residents trained in breast imaging and radiologists who attended the mammography boot camp (MBC) suggesting directions for training in breast imaging. We compared the performance of 61 residents trained in breast imaging for more than 2 months at 21 institutions with that of 141 radiologists who attended MBC using the same test case series. We compared mean scores and rates of correct answers between the two groups and examined residents' mean scores varied by institution. Residents' mean score was 60.9 ± 12.2 and radiologists' mean scores were 56.0 ± 12.2 (p = 0.004) and 78.3 ± 9.2 (p < 0.001) before and after camp, respectively. Residents were superior to pre-camp radiologists in interpreting microcalcifications (70.5% vs. 56.4%; p < 0.001) and true-negative cases (71.8% vs. 59.2%; p < 0.001). They were inferior to post-camp radiologists in interpreting mass/asymmetry (56.7% vs. 86.6%; p < 0.001) and microcalcifications (70.5% vs. 90.3%; p < 0.001). The mean score of all institutions except one was 61.8 ± 9.4. Trained residents' interpreting performance of mammograms is superior to that of pre-camp radiologists but inferior to that of post-camp radiologists. Substantial training in interpreting mammograms during residency is suggested.

  6. Study of the functinal characteristics and of the boot use by military policeman and its influence in the performance in the activity of patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vieira Martins

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive diagnosis study had the objective to evaluate the functional characteristics and the use of the boots worn by the police officers while they are on duty patrol walking on Florianópolis streets, as well as the influency of the boots in this activity. Selected by not-probabilistic sampling in a casual-systematic way, 234 police officers volunteered to take part in this study. The instrument used was a questionnaire assorted with clarity level of 0.93, validity of 0.85 and reliability of 0.95. According to the results, most police officers have only a pair of boots, which were worn on average 11 hours daily. To the boot usage was attributed the incidence of foot injuries such as callosity, chilblain, embedded nails and blisters. For these police officers the discomforts (overheating, pain and humidity on the feet as well as pain in the body caused by the boot interfered in their work routine taking them to classified their shoes as inappropriate, following the criteria of comfort, safety and durability. Therefore, it was concluded that the boots seemed not to be the ideal shoes in terms of comfort and job performance, because they interfered in their daily routine, causing functional and structural adaptations in the human body during the performance of motor tasks. RESUMO Este estudo descritivo diagnóstico teve como objetivo avaliar as características funcionais e de uso do coturno utilizado pelos policiais militares que realizam a tarefa de locomoção a pé durante as rondas nas ruas de Florianópolis, bem como sua influência nesta atividade. Selecionados por amostragem não-probabilística, casualsistemática por voluntariado, participaram 234 policiais militares. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário misto com índice de clareza de 0,93, validade de 0,85 e fidedignidade de 0,95. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos policiais possui apenas um par de coturnos, permanecendo em média 11 horas diárias com este

  7. Hard Hats, Octopuses and Rubber Boots- Operational Managers in Building Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses Operation management (OM) in the production of buildings. It is initially contended that OM needs to be improved, from a theoretical and practical perspective. Departing from a criticism of present modeling and management of processes it is suggested to develop an understanding...... of the importance of human resources in tackling complexity, fragmentation and disturbances in the building industry. Theoretical models too often either rely on neat operational analysis models or refrain from such order by merely referring to the chaos of building processes. The paper seeks to place itself...... in between those extremes in twofold manner, first by conceptually arguing that building processes encompass requisite parallelism and fragmentation due to their predominantly quantitative complexity. Second by doing an exploratory field study, drawing a modified lean construction conceptualization...

  8. Identification and mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling cold-tolerance of Chinese common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.) at booting to flowering stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengxia; SUN Chuanqing; TAN Lubin; FU Yongcai; LI Dejun; WANG Xiangkun

    2003-01-01

    An advanced backcross population of rice was used to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling the cold-tolerance at booting to flowering stages. The recipient, Guichao 2 (GC2), was a commercial Indica rice; the donor Dongxiang common wild rice, was an accession of common wild rice (DXCWR, Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Three QTLs for cold-tolerance were detected on chromosomes 1, 6and 11. Two of them coming from DXCWR could enhance the cold-tolerance of the backcross progenies. Moreover, one sterility QTL that could reduce the seed set rate of the backcross progenies by 78% was mapped on chromosome 5.

  9. 基于Windows系统启动Linux的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Booting Linux Based on Windows system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰强

    2013-01-01

      为了解决在一台计算机上安装Windows和Linux,且相互影响最小,以Windows XP和Fedora 8.0为例,根据操作系统的启动原理,使用Linux磁盘管理命令设计并实现了从Windows启动Linux,优点在于删除Linux对Win-dows无任何影响,进而可以在此基础上设计并实现Windows启动多个操作系统.%In order to solve the installation of Windows and Linux on a computer, and minimize the mutual influence based on Windows XP and Fedora 8 as an example, booting Linux from Windows are designed and implemented in this article. It’s advantage is to remove or change Linux without any effect on Windows. On this basis, Booting multi operation system from Windows can be designed and implemented. This is a good choice for the Windows-based users to learn and research Linux system at present.

  10. Variations in battery life of a heart-lung machine using different pump speeds, pressure loads, boot material, centrifugal pump head, multiple pump usage, and battery age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Cornelius

    2012-02-03

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has previously been reported to occur in 1 of every 1500 cases. Most heart-lung machine pump consoles are equipped with built-in battery back-up units. Battery run times of these devices are variable and have not been reported. Different conditions of use can extend battery life in the event of electrical failure. This study was designed to examine the run time of a fully charged battery under various conditions of pump speed, pressure loads, pump boot material, multiple pump usage, and battery life. Battery life using a centrifugal pump also was examined. The results of this study show that battery life is affected by pump speed, circuit pressure, boot stiffness, and the number of pumps in service. Centrifugal pumps also show a reduced drain on battery when compared with roller pumps. These elements affect the longevity and performance of the battery. This information could be of value to the individual during power failure as these are variables that can affect the battery life during such a challenging scenario.

  11. 基于引导型病毒的汇编语言教学案例设计%Teaching Case Design of Assembly Language Based on Boot Sector Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明华; 于庆梅; 梅海彬

    2014-01-01

    Assembly language is an obligatory course for comput-er science undergraduate students. However, it is a hard course for teachers and students. Most existing teaching cases lack in-tegrity and can't be connected with practical work. To solve these problems, a teaching case based on boot sector virus is designed from the view of course group, giving students a direct feeling to the role of assembly language in the field of information security. The principle, implementation, methods of how to use in the course and points for attention are described. As a result, this pa-per proposed a practical idea for enriching assembly language teaching cases.%汇编语言是计算机专业本科生的一门重要必修课,但又是一门学生难学,教师难教的课。现有的大部分教学案例缺乏综合性,与实际工作联系不紧密。针对这些问题,从课程群建设角度出发,设计一个基于引导型病毒的教学案例,让学生直观地感受到汇编语言在信息安全领域的应用。介绍了案例的基本原理、实现,在教学过程中的使用方法和需要注意的地方,为丰富汇编语言教学案例提出了一种可行的思路。

  12. Buses, Bikes or Boots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEAL

    2010-01-01

    @@ If you have been in Beijing for any length of time, you will have come to realize that there are several modes of trans-portation available to commuters, all of them relatively inexpensive, especially when compared to fares in the Western world. The choice is not only a matter of frugality, but also of convenience, comfort and speed.

  13. An Improved TIC6xDSP System Fast Boot Mode%一种改进的TIC6xDSP系统的快速自举方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘歆浏; 周建平; 李健; 田瑞娟

    2014-01-01

    For accelerating DSP boot speed and improving program running efficiency, put forward an improved TIC6xDSP system fast boot mode. Taking TMS320C6455 as example, the whole process of TIC6xDSP’s boot is analyzed, including fundamental principle, hardware and interface design, flash burn and software design. Meanwhile, aiming at the problem of existing solutions, 3 aspects are proposed for improving, such as loading mode design, boot programming and integration of destination code. The results show that the method can greatly accelerate DSP boot speed and improve program running efficiency, and reduce difficulties for DSP research and development.%为提高 DSP 的自举速度和程序运行效率,提出一种改进的 TIC6xDSP 系统的快速自举方式。以TMS320C6455为例,详细分析 TIC6xDSP 自举的基本原理、硬件接口设计、Flash 烧写固化以及软件实现全过程。针对现有解决方案存在的弊端,从加载模式设计、引导程序编写以及目标代码整合3方面进行改进。结果表明:该方法能极大地提高DSP的自举速度和程序运行效率,降低程序员对DSP的开发难度。

  14. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sangeeta Lamba, Bryan Wilson, Brenda Natal, Roxanne Nagurka, Michael Anana, Harsh Sule Department of Emergency Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Objective: Our project’s goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1 mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2 conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. Methods: In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1 identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1 and 2 determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three

  15. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Ribeiro Parisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. Objectives: This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. Results: No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05. Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005. Conclusion: The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  16. Cold Tolerance of Core Collection at Booting Stage Associated with Eco-geographic Distribution in Yunnan Rice Landrace (Oryza sativa),China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shen-chong; LIU Jia-fu; ZENG Ya-wen; WANG Lu-xiang; SHEN Shi-quan; PU Xiao-ying; LI Zi-chao; WANG Xiangkun; WEN Guo-song; YANG Zhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-seven accessions of the second core collection of rice landrace from five rice cropping regions (16 prefectures) of Yunnan Province, China, were evaluated for cold tolerance at booting stage. The results showed as follows: 1) there was a significant positive correlation (0.588**) between anther length and seed setting rate under natural low temperature conditions but was not significant in greenhouse (0.080). 2) there were significant differences in cold tolerance among cora collections from different cropping regions under natural low temperature conditions while a negligible cold damage in greenhouse (with a seed setting rate approaching or exceeding 70%) for cold tolerance evaluation. Cold tolerance of core collection from Northwest Yunnan cold highland japonica region was the strongest, and that from south marginal paddy-upland rice region was the most sensitive, suggesting that the breeding goals for cold tolerance should be different in various rice cropping regions. 3) there were remarkable differences in cold tolerance of core collections from different prefectures of Yunnan Province under natural low temperature conditions. Based on the reduction of seed setting rate and characteristics of natural climate, the 16prefectures could be divided into three categories, i.e. serious cold damage, cold damage and slight cold damage regions. 4)Difference of cold tolerance between different rice cropping regions and prefectures revealed further that temperature change caused by elevation and latitude was not only a dominant factor for differentiation of japonica and indica but also the basic reason that the genetic diversity and six ecological group of indica and japonica were being developed and, even the critical factor leading to the formation of the cold tolerance gene as well. The cold tolerance at booting stage could be believed to be resulted from the long term co-evolution between Yunnan rice landrce and cold stress in rice cropping

  17. 水稻孕穗期剑叶形态和蒸腾特性与耐盐性的关系%Relationship of Sword Leaf Morphology and Transpiration Characteristic at Booting Stage with Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 赵宏伟; 王敬国; 刘化龙; 谢冬微; 刘忠良; 郭丽颖; 邹德堂

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was making clear the salt tolerance mechanism during booting stage and providing theoretical basis for selecting the salt tolerant index. 6 rice varieties were used as experimental materials. Salt stress was performed under field growth condition for irrigating water solution prepared with NaCl. Sword leaves were sampled at booting stage to analyze the uptaking rule of Na+ ,K+ ,Ca2+ and morphology and transpiration characteristic, the relationship between salt tolerance and them was also analyzed. The result showed that the salt tolerance of 6 varieties were Longdao 5 > Changbai 10 > Songjing 12 > Dongnong 425 > Mudanjiang 26 > Mudanjiang 30 in order based on the salt tolerance coefficient. Na +content in rice was increased, K + content decreased after salt stress. For salt tolerant varieties, the accumulation of Na + in aerial part was less than in root, K + in aerial part was more and having no obvious difference in root. Ca2 + concentrated mainly in root and had no obvious variance for salt tolerant varieties after salt stress,but decreased obviously for sensitive varieties. The difference of sword leaf length, sword leaf width and sword leaf area between treatment and control were significant and very significant, and the damage of sword leaf for salt tolerant varieties was slight. The sword leaf of some varieties tend to curl after stress and some tend to unfold from curling, the curling dimension of salt tolerant varieties was leas that of salt sensitive varieties. Chlorophyll content degraded gradually following with the decreasing of variety's salt tolerance, had the significant or very significant difference. Salt tolerant varieties had the high transpiration rate and stomatal conduct-ance after salt stress,but canopy temperature stepped up following with the decreasing of variety's salt tolerance. The relative value of K+ content in aerial part, sword leaf's width,canopy temperature, Na + content in root.Ca2

  18. 基于龙芯2F的U-Boot固件移植与显卡优化%Firmware Porting and Video Card Optimization of U-Boot Based on Loongson 2F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超勇; 钱晓捷

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the extensibility of Yeeloong 8089 platform based on Loongson 2F, the basic structure and the porting process of the U-Boot firmware on this platform are described. The initialization process of PCI devices, especially of video care, is presented. The use of general graphic cards on the non-x86 architecture platform is implemented by introducing video graphics array (VGA) basic input/output system (BIOS) emulator into the U-Boot. The test results show that U-Boot can run stably on Yeeloong 8089 platform, and can correctly display the startup information through the video card and successfully boot the Debian Linux kernel.%为提高基于龙芯2F的Yeeloong 8089平台的扩展性,阐述了U-Boot固件的基本架构和在该平台上的移植过程。描述了PCI设备特别是显卡的初始化过程,通过在U-Boot中引入视频图形阵列(VGA)基本输入输出系统(BIOS)模拟器的方式解决了在非x86架构平台上使用通用显卡的问题。经过调试和验证,U-Boot稳定运行于Yeeloong 8089平台,能够通过显卡显示启动信息,并可以成功引导Debian Linux内核。

  19. Design of a fast boot method of VxWorks embedded system based on NOR Flash%一种基于Flash的VxWorks操作系统快速引导方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖二宁; 张兴明; 李晗; 魏帅

    2016-01-01

    Pointing to the condition that the embedded system is lack of NVRAM and the write& read speed request is not strict,a fast boot method of operation system based on Flash is designed on the platform of Vxworks operating system,the method uses NOR Flash storage for taking place of NVRAM to store boot information,and a 1+1 fault-tolerant mechanism is used. The test results show that it realizes the fast boot of operation system,and can effectively reduce the erase frequency, extend the service life of Flash,improves the system stability.%针对在嵌入式系统中缺少NVRAM并对读写速度要求不是很高的情况下,以VxWorks操作系统Workbench3.1为平台,设计了一种基于Flash的VxWorks操作系统快速引导方法,该方法通过用NOR Flash存储器代替NVRAM保存引导信息,并运用了1+1容错机制,经验证,该方法实现了VxWorks操作系统的快速引导,并有效降低了Flash的擦除频率,延长了Flash寿命,提高了系统的稳定性。

  20. 氮肥运筹方式对孕穗期受渍冬小麦穗部结实特性与产量的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Seed-setting Characteristics of Spike and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat under Waterlogging at Booting Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文明; 李金才; 陈洪俭; 魏凤珍; 王世济

    2011-01-01

    以小麦品种皖麦54为试验材料,连续两个生长季进行了氮肥运筹方式对孕穗期渍水冬小麦不同小穗位、粒位的结实粒数和粒重影响的观测.结果表明,不同氮肥运筹方式显著影响穗部结实特性,主茎穗结实特性优于分蘖穗.全部基施的氮肥运筹方式较基肥50%+拔节肥50%和基肥30%+拔节肥50%+孕穗肥20%的运筹方式显著增加了不孕小穗数,降低结实小穗数和结实粒数,2008-2010两年度全部基肥运筹方式较基肥30%+拔节肥50%+孕穗肥20%氮肥运筹方式处理不孕小穗数分别增加25.5%和29.8%,结实小穗数均降低5.7%.孕穗期渍水逆境对分蘖穗结实特性影响大于主茎穗,渍水逆境显著增加不孕小穗数,较对照处理,2008-2010两年度,不孕小穗数分别增加10.6%和4.6%;结实小穗数分别降低2.8%和1.4%.孕穗期渍水降低主茎穗结实4粒的小穗数比例和分蘖穗结实3、4粒小穗数的比例及第3、第4粒位籽粒粒重和第3、第4粒位粒重对单穗粒重的贡献率.氮肥后移运筹方式显著提高孕穗期受渍小麦主茎、分蘖穗结实小穗数和粒重,增加主茎和分蘖穗结实3、4粒小穗的比例和结实小穗第3、4粒位的粒重,提高第3、4粒位粒重对单穗粒重的贡献率,减少不孕小穗数,进而较氮肥前移处理显著提高经济产量.氮肥后移运筹方式有利于减轻孕穗期渍害对小麦穗部结实特性的影响.%Waterlogging has great influence on yield reduction in winter wheat production in some areas of China. Nitrogen (N) application is believed to be able to improve dry matter translocation in wheat, as a result to increase final yield. In a field experiment across two growing seasons, we used winter wheat cultivar "Wanmai 54" to investigate the effect of waterlogging at booting stage and N fertilizing strategy on number and weight of grain at different spikelet positions and grain positions. Under both

  1. Seasonal characteristics of CO2 fluxes in a rain-fed wheat field ecosystem at the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamics of CO2 flux in a rain-fed wheat field ecosystem using an eddy covariance technique during the 2011 to 2012 wheat-growing season at the Loess Plateau, China. Results showed that the daily CO2 flux was closely related to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, growth stage, soil temperature and rainfall. The average CO2 flux at different growth stages followed the order jointing and booting > erecting > reviving > heading > wintering > seeding and tillering > grain filling > ripening. The first four stages were carbon sinks, whereas the last four stages were carbon sources. The relationship between nighttime CO2 flux and air temperature was significant and fitted the index model (y=aebt. The relationship between daytime CO2 flux and PAR was also significant and fitted the quadratic model (y=ax2+bx+c. Moreover, daytime CO2 flux was significantly correlated with air temperature and PAR at the erecting, jointing and booting, and heading stages. Nighttime CO2 flux was also significantly correlated with soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the heading as well as jointing and booting stages. The carbon budget in the rain-fed wheat ecosystem was -401 g C m-2 yr-1, which was higher than those in other wheat ecosystems. This study implies that the ability of carbon-sequestration in different wheat field ecosystems may respond differently to climate and environment change.

  2. 高腰鞋整前帮样板制取与修正%Development and Amendment on the Whole Vamp Pattern for Ankle Boot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹秀; 孙继锋; 高海燕

    2013-01-01

    以整前帮高腰鞋样板制取与修正为例,重点介绍了帮样柱面设计中确定前脸点长、口门点、鞋舌及前帮线的方法,并依据展平原理,举例说明了5种实用的整前帮取样方法.此外,还简要分析了样板制取过程中经常出现的问题,并提出了解决方法.%The determining method of facing top point, vamp point, tongue line and quarter upper line are introduced with an example of pattern making and correction for ankle boots design. More, five practical methods of whole vamp spring is provided to illustrate our points according to the principle of flattening. In addition, common problems which are found in pattern making process, are briefly analyzed and the correlated solving methods are put forward.

  3. Research and Practice on DOS Boot Recorder Recovery of NTFS File System%NTFS文件系统的DBR恢复研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋笑天; 匡芳君

    2013-01-01

    N T FS文件系统的DBR扇区存储着文件系统的重要信息,由于病毒、断电、误操作等各种原因引起DBR损坏,出现未格式化现象。通过分析N T FS文件系统结构,提出了一种通过寻找M FT 表和计算DBR中BPB重要参数的方法,利用磁盘编辑工具WinHex对NTFS文件系统的DBR信息损坏进行恢复实践,实践证明该方法可行。%DOS boot recorder of NTFS file system stores much important information .DBR may be damaged by various reasons such as viruses ,power outages ,wrong operation ,etc .The partition will appear unformatted phenomenon .By an-alyzing the structure of NTFS file system ,the paper puts forward a method to rebuild DBR by looking for MFT table and calculation important parameters of BPB on DBR .Disk editing tools WinHex is used to recover DBR ,the practice has proved that the method is feasible .

  4. The role of density-dependence regulation in the misleading effect of the Aznalcollar mining spill on the booted eagle fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Manzano, Javier; Casado, Eva; Ferrer, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure and potential effects of the toxic elements released by the Aznalcollar spillage on the fecundity of the booted eagle (Hieraetus pennatus) population of Doñana National Park. We measured As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb and Tl levels in the blood of 24 individuals after the accident and also used data of reproductive performance of the species from 1976 to 2000. While As, Sb and Tl were below their detection limits and only 3 samples were above detection limit for Cd (0.02-0.04μg/dl), mean levels of Cu, Zn and Pb (μg/dl) were found to be 38.736, 532.937 and 0.719, respectively, in fledglings; and 66.112, 652.571 and 1.825, respectively, in adults. These levels were higher in adults, but they did not differ significantly between age classes and were at safe levels. In addition, a positive relationship between relative fecundity and the combination of Cu, Zn and Pb was observed. Following the mining spill, the mean population fecundity was lower (0.536 fledglings per pair in the population) than before (1.093). However, the decrease in fecundity over time was also related to the increase of breeding pairs, suggesting a density-dependent regulation and nullifying the mining spillage effect. Thus, although raptors have proved to be highly valuable biomonitors of environmental pollution, we must be especially cautious and go beyond the apparent effects that sometimes we quickly believe to detect, leading us to reach mistaken conclusions that could affect our management plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  6. 基于HiveBoard的嵌入式系统1卡启动的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of System Booting with a Single SD-Card Based on the HiveBoard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆清茹; 史先强; 辛海燕

    2014-01-01

    HiveBoard is a single board computer designed by the researchers of the Southeast University. It’s based on the domestic SOC which is called SEP6200. It implements the whole system booting using a single SD card. In this paper,the author introduces the basic configuration of the HiveBoard. Then,the paper analyzes the data storage structure of SD card and the knowledge of the FAT16 file system. Finally, the author expounds that how to integratethe U-Boot,the Linux kernel image and the file-system in the single SD card and the whole process how the HiveBoard is booted by this SD card.%HiveBoard是东南大学研究人员设计的一款基于国产微处理器的信用卡大小的单板计算机,它实现了使用一张SD卡一次实现嵌入式系统的完整启动。首先介绍了HiveBoard基本配置,分析了典型嵌入式系统的启动方式以及SD卡数据存储与FAT16文件系统相关知识,重点阐述了设计者巧妙地将嵌入式系统所必须的U-Boot、Linux内核和文件系统集成在一张SD卡中并实现完整系统启动的原理和方法,并呈现了整个启动流程。

  7. 基于WinPE启动的U盘量产技术研究与实现%Research and implementation of mass production technology of U-Disk boot on WinPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾超捷; 周玉洁

    2011-01-01

    针对传统的以软盘和光盘的方式来恢复操作系统过于繁复,并且在一些追求轻薄的笔记本上已经不再配备软驱和光驱,U盘以它的轻便和容量大,脱颖而出,故而制作以U盘启动操作系统是大势所趋.创新点在于通过对WindowXp平台下的文件系统FAT16,FAT32,根目录表项以及MBR,DBR的深入研究,设计嵌入式软件方便快捷地实现具有WinPE操作系统的U盘启动功能的量产,并且考虑到不同品牌计算机的兼容性,提供用户USB-CD和USB-ZIP两种启动模式.实验结果表明,本方法最大限度地方便了用户对启动功能和u盘本身的使用.%Aiming at that it is excessively complicated to restore the operating system by traditional floppy disks and CD-ROM, U-Disk stands out by right of its lightweight and large capacity and therefore it is general trend to start the operating system by U disk. As an innovation of the this paper, through the depth research of file system FAT16 , FAT32,the root directory table enty, as well as MBR,DBR on the WindowXP platform, designing embedded software is fully used easily and quickly to achieve mass production of boot U disk with WinPE OS booting to recover breakdown system, which provide two kinds of boot mode of USB-CD and USB-ZIP, taking into account the compatibility of different brands of computer. The experimental results show that this method maxinuzes convenient for user to use boot function and storage capacity of U disk.

  8. Emission Laws and Influence Factors of Greenhouse Gases in Saline-Alkali Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of greenhouse gas emissions has become a global focus, but few studies have considered saline-alkali paddy fields. Gas samples and saline-alkali soil samples were collected during the green, tillering, booting, heading and grain filling stages. The emission fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O as well as the pH, soil soluble salt, available nitrogen, and soil organic carbon contents were detected to reveal the greenhouse gas (GHG emission laws and influence factors in saline-alkali paddy fields. Overall, GHG emissions of paddy soil during the growing season increased, then decreased, and then increased again and peaked at booting stage. The emission fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were observed as having two peaks and a single peak, respectively. Both the total amount of GHG emission and its different components of CO2, CH4, and N2O increased with the increasing reclamation period of paddy fields. A positive correlation was found between the respective emission fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O and the available nitrogen and SOC, whereas a negative correlation was revealed between the fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O and soil pH and soil conductivity. The study is beneficial to assessing the impact of paddy reclamation on regional greenhouse gas emissions and is relevant to illustrating the mechanisms concerning the carbon cycle in paddy soils.

  9. Boots on the Ground: Maryland

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-10-24

    In this podcast, we talk to CDC public health advisor Artensie Flowers to see how her work with the Maryland State Health Department increases local health preparedness and response.  Created: 10/24/2013 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 10/24/2013.

  10. Boot Camps for Charter Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of who owns the responsibility when a charter school gets into trouble--when its students aren't learning, or it misses its enrollment targets, or money runs short, or it closes. Upon presenting this question to a director of a charter school, a board member, and a Massachusetts-based education consultant and…

  11. Kansarme jongeren buiten de boot?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Soffers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands youth unemployment is an important issue on the political agenda. Projects have been set up to lead unemployed, often deprived young people back to school or work. However, not all of these youths want to participate in the projects and some leave early. Is this is a problem? Are these young people capable of finding employment by themselves or do their problems increase without the support of these projects? To answer these questions we studied deprived unemployed youths who belonged to the target group of an unemployment project (Route 23. The results of the research show that most of the former dropouts can look after themselves well. Many are working or are back at school, and they have fewer problems than they had before. Participants who left the project early are slightly less well off than the others. We advise monitoring all persons in the target group who fail to enter the project or leave early, and give them the opportunity to re-enter the project or ask for support. This is how the project can provide an additional safety net for these groups.

  12. Boots on the Ground: Arizona

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-26

    In this podcast, we talk to CDC public health advisor Lisa Speissegger about her response efforts during the 2013 Arizona wildfires.  Created: 12/26/2013 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 12/26/2013.

  13. An IR-Selected Galaxy Cluster at Z=1.41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, S A; Eisenhardt, P R; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Stern, D; Jannuzi, B; Dey, A; Brown, M I; McKenzie, E; Elston, R

    2006-03-09

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.41. ISCS J143809+341419 was found in the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Survey of the Bootes field in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey carried out by IRAC. The cluster candidate was initially identified as a high density region of objects with photometric redshifts in the range 1.3 < z < 1.5. Optical spectroscopy of a limited number of objects in the region shows that 5 galaxies within a {approx}120 arcsec diameter region lie at z = 1.41 {+-} 0.01. Most of these member galaxies have broad-band colors consistent with the expected spectral energy distribution of a passively-evolving elliptical galaxy formed at high redshift. The redshift of ISCS J143809+341419 is the highest currently known for a spectroscopically-confirmed cluster of galaxies.

  14. Candidate Clusters of Galaxies at $z>1.3$ Identified in the Spitzer SPT Deep Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rettura, A; Stern, D; Mei, S; Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gettings, D; Gonzalez, A H; Stanford, S A; Bartlett, J G

    2014-01-01

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at $z > 1.3$ selected from the 94 deg$^{2}$ Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates in SSDF adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Bo\\"otes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three $1.4 < z \\leq 1.75$ X-ray detected clusters in the Bo\\"otes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE and XMM-Newton. This rich dataset will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters pre...

  15. 以HJ-CCD影像为基础的冬小麦孕穗期关键苗情参数遥感定量反演%Quantitative Inversion of Key Seedling Condition Parameters in Winter Wheat at Booting Stage Using Remote Sensing Based on HJ-CCD Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭昌伟; 杨昕; 罗明; 马昌; 严翔; 陈亭亭

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]Application of satellite remote sensing data can timely get field planting crops ‘planar’ growth information, accurately reflect the situation and trend of crop seedling condition, serve the yield forecast and actual production. The purpose of this research was to deepen the mechanism and methods of remote sensing inversion of winter wheat seedling condition in the key period, and this research will provide timely support information and technology for farm production management.[Method]Based on experimental data obtained from 2011-2013 in the fixed-point observation experiment, and using HJ-CCD satellite images, the quantitative correlations between key seedling condition parameters of winter wheat at booting stage in sampling regions and the grain quality parameters, production, and remote sensing variables were emphatically analyzed. In order to further enhance the mechanism and reproducibility of remote sensing inversion models, which were built and analyzed with ground measuring results, the quantitative level and reliability of remote sensing inversion models were raised. Models for monitoring the leaf area index, biomass, SPAD value, and leaf nitrogen content of winter wheat at booting stage using remote sensing variables extracted from the HJ-CCD images were built and assessed, respectively.[Result]It is possible to invert leaf area index, SPAD value and leaf nitrogen content of winter wheat at booting stage by plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI), and invert biomass by ratio vegetation index (RVI), respectively. The remote sensing inversion models of the leaf area index, SPAD value, leaf nitrogen content and biomass of winter wheat were credible, and higher precision was obtained with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.651, 0.585, 0.630 and 0.675, respectively, and with root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.344, 4.62, 0.618% and 2 804.3 kg·hm-2, respectively. It was especially reliable to inverse leaf nitrogen content by PSRI. According

  16. Analysis of U-Boot and Method of Its Porting on YLP2410 Platform%U-Boot分析与移植到YLP2410开发平台的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萌; 刘波

    2009-01-01

    以研究arm-linux嵌入式系统的基本方法、操作环境为目的,分析了引导程序Uboot的目录结构及移植过程中需主要修改的文件,结合自己的开发环境详细给出了Uboot-1.1.4在ylp2410开发板上具体的移植方法和步骤,包括环境的搭建、代码的添加位置、遇到的常见错误,且给出了一些具体的配置文件,最后将U-boot.bin文件下载到平台,运行稳定,通过测试.

  17. The Effects of Controlled Drainage on N Concentration and Loss in Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To relieve the situation of the agricultural nonpoint pollution (NPS in south and east China, paddy field controlled drainage (PFCD is applied as an important and efficient approach to agricultural water management. A series of PFCD tests at four major growth stages of rice were conducted by use of 18 lysimeters. Concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N in surface and subsurface paddy water was observed. The results indicated that the concentration of NH4+-N and NO3--N in paddy water declined with the persistence of a waterlogged condition. Compared to traditional drainage, PFCD reduced N loss in surface water by 95.6%, 78.7%, 59.6%, and 87.4% at the stage of tillering, jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and milking, respectively. It should be noted that loads of N losses in surface water increased on the fourth day after waterlogging at the jointing-booting and milking stage, and surface water exhibited higher N concentration on the first day after waterlogging at each stage. Therefore, paddy field surface water drainage should be avoided in these periods.

  18. Effects of Low Temperature on Grain Yield of Rice and Its Physiological Mechanism at the Booting Stage%孕穗期低温对水稻产量的影响及其生理机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健陵; 霍治国; 吴丽姬; 朱庆华; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature,especially occured at booting stage,would cause sterility of rice florets and became one of restricting factors of rice yield.In order to evaluate the effect of low temperature on yield of rice,and ascertain the low temperature warning indicator at booting stage in South China,a controlled experiment was conducted with two cultivars,Tianyou 998 and Guinongzhan at four daily minimum temperature levels (18,1 6,14,and 12℃,diurnal temperature range is 4℃,nutural air temperature as CK)with three durations (1 ,3,and 5 d).The results showed that under the low temperature treatment during the booting stage of early-season rice,SOD and POD enzyme activities of the second leaf from top decreased,MDA content increased,SPAD value and photosynthetic rate declined,the percentage of pollen fertility and spikelet-fertilized rate decreased.The number of grains per panicle,seed-setting rate, and 1000-grain weight decreased,leading to a reduction in grain yield.When T min ≤ 1 6℃ (3 d),the grain yield of Tianyou 998 and Guinongzhan significantly decreased,as well as development progress of grains and photosynthesis of the second leaf from top(P <0.05).The lower temperature and longer duration have a greater influence on the damage to rice.The cold-tolerance of hybrid rice Tianyou 998 was weaker than the conventional rice Guinongzhan.The critical temperature for chilling damage was the daily lowest temperature 1 6℃ (3 days).%以天优998和桂农占为材料进行盆栽种植,孕穗期置于人工气候箱内进行低温处理,旨在分析不同低温强度及持续时间对水稻产量的影响及其生理机制,探明华南地区主栽水稻孕穗期的低温预警指标.低温设置为日最低温(T min )18℃、16℃、14℃和12℃,日较差为4℃,均匀变温,历期分别为1 d、3 d 和5 d,另设自然条件下生长的水稻为对照.结果表明,孕穗期低温使早稻倒2叶 SOD 和 POD 酶活性下降,MDA 含量上升,叶绿素含量和光合速

  19. Analysis of Consumption Trend and Marketing Strategy of Personalized Shoes and Boots Products%个性化鞋靴产品消费趋势及营销战略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育星; 邓琼

    2016-01-01

    随着世界鞋靴产业竞争的白热化,中国鞋企也认识到创造自身的品牌的重要性.品牌企业要生存就得转型,从以前的生产型转成现在的创造型企业.质量是品牌的生命线,品牌的核心是个性化,个性化又体现了一个企业的文化.同时,随着社会经济和全民教育水平的提升,消费者审美情趣也随之不断提高,他们渴望在茫茫人海中彰显自我,希望寻找到符合自己个性的鞋靴.个性化也是设计师提升自我的价值有效途径,他们希望通过自己的设计语言表达个人情感,希望在市场上寻找到能读懂自己作品的消费者.个性化是企业、设计师消费者共同关注的话题.%With the fervorization of world shoes and boots industry competition,Chinese shoes enterprises have also realized the importance of creating their own brand.In order to survive,the brand enterprises have to transfer from the production in the past to the creation nowadays.The quality is the lifeline of brand,the core of brand is its special feature which reflects the culture of an enterprise.At the same time,with the promotion of the social economy and public education level,and the improvement of consumers' aesthetic sentiment,they desire to manifest themselves in wide world,find shoes and boots with their own personality.Personalization is an efficient way for designer to enhance the value of the self,they want to express personal feelings through their own design language,find potential consumers in the market.Personalization is a hot topic of common concern for enterprises,designer and consumers.

  20. Flow field distribution of liquid film of water lubricated bearing-rotor coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q. L.; Hu, J. N.; Ye, X. Y.; Zhang, D. S.; Zheng, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    According to the desalination high-pressure pump water lubricated bearing-rotor coupling systems flow field distribution of liquid film in the starting transient process and its power transmission mechanism can lay the foundation of further exploring and judging lubrication state at the boot process. By using the computational fluid dynamics Fluent secondary development platform and calling the relevant DEFINE macro function to achieve the translation and rotation movement of the journal, we will use the dynamic grid technique to realize the automatic calculation and grid update of water lubricated bearings 3d unsteady liquid film flow field, and finally we will dispose the results of numerical simulation and get the pressure. When the eccentricity is large, film thickness was negatively correlated with the pressure, and positive with the velocity. Differential pressure was negatively correlated with velocity. When the eccentricity is small, film thickness is no significant relationship with differential pressure and velocity. Differential pressure has little difference with velocity.

  1. Analysis of transplant process of U-boot to platform based on mini2440%U-Boot在mini2440平台上的移植过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇飞; 嵇启春; 刘浩洋

    2012-01-01

    引导加载程序是嵌入式系统开发的重要环节,它使得操作系统和硬件平台联系起来,对嵌入式系统的后继软件开发十分重要.为此,介绍了当前嵌入式开发中功能强大、稳定可靠的引导加载程序U-Boot的目录结构、启动流程及其移植的思路和引导内核的方法;给出了移植Uboot-2010-06到ARM微处理器S3C2440上所需操作环境的搭建,具体代码的修改,具体参数的设置,以及所需的操作命令等要点.最后将编译生成的U-Boot.bin文件下载到ARM微处理器S3C2440上,测试显示,U-Boot可以达到设计的功能要求并能够稳定运行,而且通过对其进行正确的配置可以引导内核.

  2. It's about time; Repeated field sampling and flexible UAV platforms for a changing globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, G.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are quickly being adopted across the field sciences and will revolutionizing the speed and spatial scale of data collection. As a result, UAVs will alleviate much of the burden placed on boots-on-the-ground researchers as they seek to address fundamental scientific questionsa ssociated with global change. Concurrently, UAVs will initiate a rapid rise in time-series data, whether from monitoring weather patterns, measuring shifts in phenology due to a warming temperatures, or tracking range expansion and contraction of species. The challenges within the scientific community will be in the standardization of data collection, protocol sharing, and data management. The emergence of flexible aerial platforms within the commercial UAV space with multiple sensor configurations, open software application development, and cloud-based services should do much to address these challenges, but only if there is close collaboration between the industry and academic research partners.

  3. A Wide-field Near- and Mid-Infrared Census of Young Stars in NGC 6334

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Sarah; Allen, Lori; Fazio, Giovanni G; Smith, Howard; Carey, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the rate and efficiency of star formation in the NGC 6334 star forming region. We obtained observations at J, H, and Ks taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) and combined them with observations taken with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope at wavelengths {\\lambda} = 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {\\mu}m. We also analyzed previous observations taken at 24 {\\mu}m using the Spitzer MIPS camera as part of the MIPSGAL survey. We have produced a point source catalog with >700,000 entries. We have identified 2283 YSO candidates, 375 Class I YSOs and 1908 Class II YSOs using a combination of existing IRAC-based color classification schemes that we have extended and validated to the near-IR for use with warm Spitzer data. We have identified multiple new sites of ongoing star formation activity along filamentary structures extending tens of parsecs beyond the central molecular ridge of NGC 6334. By mapping the extinction we derived ...

  4. 指控系统中多操作系统启动工具的研究%Research on Multiple OS Boot-loader for Command and Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连建永; 顾忠明; 张安琳; 黄道颖; 张安琴

    2014-01-01

    指控系统中GRUB2作为启动引导器,管理多种操作系统平台。GRUB2采用模块化设计,可以提供给使用者更大的灵活性和性能改进。Linux系统的模块化设计与运行机制已被广泛讨论,有关GRUB2的模块化设计与运行机制的资料却很少。为了了解它的模块化编程与运行机制,通过对一个模块程序的分析,介绍了GRUB2中模块程序的基本结构及模块化设计的灵活性;并讨论了GRUB2的模块运行机制,明确了模块运行所需的底层工作。在此基础上,可以对GRUB2进行二次开发,扩展其应用场合。%As a boot loader,GRUB2 for Command and Control Systems manage a wide range of OS platform. GRUB2 uses a modular design,provided to the user greater flexibility and performance improvements. It is being discussed very clear on Linux module programming and running mechanism, but the same information about GRUB2 is seldom. In order to understand GRUB2’s modular programming and running,by analyzing a module program,its basic structure of module program in the GRUB2 is introduced and the flexibility of GRUB2 modular design is showed,by discussing GRUB2 module mechanism,the underlying work solution that required to run the module is clarified. On this basis,GRUB2 can be redeveloped to consummate its functions and extend its application occasions.

  5. Preparation of Cold Strain Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-08-01

    Trousers, field, wool, OD Trousers, field, cotton, OD Pootwear Boot, raukluk (with appropriate sodtgear) Headwear 19# Upper Body Clothing...cotton, OD Handwear Mittens, Arctic, trigger finger, w/inserts Footwear Boot, raukluk (with appropriate sock- gear) Headwear ’ Accenslon

  6. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  7. Collection Development: Not Ready for Boot Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Western fiction is unique among the major fiction genres recognized by public libraries (which would include romance, mystery, and sf) in that it is defined principally by its physical setting--the American West (usually anywhere west of the Mississippi River) and in particular the frontier territories of the 19th century. The popular conception…

  8. Collection Development: Not Ready for Boot Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Western fiction is unique among the major fiction genres recognized by public libraries (which would include romance, mystery, and sf) in that it is defined principally by its physical setting--the American West (usually anywhere west of the Mississippi River) and in particular the frontier territories of the 19th century. The popular conception…

  9. Android Mobile Security with Auto boot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Umamaheswari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper handles to create the application for android mobile to find a lost mobile. Once installed our application in the mobile, its starts to get the latitude and longitude value of the mobile byusing the inbuilt GPS in mobile. The mobile moves from one place to another place the value of the latitude and longitude is taken and stored in the memory. Only the latest value is stored in the memory.Once the SIM card is removed from the mobile it wait for the other SIM card to be inserted. If other SIM card is inserted then, our application is going to compare both the SIM card number. If both the SIM card number matches, it should be in idle. If both the SIM card number is mismatched, then the present latitude and longitude value of the mobile is sent as the SMS to the specified phone number.

  10. Analysis of Physiological Characteristics about ABA Alleviating Rice Booting Stage Drought Stress%ABA缓解水稻孕穗期干旱胁迫生理特性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贵华; 刘海艳; 李刚华; 刘明; 李岩; 王绍华; 刘正辉; 唐设; 丁艳锋

    2014-01-01

    慢;对ABA较钝感,ABA虽显著提高南粳44干旱胁迫时穗粒数、结实率与千粒重,但未显著提高每盆产量。结论 ABA对水稻具有短期“休眠”的效果,能够有效缓解孕穗期干旱胁迫对水稻生理代谢功能的损伤,促进复水后的功能修复,减轻干旱对产量的影响。抗旱性不同的水稻对ABA的响应存在差异性,抗旱性越强的品种,对ABA越敏感,喷施ABA作用越明显。%[Objective]The objective of the study is to reveal the drought tolerance mechanisms of different rice varieties and the physiological mechanisms about ABA reliving rice drought stress.[Method]Japonica drought tolerance rice Zaoyuxiangjing and conventional japonica rice Nanjing44 were pot planted until booting stage, and 150 mg·kg-1 of abscisic acid (ABA) was sprayed on leaf to study the influence on rice antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD, CAT), membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA) content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), chlorophyll and soluble sugar(SS)content, biomass accumulation, yield per pot and yield components. Finally, their different biological and physiological drought resistance and response to ABA treatment were compared.[Result]During drought stress, rice maintained higher SOD and CAT activities, leading to a lower MDA content to a certain extent. They synthesized higher soluble sugar content to maintain cell osmotic adjustment. The leaf net Pn decreased consistently. Gs also showed a downward trend with increasing water stress, and Tr consistented with the Gs. Chlorophyll a synthesis was inhibited, and the content decreased. The result showed that dry matter accumulation and yield per pot were decreased significantly compared with CK. Two varieties showed significant differences in response to drought stress, and Zaoyuxiangjing was more drought resistant than Nanjing44. When ABA treated, Pn and dry matter accumulation were reduced in short time. While

  11. Improvement of thermophysiological stress in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticide, and its application in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2000-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses were compared under two experimental conditions, in the laboratory (Experiment I), and in the field (Experiment II), between two kinds of protective clothing for spraying pesticides. One was currently being used (Type A), and was composed of ready made Gore-Tex clothing, mask, polyurethane gloves and rubber boots. The other one was newly designed (Type B), and was composed of pesticide-proof clothing (100% cotton with water repellent finish), mask, Gore-Tex gloves, and special boots consisting of rubber for the feet and ankle and Gore-Tex around the legs. In addition, the head and chest were cooled by frozen gel strips fixed in the cap and undershirt. In Experiment I, five female adults took part, in a climate-chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. In Experiment II, five farmers (one male and four female) were tested in an apple orchard in July, August and September. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) change of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in Type B in Experiment I, (2) change of heart rate tended to be lower in Type B than in Type A in both experiments, (3) salivary lactic acid concentration at the end of the first exercise was significantly higher in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (4) the number of contractions in the handgrip exercise which was performed immediately after the third exercise, was significantly smaller in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (5) subjective comfort sensation was significantly improved in Type B in Experiments I and II. Thus, it was concluded that the newly designed protective clothing could reduce thermal stress during the spraying of pesticides in an apple orchard in summer.

  12. Laser fields and proxy fields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2016-01-01

    The convention in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical (AMO) physics of employing the dipole approximation to describe laser-induced processes replaces the four source-free Maxwell equations governing laser fields with a single Maxwell equation for a "proxy" field that requires a virtual source current for its existence. There is no possible gauge equivalence between these fields. The proxy field is serviceable for some purposes, but its applicability is limited, and the qualitative models it evokes can be inappropriate or erroneous. One example is the "above-threshold ionization" (ATI) phenomenon; surprising for proxy fields, but natural and predicted for laser fields. A serious problem occurs as the field frequency declines; the proxy field approaches a constant electric field, in contrast to laser fields that propagate with the velocity of light for all frequencies, with increasing importance of the magnetic component. An often-overlooked constraint is that numerical solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation is exa...

  13. HD 18078: A very slowly rotating Ap star with an unusual magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Pyper, D. M.; Adelman, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The existence of a significant population of Ap stars with very long rotation periods (up to several hundred years) has progressively emerged over the past two decades. However, only lower limits of the periods are known for most of them because their variations have not yet been observed over a sufficient timebase. Aims: We determine the rotation period of the slowly rotating Ap star HD 18078 and we derive constraints on the geometrical structure of its magnetic field. Methods: We combine measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus obtained from 1990 to 1997 with determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field spanning the 1999-2007 time interval to derive an unambiguous value of the rotation period. We show that this value is consistent with photometric variations recorded in the Strömgren uvby photometric system between 1995 and 2004. We fit the variations of the two above-mentioned field moments with a simple model to constrain the magnetic structure. Results: The rotation period of HD 18078 is (1358 ± 12) d. The geometrical structure of its magnetic field is consistent to first order with a colinear multipole model whose axis is offset from the centre of the star. Conclusions: HD 18078 is only the fifth Ap star with a rotation period longer than 1000 d for which the exact value of that period (as opposed to a lower limit) could be determined. The strong anharmonicity of the variations of its mean longitudinal magnetic field and the shift between their extrema and those of the mean magnetic field modulus are exceptional and indicative of a very unusual magnetic structure. Based in part on observations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France; at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO Prop. ID: KP2442; PI: T. Lanz), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; at the Canada

  14. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  15. Mid-Infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L N; Assef, Roberto J; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A; Croft, S; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P R; Gonzalez, A; Gorjian, V; Griffith, R; Grogin, N; Ivison, R; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L; Rottgering, H; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I S; van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2010-01-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of 474,179 objects in 8.1 deg^2 of the NDWFS Bootes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. We find that 1.1% of the studied sample meet our standard selection criteria for being classed as a variable source. We require that the 3.6 and 4.5 micron light-curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2 sigma. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBootes survey, radio catalogs, 24 micron-selected AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects. Most of the s...

  16. Repairing Osteochondral Defect of Rabbits with Nano-HA/CS Scaffold Composite with Chondrocyte by Boot-shaped Structure%纳米HA/CS支架穿“靴”复合软骨样细胞修复兔关节软骨和软骨下骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劼若; 屠美; 郑力恒; 谭文成; 查振刚; 郇松玮; 刘宁; 张国威; 吴昊; 林宏生; 姚平; 张嘉晴

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the condition of constructing the tissue engineered chondral composite constructing by co culturing the chondrocyte which were induced from bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatile/chitosan scaffold (nano-HA/CS), under a boot-shaped structure after compositing. The effect of the composite on repairing the osteochondral defect of rabbits' knee were observed. [Methods]The technique of combining the in situ hybridization and freeze-drying was taken to fabricate nano-HA/CS scaffold. The cylindrical boot-shaped structure were made of polytetrafluoroethylene. The chondrocyte were induced from BMSCs by cultivating in the chondrogenic differentiation medium. Then diey were seeded into the bottom of the nano-HA/CS scaffold whose top was coverd by the boot-shaped structure. The composite was cultivated in the chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks. The structure of nano-HA/CS scaffold and composite was observed by scanning electron microscope. The osteochondral defects in the epicondyle of femur, which was 4 mm in diameter and 8 mm in depth, were constructed in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups, experimental group (composite induced with boot-shaped structure grafted into the defect), control group (composite induced without boot-shaped structure), and blank group (with no implant). Finally the curative effect of specimens after 4 and 12 weeks were evaluated respectively. [Result] BMSCs can be induced to chondrocyte after cultivated in the chondrogenie differentiation medium. The nano-HA/CS scaffold with 92% interstice ratio and 125 (un diameter had a good adhesion with chondrocyte. In general, cartilage-like tissue were found in experimental group and control group, while fibrous tissue were found in blank group where the defect was still obvious. The HE staining showed that the cartilage defect was repaired by chondrocyte partly and the bone defect was repaired by osteoblasts partly in the

  17. The Sizes of Diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ Nebulae around Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Rui; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Hong, Sungryong; Prescott, Moire K M; Inami, Hanae; Jannuzi, Buell T; Gonzalez, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ emission, or Lyman alpha halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at $z\\approx3.78$ and $2.66$ in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Bo\\"otes field. Our samples consist of a total of $\\approx$1,400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly$\\alpha$ images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly$\\alpha$ radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scalelength of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities, but not on Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly$\\alpha$ emitters ($M_{\\rm UV} \\gtrsim -21$), exhibit LAH s...

  18. A Successful Broad-band Survey for Giant Lya Nebulae II: Spectroscopic Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Jannuzi, Buell T

    2012-01-01

    Using a systematic broad-band search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Lya nebulae (or Lya "blobs") at 2NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) Bootes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of ~10^8 h_70^-3 Mpc^3. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Lya nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Lya emission at 1.7

  19. Spectroscopic Redshifts to z > 2 for Optically Obscured Sources Discovered with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Houck, J R; Weedman, D; Higdon, S J U; Higdon, J L; Herter, T; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Le Floc'h, E; Rieke, M; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Brandl, B R; Tepliitz, H I

    2005-01-01

    We have surveyed a field covering 9.0 degrees^2 within the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey region in Bootes with the Multiband Imaging Photometer on the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) to a limiting 24 um flux density of 0.3 mJy. Thirty one sources from this survey with F(24um) > 0.75 mJy which are optically very faint (R > 24.5 mag) have been observed with the low-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph on SST. Redshifts derived primarily from strong silicate absorption features are reported here for 17 of these sources; 10 of these are optically invisible (R > 26 mag), with no counterpart in B_W, R, or I. The observed redshifts for 16 sources are 1.7 < z < 2.8. These represent a newly discovered population of highly obscured sources at high redshift with extreme infrared to optical ratios. Using IRS spectra of local galaxies as templates, we find that a majority of the sources have mid-infrared spectral shapes most similar to ultraluminous infrared galaxies powered primarily by AGN. Assuming the sam...

  20. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Weedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A population of quasars at z ~ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities vLv(7.8 um) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio vLv(0.25 um)/vLv(7.8 um) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust which produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest frame 7.8 um are determined for quasars in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 um sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest frame 7.8 um, but the ratio Lv(100 um)/Lv(7.8 um) is about three times high...

  1. The Clustering of Extremely Red Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Palamara, David P; Jannuzi, Buell T; Dey, Arjun; Stern, Daniel; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Weiner, Benjamin J; Ashby, Matthew L N; Kochanek, C S; Gonzalez, Anthony; Brodwin, Mark; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Rieke, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    We measure the clustering of Extremely Red Objects (EROs) in ~8 deg^2 of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Bo\\"otes field in order to establish robust links between ERO z~1.2 and local galaxy z5.0 (28,724 galaxies), (I-K_s)>4.0 (22,451 galaxies) and (I-[3.6])>5.0 (64,370 galaxies). Magnitude-limited samples show the correlation length (r_0) to increase for more luminous EROs, implying a correlation with stellar mass. We can separate star-forming and passive ERO populations using the (K_s-[24]) and ([3.6]-[24]) colors to K_s=18.4 and [3.6]=17.5, respectively. Star-forming and passive EROs in magnitude limited samples have different clustering properties and host dark halo masses, and cannot be simply understood as a single population. Based on the clustering, we find that bright passive EROs are the likely progenitors of >4L^* elliptical galaxies. Bright EROs with ongoing star formation were found to occupy denser environments than star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, making these the likely progenitors ...

  2. The Evolution of the Star Formation Rate of Galaxies at 0.0 < z < 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H; Papovich, Casey; Cool, Richard J; Moustakas, John; Januzzi, Buell T; Kochanek, Christopher S; Rieke, Marcia J; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Murray, Steve S; Brown, Michael J I; Floc'h, Emeric Le

    2010-01-01

    We present the 24 micron rest-frame luminosity function (LF) of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.6 constructed from 4047 spectroscopic redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of 24 micron selected sources in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This sample provides the best available combination of large area (9 deg^2), depth, and statistically complete spectroscopic observations, allowing us to probe the evolution of the 24 micron LF of galaxies at low and intermediate redshifts while minimizing the effects of cosmic variance. In order to use the observed 24 micron luminosity as a tracer for star formation, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that could contribute significantly at 24 micron are identified and excluded from our star-forming galaxy sample based on their mid-IR spectral energy distributions or the detection of X-ray emission. The evolution of the 24 micron LF of star-forming galaxies for redshifts of z < 0.65 is consistent with a pure luminos...

  3. Active Galactic Nuclei and the Truncation of Star Formation in K+A Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Caldwell, Nelson; Palamara, David; Cool, Richard J; Dey, Arjun; Hickox, Ryan; Jannuzi, Buell T; Murray, Stephen S; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak H-alpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10

  4. Clustering of Dust-Obscured Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J I; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Desai, Vandana; Jannuzi, Buell T; Floc'h, Emeric Le

    2008-01-01

    We present the angular autocorrelation function of 2603 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. DOGs are red, obscured galaxies, defined as having R-[24] \\ge 14 (F_24/F_R \\ga 1000). Spectroscopy indicates that they are located at 1.5 \\la z \\la 2.5. We find strong clustering, with r_0 = 7.40^{+1.27}_{-0.84} Mpc/h for the full F_24 > 0.3 mJy sample. The clustering and space density of the DOGs are consistent with those of submillimeter galaxies, suggestive of a connection between these populations. We find evidence for luminosity-dependent clustering, with the correlation length increasing to r_0 = 12.97^{+4.26}_{-2.64} Mpc/h for brighter (F_24 > 0.6 mJy) DOGs. Bright DOGs also reside in richer environments than fainter ones, suggesting these subsamples may not be drawn from the same parent population. The clustering amplitudes imply average halo masses of log M = 12.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2} Msun for the full DOG sample, rising to log M = 13.0^{+0.4}_{-0.3} Msun for brighter...

  5. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  6. Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  7. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a Lévy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master Lévy measure and the associated Lévy-Itô representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued Lévy processes, give the Lévy-Itô representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of Lévy...

  8. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a L\\'evy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master L\\'evy measure and the associated L\\'evy-It\\^o representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued L\\'evy processes, give the L\\'evy-It\\^o representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of L...

  9. Field arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Field Arithmetic explores Diophantine fields through their absolute Galois groups. This largely self-contained treatment starts with techniques from algebraic geometry, number theory, and profinite groups. Graduate students can effectively learn generalizations of finite field ideas. We use Haar measure on the absolute Galois group to replace counting arguments. New Chebotarev density variants interpret diophantine properties. Here we have the only complete treatment of Galois stratifications, used by Denef and Loeser, et al, to study Chow motives of Diophantine statements.Progress from the fi

  10. Field Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is a mobile application for capturing images , data, and geolocation for USAID projects in the field. The data is then stored on a server in AllNet. The...

  11. Mid-infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep Wide-field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Assef, Roberto J.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gonzalez, A.; Gorjian, V.; Griffith, R.; Grogin, N.; Ivison, R.; Jacob, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Mainzer, A.; Moustakas, L.; Röttgering, H.; Seymour, N.; Smith, H. A.; Stanford, S. A.; Stauffer, J. R.; Sullivan, I. S.; van Breugel, W.; Willner, S. P.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-06-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of objects in 8.1 deg2 of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Boötes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. Out of 474, 179 analyzed sources, 1.1% meet our standard variability selection criteria that the two light curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance (σ12) exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2σ. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBoötes survey, radio catalogs, 24 μm selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects, although most of the stellar, galaxy, and unclassified sources are false positives. For our standard selection criteria, 11%-12% of the mid-IR counterparts to X-ray sources, 24 μm AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs show variability. The exact fractions depend on both the search depth and the selection criteria. For example, 12% of the 1131 known z>1 AGNs in the field and 14%-17% of the known AGNs with well-measured fluxes in all four Infrared Array Camera bands meet our standard selection criteria. The mid-IR AGN variability can be well described by a single power-law structure function with an index of γ ≈ 0.5 at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and an amplitude of S 0 ~= 0.1 mag on rest-frame timescales of 2 yr. The variability amplitude is higher for shorter rest-frame wavelengths and lower luminosities.

  12. Field Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    2012-01-01

    This field report expresses perfectly the kind of confusion almost all of us experience when entering the field. How do we know whether what we’re doing is “right” or not? What in particular should we record when we don’t have time to write down everything among all the myriad impressions thrusti...... as remind experienced fieldworkers of what they’ve been through. I’m sure it will also provide food for thought and the occasional chuckle!...

  13. On the Building and Implementation of the Flipped Classroom Teaching Model Suitable for the Secondary Vocational Technical Schools——FLASH boot path animation courses as on example%中职翻转课堂模型构建与实施研究——以FLASH引导路径动画课程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红

    2015-01-01

    For today's education"student-centered"teaching philosophy, this paper proposes the flipped classroom teaching mode and makes full use of the advantages of flip classroom to build flipped classroom teaching model suitable for the Secondary vocational technical schools.Taking"FLASH boot path animation course"for example, this paper designs flipped classroom teaching programs based on autonomous learning, detects problems in the implementation process, gradually perfects the flipped classroom, improves the ability of autonomous learning, and truly realize the idea of"my learning on my own terms".%针对当今教育"以学生为中心"的教学理念,本文提出翻转课堂的教学模式,充分利用翻转课堂的优势,构建适合中职的翻转课堂教学模型,以"FLASH引导路径动画"课程为例,设计基于学生自主学习的翻转课堂的教学方案,并在实施过程中及时发现问题,逐步完善翻转课堂,提高学生自主学习的能力,真正做到"我的学习我做主".

  14. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots REPRODUCIBILIDAD DE LAS VARIABLES ESPACIO-TEMPORALES Y DE LAS COMPONENTES DE LA FUERZA DE REACCIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA MARCHA CON BOTAS DE BOMBERO [Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gavilanes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la reproducibilidad de las variables espacio-temporales y de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS durante la marcha con botas de bombero y compararla con la mostrada durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña. Se registraron las variables espacio-temporales de 39 personas así como las variables que definen las tres componentes de la FRS con dos tipos de calzado diferente. Se utilizó la prueba T para contrastar la hipótesis referida a la diferencia del coeficiente de variación (CV entre los dos tipos de calzado. El CV de las variables espacio-temporales (p. ej. velocidad (V, condición I = 2,01%; condición II = 1,81%, así como de las que definen la componente vertical (p. ej. fuerza de apoyo (FZA del pie izquierdo, condición I = 2

  15. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  16. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Gettings, Daniel P; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mancone, Conor L; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2013-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies...

  17. Infrared Observations of Star-Forming Dwarf Galaxies with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J. L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Salzer, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties of a sample of actively star-forming dwarf galaxies (MB >-18) drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. Nearby actively star-forming dwarf galaxies are possible analogs to the high redshift star-forming systems that serve as galactic building blocks in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. These galaxies are gas-rich, metal-poor systems undergoing bursts of star formation in the local universe. A subset of such objects from the line-flux limited objective-prism survey of Salzer et al. (2001) lie in the NOAO Bootes field, and have therefore been observed by Spitzer as part of the IRAC Shallow Survey. We use the IRAC data to measure the stellar mass in these galaxies. In addition, we examine whether these metal-poor dwarf galaxies show warm dust emission, and examine whether it traces the star formation as it does in normal disk galaxies. J. L. Rosenberg would like to acknowledge the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellowship for support of this work. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  18. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  19. Topological fields

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1989-01-01

    Aimed at those acquainted with basic point-set topology and algebra, this text goes up to the frontiers of current research in topological fields (more precisely, topological rings that algebraically are fields).The reader is given enough background to tackle the current literature without undue additional preparation. Many results not in the text (and many illustrations by example of theorems in the text) are included among the exercises. Sufficient hints for the solution of the exercises are offered so that solving them does not become a major research effort for the reader. A comprehensive bibliography completes the volume.

  20. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  1. Field Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the magnetic field is often the final verification of the complex design and fabrication process of a magnetic system. In several cases, when seeking high accuracy, the measurement technique and its realization can result in a considerable effort. This note describes most used measurement techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, fluxmeters and Hall generators, and their typical range of application. In addition some of less commonly used techniques, such as magneto-optical, SQUIDs, or particle beams methods, are listed.

  2. Characteristics of Air Moisture and the Effects of High Air Moisture at Booting Stage on Grain Yield of Wheat in Jianghan Plain%江汉平原小麦孕穗期空气相对湿度升高的产量效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 赵晓宇; 陈恢富; 王晓玲; 熊勤学

    2014-01-01

    、根系活力降低,撤除高空气湿度处理后,叶片膜质过氧化程度及根系活力与对照间差异幅度均减小,但仍显著低于对照水平,表明高空气湿度对叶片衰老及根系活力的副效应是不可逆转的。(5)空气相对湿度升高,植株干物质积累量及籽粒产量均显著降低,成熟期干物质积累量较对照降低5.5%,籽粒产量降低10.0%,其中籽粒产量降低归因于穗粒数和穗粒重的降低,分析表明穗粒数较对照降低6.0%,穗粒重较对照降低4.2%。【结论】在本试验条件下,孕穗期空气相对湿度升高导致小麦旗叶光合速率等光合指标下降、膜质过氧化加速、根系活力降低,最终生物产量(含株高)和籽粒产量均显著降低,其中籽粒产量的降低主要归因于穗粒数的降低,其次为穗粒重。%[Objective]Jianghan Plain is one of the most important wheat producing areas in Hubei Province, and high relative air moisture is a major limitation on wheat grain yield. Under the conditions of global climate change, relative air moisture increased as well as air temperature. This research was carried out to study the effect of increasing relative air moisture on wheat grain yield, in order to provide a theoretical basis for promoting wheat production in Jianghan Plain.[Method]The research was carried out based on the analysis of air moisture characteristics in Jianghan Plain from 1983-2013. During the experiment, air moisture was increased to 100%by artificial chamber for 10 days at booting stage of wheat, and the normal air moisture treatment was used as CK, samples were taken at 5 d, 10 d after high air moisture control, and 5 d, 15 d after recovery from all treatments. The effects of high air moisture on photosynthetic characteristics, SPAD value in flag leaf and top 3rd leaf, course of leaf senescence, root activity, plant height, and accumulation of dry matter, grain yield and yield components were

  3. Deployable Integral Field Units, Multislits, and Image Slicer for the Goodman Imaging Spectrograph on the SOAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Moffett, A. J.; Cui, Y.; Eckert, K. D.; McBride, J.; Kannappan, S.; Keller, K.; Barlow, B. N.; Dunlap, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Goodman Imager-Spectrograph on the 4.1m SOAR telescope has operated on Cerro Pachon, Chile with volume-phase holographic gratings in long-slit mode since its commissioning in 2008. Recently, UNC graduate students played key roles to implement robust upgrades for multi-object spectroscopy that will soon be available to US astronomers through the NOAO time share on SOAR: • Multislits over 3x5 arcmin, generated on PCB solder stencils with exceptional sharpness compared to conventional laser cuts, initially to survey globular clusters for pulsating hot sub-dwarfs • An image slicer to obtain 3 simultaneous parallel spectra 70-arcsec long, 1- or 2-arcsec wide, spanning 320-750 nm to map stellar and gaseous emission and mass over the 1500 galaxies in the RESOLVE survey underway on SOAR • Four integral field units, each composed of 5-arcsec diameter, fused bundles of 0.5-arcsec diameter thin-clad optical fiber, independently deployed over a 10x5 arcmin field targeted by an EMCCD also used for Lucky Imaging. Initially will study aperture effects in single fiber surveys, extragalactic globular clusters, and demonstrate technology prior to deployment on larger telescopes • New wheels supporting a large set of existing narrow-band and Sloan filters • A trombone-style atmospheric dispersion compensator that corrects the full 12-arcmin diameter science field down to 30 deg elevation. Working in UNC's Goodman Laboratory for Astronomical Instrumentation, students employed SolidWorks and ZEMAX to design parts for in-house CAM on CNC machines and a 3D printer. All motors are controlled by LabVIEW as is the SOAR TCS. The deployable IFU axes are controlled by Quicksilver Controls Inc. intelligent servos and $80 model robot (Firgelli Corp.) actuators driven by a PIC-microcontroller and a student designed custom PCB. Upgrades and students were supported by $200K from SOAR Corporation, Research Corporation, NSF, and UNC competitive funds, and NC NASA Space Grant, Sigma Xi

  4. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointing stage to booting stage, the regularity of above index changed conversely. For the treatments with the same topdressing fertilizer date (jointing stage, the appropriate ratio of Basal dressing fertilizer (BNto topdressing fertilizer was 3:7, with high biomass, high SPAD value in flag leaf, high grain yield and high process quality as a result. The results also indicated that the right stage for more N in organ vegetative to be transferred to grain was jointing stage and the right ratio of BN to TN was 3:7, which was the very basis for high nitrogen fertilizer utilization. Based on the above results, it was suggested that to gain high grain yield and high process quality the appropriate date for topdressing fertilizer N in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain was jointing stage and the ratio of BN to TN was 3:7.

  5. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  6. Investigating Within-Field Variability of Rice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery in Qixing Farm County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanying Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a primary staple food for the world population and there is a strong need to map its cultivation area and monitor its crop status on regional scales. This study was conducted in the Qixing Farm County of the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. First, the rice cultivation areas were identified by integrating the remote sensing (RS classification maps from three dates and the Geographic Information System (GIS data obtained from a local agency. Specifically, three FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2 images captured during the growing season in 2009 and a GIS topographic map were combined using a knowledge-based classification method. A highly accurate classification map (overall accuracy = 91.6% was generated based on this Multi-Data-Approach (MDA. Secondly, measured agronomic variables that include biomass, leaf area index (LAI, plant nitrogen (N concentration and plant N uptake were correlated with the date-specific FS-2 image spectra using stepwise multiple linear regression models. The best model validation results with a relative error (RE of 8.9% were found in the biomass regression model at the phenological stage of heading. The best index of agreement (IA value of 0.85 with an RE of 13.6% was found in the LAI model, also at the heading stage. For plant N uptake estimation, the most accurate model was again achieved at the heading stage with an RE of 11% and an IA value of 0.77; however, for plant N concentration estimation, the model performance was best at the booting stage. Finally, the regression models were applied to the identified rice areas to map the within-field variability of the four agronomic variables at different growth stages for the Qixing Farm County. The results provide detailed spatial information on the within-field variability on a regional scale, which is critical for effective field management in precision agriculture.

  7. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  8. Advanced Course in Engineering (ACE) - Cyber Security Boot Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    drives, classifying file systems, one-way hashes, digital signatures and steganography . 6. Steganography : data hiding in multimedia (images, audio , video...classifying steganography algorithms and tools, steganographic capacity, detection and recovery of hidden data, digital data watermarking, watermark...robustness, digital data forensics. 7. Covert Channels: Third Wave society, timing and storage channels, protocol steganography , TCP/IP covert

  9. Boots on Mars: Earth Independent Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Josephine; Gill, Tracy R.; Ellis, Kim Gina

    2017-01-01

    This package is for the conduct of a workshop during the International Space University Space Studies Program in the summer of 2017 being held in Cork, Ireland. It gives publicly available information on NASA and international plans to move beyond low Earth orbit to Mars and discusses challenges and capabilities. This information will provide the participants a basic level of insight to develop a response on their perceived obstacles to a future vision of humans on Mars.

  10. A Human Factors Evaluation of Exoskeleton Boot Interface Sole Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    participant began and ended in a standing position with his right foot flat on the force plate and left foot flat on the walkway. When kneeling on the...Anterioposterior axis Mediolateral axis Sagittal plane Transverse plane 22 Hip Knee Ankle Sa gi tta l P la ne Fr on ta l P la ne T...LABORATORY - HRED ATTN AMSRD ARL HR MG R SPINE BUILDING 333 PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ 07806-5000 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY - HRED ATTN

  11. Influence without Boots on the Ground: Seaborne Crisis Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the Taiwan strait: Deter- rence, escalation Dominance, and U.s.- China relations.” International Security 27, no. 2 (2002), pp. 48–85. roth , Patrick...dispatched together with six Polaris submarines based in Holy Loch, Scotland . Naval aerial reconnaissance units assisted in the effort to collect...hindrance the crisis ended. According to Captain Roth , U.S. naval aircraft were searching for a ship suspected of carrying insurgents in November

  12. Was de ark van Noach een ronde boot?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, B.E.J.H.; Dijkstra, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the British newspaper The Guardian reported on the find and decipherment by the curator Irving Finkel of an Old-Babylonian clay tablet that referred to the story of the flood. This tablet even mentioned the name of the Babylonian flood-hero Atraḫasīs who was ordered to build a circular boat

  13. Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Singapore quickly prospered, and in 186 that port as well as Malacca and Penang , two small port enclaves on the western Malay coast, formally became the...operations was clearly indicated in statistical analyses maintained by the British com- mand.90 The British command formed larger Gurkha headquarters...displays the density statistics for the Balkans’ deployments. 5 Ta bl e 6. T ro op D en si ty in th e B al ka ns O pe ra tio ns M ili ta ry Fo

  14. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely.

  15. Rad hard Non volatile memory for FPGA boot loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation-hardened non volatile memory is needed to store the golden copy of the image(s) has not kept pace with the advances in FPGAs. Consider that a single image...

  16. Mohawks and combat boots: the schizoid dilemma of punks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M J

    1999-01-01

    The author explores how clinicians may use the construct of the schizoid dilemma as a means to understand young adult punk rockers. The basic dilemma, in Fairbairn's formulation, is whether to withdraw from relational attachments because of a history of disappointments by others. The punk phenomenon may be understood as an object-relational stance resulting from a particular resolution of the schizoid dilemma. The author describes characteristics of punk individuals in terms of this construct, and discusses their relation to such possible pathology as depression and substance abuse. Finally, an explanation is offered for the phenomena that both drive an individual to treatment and lead to premature termination of it.

  17. Report on the ''ESO Python Boot Camp — Pilot Version''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Milli, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Python programming language is becoming very popular within the astronomical community. Python is a high-level language with multiple applications including database management, handling FITS images and tables, statistical analysis, and more advanced topics. Python is a very powerful tool both for astronomical publications and for observatory operations. Since the best way to learn a new programming language is through practice, we therefore organised a two-day hands-on workshop to share expertise among ESO colleagues. We report here the outcome and feedback from this pilot event.

  18. Photometric calibration of NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC plates using the NOAO PDS measuring engine. II - Surface photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Roc M.; Low, Frank J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to calibrate surface photometry of faint sources measured from direct photographic plates, such as those of the NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC Sky Survey. This calibration procedure does not require scanning sensitometer spots on the plates, but instead uses measurements of the brightness profiles of many faint stars of known brightness to fit a linearized approximation to the characteristic curve. The approximation is valid for only low- to medium-density emulsions, so this technique is appropriate only for relatively faint emission. Comparison between measurements of representative extended sources on the NGS/POSS and CCD images indicates that surface photometry can be obtained from the Sky Survey plates accurate to 0.1-0.3 mag in the range mu(B) between 23 and 27 and mu(R) between 22 and 26 mag/sq arcsec.

  19. Photometric calibration of NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC plates using the NOAO PDS measuring engine. I - Stellar photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Roc M.; Low, Frank J.; Marvel, Kevin B.

    1992-01-01

    The PDS/Monet measuring engine at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory was used to obtain photometry of nearly 10,000 stars on the NGS/POSS and 2000 stars on the ESO/SRC Survey glass plates. These measurements have been used to show that global transformation functions exist that allow calibration of stellar photometry from any blue or red plate to equivalent Johnson B and Cousins R photoelectric magnitudes. The four transformation functions appropriate for the POSS O and E and ESO/SRC J and R plates were characterized, and it was found that, within the measurement uncertainties, they vary from plate to plate only by photometric zero-point offsets. A method is described to correct for the zero-point shifts and to obtain calibrated B and R photometry of stellar sources to an average accuracy of 0.3-0.4 mag within the range R between values of 8 and 19.5 for red plates in both surveys, B between values of 9 and 20.5 on POSS blue plates, and B between values of 10 and 20.5 on ESO/SRC blue plates. This calibration procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid photometry of very large numbers of stellar sources.

  20. Cost survey of procedure with Unna boot in patients with venous ulcer Levantamento del costo del procedimiento com bota de Unna en pacientes com úlcera venosa (UV Levantamento do custo do procedimento com bota de Unna em pacientes com úlcera venosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Maria Caetano Baptista

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims was to identify the social-demographic characteristics and the lesions of patients with venous ulcer (VU, as well as to estimate the total direct cost of materials and nursing personnel necessary for the procedure with unna boot, by the average total direct cost (ATDC and the observed cost (OTDC. The theoretical referential adopted for cost calculation was the costing system by absorption of procedure or product. This study was conducted at the University Hospital of Sao Paulo University (HU Ambulatory. The sample was constituted by 65 procedures in nine patients with VU. The results show that the predominant age groups were 49 to 56 years (33,33% and 65 to 72 years (33,33%, in female patients (77,78%. Regarding associated diseases, there was a predominance of Systemic Arterial Hypertension (33,33% and Diabetes Mellitus (22,22%. The ATDC was R$ 107,99 and the OTDC was R$ 96,47.El objetivo fue identificar características sócio-demográficas y de las lesiones de los pacientes con úlcera venosa (UV, y calcular el costo total directo de los materiales y de personal de enfermería utilizados en del procedimiento con bota de unna, por el costo total directo medio (CTDM y por lo observado (CTDO. El referencial teórico adoptado para la medición de los costos fue el sistema de costeo por absorción por procedimiento o producto. El estudio fue realizado en el Consultorio Externo el Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo (HUUSP. La muestra fue constituida por 65 procedimientos en nueve pacientes con UV. Los resultados muestran que la faja etária predominante fue 49 a 56 años (33,33% y de 65 a 72 años (33,33% y del sexo femenino (77,78%. Cuanto a la enfermedad asociada, hubo predominio de Hipertensión Arterial Sistemática (33,33% y Diabetes Mellitus (22,22%. El CTDM fue de R$ 107,99 y el CTDO fue de R$ 96,47.O objetivo foi identificar características sociodemográficas e das lesões dos pacientes com úlcera venosa (UV e

  1. 杂交粳稻花优14及其亲本孕穗期剑《的基因表达谱芯片分析%Gene expression profiling of flag leaves at the booting stage in the japonica hybrid rice Huayou14 and its parental lines by microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储黄伟; 牛付安; 程灿; 周继华; 王新其; 罗小金; 袁勤; 曹黎明

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiling using microarray has contributed significantly to heterosis studies. Using the Affymetrix rice genome array, we investigated gene expression profiles in the flag leaves of thejaponica hybrid rice Huayou14 and its parental cultivars Shen9A and Fan14 at the booting stage. A total of 2057 genes differentially ex-pressed (fold change≥2 or≤0.5) between Huayou14 and its parents were identified. Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated the differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in photosynthesis-related cellular component categories (e.g. photosystemⅠ, chloroplast membrane and chloroplast envelope), and biological process categories (e.g. chlorophyll catabolic, chlorophyll bio-synthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic processes). These results suggest that the changes in the photosynthetic ability of thejaponica hybrid rice Huayou14 may be related to heterosis. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that differen-tially expressed genes were significantly enriched in photosynthesis-antenna proteins and starch and sucrose meta-bolic pathways, instead of photosynthesis and carbon fixation pathways as reported previously. These results suggest that different genes or metabolic pathways might contribute to the heterosis of different hybrid combinations.%本文以孕穗期的杂交粳稻花优14及其母本申9A和父本繁14的剑叶为材料,利用Affymetrix水稻基因组芯片检测了3个样品中的基因表达谱,并用生物信息学方法对差异表达基因进行了分析。结果表明:与其亲本相比,杂交粳稻花优14中共有2057个基因的表达水平出现了2倍(变化倍数≥2或≤0.5)以上的变化。通过对这些差异表达基因进行GO(Gene Ontology)功能分类,发现差异表达基因在光合系统Ⅰ、叶绿体膜和叶绿体被膜等与叶绿体相关的细胞组分中显著富集;同时差异表达基因还在叶绿

  2. 不同叶色水稻孕穗期不同叶位叶片的光合与叶绿素荧光特性%Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Different Position Leaves at Booting Stage in Rice Genotypes with Different Leaf Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光明; 赵明辉; 詹先进; 蓝家样; 陈温福

    2014-01-01

    研究了4个不同叶色水稻品系孕穗期不同叶位叶片的光合和叶绿素荧光特性,结果表明:SPAD值最高的深叶色品系净光合速率并不是最高,说明叶绿素总量高其净光合速率并不一定最高;荧光参数在深叶色品系与浅叶色品系间差异也不显著;各品系间倒1叶净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Evap)均明显低于倒2叶;而胞间CO2浓度(Ci)基本维持不变,说明叶片Pn 的变化主要不是气孔因素引起的。不同叶位叶绿素含量降低与Pn下降的表现一致,叶绿素荧光分析表明Fo、Fm、Fv/ Fm 和PI随叶位发生变化,而每个品系倒1叶的Fm均大于倒2叶,这表明孕穗期倒1叶PS域电子传递的潜力强于倒2叶。不同叶色品系中,除沈农07015外,反映光合荧光参数中光合有活反应中心吸收(ABS/RC)、耗散(DIo/RC)的能量和用来还原QA的激发能(TRo/RC)均为倒1叶大于倒2叶,表明倒1叶有活性的反应中心剩余的耗能效率高于倒2叶。%Four rice genotypes w ith different leaf colors were examined at booting stage for investigating the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence properties of different position leaves. The dark-green leaf rice genotype had the highest SPA D value, but not highest net photosynthetic rate (Pn), which suggested that the genotype with the highest chlorophyll content didn't mean the highest Pn. There were no significant differences in fluorescence parameters between dark-green leaf color and light leaf color genotypes.The Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs) , transpiration rate (Evap) of the first leaf were significantly lower than that of the second leaf, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had little change, which indicated that the decrease of Pn did not result from the decrease of Gs. The decrease of SPAD value that has a close correlation with chlorophyll content was one of the apparent reasons resulted in decease of Pn. Further

  3. Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we theoretically investigate the field emission from carbon nanotube field emitters in diode configuration between a flat anode and cathode. Exact analytical formulas of the electrical field, field enhancement factor, ponderomotive force, and field emission current are found. Applied voltage, height of the needle, radius of curvature on its top, and the work function are the parameters at our disposal. The field enhancement factor, total force and emission current, as well as ...

  4. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  5. How fields vary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Monika

    2017-04-06

    Field theorists have long insisted that research needs to pay attention to the particular properties of each field studied. But while much field-theoretical research is comparative, either explicitly or implicitly, scholars have only begun to develop the language for describing the dimensions along which fields can be similar to and different from each other. In this context, this paper articulates an agenda for the analysis of variable properties of fields. It discusses variation in the degree but also in the kind of field autonomy. It discusses different dimensions of variation in field structure: fields can be more or less contested, and more or less hierarchical. The structure of symbolic oppositions in a field may take different forms. Lastly, it analyses the dimensions of variation highlighted by research on fields on the sub- and transnational scale. Post-national analysis allows us to ask how fields relate to fields of the same kind on different scales, and how fields relate to fields on the same scale in other national contexts. It allows us to ask about the role resources from other scales play in structuring symbolic oppositions within fields. A more fine-tuned vocabulary for field variation can help us better describe particular fields and it is a precondition for generating hypotheses about the conditions under which we can expect to observe fields with specified characteristics. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  6. Can AGN and galaxy clusters explain the surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuations of the surface brightness of cosmic X-ray background (CXB) carry unique information about faint and low-luminosity source populations, which is inaccessible for conventional large-scale structure (LSS) studies based on resolved sources. We used XBOOTES (5ks deep Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-I maps of the ˜ 9 deg2 Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey) to conduct the most accurate measurement to date of the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB on the angular scales of 3 arcsec-17 arcmin. We find that at sub-arcmin angular scales, the power spectrum is consistent with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) shot noise, without much need for any significant contribution from their one-halo term. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that low-luminosity AGN reside alone in their dark matter haloes. However, at larger angular scales, we detect a significant LSS signal above the AGN shot noise. Its power spectrum, obtained after subtracting the AGN shot noise, follows a power law with the slope of -0.8 ± 0.1 and its amplitude is much larger than what can be plausibly explained by the two-halo term of AGN. We demonstrate that the detected LSS signal is produced by unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies. For the flux limit of the XBOOTES survey, their flux-weighted mean redshift equals ˜ 0.3, and the mean temperature of their intracluster medium (ICM), ≈ 1.4 keV, corresponds to the mass of M500 ˜ 1013.5 M⊙. The power spectrum of CXB fluctuations carries information about the redshift distribution of these objects and the spatial structure of their ICM on the linear scales of up to ˜Mpc, i.e. of the order of the virial radius.

  7. Field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apfeldorf, K M; Apfeldorf, Karyn M; Ordonez, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory by carefully performing nonlinear transformations in the path integral. We first present a ``paradox'' whereby a 1+1 freemassless scalar theory on a Minkowskian cylinder is reduced to an effectively quantum mechanical theory. We perform field redefinitions both before and after reduction to suggest that one should not ignore operator ordering issues in quantum field theory. We next employ a discretized version of the path integral for a free massless scalar quantum field in d dimensions to show that beyond the usual jacobian term, an infinite series of divergent ``extra'' terms arises in the action whenever a nonlinear field redefinition is made. The explicit forms for the first couple of these terms are derived. We evaluate Feynman diagrams to illustrate the importance of retaining the extra terms, and conjecture that these extra terms are the exact counterterms necessary to render physical quantities invariant under fie...

  8. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  9. Renormalizable Tensor Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2016-01-01

    Extending tensor models at the field theoretical level, tensor field theories are nonlocal quantum field theories with Feynman graphs identified with simplicial complexes. They become relevant for addressing quantum topology and geometry in any dimension and therefore form an interesting class of models for studying quantum gravity. We review the class of perturbatively renormalizable tensor field theories and some of their features.

  10. The Hubble Deep Field South Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, R A; Brown, T M; Casertano, S; Conselice, C J; De Mello, D F; Dickinson, M E; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; Gardner, J P; Gilmore, D; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Kaiser, M E; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Martin, C L; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Teplitz, H I; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Zurek, D R; Lucas, Ray A.; Baum, Stefi A.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Conselice, Chris; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gilmore, Diane; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell; Martin, Crystal L.; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Teplitz, Harry I.; Wiggs, Michael S.; Williams, Robert E.; Zurek, David R.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Deep Field South program, a set of shorter 2-orbit observations were obtained of the area adjacent to the deep fields. The WFPC2 flanking fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 48 square arcminutes. Parallel observations with the STIS and NICMOS instruments produce a patchwork of additional fields with optical and near-infrared (1.6 micron) response. Deeper parallel exposures with WFPC2 and NICMOS were obtained when STIS observed the NICMOS deep field. These deeper fields are offset from the rest, and an extended low surface brightness object is visible in the deeper WFPC2 flanking field. In this data paper, which serves as an archival record of the project, we discuss the observations and data reduction, and present SExtractor source catalogs and number counts derived from the data. Number counts are broadly consistent with previous surveys from both ground and space. Among other things, these flanking field observations are useful for defining slit masks for spectroscopic follow-up o...

  11. Fermion field renormalization prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yong

    2005-01-01

    We discuss all possible fermion field renormalization prescriptions in conventional field renormalization meaning and mainly pay attention to the imaginary part of unstable fermion Field Renormalization Constants (FRC). We find that introducing the off-diagonal fermion FRC leads to the decay widths of physical processes $t\\to c Z$ and $b\\to s \\gamma$ gauge-parameter dependent. We also discuss the necessity of renormalizing the bare fields in conventional quantum field theory.

  12. 增施钾肥对冷浸田水稻生理及植株铁吸收累积的影响%Effects of Potassium Fertilizer Increasement on Rice Physiology and Iron Accumulation in Cold-waterlogged Paddy Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清华; 王飞; 林诚; 何春梅; 李昱; 钟少杰; 林新坚

    2015-01-01

    有效钾缺乏、Fe2+毒害是影响冷浸田水稻产量的重要因素。通过田间试验,研究不同钾肥用量对冷浸田水稻生长生理、植株铁累积及产量的影响。结果表明:与不施钾肥相比,增施钾肥孕穗期水稻叶绿素 a+b 和光合速率分别增加10.27%~28.40%、11.40%~29.31%,孕穗期与成熟期根系活力分别提高10.53%~22.67%、27.71%~48.62%,成熟期稻谷产量增加4.93%~14.77%。施肥能促进植株体内钾的吸收和抑制根系对铁的累积。在水稻分蘖期、孕穗期与成熟期,根系铁含量分别降低0.04~0.73、0.33~0.95及0.62~0.82个百分点,此外在分蘖期水稻根系钾与铁含量呈极显著负相关(r =-0.86**)。增施钾肥能够提高根系活力,增强光合作用,促进碳水化合物合成与运输,同时较好地抑制铁的累积,因此增施钾肥是发挥冷浸田生产潜力的有效措施。%Shortage of effective potassium and toxicity of Fe2+ are important limited factors to rice yield in cold-waterlogged paddy field.Based on the field experiment,the effects of rice growth physiology,plant potassium iron nutrient accumulation and rice yield components were studied in cold-waterlogged paddy field under different potassium utilized in the paper.The results indicated that the content of chlorophyll a+b and photosynthetic ratio could respectively improve 10.53% ~ 22.67%、27.71% ~ 48.62% in booting stage under potassium fertilizer increasement,10.53%~22.67%、27.71 %~48.62% for root activity improved respectively in booting stage and mature stage.Meanwhile,rice yield could improve 4.93%~14.77%.Potassium fertilizer increased could not only promote the absorption and transportation of potassium,inhibit the iron accumulation of rice root,but only could reduce respectively 0.04~0.73、0.33 ~0.95 and 0.62 ~0.82 percentage point for the content of iron in tillering stage,booting

  13. The generalized master fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Guillaume; Dahlqvist, Antoine; Gabriel, Franck

    2017-09-01

    The master field is the large N limit of the Yang-Mills measure on the Euclidean plane. It can be viewed as a non-commutative process indexed by loops on the plane. We construct and study generalized master fields, called free planar Markovian holonomy fields which are versions of the master field where the law of a simple loop can be as more general as it is possible. We prove that those free planar Markovian holonomy fields can be seen as well as the large N limit of some Markovian holonomy fields on the plane with unitary structure group.

  14. Engineering field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baden Fuller, A J

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Field Theory focuses on the applications of field theory in gravitation, electrostatics, magnetism, electric current flow, conductive heat transfer, fluid flow, and seepage.The manuscript first ponders on electric flux, electrical materials, and flux function. Discussions focus on field intensity at the surface of a conductor, force on a charged surface, atomic properties, doublet and uniform field, flux tube and flux line, line charge and line sink, field of a surface charge, field intensity, flux density, permittivity, and Coulomb's law. The text then takes a look at gravitation

  15. Killing Vector Fields and Superharmonic Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Groeger, Josua

    2013-01-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, referred to as superharmonic action, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of the superharmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  16. Cosmological Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  17. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  18. Advanced classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, Giovanni; Sardanashvily, Gennadi

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary quantum field theory is mainly developed as quantization of classical fields. Therefore, classical field theory and its BRST extension is the necessary step towards quantum field theory. This book aims to provide a complete mathematical foundation of Lagrangian classical field theory and its BRST extension for the purpose of quantization. Based on the standard geometric formulation of theory of nonlinear differential operators, Lagrangian field theory is treated in a very general setting. Reducible degenerate Lagrangian theories of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold are considered. The second Noether theorems generalized to these theories and formulated in the homology terms provide the strict mathematical formulation of BRST extended classical field theory

  19. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  20. Electric Field Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  1. The Earth's Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Lína Gunnarsdóttir 1988

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is essential for life on Earth, as we know it, to exist. It forms a magnetic shield around the planet, protecting it from high energy particles and radiation from the Sun, which can cause damage to life, power systems, orbiting satellites, astronauts and spacecrafts. This report contains a general overview of the Earth's magnetic field. The different sources that contribute to the total magnetic field are presented and the diverse variations in the field are describ...

  2. Terahertz field induced electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm.......We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  3. Information field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Enßlin, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear image reconstruction and signal analysis deal with complex inverse problems. To tackle such problems in a systematic way, I present information field theory (IFT) as a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms even for non-linear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. IFT algorithms exploit spatial correlations of the signal fields and b...

  4. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  5. Dialogue, Field, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    "The Journal of Educational Administration and History" has played an important role as a site for analyses that seek to expand both the academic and the ethical/political concerns of the field. A key word here is field. What counts as the field? What are its boundaries? Who is inside and who is outside? How has that changed over time?…

  6. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  7. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  8. Modern Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tom

    2008-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.

  9. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  10. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  11. Handbook of finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Poised to become the leading reference in the field, the Handbook of Finite Fields is exclusively devoted to the theory and applications of finite fields. More than 80 international contributors compile state-of-the-art research in this definitive handbook. Edited by two renowned researchers, the book uses a uniform style and format throughout and each chapter is self contained and peer reviewed. The first part of the book traces the history of finite fields through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The second part presents theoretical properties of finite fields, covering polynomials,

  12. Strong Field, Noncommutative QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ilderton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.

  13. The First Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Widrow, Lawrence M; Schleicher, Dominik; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G; Treumann, Rudolf A

    2011-01-01

    We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars is discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early genera...

  14. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  15. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  16. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    stabilised OM may consist primarily of microbial cells. Thus our study is consistent with the microbial efficiency-matrix stabilisation (MEMS) hypothesis (Cotrufo et al., 2013), which says that microbial use efficiency determines stabilisation through interaction with the mineral phase. It also shows the importance of using long term field observations in addition to short term laboratory studies. Reference Cotrufo, M.F., Wallenstein, M.D., Boot, C., Denef, K., Paul, E., 2013. The microbial efficiency-matrix stabilisation (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable organic matter? Global Change Biology, 19, 988-995.

  17. Cosmic decoherence: massive fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Junyu [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sou, Chon-Man; Wang, Yi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-10-14

    We study the decoherence of massive fields during inflation based on the Zurek’s density matrix approach. With the cubic interaction between inflaton and massive fields, the reduced density matrix for the massive fields can be calculated in the Schrödinger picture which is related to the variance of the non-Gaussian exponent in the wave functional. The decoherence rate is computed in the one-loop form from functional integration. For heavy fields with m≳O(H), quantum fluctuations will easily stay in the quantum state and decoherence is unlikely. While for light fields with mass smaller than O(H), quantum fluctuations are easily decohered within 5∼10 e-folds after Hubble crossing. Thus heavy fields can play a key role in studying problems involving inflationary quantum information.

  18. Depletion of intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Marklund, M; Bulanov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multi-photon nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude $a_0 \\sim 10^3$ and electron bunches with charges of the order of nC.

  19. Narrowing the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    .danmarksstednavne.dk and obviously draws heavily on the printed edition. But the century-long effort of publishing in printed form has spawned a series of challenges to a strict database integration; first of all variations in microstructure making the parsing into information categories (i.e. database fields) quite difficult....... As of now, no less than 45 different database fields have been found necessary to structure the information found in a single place-name entry – some fields mandatory, some nonmandatory. And using a relational database structure, some fields have multiple occurrences within one entry (i.e. multiple source...... forms for one entry a.s.f.). Having made the conscious decision to split up the information into so many categories (i.e. fields) – instead of employing a broad 'other information' field – sophisticated algorithms have been developed in order to identify information category from typographical...

  20. Cosmic Decoherence: Massive Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Junyu; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We study the decoherence of massive fields during inflation based on the Zurek's density matrix approach. With the cubic interaction between inflaton and massive fields, the reduced density matrix for the massive fields can be calculated in the Schr\\"odinger picture which is related to the variance of the non-Gaussian exponent in the wave functional. The decoherence rate is computed in the one-loop form from functional integration. For heavy fields with $m\\gtrsim \\mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations will easily stay in the quantum state and decoherence is unlikely. While for light fields with mass smaller than $\\mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations are easily decohered within $5\\sim10$ e-folds after Hubble crossing. Thus heavy fields can play a key role in studying problems involving inflationary quantum information.

  1. Depletion of Intense Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.; Bulanov, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multiphoton Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multiphoton nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude a0˜1 03 and electron bunches with charges of the order of 10 nC.

  2. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  3. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  4. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  5. Effects of cultivation patterns on rice yield and soil properties in cold waterlogged paddy fields%耕作模式对冷浸田水稻产量和土壤特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思潮; 曹凑贵; 李成芳; 熊又升; 汪金平

    2014-01-01

    为探明不同耕作模式对冷浸田的影响机制,挖掘冷浸田的生产潜力,以冷浸田为研究对象,通过田间试验,以常规平作模式为对照,研究了垄作和稻鱼共作模式对冷浸田水稻产量以及土壤团聚体、温度、pH及有机质和还原性物质含量以及酶活性的影响。结果表明:相比对照(CK),垄作模式(T1)能显著降低土壤微团聚体(1 mm) and organic matter content increased respectively by 67.6%and 28.0%at rice maturity stage. Treatment T2 had less effect on soil physical and chemical properties in cold waterlogged paddy fields. However, it significantly increased soil available nutrients (mainly available potassium and phosphorus) contents. Soil available potassium content increased 18.2% and 69.2% at booting and mature stages, compared with CK. It provided good soil environment and nutrition for rice growth, promoted rice growth and development, and improved rice yield. Further analysis showed that treatments T1 and T2 significantly improved rice yield in cold waterlogged paddy fields and increased yield in the range of 8.8%-25.8%. The effect of T1 on increasing rice production was the most significant, with actual output reaching 7 623 kg·hm-2. In conclusion, treatment T1 effectively improved soil properties in cold waterlogged paddy fields and increased rice yield. The effect of increasing production of treatment T2 was mainly drived by increased water and soil available nutrients in cold paddy waterlogged fields.

  6. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  7. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  8. Theory of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the theory of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to radiofrequency systems in particle accelerators. We begin by reviewing Maxwell's equations and their physical significance. We show that in free space, there are solutions to Maxwell's equations representing the propagation of electromagnetic fields as waves. We introduce electromagnetic potentials, and show how they can be used to simplify the calculation of the fields in the presence of sources. We derive Poynting's theorem, which leads to expressions for the energy density and energy flux in an electromagnetic field. We discuss the properties of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.

  9. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  10. Facial Data Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuliang; YUAN Hanning; CAO Baohua; WANG Dakui

    2015-01-01

    Expressional face recognition is a challenge in computer vision for complex expressions. Facial data field is proposed to recognize expression. Fundamentals are presented in the methodology of face recognition upon data field and subsequently, technical algorithms including normalizing faces, generating facial data field, extracting feature points in partitions, assigning weights and recog-nizing faces. A case is studied with JAFFE database for its verification. Result indicates that the proposed method is suitable and eff ective in expressional face recognition con-sidering the whole average recognition rate is up to 94.3%. In conclusion, data field is considered as a valuable alter-native to pattern recognition.

  11. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  12. Fields with Analytic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cluckers, Raf

    2009-01-01

    We present a unifying theory of fields with certain classes of analytic functions, called fields with analytic structure. Both real closed fields and Henselian valued fields are considered. For real closed fields with analytic structure, o-minimality is shown. For Henselian valued fields, both the model theory and the analytic theory are developed. We give a list of examples that comprises, to our knowledge, all principal, previously studied, analytic structures on Henselian valued fields, as well as new ones. The b-minimality is shown, as well as other properties useful for motivic integration on valued fields. The paper is reminiscent of [Denef, van den Dries, "p-adic and real subanalytic sets" Ann. of Math. (2) 128 (1988) 79--138], of [Cohen, Paul J. "Decision procedures for real and p-adic fields" Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 22 (1969) 131--151, and of [Fresnel, van der Put, "Rigid analytic geometry and its applications" Progress in Mathematics, 218 Birkhauser (2004)], and unifies work by van den Dries, Haskell...

  13. Conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ketov, Sergei V

    1995-01-01

    Conformal field theory is an elegant and powerful theory in the field of high energy physics and statistics. In fact, it can be said to be one of the greatest achievements in the development of this field. Presented in two dimensions, this book is designed for students who already have a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, field theory and general relativity. The main idea used throughout the book is that conformal symmetry causes both classical and quantum integrability. Instead of concentrating on the numerous applications of the theory, the author puts forward a discussion of the general

  14. Spin and New Physical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I B

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the interactions between the fermion and the gravitational fields are due to the torsion field. The torsion field is considered to be a potential one, like the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The field equations are obtained, which describe the interactions of the torsion field with the conventional physical fields. The general covariant Lagrangian of the gravitational field, based on the torsion field, is derived. Experiment is proposed to test the theory.

  15. Field reparametrization in effective field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Passarino, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Debate topic for Effective Field Theory (EFT) is the choice of a "basis" for $\\mrdim = 6$ operators Clearly all bases are equivalent as long as they are a "basis", containing a minimal set of operators after the use of equations of motion and respecting gauge invariance. From a more formal point of view a basis is characterized by its closure with respect to renormalization. Equivalence of bases should always be understood as a statement for the S-matrix and not for the Lagrangian, as dictated by the equivalence theorem. Any phenomenological approach that misses one of these ingredients is still acceptable for a preliminar analysis, as long as it does not pretend to be an EFT. Here we revisit the equivalence theorem and its consequences for EFT when two sets of higher dimensional operators are connected by a set of non-linear, noninvariant, field reparametrizations.

  16. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  17. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  18. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  19. twistors and gauge fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sergeev

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe briefly the basic ideas and results of the twistor theory. The main points: twistor representation of Minkowsky space, Penrose correspondence and its geometrical properties, twistor interpretation of linear massless fields, Yang-Mills fields (including instantons and monopoles and Einstein-Hilbert equations.

  20. The visual light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Pont, S.C.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Human observers are sensitive to the ‘(physical) light field' in the sense that they have expectations of how a given object would appear if it were introduced in the scene in front of them at some arbitrary location. Thus the ‘visual light field' is defined even in the ‘empty space' between

  1. Quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovskii, Michael V.

    2013-06-01

    This book discusses the main concepts of the Standard Model of elementary particles in a compact and straightforward way. The work illustrates the unity of modern theoretical physics by combining approaches and concepts of the quantum field theory and modern condensed matter theory. The inductive approach allows a deep understanding of ideas and methods used for solving problems in this field.

  2. On the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Mullers, Michael; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at students' experiences in the field by highlifhting the role of context and culture in learning processes.......This paper looks at students' experiences in the field by highlifhting the role of context and culture in learning processes....

  3. Electric field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji

    2015-01-01

    This book prepares newcomers to dive into the realm of electric field analysis. The book details why one should perform electric field analysis and what are its practical implications. It emphasizes both the fundamentals and modern computational methods of electric machines. The book covers practical applications of the numerical methods in high voltage equipment, including transmission lines, power transformers, cables, and gas insulated systems.

  4. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  5. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  6. Ridge and Furrow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per Grau

    2016-01-01

    Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...

  7. Emergent Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Peter G O

    2010-01-01

    Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.

  8. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  9. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  10. Progress in field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, E.J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Anderson, K.; Kneubühler, M.; Fox, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in the science of field spectroscopy, focusing on the last twenty years in particular. During this period field spectroscopy has become established as an important technique for characterising the reflectance of natural surfaces in situ, for supporting the vicarious c

  11. Arithmetic of Division Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brumer, Armand

    2011-01-01

    We study the arithmetic of division fields of semistable abelian varieties A over the rationals. The Galois group of the 2-division field of A is analyzed when the conductor is odd and squarefree. The irreducible semistable mod 2 representations of small conductor are determined under GRH. These results are used in "Paramodular abelian varieties of odd conductor," arXiv:1004.4699.

  12. Diffeomorphisms of quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We study field diffeomorphisms $\\Phi(x)= F(\\rho(x))=a_0\\rho(x)+a_1\\rho^2(x)+\\ldots=\\sum_{j+0}^\\infty a_j \\rho^{j+1}$, for free and interacting quantum fields $\\Phi$. We find that the theory is invariant under such diffeomorphisms if and only if kinematic renormalization schemes are used.

  13. Polarizable force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the most common methods for including an explicit description of electronic polarization in molecular mechanics force fields: the induced point dipole, shell, and fluctuating charge models. The importance of including polarization effects in biomolecular simulations is discussed, and some of the most important achievements in the development of polarizable biomolecular force fields to date are highlighted.

  14. Field Trip Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to prepare for and conduct a safe and worry-free educational experience. She shares a few tips that will ensure field trips will be fun, safe, engaging, and productive. She stresses that with proper planning, field trips can be unique ways to explore the world with students.

  15. The Coriolis field

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L Filipe

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical discussion of the Coriolis field, emphasizing its not-so-well-understood aspects. We show that this field satisfies the field equations of the so-called Newton-Cartan theory, a generalization of Newtonian gravity that is covariant under changes of arbitrarily rotating and accelerated frames. Examples of solutions of this theory are given, including the Newtonian analogue of the G\\"odel universe. We discuss how to detect the Coriolis field by its effect on gyroscopes, of which the gyrocompass is an example. Finally, using a similar framework, we discuss the Coriolis field generated by mass currents in general relativity, and its measurement by the Gravity Probe B and LAGEOS/LARES experiments.

  16. Magnetic fields in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized, so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and due to the lack of magnetic monopoles hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in-situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic fie...

  17. The Coriolis field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. Filipe; Natário, José

    2016-05-01

    We present a pedagogical discussion of the Coriolis field, emphasizing its not-so-well-understood aspects. We show that this field satisfies the field equations of the so-called Newton-Cartan theory, a generalization of Newtonian gravity that is covariant under changes of arbitrarily rotating and accelerated frames. Examples of solutions of this theory are given, including the Newtonian analogue of the Gödel universe. We discuss how to detect the Coriolis field by its effect on gyroscopes, of which the gyrocompass is an example. Finally, using a similar framework, we discuss the Coriolis field generated by mass currents in general relativity, and its measurement by the gravity probe B and LAGEOS/LARES experiments.

  18. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  19. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  20. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  1. Discrete Classical Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    1997-01-01

    The classical electromagnetic field of a spinless point electron is described in a formalism with extended causality by discrete finite transverse point-vector fields with discrete and localized point interactions. These fields are taken as a classical representation of photons, ``classical photons". They are all transversal photons; there are no scalar nor longitudinal photons as these are definitely eliminated by the gauge condition. The angular distribution of emitted photons coincides with the directions of maximum emission in the standard formalism. The Maxwell formalism and its standard field are retrieved by the replacement of these discrete fields by their space-time averages, and in this process scalar and longitudinal photons are necessarily created and added. Divergences and singularities are by-products of this averaging process. This formalism enlighten the meaning and the origin of the non-physical photons, the ones that violate the Lorentz condition in manifestly covariant quantization methods.

  2. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  3. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...

  4. Gauge fields and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  5. Gauge Fields and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maleknejad, A; Soda, J

    2012-01-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors "scalar driven" early Universe inflationary models. Non-scalar fields, and in particular gauge fields, are on the other hand commonplace in all high energy particle physics models proposed to be at work at the upper bound on energy scale of inflation set by the current CMB observations. In this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main class of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of the...

  6. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Moore, G.

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories''. These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  7. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1997-01-01

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories.'' These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  8. Quantum theory of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wentzel, Gregor

    2003-01-01

    A prominent figure in twentieth-century physics, Gregor Wentzel made major contributions to the development of quantum field theory, first in Europe and later at the University of Chicago. His Quantum Theory of Fields offers a knowledgeable view of the original literature of elementary quantum mechanics and helps make these works accessible to interested readers.An introductory volume rather than an all-inclusive account, the text opens with an examination of general principles, without specification of the field equations of the Lagrange function. The following chapters deal with particular

  9. Boundary Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cardy, J L

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conformal field theory (BCFT) is simply the study of conformal field theory (CFT) in domains with a boundary. It gains its significance because, in some ways, it is mathematically simpler: the algebraic and geometric structures of CFT appear in a more straightforward manner; and because it has important applications: in string theory in the physics of open strings and D-branes, and in condensed matter physics in boundary critical behavior and quantum impurity models. In this article, however, I describe the basic ideas from the point of view of quantum field theory, without regard to particular applications nor to any deeper mathematical formulations.

  10. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  11. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  12. Scalar Field Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, T; Urena-Lopez, L A; Núñez, D

    2001-01-01

    This work is a review of the last results of research on the Scalar Field Dark Matter model of the Universe at cosmological and at galactic level. We present the complete solution to the scalar field cosmological scenario in which the dark matter is modeled by a scalar field $\\Phi$ with the scalar potential $V(\\Phi)=V_{0}(cosh {(\\lambda \\sqrt{\\kappa_{0}}\\Phi)}-1)$ and the dark energy is modeled by a scalar field $\\Psi$, endowed with the scalar potential $\\tilde{V}(\\Psi)= \\tilde{V_{0}}(\\sinh{(\\alpha \\sqrt{\\kappa_{0}}\\Psi)})^{\\beta}$, which together compose the 95% of the total matter energy in the Universe. The model presents successfully deals with the up to date cosmological observations, and is a good candidate to treat the dark matter problem at the galactic level.

  13. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rojansky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory covers the major aspects, including scalar fields, vectors, laws of Ohm, Joule, Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell's equation, and more. With numerous diagrams and illustrations.

  14. Near Field Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagashree R N; Vibha Rao; Aswini N

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC), an emerging short-range wireless point to point interconnection technology, with the combination of handheld electronic device has become a potential tool for the two devices to exchange various...

  15. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  16. [Lessons from Field Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2015-01-01

    During my academic career for more than 40 years, I was involved in 18 epidemiological field studies, partially or fully. Among these field studies, four (1. Medical services in remote rural areas in Okinawa, 2. Yusho episode, 3. JICA Onchocerciasis Control Project in Guatemala, and 4. Miyako cohort study in Fukuoka) are introduced in this paper, including the latest situation after the presentation. Through these field works experienced by the author, the following lessons were gained. 1. Strong human reliance between researchers and the targeted population is essential in carrying out epidemiological surveys successfully in the field. 2. Data obtained from the survey should be carefully examined and analyzed so that those data may reflect the real situation.

  17. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  18. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnetic fields and the risk of brain tumors. Neuro-Oncology 2009; 11(3):242-249. [PubMed Abstract] ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  19. Field Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Field Research Facility (FRF) located in Duck, N.C. was established in 1977 to support the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' coastal engineering mission. The FRF is...

  20. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  1. Covariant Hamiltonian field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    1999-01-01

    We study the relationship between the equations of first order Lagrangian field theory on fiber bundles and the covariant Hamilton equations on the finite-dimensional polysymplectic phase space of covariant Hamiltonian field theory. The main peculiarity of these Hamilton equations lies in the fact that, for degenerate systems, they contain additional gauge fixing conditions. We develop the BRST extension of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism, characterized by a Lie superalgebra of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries.

  2. Nonlinear field space cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.

  3. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.

    2017-05-01

    rotation and orbital periods are mutually exclusive: all but one of the non-synchronised systems that contain an Ap component with Prot 1000 d. Conclusions: Stars with resolved magnetically split lines represent a significant fraction, of the order of several percent, of the whole population of Ap stars. Most of these stars are genuine slow rotators, whose consideration provides new insight into the long-period tail of the distribution of the periods of Ap stars. Emerging correlations between rotation periods and magnetic properties provide important clues for the understanding of the braking mechanisms that have been at play in the early stages of stellar evolution. The geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines appear in general to depart slightly, but not extremely, from centred dipoles. However, there are a few remarkable exceptions, which deserve further consideration. Confirmation that pulsational crossover is indeed occurring at a detectable level would open the door to the study of non-radial pulsation modes of degree ℓ, which is too high for photometric or spectroscopic observations. How the lack of short orbital periods among binaries containing an Ap component with magnetically resolved lines is related to their (extremely) slow rotation remains to be fully understood, but the very existence of a correlation between the two periods lends support to the merger scenario for the origin of Ap stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programmes 56.E-0688, 56.E-0690, 57.E-0557, 57.E-0637, 58.E-0155, 58.E-0159, 59.E-0372, 59.E-0373, 60.E-0564, 60.E-0565, 61.E-0711, and Period 56 Director Discretionary Time); at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France; at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO Prop. ID: KP2442; PI: T. Lanz), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative

  4. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2017-09-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  5. Compressive light field sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, S Derin; Ansorge, Reto; Luessi, Martin; Matarán, Pablo Ruiz; Molina, Rafael; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2012-12-01

    We propose a novel design for light field image acquisition based on compressive sensing principles. By placing a randomly coded mask at the aperture of a camera, incoherent measurements of the light passing through different parts of the lens are encoded in the captured images. Each captured image is a random linear combination of different angular views of a scene. The encoded images are then used to recover the original light field image via a novel Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. Using the principles of compressive sensing, we show that light field images with a large number of angular views can be recovered from only a few acquisitions. Moreover, the proposed acquisition and recovery method provides light field images with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio, and therefore is not affected by limitations common to existing light field camera designs. We present a prototype camera design based on the proposed framework by modifying a regular digital camera. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system using experimental results with both synthetic and real images.

  6. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  7. Solar Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an introduction to the generation and evolution of the Sun's magnetic field, summarising both observational evidence and theoretical models. The eleven year solar cycle, which is well known from a variety of observed quantities, strongly supports the idea of a large-scale solar dynamo. Current theoretical ideas on the location and mechanism of this dynamo are presented. The solar cycle influences the behaviour of the global coronal magnetic field and it is the eruptions of this field that can impact on the Earth's environment. These global coronal variations can be modelled to a surprising degree of accuracy. Recent high resolution observations of the Sun's magnetic field in quiet regions, away from sunspots, show that there is a continual evolution of a small-scale magnetic field, presumably produced by small-scale dynamo action in the solar interior. Sunspots, a natural consequence of the large-scale dynamo, emerge, evolve and disperse over a period of several days. Numerical simulation...

  8. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  9. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  10. Trapped in Another Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    -opted by the field of City Management into addressing a social problem for which it did not have the resources nor the knowledge and which was beyond its original mission. Taking FiC’s efforts as the starting point, the essay paper the potential risky life of social initiativesexpanding to different cities. It uses...... Bourdieu’s notion of ‘field’ to analyse the varied stakes and differing logics of the actors involved in Seved’s conflict. Mission-drift will thus be considered as theresult of the co-optation of the non-profit organisation by the field of city management, a field whose actors’ stakes differ from those...

  11. Strong Field Spherical Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models of the geodynamo are usually classified in two categories: those denominated dipolar modes, observed when the inertial term is small enough, and multipolar fluctuating dynamos, for stronger forcing. I show that a third dynamo branch corresponding to a dominant force balance between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force can be produced numerically. This force balance is usually referred to as the strong field limit. This solution co-exists with the often described viscous branch. Direct numerical simulations exhibit a transition from a weak-field dynamo branch, in which viscous effects set the dominant length scale, and the strong field branch in which viscous and inertial effects are largely negligible. These results indicate that a distinguished limit needs to be sought to produce numerical models relevant to the geodynamo and that the usual approach of minimizing the magnetic Prandtl number (ratio of the fluid kinematic viscosity to its magnetic diffusivity) at a given Ekman number is mi...

  12. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  13. Field Independent Cosmic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayem Sk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown earlier that Noether symmetry does not admit a form of corresponding to an action in which is coupled to scalar-tensor theory of gravity or even for pure theory of gravity taking anisotropic model into account. Here, we prove that theory of gravity does not admit Noether symmetry even if it is coupled to tachyonic field and considering a gauge in addition. To handle such a theory, a general conserved current has been constructed under a condition which decouples higher-order curvature part from the field part. This condition, in principle, solves for the scale-factor independently. Thus, cosmological evolution remains independent of the form of the chosen field, whether it is a scalar or a tachyon.

  14. Gyrokinetic field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The Lagrangian formulation of the gyrokinetic theory is generalized in order to describe the particles' dynamics as well as the self-consistent behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The gyrokinetic equation for the particle distribution function and the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields are both derived from the variational principle for the Lagrangian consisting of the parts of particles, fields, and their interaction. In this generalized Lagrangian formulation, the energy conservation property for the total nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations is directly shown from the Noether's theorem. This formulation can be utilized in order to derive the nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations and the rigorously conserved total energy for fluctuations with arbitrary frequency. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  16. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  17. Polymer Parametrised Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Laddha, Alok

    2008-01-01

    Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as tha...

  18. The LBT Boötes Field Survey. I. The Rest-frame Ultraviolet and Near-infrared Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at Z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuyan; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F.; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Davé, Romeel

    2013-09-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U spec-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Boötes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >=3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of z ~ 3 quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z ~ 3 LBGs based on the R-band and [4.5 μm]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z ~ 7 and z ~ 3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR), which follows the trend predicted by the baryonic accretion rate onto the halo, suggesting that the star formation in LBGs is fueled by baryonic accretion through the cosmic web. By comparing the SFRs with the total baryonic accretion rates, we find that cosmic star formation efficiency is about 5%-20% and it does not evolve significantly with redshift, halo mass, or galaxy luminosity. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University

  19. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  20. Fields from point sources using the aperture field method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the field of arbitrary point sources can be found from the aperture field method. It is demonstrated that the exact result in the far field is easily obtained for an electric Hertzian dipole in free space.......It is shown that the field of arbitrary point sources can be found from the aperture field method. It is demonstrated that the exact result in the far field is easily obtained for an electric Hertzian dipole in free space....

  1. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD.......Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD....

  2. Covariantizing Classical Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    López, Marco Castrillón

    2010-01-01

    We show how to enlarge the covariance group of any classical field theory in such a way that the resulting "covariantized" theory is 'essentially equivalent' to the original. In particular, our technique will render any classical field theory generally covariant, that is, the covariantized theory will be spacetime diffeomorphism-covariant and free of absolute objects. Our results thus generalize the well-known parametrization technique of Dirac and Kucha\\v{r}. Our constructions apply equally well to internal covariance groups, in which context they produce natural derivations of both the Utiyama minimal coupling and St\\"uckelberg tricks.

  3. Solar Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. O. Stenflo

    2008-03-01

    Since the structuring and variability of the Sun and other stars are governed by magnetic fields, much of present-day stellar physics centers around the measurement and understanding of the magnetic fields and their interactions. The Sun, being a prototypical star, plays a unique role in astrophysics, since its proximity allows the fundamental processes to be explored in detail. The PRL anniversary gives us an opportunity to look back at past milestones and try to identify the main unsolved issues that will be addressed in the future.

  4. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  5. Mean Field ICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations and improvements of a technique for Independent Component Analysis (ICA), called "Mean Field ICA". The main focus of the thesis is the optimization part of the algorithm, the so-called "EM algorithm". Using different approaches it is demonstrated that the EM...... Gradient Recipe is applicable to a wide selection of models. Furthermore, the Mean Field ICA model is extended to incorporate ltering over time in a so-called "convolutive ICA" model. Finally, by using mixture of Gaussians as source priors, the generative and ltering approach to ICA is compared...

  6. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments.

  7. Quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic

  8. Cohomology of number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neukirch, Jürgen; Wingberg, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The second edition is a corrected and extended version of the first. It is a textbook for students, as well as a reference book for the working mathematician, on cohomological topics in number theory. The first part provides algebraic background: cohomology of profinite groups, duality groups, free products, and homotopy theory of modules, with new sections on spectral sequences and on Tate cohomology of profinite groups. The second part deals with Galois groups of local and global fields: Tate duality, structure of absolute Galois groups of local fields, extensions with restricted ramificatio

  9. Electromagnetic fields and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Richard

    1982-01-01

    For more than a century, ""Becker"" and its forerunner, ""Abraham-Becker,"" have served as the bible of electromagnetic theory for countless students. This definitive translation of the physics classic features both volumes of the original text.Volume I, on electromagnetic theory, includes an introduction to vector and tensor calculus, the electrostatic field, electric current and the field, and the theory of relativity. The second volume comprises a self-contained introduction to quantum theory that covers the classical principles of electron theory and quantum mechanics, problems involving

  10. Fisheyes in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    Information visualizations have been shown useful in numerous laboratory studies, but their adoption and use in real-life tasks are curiously under-researched. We present a field study of ten programmers who work with an editor extended with a fisheye view of source code. The study triangulates...... to the interface and discuss features that were not used in practice. At the methodological level, the study identifies contributions distinct to individual methods and to their combination, and discusses the relative benefits of laboratory studies and field studies for the evaluation of information visualizations....

  11. The First Chandra Field

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cédric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Wu, Kinwah; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ``Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Sou...

  12. Stress Field of Straight Edge Dislocation in Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-long; HU Hai-yun; FAN Tian-you

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes in mechanical properties of materials within magnetic fields and the motion of dislocations,stress fields of dislocation in magnetic field need to be calculated.The straight edge dislocation is of basic importance in various defects.The stress field of straight edge dislocation in an external static magnetic field is determined by the theory of elasticity and electrodynamics according to the Volterra dislocation model for continuous media.This reduces to the known stress field when the magnet field is zero.The results can be used for further study on the strain energy of dislocations and the interactions between dislocations in magnetic fields.

  13. MDI Synoptic Charts of Magnetic Field: Interpolation of Polar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, X.; Larson, R. M.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster, we compare various methods for interpolation of polar field for the MDI synoptic charts of magnetic field. By examining the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field computed from the synoptic charts based on a Potential Field Source Surface model (PFSS), and by comparing the heliospheric current sheets and footpoints of open fields with the observations, we conclude that the coronal and heliospheric fields calculated from the synoptic charts are sensitive to the polar field interpolation, and a time-dependent interpolation method using the observed polar fields is the best among the seven methods investigated.

  14. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  15. Perturbative Topological Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    We give a review of the application of perturbative techniques to topological quantum field theories, in particular three-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten theory and its various generalizations. To this end we give an introduction to graph homology and homotopy algebras and the work of Vassiliev and Kontsevich on perturbative knot invariants.

  16. Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree R N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC, an emerging short-range wireless point to point interconnection technology, with the combination of handheld electronic device has become a potential tool for the two devices to exchange various information when in close range. NFC unites various standards and proprietary technologies. This paper presents a brief introduction about the NFC and various applications and security issues.

  17. Near Field Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashree R N; Vibha Rao; Aswini N

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC), an emerging short-range wireless point to point interconnection technology, with the combination of handheld electronic device has become a potential tool for the two devices to exchange various information when in close range. NFC unites various standards and proprietary technologies. This paper presents a brief introduction about the NFC and various applications and security issues.

  18. Field Guide to Radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Written from a systems engineering perspective, this SPIE Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

  19. Quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    After a brief and practical introduction to field theory and the use of Feynman diagram, we discuss the main concept in gauge theories and their application in elementary particle physics. We present all the ingredients necessary for the construction of the standard model.

  20. Hubble Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Deep Fields are two small areas of the sky that were carefully selected for deep observations by the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST). They represent the deepest optical observations to date and reveal galaxies as faint as V=30, 4 billion times fainter than can be seen with the unaided eye....

  1. Warp Field Mechanics 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper will begin with a short review of the Alcubierre warp drive metric and describes how the phenomenon might work based on the original paper. The canonical form of the metric was developed and published in [6] which provided key insight into the field potential and boost for the field which remedied a critical paradox in the original Alcubierre concept of operations. A modified concept of operations based on the canonical form of the metric that remedies the paradox is presented and discussed. The idea of a warp drive in higher dimensional space-time (manifold) will then be briefly considered by comparing the null-like geodesics of the Alcubierre metric to the Chung-Freese metric to illustrate the mathematical role of hyperspace coordinates. The net effect of using a warp drive technology coupled with conventional propulsion systems on an exploration mission will be discussed using the nomenclature of early mission planning. Finally, an overview of the warp field interferometer test bed being implemented in the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory: Eagleworks (APPL:E) at the Johnson Space Center will be detailed. While warp field mechanics has not had a Chicago Pile moment, the tools necessary to detect a modest instance of the phenomenon are near at hand.

  2. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  3. Experimental quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J S

    1977-01-01

    Presented here, is, in the opinion of the author, the essential minimum of quantum field theory that should be known to cultivated experimental particle physicists. The word experimental describes not only the audience aimed at but also the level of mathematical rigour aspired to. (0 refs).

  4. Fields of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Wangen, Steve; Nye, D. Leith; Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Strinz, Will; Ferris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To help teachers engage students in discussions about sustainability, the authors designed Fields of Fuel, a multiplayer, web-based simulation game that allows players to explore the environmental and economic trade-offs of a realistic sustainable system. Computer-based simulations of real-world phenomena engage students and have been shown to…

  5. Painleve Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, G; Levin, A; Olshanetsky, M; Zotov, A

    2013-01-01

    We propose multidimensional versions of the Painleve VI equation and its degenerations. These field theories are related to the isomonodromy problems of flat holomorphic infinite rank bundles over elliptic curves and take the form of non-autonomous Hamiltonian equations. The modular parameter of curves plays the role of "time". Reduction of the field equations to the zero modes leads to SL(N,C) monodromy preserving equations. The latter coincide with the Painleve VI equation for N=2. We consider two types of the bundles. In the first one the group of automorphisms is the centrally and cocentrally extended loop group L(SL(N,C)) or some multiloop group. In the case of the Painleve VI field theory in D=1+1 four constants of the Painleve VI equation become dynamical fields. The second type of bundles are defined by the group of automorphisms of the noncommutative torus. They lead to the equations in dimension 2+1. In both cases we consider trigonometric, rational and scaling limits of the theories. Generically (e...

  6. Ultrasonogram in obstetric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, K. B.; Song, C. H.; Lee, H. B. [Eul-Ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The clinical evaluation of 535 cases of sonogram from Mar. 1, 1979 to Oct. 30, 1979 in obstetric field at Department of Radiology and Ob. and Gy. Eul-Ji General Hospital. We present these cases: normal pregnancy, missed abortion, twin pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and ectopic pregnancy, with brief review of literature.

  7. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  8. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  9. Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    months), as well as imaging and spectroscopical observations in the infrared and optical part of the spectrum by telescopes at the ground-based observatories of ESO (La Silla and Paranal) and NOAO (Kitt Peak and Tololo). A huge database is currently being created that will help to analyse the evolution of galaxies in all currently feasible respects. All participating teams have agreed to make their data on this field publicly available, thus providing the world-wide astronomical community with a unique opportunity to perform competitive research, joining forces within this vast scientific project. Concerted observations The optical true-colour WFI image presented here forms an important part of this broad, concerted approach. It combines observations of three scientific teams that have engaged in complementary scientific projects, thereby capitalizing on this very powerful combination of their individual observations. The following teams are involved in this work: * COMBO-17 (Classifying Objects by Medium-Band Observations in 17 filters) : an international collaboration led by Christian Wolf and other scientists at the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany). This team used 51 hours of WFI observing time to obtain images through five broad-band and twelve medium-band optical filters in the visual spectral region in order to measure the distances (by means of "photometric redshifts") and star-formation rates of about 10,000 galaxies, thereby also revealing their evolutionary status. * EIS (ESO Imaging Survey) : a team of visiting astronomers from the ESO community and beyond, led by Luiz da Costa (ESO). They observed the CDF-S for 44 hours in six optical bands with the WFI camera on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope and 28 hours in two near-infrared bands with the SOFI instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) , both at La Silla. These observations form part of the Deep Public Imaging Survey that covers a total sky area of 3 square

  10. An introduction to field quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Yasushi

    1969-01-01

    An Introduction to Field Quantization is an introductory discussion of field quantization and problems closely related to it. Field quantization establishes a commutation relation of the field and finds an operator in such a manner that the Heisenberg equation of motion is satisfied. This book contains eight chapters and begins with a review of the quantization of the Schroedinger field and the close relation between quantized field theory and the many-body theory in quantum mechanics. These topics are followed by discussions of the quantization of the radiation field and the field of lattice

  11. Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.

  12. Habituating field scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  13. Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Eberhard

    This is the first volume of a modern introduction to quantum field theory which addresses both mathematicians and physicists ranging from advanced undergraduate students to professional scientists. The book tries to bridge the existing gap between the different languages used by mathematicians and physicists. For students of mathematics it is shown that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to motivate the mathematical subjects and to discover interesting interrelationships between quite different mathematical topics. For students of physics, fairly advanced mathematics is presented, which is beyond the usual curriculum in physics. It is the author's goal to present the state of the art of realizing Einstein's dream of a unified theory for the four fundamental forces in the universe (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak interaction). From the reviews: "… Quantum field theory is one of the great intellectual edifices in the history of human thought. … This volume differs from othe...

  14. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  15. Spivey-Grabs field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frensley, R.W.; Darmstetter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    In the Spivey-Grabs field, Kingman and Harvey Counties, Kans., the Mississippian reservoir quality varies greatly because of permeability changes. Areas of poor reservoir result from an increase in the amount of relatively impervious siliceous matrix. Increasing water saturation limits the field downdip. The gas distribution appears controlled by permeability changes and by a combination of ancient topography and structure. The nature of the trap is statigraphic. The trap is formed by a series of updip porosity pinchouts below an erosional unconformity separating the Mississippian Osage series from the Pennsylvanian Cherokee group. The thickness of the chert section ranges from 10 to 160 ft. The chert is white and light gray, semi-translucent to opaque. Where porous, the chert fragments are coarsely tripolitic. The reservoir appears to be extensively fractured and the fractures are an important part of the porosity and permeability.

  16. Vector fields in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  17. Multiplicative Valued Difference Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Koushik

    2010-01-01

    The theory of valued difference fields $(K, \\sigma, v)$ depends on how the valuation $v$ interacts with the automorphism $\\sigma$. Two special cases have already been worked out - the isometric case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) = v(x)$ for all $x\\in K$, has been worked out by Luc Belair, Angus Macintyre and Thomas Scanlon; and the contractive case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) > n\\cdot v(x)$ for all $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ and $x\\in K^\\times$ with $v(x) > 0$, has been worked out by Salih Azgin. In this paper we deal with a more general version, called the multiplicative case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) = \\rho\\cdot v(x)$, where $\\rho (> 0)$ is interpreted as an element of a real-closed field. We give an axiomatization and prove a relative quantifier elimination theorem for such a theory.

  18. Microcontinuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1999-01-01

    Microcontinuum field theories constitute an extension of classical field theories -- of elastic bodies, deformations, electromagnetism, and the like -- to microscopic spaces and short time scales. Material bodies are here viewed as collections of large numbers of deformable particles, much as each volume element of a fluid in statistical mechanics is viewed as consisting of a large number of small particles for which statistical laws are valid. Classical continuum theories are valid when the characteristic length associated with external forces or stimuli is much larger than any internal scale of the body under consideration. When the characteristic lengths are comparable, however, the response of the individual constituents becomes important, for example, in considering the fluid or elastic properties of blood, porous media, polymers, liquid crystals, slurries, and composite materials. This volume is concerned with the kinematics of microcontinua. It begins with a discussion of strain, stress tensors, balanc...

  19. Tree Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, R; Rivasseau, V

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new formalism for quantum field theory which is neither based on functional integrals, nor on Feynman graphs, but on marked trees. This formalism is constructive, i.e. it computes correlation functions through convergent rather than divergent expansions. It applies both to Fermionic and Bosonic theories. It is compatible with the renormalization group, and it allows to define non-perturbatively {\\it differential} renormalization group equations. It accommodates any general stable polynomial Lagrangian. It can equally well treat noncommutative models or matrix models such as the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. Perhaps most importantly it removes the space-time background from its central place in QFT, paving the way for a nonperturbative definition of field theory in noninteger dimension.

  20. ISR Radial Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water

  1. Geometric second order field equations for general tensor gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Hull, Christopher M.

    2003-05-01

    Higher spin tensor gauge fields have natural gauge-invariant field equations written in terms of generalised curvatures, but these are typically of higher than second order in derivatives. We construct geometric second order field equations and actions for general higher spin boson fields, and first order ones for fermions, which are non-local but which become local on gauge-fixing, or on introducing auxiliary fields. This generalises the results of Francia and Sagnotti to all representations of the Lorentz group.

  2. Geometric Second Order Field Equations for General Tensor Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Medeiros, P

    2003-01-01

    Higher spin tensor gauge fields have natural gauge-invariant field equations written in terms of generalised curvatures, but these are typically of higher than second order in derivatives. We construct geometric second order field equations and actions for general higher spin boson fields, and first order ones for fermions, which are non-local but which become local on gauge-fixing, or on introducing auxiliary fields. This generalises the results of Francia and Sagnotti to all representations of the Lorentz group.

  3. Securing Near Field Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kortvedt, Henning Siitonen

    2009-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) specifies a standard for a wireless communication protocol enabling data transfer by keeping two devices close together, about 10 cm maximum. NFC is designed for integration with mobile phones, which can communicate with other NFC phones (peer-to-peer) or read information on tags and cards (reader). An NFC device can also be put in card emulation mode, to offer compatibility with other contactless smart card standards. This enables NFC devices to replace traditi...

  4. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  5. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  7. Operations (Field Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    ability to learn and adapt. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel observed that American Soldiers were initially inexperienced but learned and adapted...quickly and well. Even though the Army is much more experienced than it was in North Africa in World War II, today’s complex environment requires or...strategic distance include the 1942 invasion of North Africa and the 1992 intervention in Somalia. These operations involved forces projected from the

  8. Google Field Trip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    谢谢,可我已经拿到了鸟类学的结业证书。你在撒谎!不管在哪里,没谁能说自己真正结业了。这里说的FieldTrip(实地考察旅行)不是指郡种你花四个小时试图发现见到几种呜禽的野外活动。

  9. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  10. Gauge field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    This third edition on the classic Gauge Field Theories is an ideal reference for researchers starting work with the Large Hadron Collider and the future International Linear Collider. This latest title continues to offer an up to date reference containing revised chapters on electroweak interactions and model building including a completely new chapter on conformality. Within this essential reference logical organization of the material on gauge invariance, quantization, and renormalization is also discussed providing necessary reading for Cosmologists and Particle Astrophysicists

  11. Casimir light: field pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is assigned a self-consistent role in which abrupt slowing of the collapse produces radiation and the pressure of the radiation produces abrupt slowing. A simple expression is introduced for the photon spectrum. Conditions for light emission are proposed that imply a high degree of spatial localization. Some numerical checks are satisfied. A study of the mechanical equations of motion suggests an explanation of the very short time scale in terms of oppositely directe...

  12. Confining gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F

    2009-01-01

    By superposition of regular gauge instantons or merons, ensembles of gauge fields are constructed which describe the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Various properties of the Wilson loops, the gluon condensate and the topological susceptibility are found to be in qualitative agreement with phenomenology or results of lattice calculations. Limitations in the application to the glueball spectrum and small size Wilson loops are discussed.

  13. Ultracold quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stoof, Henk T C; Gubbels, Koos

    2009-01-01

    Ultracold Quantum Fields provides a self-contained introduction to quantum field theory for many-particle systems, using functional methods throughout. The general focus is on the behaviour of so-called quantum fluids, i.e., quantum gases and liquids, but trapped atomic gases are always used as an example. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena are considered. Firstly, in the equilibrium case, the appropriate Hartree-Fock theory for the properties of a quantum fluid in the normal phase is derived. The focus then turns to the properties in the superfluid phase, and the authors present a microscopic derivation of the Bogoliubov theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity. The former is applicable to trapped bosonic gases such as rubidium, lithium, sodium and hydrogen, and the latter in particular to the fermionic isotope of atomic lithium. In the non-equilibrium case, a few topics are discussed for which a field-theoretical approach is especially su...

  14. Heavy fields and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-( A) dS family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as ˜ R 3 terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large AdS black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the corrections fall below the resolving power of the effective field theory and are therefore untrustworthy. Defining properties of black holes, such as the horizon area and Hawking temperature, prove to be remarkably robust against higher derivative gravitational corrections.

  15. Geometries from field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.

  16. Field-based transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Instead of common definition of the transformation-optics devices via the coordinate transformation we offer the approach founded on boundary conditions for the fields. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by two examples: two-shell cloak and concentrator of electric field. We believe...... that the field-based approach is quite important for effective field control....

  17. Fancy Stitcher (boot and shoe) 690.782; Top Stitcher (boot and shoe) 690.782; Vamp Stitcher (boot and shoe) 690.782--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  18. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  19. Vector Fields on Product Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

  20. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  1. Evaluating health of paddy rice field ecosystem with remote sensing and GIS in Lower Yangtze River Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Lin, Lu

    2008-10-01

    A paddy rice ecosystem is a farming system composed of paddy, animals, microbes and other environmental factors in specific time and space, with particular temporal and spatial dynamics. Since paddy rice is a main grain crop to feed above half of population in China, the performance of paddy rice ecosystem is highly concerned to yield level of paddy and food supply safety in China. Therefore, monitoring the performance of paddy rice ecosystem is very important to obtain the required information for evaluation of ecosystem health. In the study we intend to develop an approach to monitor the ecosystem performance spatially and dynamically in a regional scale using MODIS remote sensing data and GIS spatial mapping. On the basis of key factors governing the paddy rice ecosystem, we accordingly develop the following three indicators for the evaluation: Crop growing index (CGI), environmental Index (EI), and pests-diseases index (PDI). Then, we integrated the three indicators into a model with different weight coefficients to calculate Comprehensive ecosystem health index (CEHI) to evaluate the performance and functioning of paddy rice ecosystem in a regional scale. CGI indicates the health status of paddy rice calculated from the normalizing enhanced vegetation Index (EVI) retrieved from MODIS data. EI is estimated from temperature Index (TI) and precipitation Index (PI) indicating heat and water stress on the rice field. PDI reflects the damage brought by pests and diseases, which can be estimated using the information obtained from governmental websites. Applying the approach to Lower Yangtze River Plain, we monitor and evaluate the performance of paddy rice ecosystem in various stages of rice growing period in 2006. The results indicated that the performance of the ecosystem was generally very encouraging. During booting stage and heading and blooming stage, the health level was the highest in Anhui province, which is the main paddy rice producer in the region

  2. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wung-Hong Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  3. Field enhancement effect of metal probe in evanescent field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang Hong; Wendong Xu; Xiaogang Li; Chengqiang Zhao; Xiaodong Tang

    2009-01-01

    Field enhancement effect of metal probe in evanescent field, induced by using a multi-layers structure for exciting surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is analyzed numerically by utilizing two-dimensional (2D) TM wave finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In this letter, we used a fundamental mode Gaussian beam to induce evanescent field, and calculated the electric intensity. The results show that compared with the nonmetal probe, the metal probe has a larger field enhancement effect, and its scattering wave induced by field enhancement has a bigger decay coefficient. The field enhancement effect should conclude that the metal probe has an important application in nanolithography.

  4. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  5. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wung-Hong, E-mail: whhwung@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-12-12

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  6. Beyond the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of a Farmer Field School intervention among small-scale farmers in northern Tanzania on two main development objectives: food security and poverty. We employ a series of evaluation methodologies, including a Quasi-Difference-in-Difference setup, to account for potential...... selection into the project, despite lack of baseline data. We find strong positive effects on food security, but no effect on poverty. Investigating possible mechanisms for this result shows that reallocation of labor resources toward own agricultural production and improved production smoothing may have...... led to improved food security while poverty remained unaffected....

  7. Higgs Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.

  8. The 2014 Fields Medals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The 27th International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Seoul from 13 to 21 August 2014. This event, which has taken place every four years since the inaugural congress in Zurich in 1897 (with interruptions due to the two World Wars), brought together over 5,000 participants and is the most important one in the field of mathematical sciences. Artur Avila and Prof Jean-Christophe Yoccoz At the Paris Congress in 1900, David Hilbert proposed a list of 23 problems that were to have a profo...

  9. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  10. Predicting photothermal field performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Photothermal field performance in flat plate solar collectors was predicted. An analytical model which incorporates the measured dependency between transmittance loss and UV and temperature exposure levels was developed. The model uses SOLMET weather data extrapolated to 30 years for various sites and module mounting configurations. It is concluded that the temperature is the key to photothermally induced transmittance loss. The sensitivity of transmittance loss to UV level is nonlinear with minimum in curve near one sun. The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) results are consistent with 30 year life allocation.

  11. Sparse field stellar photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  12. The Near Field Refractor

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Cristian E

    2013-01-01

    We present an abstract method in the setting of compact metric spaces which is applied to solve a number of problems in geometric optics. In particular, we solve the one source near field refraction problem. That is, we construct surfaces separating two homogenous media with different refractive indices that refract radiation emanating from the origin into a target domain contained in an n-1 dimensional hypersurface. The input and output energy are prescribed. This implies the existence of lenses focusing radiation in a prescribed manner.

  13. Unified field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Vizgin, Vladimir P

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapidly expanding ambit of physical research and the continual appearance of new branches of physics, the main thrust in its development has been the attempt at a theoretical synthesis of the entire body of physical knowledge. Vladimir Vizgin's work presents perhaps the first systematic historico-scientific study of the formation and development of the unified field theories in the general context of 20th century physics. Concentrating on the first three decades of the century and drawing extensively on Russian sources, the author analyses the first successes, failures and paths of

  14. A Field Trip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱欢欢

    2012-01-01

    Today is Sunday. My father and I go on a field trip to the Wolf Mountain. There is a jungle(丛林) at the Wolf Mountain. We go into the jungle and see many trees, flowers and stones. In the trees, the squirrels(松鼠) are jumping. The butterflies are dancing over the flowers.%这个周末怎么过?外出效游很不错。若问郊游何处去,这个嘛,就请朱欢欢同学来告诉我们吧。

  15. Topics in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  16. Aerial field guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    There are two overflights planned for the field conference; one for the Cheney-Palouse tract of the eastern channeled scabland, the other covering the coulees and basins of the western region. The approximate flight lines are indicated on the accompanying LANDSAT images. The first flight will follow the eastern margin of this large scabland tract, passing a series of loess remnants, gravel bars and excavated rock basins. The western scablands overflight will provide a review of the structurally controlled complex pattern of large-scale erosion and deposition characteristic of the region between the upper Grand Coulee (Banks Lake) and the Pasco Basin.

  17. Near field communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A; Furht, Borko

    2011-01-01

    Near Field Communication, or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that enables the exchange of data between devices over about a decimeter. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contact less card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device with practical implications. A complete reference for NFC, this handbook provides technical information about all aspects of NFC, as well as applications. It covers basic concepts as well as research grade material and includes a discussion of

  18. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  19. Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Radio synchrotron emission is a powerful tool to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30\\mu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100\\mu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15\\mu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the interg...

  20. SCUPOL Magnetic Field Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Poidevin, Frederick; Kowal, Grzegorz; Pino, Elisabete de Gouveia Dal; Magalhaes, Antonio-Mario

    2013-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis of the 850 microns polarization maps of the SCUPOL Catalog produced by Matthews et al. (2009), focusing exclusively on the molecular clouds and star-forming regions. For the sufficiently sampled regions, we characterize the depolarization properties and the turbulent-to-mean magnetic field ratio of each region. Similar sets of parameters are calculated from 2D synthetic maps of dust emission polarization produced with 3D MHD numerical simulations scaled to the S106, OMC-2/3, W49 and DR21 molecular clouds polarization maps. For these specific regions the turbulent MHD regimes retrieved from the simulations, as described by the turbulent Alfv\\`en and sonic Mach numbers, are consistent within a factor 1 to 2 with the values of the same turbulent regimes estimated from the analysis of Zeeman measurements data provided by Crutcher (1999). Constraints on the values of the inclination angle of the mean magnetic field with respect to the LOS are also given. The values obtained from th...

  1. The First Chandra Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; /NASA, Marshall; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Cameron, Robert A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /SLAC; Gandhi,; Foellmi, Cedric; /European Southern Obs., Chile; Elsner, Ronald F.; /NASA, Marshall; Patel, Sandeep K.; /USRA, Huntsville; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.; O' Dell, Stephen; /NASA, Marshall

    2005-09-09

    Before the official first-light images, the Chandra X-ray Observatory obtained an X-ray image of the field to which its focal plane was first exposed. We describe this historic observation and report our study of the first Chandra field. Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detected 15 X-ray sources, the brightest being dubbed ''Leon X-1'' to honor the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. Based upon our analysis of the X-ray data and spectroscopy at the European Southern Observatory (ESO; La Silla, Chile), we find that Leon X-1 is a Type-1 (unobscured) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at a redshift z = 0.3207. Leon X-1 exhibits strong Fe II emission and a broad-line Balmer decrement that is unusually flat for an AGN. Within the context of the Eigenvector-1 correlation space, these properties suggest that Leon X-1 may be a massive ({ge} 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}}) black hole, accreting at a rate approaching its Eddington limit.

  2. Heavy Fields and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Goon, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-$(A)dS$ family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as $\\sim R^{3}$ terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large $AdS$ black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the correc...

  3. The field worker's fields: ethics, ethnography and medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, Renée R; Mizrachi, Nissim

    2006-09-01

    Sociologists who do field work in medical settings face an intractable tension between their disciplinary field, which takes a critical perspective toward medicine, and their ethnographic field, which often includes physicians. This paper explores the ethical problems that result from the collision of the two fields. While in the field, ethnographers are forced to choose between sociology and their obligations to host members, as they decide whether to disclose their actual research agendas, whether to ask tough questions or to reveal their concerns, and whether to give advice. The tension persists when field workers leave the field to write, forcing them to choose between competing interpretations and to decide what to reveal or conceal in the interests of confidentiality. Through these moral choices about what to ask, record or present to the reader, ethnographers shape the academic field even as it shapes them.

  4. Volume-preserving Fields and Reeb Fields on 3-manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jun LI

    2006-01-01

    Volume-preserving field X on a 3-manifold is the one that satisfies LxΩ≡ 0 for some volume Ω. The Reeb vector field of a contact form is of volume-preserving, but not conversely. On the basis of Geiges-Gonzalo's parallelization results, we obtain a volume-preserving sphere, which is a triple of everywhere linearly independent vector fields such that all their linear combinations with constant coefficients are volume-preserving fields. From many aspects, we discuss the distinction between volume-preserving fields and Reeb-like fields. We establish a duality between volume-preserving fields and h-closed 2-forms to understand such distinction. We also give two kinds of non-Reeb-like but volume-preserving vector fields to display such distinction.

  5. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  6. The Emerging Strategic Entrepreneurship Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    The field of strategic entrepreneurship is a fairly recent one. Its central idea is that opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking — the former the central subject of the entrepreneurship field, the latter the central subject of the strategic management field — are processes that need...... to be considered jointly. The purpose of this brief chapter is to explain the emergence of SE theory field in terms of a response to research gaps in the neighboring fields of entrepreneurship and strategic management; describe the main tenets of SE theory; discuss its relations to neighboring fields; and finally...

  7. Axisymmetric field generation within an ambient axial field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, A. A.; Sarson, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of magnetic field in a homogeneous, electrically conducting fluid - as required for the dynamo generation of the fields of many astrophysical bodies - is normally a threshold process; the dynamo mechanism, applicable to such bodies in unmagnetised environments, requires motions of sufficient strength to overcome the innate magnetic diffusion. In the presence of an ambient field, however, the critical nature of the field generation process is relaxed. Motions can distort and amplify the ambient field for all amplitudes of flow. For motions with appropriate geometries, an internal `dynamo-like' field of appreciable strength can be generated, even for relatively weak flows. At least a minority of planets, moons and other bodies exist within significant external astrophysical fields. For these bodies, the ambient field problem is more relevant than the classical dynamo problem, yet it remains relatively little studied. In this paper we consider the effect of an axial ambient field on a spherical mean-field α2 ω dynamo model, through nonlinear calculations with α-quenching feedback. Ambient fields of varying strengths, and both stationary and oscillatory in time, are imposed. Particular focus is placed on the effects of these fields on the equatorial symmetry and the time dependence of the preferred solutions.

  8. Magnetic field perturbartions in closed-field-line systems with zero toroidal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauel, M; Ryutov, D; Kesner, J

    2003-12-02

    In some plasma confinement systems (e.g., field-reversed configurations and levitated dipoles) the confinement is provided by a closed-field-line poloidal magnetic field. We consider the influence of the magnetic field perturbations on the structure of the magnetic field in such systems and find that the effect of perturbations is quite different from that in the systems with a substantial toroidal field. In particular, even infinitesimal perturbations can, in principle, lead to large radial excursions of the field lines in FRCs and levitated dipoles. Under such circumstances, particle drifts and particle collisions may give rise to significant neoclassical transport. Introduction of a weak regular toroidal magnetic field reduces radial excursions of the field lines and neoclassical transport.

  9. Chameleon Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Chameleons are light scalar fields with remarkable properties. Through the interplay of self-interactions and coupling to matter, chameleon particles have a mass that depends on the ambient matter density. The manifestation of the fifth force mediated by chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which makes for a rich phenomenology. In this article, we review two recent results on chameleon phenomenology. The first result a pair of no-go theorems limiting the cosmological impact of chameleons and their generalizations: i) the range of the chameleon force at cosmological density today can be at most ~Mpc; ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time. These theorems imply that chameleons have negligible effect on the linear growth of structure, and cannot account for the observed cosmic acceleration except as some form of dark energy. The second result pertains to the quantum stability of chameleon theories. We ...

  10. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  11. FIELD FOUR DESIGN OFFICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Field Four Design Office(以下简称F4)是从(株式会社)清水建设设计本部设计中心部门独立出来的事务所,成立于1989年11月.其业务范围包括室内设计、景观设计、管理业务等,项目涉及办公室、研究所、疗养院、学校、医院、宾馆、高级公寓、商业设施、娱乐设施和生产设施等.

  12. Stories from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Julie; Pokhrel, Kabi

    2011-11-01

    "Stories From the Field" is a series of short profiles of tobacco control programs and their leaders, showcasing promising technical assistance and training models in Louisiana, Puerto Rico, the Cherokee Nation, West Virginia, the Pacific Islands, and the Virgin Islands. The series illuminates key themes of collaboration with diverse stakeholders, elimination of health disparities, building tobacco control coalitions, engaging youth to reduce commercial tobacco use, sustaining tobacco control efforts, and the use of the media to raise public awareness that are highlighted in the Health Promotion Practice Supplement Theme Issue, Training and Technical Assistance: Lessons Learned to Sustain Social Norm Changes in Tobacco Control. Common tobacco control strategies bind the stories together. Local knowledge, coalition building, community involvement, innovative partnerships, and educational outreach are at the core of all of these tobacco control projects.

  13. Trapped in Another Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    entrepreneurial venture started in Stockholm in 2010. Through collective mural art processes, the organisation engages in community-building efforts in order to nuance the defamed prevalent image of the stigmatised suburbs and their residents. By visualising in major outdoor walls alternative stories...... of 2012, the organisation had successfully carried eight community murals in the Swedish capital alone. Expansion to Sweden’s southern city of Malmö proved more difficult though. Initially hopeful by the adamant support from the City of Malmö’s Administration, FiC did not realise that it had been co......-opted by the field of City Management into addressing a social problem for which it did not have the resources nor the knowledge and which was beyond its original mission. Taking FiC’s efforts as the starting point, the essay paper the potential risky life of social initiativesexpanding to different cities. It uses...

  14. Hanston-Oppy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, B.L.

    1965-01-01

    In the Hanston-Oppy Field, Hodgeman Co., Kan., the Osagian production is controlled by structure as well as stratigraphy, whereas the structure is primarily anticlinal with a series of local highs and saddles, the overlying Spergen-Warsaw becoming a thin mantle near the subcrop. The Spergen and Warsaw seem to be conformable to each other, but not to the Osage. The long period of erosion near the end of Osagian time has resulted in leaching to great depths within the formation. The Marmaton production is controlled by both structure and porosity and permeability. The Mississippian Osage is composed largely of white, gray, tan, and sometimes varicolored chert within a limy-dolomitic matrix. The Marmaton here defined is that section between the true base of the Kansas City and Cherokee shale. It consists of a cream, tan, or light brown to light gray, dense to oolitic and fossiliferous limestone with slight inter-oolitic vulgar fractured porosity.

  15. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  16. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  17. Introduction to field theory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the notion of path integrals as developed by Feynman, we discuss field theory in zero spacetime dimensions. The concepts of perturbation expansions, connected amplitudes, Feynman diagrams, classical solutions, renormalization and the effective action are developed. The model is extended to four spacetime dimensions, and the full Feynman rules for relativisitc scalar theory derived. The S matrix and the concept of unitarity are discussed, leading to the amputation rules for S matrix elements from considerations of unitarity. The rules are extended to include particles with spin-1/2 and spin-1. The high-energy behaviour of the theory is discussed as a method to derive the gauge symmetry of the various models.

  18. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  19. Double Field Theory Inspired Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Houwen

    2014-01-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We find two sets of solutions in double field theory cosmology, respecting or violating the strong (weak) constraint. Both sets of solutions naturally contain the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. This novel feature opens a window for possible resolution of the cosmic amnesia. We also demonstrate that the scale factor duality in the standard string cosmology is nothing but the T-duality in double field theory. The scale dual dilatons in the standard string cosmology is simply the usual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\phi$ and dual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\tilde\\phi$ in double field theory. Furthermore, we identify the "sh...

  20. Dark Matter and Potential fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I

    2004-01-01

    A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent in local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized electromagnetic field and a simple solution is given of the old problem to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space--time which...