WorldWideScience

Sample records for nitric oxide synthase-dependent

  1. Chlorine gas exposure causes systemic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Samal, Andrey A; Bradley, Kelley M; Brandon, Angela; Balanay, Joann; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Maheshwari, Akhil; Postlethwait, Edward M; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2011-08-01

    Chlorine gas (Cl(2)) exposure during accidents or in the military setting results primarily in injury to the lungs. However, the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote injury to the systemic vasculature leading to compromised vascular function has not been studied. We hypothesized that Cl(2) promotes extrapulmonary endothelial dysfunction characterized by a loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived signaling. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to Cl(2) for 30 minutes, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation of aorta as a function of Cl(2) dose (0-400 ppm) and time after exposure (0-48 h) were determined. Exposure to Cl(2) (250-400 ppm) significantly inhibited eNOS-dependent vasodilation (stimulated by acetycholine) at 24 to 48 hours after exposure without affecting constriction responses to phenylephrine or vasodilation responses to an NO donor, suggesting decreased NO formation. Consistent with this hypothesis, eNOS protein expression was significantly decreased (∼ 60%) in aorta isolated from Cl(2)-exposed versus air-exposed rats. Moreover, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was up-regulated in circulating leukocytes and aorta isolated 24 hours after Cl(2) exposure, suggesting stimulation of inflammation in the systemic vasculature. Despite decreased eNOS expression and activity, no changes in mean arterial blood pressure were observed. However, injection of 1400W, a selective inhibitor of iNOS, increased mean arterial blood pressure only in Cl(2)-exposed animals, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO compensates for decreased eNOS-derived NO. These results highlight the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote postexposure systemic endothelial dysfunction via disruption of vascular NO homeostasis mechanisms.

  2. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1β-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo, E-mail: ryoosw08@kangwon.ac.kr

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1β-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1β-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1β stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1β incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1β stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1β-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1β-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1β abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner.

  3. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1β-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1β-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1β-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1β stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1β incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1β stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1β-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1β-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1β abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner

  4. Impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos on the contraction of rat ileal muscle strips: involvement of an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, W; Delanaud, S; Dupont, S; Ghamlouch, H; Ramadan, W; Joumaa, W; Bach, V; Gay-Quéheillard, J

    2017-02-01

    Prenatal/postnatal exposure to insecticides has been linked to developmental disorders in adulthood. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting insecticide. The present study established whether prenatal and postnatal exposure to CPF is associated with intestinal motor dysfunction in adult rats. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to either CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day; the CPF1 and CPF5 groups) or vehicle (the control group) by gavage from gestational day 1 until weaning. At weaning, the pups were separated from their dams and individually gavaged (with the same dose) until postnatal day 60. We then measured in vivo intestinal transit and the in vitro contractile responses of ileal smooth muscle strips to electrical field stimulation. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the ileum was determined using qRT-PCR and immunoblots. Morphometry and AChE assays were also performed. At adulthood, the mean body mass was lower in the CPF1 and CPF5 groups than in controls. CPF5 exposure was associated with weaker in vitro contraction of ileal muscle strips, which was reversed by adding the NOS inhibitor (L-NAME). There was no significant intergroup difference in the mean in vivo transit time. Exposure to CPF was associated with greater iNOS expression, lower AChE activity and reduced circular and longitudinal smooth muscle thickness. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to CPF in the rat is associated with weaker contraction of ileal longitudinal smooth muscle via a nitrergic mechanism with increased iNOS expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nitric oxide supersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Thomsen, L L

    1993-01-01

    Nitroglycerin, which may be regarded as a prodrug for nitric oxide, induces a mild to moderate headache in healthy subjects. In order to study whether migraine patients are more sensitive to nitric oxide than non-migrainous subjects, four different doses of intravenous nitroglycerin were given...... previously shown a similar supersensitivity to histamine which in human cerebral arteries activates endothelial H1 receptors and causes endothelial production of nitric oxide. Migraine patients are thus supersensitive to exogenous nitric oxide from nitroglycerin as well as to endothelially produced nitric...... oxide. It is suggested that nitric oxide may be partially or completely responsible for migraine pain....

  6. Nitric Oxide: The Wonder Molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitric Oxide: The Wonder Molecule. Kushal Chakraborty is a doctoral student at. Department of Life. Sciences and Biology at. Jadavpur University. Presently he is working on the stimulatory effects of various kinds of NSAIDs on different kinds of cells and isolation of that protein from those cells. Keywords. Nitric oxide ...

  7. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  8. Resveratrol and Endothelial Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO derived from the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and antiobesogenic properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol phytoalexin with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Part of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are mediated by eNOS. Resveratrol stimulates NO production from eNOS by a number of mechanisms, including upregulation of eNOS expression, stimulation of eNOS enzymatic activity and reversal of eNOS uncoupling. In addition, by reducing oxidative stress, resveratrol prevents oxidative NO inactivation by superoxide thereby enhancing NO bioavailability. Molecular pathways underlying these effects of resveratrol involve SIRT1, AMPK, Nrf2 and estrogen receptors.

  9. Nitric oxide and hypoxia signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Man, H S; Tsui, Albert K Y; Marsden, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is catalyzed by three distinct enzymes, namely, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The production of NO by vascular endothelium relies mainly on eNOS. Curiously, iNOS and nNOS also are relevant for vascular NO production in certain settings. By relaxing vascular smooth muscle, the classical view is that NO participates in O2 homeostasis by increasing local blood flow and O2 delivery. It is now appreciated that NO has an even more fundamental role in cellular oxygen sensing at the cellular and physiological level. A key component of cellular oxygen sensing is the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that activates a transcriptional program to promote cellular survival under conditions of inadequate oxygen supply. Important new insights demonstrate that HIF protein is stabilized by two parallel pathways: (1) a decrease in the O2-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of HIF and (2) NO-dependent S-nitrosylation of HIF pathway components including HIF-α. The need for these two complementary pathways to HIF activation arises because decreased oxygen delivery can occur not only by decreased ambient oxygen but also by decreased blood oxygen-carrying capacity, as with anemia. In turn, NO production is tightly linked to O2 homeostasis. O2 is a key substrate for the generation of NO and impacts the enzymatic activity and expression of the enzymes that catalyze the production of NO, the nitric oxide synthases. These relationships manifest in a variety of clinical settings ranging from the unique situation of humans living in hypoxic environments at high altitudes to the common scenario of anemia and the use of therapeutics that can bind or release NO. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Nitric oxide and human aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbararsh, N A; Kuvshinov, D Iu; Chichilenko, M V; Kolesnikov, A O

    2011-01-01

    More than in 500 17-21-year-old medical students stress reactivity (SR), biological age (BA), arterial pressure (AP) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites excretion to the alveolar air [nitrates and nitrites concentration (NNC) in alveolar condensate] were determined in rest and before examinations during 1995-2204. AP, BA and NNC were measured in various trimesters of individual year (IY, the period from one person's birthday to another). During this period girls' AP changes insignificantly. The AP of youths is higher than in girls and increases during IV-IY trimester (10-12 months after birthday). The youths NNC decreases from the II to the IV-IY trimesters, but in girls there is a tendency to NNC increase during the IV-IY trimester their NNC negatively correlates (r = -0,34) with their systolic AP Among youths and girls with equal AP, NNC is significantly higher in girls. NNC decreases with the SR rise; this decrease develops during the examination stress too, but in girls NNC decrease is less. BA in youths is higher than in girls and increases during the IV-IY trimester. In youths BA negatively correlates (r = -0,60) with NNC. Taking into mind the "stress theory" of aging (P. Parsons, 1995) our data may be a basis to assumption that nitric oxide is a "molecule of anti-aging".

  11. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme in charge of nitric oxide production, plays a crucial role in vascular biology. However, the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting the gene encoding for eNOS (eNOS) on coronary artery diseases remains under debate and no data were ...

  12. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  13. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  14. Nitric oxide signaling in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J J David; Man, H S Jeffrey; Marsden, Philip A

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) is classically viewed as a regulator of vasomotor tone. NO plays an important role in regulating O(2) delivery through paracrine control of vasomotor tone locally and cardiovascular and respiratory responses centrally. Very soon after the cloning and functional characterization of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), studies on the interaction between O(2) and NO made the paradoxical finding that hypoxia led to decreases in eNOS expression and function. Why would decreases in O(2) content in tissues elicit a loss of a potent endothelial-derived vasodilator? We now know that restricting our view of NO as a regulator of vasomotor tone or blood pressure limited deeper levels of mechanistic insight. Exciting new studies indicate that functional interactions between NO and O(2) exhibit profound complexity and are relevant to diseases states, especially those associated with hypoxia in tissues. NOS isoforms catalytically require O(2). Hypoxia regulates steady-state expression of the mRNA and protein abundance of the NOS enzymes. Animals genetically deficient in NOS isoforms have perturbations in their ability to adapt to changes in O(2) supply or demand. Most interestingly, the intracellular pathways for O(2) sensing that evolved to ensure an appropriate balance of O(2) delivery and utilization intersect with NO signaling networks. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization and transcriptional activity is achieved through two parallel pathways: (1) a decrease in O(2)-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of HIF and (2) S-nitrosylation of HIF pathway components. Recent findings support a role for S-nitrosothiols as hypoxia-mimetics in certain biological and/or disease settings, such as living at high altitude, exposure to small molecules that can bind NO, or anemia.

  15. Nitric Oxide Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armour, Elwood

    1999-01-01

    .... One approach to therapy is over-production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within the tumor by injecting replication defective adenovirus containing the DNA sequences for iNOS into prostate tumors...

  16. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds used, e.g., in the treatment of vascular endothelial damage. They are known to be excellent scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Since the nitric oxide radical (

  17. Nitric oxide in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huiwen; Wang, Lei; Mollica, Molly; Re, Anthony T; Wu, Shiyong; Zuo, Li

    2014-10-10

    Cancer metastasis is the spread and growth of tumor cells from the original neoplasm to further organs. This review analyzes the role of nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule, in the regulation of cancer formation, progression, and metastasis. The action of NO on cancer relies on multiple factors including cell type, metastasis stage, and organs involved. Various chemotherapy drugs cause cells to release NO, which in turn induces cytotoxic death of breast, liver, and skin tumors. However, NO has also been clinically connected to a poor cancer prognosis because of its role in angiogenesis and intravasation. This supports the claim that NO can be characterized as both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic, depending on specific factors. The inhibition of cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis pathways by NO donors has been proposed as a novel therapy to various cancers. Studies suggest that NO-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs act on cancer cells in several ways that may make them ideal for cancer therapy. This review summarizes the biological significance of NO in each step of cancer metastasis, its controversial effects for cancer progression, and its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitric oxide and mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C

    1999-05-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivative peroxynitrite (ONOO-) inhibit mitochondrial respiration by distinct mechanisms. Low (nanomolar) concentrations of NO specifically inhibit cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen, and this inhibition is fully reversible when NO is removed. Higher concentrations of NO can inhibit the other respiratory chain complexes, probably by nitrosylating or oxidising protein thiols and removing iron from the iron-sulphur centres. Peroxynitrite causes irreversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and damage to a variety of mitochondrial components via oxidising reactions. Thus peroxynitrite inhibits or damages mitochondrial complexes I, II, IV and V, aconitase, creatine kinase, the mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial DNA, superoxide dismutase, and induces mitochondrial swelling, depolarisation, calcium release and permeability transition. The NO inhibition of cytochrome oxidase may be involved in the physiological regulation of respiration rate, as indicated by the finding that isolated cells producing NO can regulate cellular respiration by this means, and the finding that inhibition of NO synthase in vivo causes a stimulation of tissue and whole body oxygen consumption. The recent finding that mitochondria may contain a NO synthase and can produce significant amounts of NO to regulate their own respiration also suggests this regulation may be important for physiological regulation of energy metabolism. However, definitive evidence that NO regulation of mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo is still missing, and interpretation is complicated by the fact that NO appears to affect tissue respiration by cGMP-dependent mechanisms. The NO inhibition of cytochrome oxidase may also be involved in the cytotoxicity of NO, and may cause increased oxygen radical production by mitochondria, which may in turn lead to the generation of peroxynitrite. Mitochondrial damage by peroxynitrite may mediate the cytotoxicity of NO, and may be

  19. Changes in the level of cytosolic calcium, nitric oxide and nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    and its prolongation by aspirin; Blood 34 204–215. Moncada S, Palmer R M and Higgs E A 1991 Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology; Pharmacol. Rev. 43 109–142. Ni Z, Wang X Q and Vaziri N D 1998 Nitric oxide metabolism in erythropoietin-induced hypertension: effect of calcium channel.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    and limits the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, all these mechanisms be- ing strongly involved in the atherogenic process5. Moreover, as a potent vasodi- latator, NO is deeply engaged in the regulation of blood pressure. In vascular endothelium, NO is con- stitutively produced from L-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide ...

  1. Nitric Oxide in Mammary Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    vance. Ann Surg 221: 339-349, 1995 38. Edwards P, Cendan JC, Topping DB, Moldawer LL, Mackay 24. Albina JE: On the expression of nitric oxide synthase...Carcinogen 16: 20-31, 68. Kibbey MC, Grant DS, Kleinman HK: Role of SIKVAV site 1996 of laminin in promotion of angiogenesis and tumor growth: 55. Albina ...therapy on the development and progression of 77. Albina JE, Abate JA, Henry WL Jr.: Nitric oxide production spontaneous mammary tumors in C3H/HCJ mice

  2. Nitrate tolerance impairs nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jørn Bech; Boesgaard, Søren; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized......Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized...

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is involved in key steps of immune response. Genetic factors predispose individuals to periodontal disease. This study's aim was to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. Genomic DNA was obtained ...

  4. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harm; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  5. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  6. Reduced arginine availability and nitric oxide production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallemeesch, M. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Deutz, N. E. P.

    2002-01-01

    The precursor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is the amino acid arginine. Reduced arginine availability may limit NO production. Arginine availability for NO synthesis may be regulated by de novo arginine production from citrulline, arginine transport across the cell membrane, and arginine breakdown

  7. Nitric oxide flow tagging in unseeded air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, N; Klein-Douwel, RJH; Sijtsema, NM; ter Meulen, JJ

    2001-01-01

    A scheme for molecular tagging velocimetry is presented that can be used in air flows without any kind of seeding. The method is based on the local and instantaneous creation of nitric oxide (NO) molecules from Nz and O-2 in the waist region of a focused ArF excimer laser beam. This NO distribution

  8. Nitric oxide enhances osmoregulation of tobacco ( Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the intracellular signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) on osmoregulation of tobacco cells under osmotic stress caused by phenylethanoid glycosides 6000 (PEG 6000). The results show that the PEG stress induced a specific pattern of endogenous NO production with two ...

  9. Nitric oxide in the rat cerebellum after hypoxia/ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Alonso, David; Serrano, Julia; Fernández-Vizarra, Paula; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Bentura, María Luisa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a regulatory biological substance and an important intracellular messenger that acts as a specific mediator of various neuropathological disorders. In mammals and invertebrates, nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine in the central and peripheral neural structures by the endothelial, neuronal and inducible enzymatic isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide may affect the function of various neurotransmitter-specific systems, and is involved in neuromodulation, reproductive function, immune response, and regulation of the cerebral blood circulation. This makes nitric oxide the main candidate in brain responses to brain ischemia/hypoxia. The cerebellum has been reported to be the area of the brain that has the highest nitric oxide synthase activity and the highest concentration of glutamate and aspartate. By glutamate receptors and physiological action of nitric oxide, cyclic guanisine-5'-monophosphate may be rapidly increased. The cerebellum significantly differs with respect to ischemia and hypoxia, this response being directly related to the duration and intensity of the injury. The cerebellum could cover the eventual need for nitric oxide during the hypoxia, boosting the nitric oxide synthase activity, but overall ischemia would require de novo protein synthesis, activating the inducible nitric oxide synthase to cope with the new situation. The specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis show neuroprotective effects.

  10. Cannula sensor for nitric oxide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazier, S.A. [National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) has received much attention because of its numerous roles in mammalian systems. It has been found in the brain and nervous system to act as a neurotransmitter, in blood vessels as a blood pressure regulator, in the immune system to act as a bactericide and tumorcide, and in other postulated roles as well. Nitric oxide is produced in mammalian cells by the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase. Once produced, NO is oxidized or reacts rapidly with components in living systems and hence has a short half-life. Only a few sensors have been constructed which can detect NO at nanomolar to micromolar levels found in these systems. We are currently examining the use of a cannula sensor employing oxyhemoglobin for NO detection. This sensor continuously draws in liquid sample at a low rate and immediately reacts it with oxyhemoglobin. The absorbance changes which accompany the reaction are monitored. The sensor has a linear response range from approximately 50 to 1000 nM of NO in aqueous solution. Its utility in monitoring NO produced by stimulated murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) in culture is currently being examined. The sensor design is generic in that it can also employ fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection chemistries which may allow lower detection limits to be achieved. Details of the sensor`s performance will be given.

  11. A plasma needle generates nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, E; Gonzalvo, Y Aranda; Whitmore, T D; Seymour, D L; Rees, J A

    2006-01-01

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO) by a plasma needle is studied by means of mass spectrometry. The plasma needle is an atmospheric glow generated by a radio-frequency excitation in a mixture of helium and air. This source is used for the treatment of living tissues, and nitric oxide may be one of the most important active agents in plasma therapy. Efficient NO generation is of particular importance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Mass spectrometric measurements have been performed under various plasma conditions; gas composition in the plasma and conversion of feed gases (nitrogen and oxygen) into other species has been studied. Up to 30% of the N 2 and O 2 input is consumed in the discharge, and NO has been identified as the main conversion product

  12. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  13. Therapeutic strategies to address neuronal nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-05-25

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials. Notably, the efficacy of these interventions are varied and not always translatable from animal model to human patients, highlighting a complex interplay of factors which determine the downstream modulatory effects of nitric oxide. We review these studies herein.

  14. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  15. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  16. Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, Pekka; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chiueh, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis may play an important role in the neurodegeneration. The present paper outlines antioxidative and antiapototic mechanisms of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols, which could mediate neuroprotection. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthase or released from an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione may up-regulate antioxidative thioredoxin system and antiapototic Bcl-2 protein through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nitric oxide radicals have been shown to have direct antioxidant effect through their reaction with free radicals and iron-oxygen complexes. In addition to serving as a stabilizer and carrier of nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione may have protective effect through transnitrosylation reactions. Based on these new findings, a hypothesis arises that the homeostasis of nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, glutathione, and thioredoxin systems is important for protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and related neurodegenerative disorders

  17. Nitric oxide turnover in permeable river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Frank; Stief, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    We measured nitric oxide (NO) microprofiles in relation to oxygen (O2) and all major dissolved N-species (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide [N2O]) in a permeable, freshwater sediment (River Weser, Germany). NO reaches peak concentrations of 0.13 μmol L-1 in the oxic zone and is consumed......-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (1) confirmed denitrification as the main NO consumption pathway, with N2O as its major product, (2) showed that denitrification combines one free NO molecule with one NO molecule formed from nitrite to produce N2O, and (3) suggested that NO inhibits N2O reduction....

  18. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2015-01-01

    survival resides in concerted physiological responses, including strong metabolic depression, protection against oxidative damage and – in air breathing animals - redistribution of blood flow. Each of these responses is known to be tightly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and during hypoxia by its metabolite...... nitrite. The aim of this review is to highlight recent work illustrating the widespread roles of NO and nitrite in the tolerance to extreme oxygen deprivation, in particular in the red-eared slider turtle and crucian carp, but also in diving marine mammals. The emerging picture underscores the importance...

  19. Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterquist, W; Pedroletti, C; Lundberg, J O; Alving, K

    1999-02-01

    Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), pnitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, pnitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (pnitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (pnitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.

  20. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide improves systemic microcirculation in infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, Anke P. C.; Ince, Can; Schouwenberg, Patrick H. M.; Tibboel, Dick

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of inhaled nitric oxide on the systemic microcirculation. We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide improves the systemic microcirculation. Inhaled nitric oxide improves outcome in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn diagnosed by improving

  2. Catalytic abatement of nitrous oxide from nitric and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric acid production is identified as a main source of nitrous oxide. Options for emission reduction however are not available. TNO and Hydro Agri studied the technological and economic feasibility of catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide in nitric acid tail-gases. Although in literature

  3. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 and Lipid Peroxidation by Methanol Extract of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli. ... Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the extract inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing iNOS expression.

  4. Effect of nitric oxide scavengers, carboxy-PTIO on endotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological changes associated with septic shock are due to an interplay of a number of inflammatory mediators which increase capillary permeability and vasodilation leading to circulatory disturbance. Research evidence shows that sepsis-associated vascular relaxation is mediated by nitric oxide. Nitric oxide formation ...

  5. Effect of nitric oxide scavengers, carboxy-PTIO on endotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    values of the cardiovascular parameters considered in this study. This indicates that carboxy-PTIO is an efficient nitric oxide scavenger chemical of trapping nitric oxide immediately after its synthesis. Therefore, based on the current result, carboxy-PTIO can be used as one possible treatment agent against septic shock.

  6. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...

  7. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  8. Propolis Ameliorates Tumor Nerosis Factor-α, Nitric Oxide levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increased nitric oxide (NO), neuronal inflammation and apoptosis have been proposed to be involved in excitotoxicity plays a part in many neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the neuro-protective effects of propolis, activities of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and caspase-3 along with NO and tumor ...

  9. Nitrogen isotope exchange between nitric oxide and nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.; Abrudean, M.; Baldea, A.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and HNO 3 has been measured as a function of nitric acid concentration of 1.5-4M x 1 -1 . The exchange rate law is shown to be R=k[HNO 3 ] 2 [N 2 O 3 ] and the measured activation energy is E=67.78 kJ x M -1 (16.2 kcal x M -1 ). It is concluded that N 2 O 3 participates in 15 N/ 14 N exchange between NO and HNO 3 at nitric acid concentrations higher than 1.5M x 1 -1 . (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitric oxide plays a preventive role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Oral nitrite and nitrate intake has gained importance with the discovery of the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide in acidic medium out of the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. Objective of this study was to examine the breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine which is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and to compare these concentrations in terms of gestational age and maturity of breast milk. Study Design: Forty-one women were included in the study. Milk samples were collected from 3 groups of mothers as term, late preterm and preterm on the postpartum days 3, 7 and 28. Results: When breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide were compared according to the postnatal day of the milk independently from gestational age; nitric oxide concentration was higher in the colostrum than in the transition milk and mature milk (p=0,035; p=0,001; respectively. For the comparison of asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations among these groups and days; no statistically significant difference was observed in terms of gestational age and maturity of the milk (p=0.865, p=0.115; respectively. Conclusion: The highest nitric oxide concentration was found in the colostrum, suggesting that colostrum is a valuable food for newborns. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine were negatively correlated with nitric oxide and did not show a correlation with breast milk, suggesting that asymmetric dimethylargininedoesn’t make nitric oxide inhibition in breast milk.

  11. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors as Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallo Volke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested to play major roles in the pathophysiology of mood and stress-related disorders. However, a few clinical and several pre-clinical studies, strongly suggest involvement of the nitric oxide (NO signaling pathway in these disorders. Moreover, several of the conventional neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate and GABA, are intimately regulated by NO, and distinct classes of antidepressants have been found to modulate the hippocampal NO level in vivo. The NO system is therefore a potential target for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug action in acute therapy as well as in prophylaxis. This paper reviews the effect of drugs modulating NO synthesis in anxiety and depression.

  13. The role of nitric oxide in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Keerthi; Hassani, John; Foote, Isaac P; Markowitz, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small gaseous signaling molecule that mediates its effects in melanoma through free radical formation and enzymatic processes. Investigations have demonstrated multiple roles for NO in melanoma pathology via immune surveillance, apoptosis, angiogenesis, melanogenesis, and on the melanoma cell itself. In general, elevated levels of NO prognosticate a poor outcome for melanoma patients. However, there are processes where the relative concentration of NO in different environments may also serve to limit melanoma proliferation. This review serves to outline the roles of NO in melanoma development and proliferation. As demonstrated by multiple in vivo murine models and observations from human tissue, NO may promote melanoma formation and proliferation through its interaction via inhibitory immune cells, inhibition of apoptosis, stimulation of pro-tumorigenic cytokines, activation of tumor associated macrophages, alteration of angiogenic processes, and stimulation of melanoma formation itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of nitric oxide in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-qing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is considered to be an acute cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The high incidence and poor prognosis of stroke suggest that it is a highly disabling and highly lethal disease which can pose a serious threat to human health. Nitric oxide (NO, a common gas in nature, which is often thought as a toxic gas, because of its intimate relationship with the pathological processes of many diseases, especially in the regulation of blood flow and cell inflammation. However, recent years have witnessed an increased interest that NO plays a significant and positive role in stroke as an essential gas signal molecule. In view of the fact that the neuroprotective effect of NO is closely related to its concentration, cell type and time, only in the appropriate circumstances can NO play a protective effect. The purpose of this review is to summarize the roles of NO in ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  16. Genetic responses against nitric oxide toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Demple

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat of free radical damage is opposed by coordinated responses that modulate expression of sets of gene products. In mammalian cells, 12 proteins are induced by exposure to nitric oxide (NO levels that are sub-toxic but exceed the level needed to activate guanylate cyclase. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 synthesis increases substantially, due to a 30- to 70-fold increase in the level of HO-1 mRNA. HO-1 induction is cGMP-independent and occurs mainly through increased mRNA stability, which therefore indicates a new NO-signaling pathway. HO-1 induction contributes to dramatically increased NO resistance and, together with the other inducible functions, constitutes an adaptive resistance pathway that also defends against oxidants such as H2O2. In E. coli, an oxidative stress response, the soxRS regulon, is activated by direct exposure of E. coli to NO, or by NO generated in murine macrophages after phagocytosis of the bacteria. This response is governed by the SoxR protein, a homodimeric transcription factor (17-kDa subunits containing [2Fe-2S] clusters essential for its activity. SoxR responds to superoxide stress through one-electron oxidation of the iron-sulfur centers, but such oxidation is not observed in reactions of NO with SoxR. Instead, NO nitrosylates the iron-sulfur centers of SoxR both in vitro and in intact cells, which yields a form of the protein with maximal transcriptional activity. Although nitrosylated SoxR is very stable in purified form, the spectroscopic signals for the nitrosylated iron-sulfur centers disappear rapidly in vivo, indicating an active process to reverse or eliminate them.

  17. Nitric oxide in the psychobiology of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Eşsizoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is in a gaseous form and is widespread in the human body. It functions by acting as a secondary messenger in the modulatory activities of neuronal functions of the central nervous system. Nitric oxide is the first identified neurotransmitter of the nontraditional neurotransmitter family.Studies conducted on experimental animals demonstrate that nitric oxide has a neuromodulatory efficacy on the secretions of other neurotransmitters and that it has an effect on learning and memory functions, and on various neuronal mechanisms. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the location of nitric oxide in the central nervous system, its effect on anxiety and depression, its relationship with other neurotransmitters, and also about its role on neurotoxicity. There are clinical studies concerning the level of nitrate, a product of nitric oxide metabolism, and also experimental studies concerning its rewarding effect of alcohol and substance use, in patients with depression and schizophrenia. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate its relationship with stress, which is an important factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. These studies demonstrate that nitric oxide is closely related with stress physiology.Nitric oxide is a neuromodulator, which is frequently being mentioned about nowadays in psychiatry. Clinical and experimental studies play an important role in the psychobiology of psychiatric disorders.

  18. Nitric oxide bioavailability dysfunction involves in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Ye, Zi-Xin; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Chang, Jian; Yang, Mei-Wen; Zhong, Hua-Hua; Hong, Fen-Fang; Yang, Shu-Long

    2018-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of atherosclerosis (AS) include lipid accumulation, fibrosis formation and atherosclerotic plaque produced in artery intima, which leads to vascular sclerosis, lumen stenosis and irritates the ischemic changes of corresponding organs. Endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with AS. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. NO is also a potent endogenous vasodilator and enters for the key processes that suppresses the formation vascular lesion even AS. NO bioavailability indicates the production and utilization of endothelial NO in organisms, its decrease is related to oxidative stress, lipid infiltration, the expressions of some inflammatory factors and the alteration of vascular tone, which plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction. The enhancement of arginase activity and the increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and hyperhomocysteinemia levels all contribute to AS by intervening NO bioavailability in human beings. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease and smoking, etc., also participate in AS by influencing NO bioavailability and NO level. Here, we reviewed the relationship between NO bioavailability and AS according the newest literatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. The oral microbiome and nitric oxide homoeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, M P; Weitzberg, E

    2015-01-01

    The tiny radical nitric oxide (NO) participates in a vast number of physiological functions including vasodilation, nerve transmission, host defence and cellular energetics. Classically produced by a family of specific enzymes, NO synthases (NOSs), NO signals via reactions with other radicals or transition metals. An alternative pathway for the generation of NO is the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) are reduced to NO and other reactive nitrogen intermediates. Nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from NOS-dependent NO generation but also constituents in our diet, mainly in leafy green vegetables. Irrespective of origin, active uptake of circulating nitrate in the salivary glands, excretion in saliva and subsequent reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria are all necessary steps for further NO generation. This central role of the oral cavity in regulating NO generation from nitrate presents a new and intriguing aspect of the human microbiome in health and disease. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and specifically highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a hub for its function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide alterations in chronically stressed rats: a model for nitric oxide in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang-Feng; Lu, Yun-Rong; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Bo; Fu, Xin-Yan; Luo, Jian-Hong; Bao, Ai-Min

    2014-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase-1 (NOS1) are involved in the stress response and in depression. We compared NOS-NO alterations in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans. In the hypothalamus of male CUS rats we determined NOS activity, and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) we determined NOS1-immunoreactive (ir) cell densities and co-localization of NOS1 with stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OXT). We measured plasma NO levels and cortisol in male medicine-naïve MDD patients and plasma NO and corticosterone (CORT) in CUS rats. In the CUS rat total NOS activity in the hypothalamus (P=0.018) and NOS1-ir cell density in the PVN were both significantly decreased (P=0.018), while NOS1 staining was mainly expressed in OXT-ir neurons in this nucleus. Interestingly, plasma NO levels were significantly increased both in male CUS rats (P=0.001) and in male MDD patients (Pdepression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitric oxide inhibits glycogen synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, F.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Meijer, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of intrahepatic regulation of glucose metabolism by Kupffer cell products. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit gluconeogenic flux through pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. However, NO may also influence glucose metabolism at

  2. Ginsenoside Rb1 Reduces Nitric Oxide Production via Inhibition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenoside Rb1 Reduces Nitric Oxide Production via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-κB Activation in Interleukin-1β- Stimulated SW1353 Chondrosarcoma Cells. P Jia, G Chen, R Li, X Rong, G Zhou, Y Zhong ...

  3. Update on the Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kacmarek

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review on nitric oxide would identify thousands of citations on the biological implications of this molecule. From the perspective of respiratory care, the effect inhaled nitric oxide has on pulmonary vasculature is the most intriguing. Over the past five years inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to be useful in the management of oxygenation during acute respiratory distress syndrome, alternation of pulmonary vascular tone in persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn, and in the management of chronic pulmonary hypertension in both heart and lung transplant candidates, as well as other potential clinical uses. The key physioligical response is vasodilation of pulmonary vessels in communication with well ventilated lung units and the absence of systemic vascular effects by rapid binding to hemoglobin. Nitric oxide therapy is considered experimental. A delivery system is not commercially available. This has resulted in the development of makeshift delivery systems, many of which may have the potential for adverse effects.

  4. Adhesion Development and the Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Svinarich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether nitric oxide (NO, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of thrombus formation, is involved in the formation and maintenance of adhesions.

  5. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  6. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dai Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.

  7. NITRIC OXIDE INTERFERES WITH HYPOXIA SIGNALING DURING COLONIC INFLAMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    CARIA,Cintia Rabelo e Paiva; MOSCATO,Camila Henrique; TOMÉ,Renata Bortolin Guerra; PEDRAZZOLI Jr,José; RIBEIRO,Marcelo Lima; GAMBERO,Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Context Intestinal inflammation can induce a local reduction in oxygen levels that triggers an adaptive response centered on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Nitric oxide, a well-described inflammatory mediator, may interfere with hypoxia signaling. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in hypoxia signaling during colonic inflammation. Methods Colitis was induced by single (acute) or repeated (reactivated colitis) trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid administ...

  8. Nitric oxide synthase in ferret brain: localization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell, J. A.; Schmidt, H. H.; Kohlhaas, K. L.; Warner, T. D.; Förstermann, U.; Murad, F.

    1992-01-01

    1. In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the ferret brain. Nitric oxide synthase was determined biochemically and immunochemically. 2. In the rat brain, the highest nitric oxide synthase activity has been detected in the cerebellum. However, in the ferret brain, the highest activity was found in the striatum and the lowest in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The enzymatic activity was localized predominantly in the cytosolic fractions, it was dependent on NADPH and Ca2+, and inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine or NG-methyl-L-arginine. 3. Western blot analysis revealed that all regions of the ferret brain contained a 160 kD protein crossreacting with an antibody to nitric oxide synthase purified from the rat cerebellum, and the levels of relative intensity of staining by the antibody correlated with the distribution of nitric oxide synthase activity. 4. These results indicate that the ferret brain contains a nitric oxide synthase similar to the rat brain, but the distribution of enzymatic activity in the ferret brain differs markedly from the rat brain. Images Figure 1 PMID:1282076

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The nitric oxide hypothesis of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, S M; Licinio, J; Wong, M L; Yu, W H; Karanth, S; Rettorri, V

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), generated by endothelial (e) NO synthase (NOS) and neuronal (n) NOS, plays a ubiquitous role in the body in controlling the function of almost every, if not every, organ system. Bacterial and viral products, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce inducible (i) NOS synthesis that produces massive amounts of NO toxic to the invading viruses and bacteria, but also host cells by inactivation of enzymes leading to cell death. The actions of all forms of NOS are mediated not only by the free radical oxidant properties of this soluble gas, but also by its activation of guanylate cyclase (GC), leading to the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) that mediates many of its physiological actions. In addition, NO activates cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, leading to the production of physiologically relevant quantities of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotrienes. In the case of iNOS, the massive release of NO, PGE2, and leukotrienes produces toxic effects. Systemic injection of LPS causes induction of interleukin (IL)-1 beta mRNA followed by IL-beta synthesis that induces iNOS mRNA with a latency of two and four hours, respectively, in the anterior pituitary and pineal glands, meninges, and choroid plexus, regions outside the blood-brain barrier, and shortly thereafter, in hypothalamic regions, such as the temperature-regulating centers, paraventricular nucleus containing releasing and inhibiting hormone neurons, and the arcuate nucleus, a region containing these neurons and axons bound for the median eminence. We are currently determining if LPS similarly activates cytokine and iNOS production in the cardiovascular system and the gonads. Our hypothesis is that recurrent infections over the life span play a significant role in producing aging changes in all systems outside the blood-brain barrier via release of toxic quantities of NO. NO may be a major factor in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerable evidence

  11. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  12. Evaluation of serum nitric oxide before and after local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda Aly Abd-El Moety

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Objectives: Evaluation of serum nitric oxide before and after local radiofrequency thermal ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Subjects: Twenty patients with proven hepatocellular carcinoma and 15 healthy patients as controls were enrolled in the study. Abbreviations: NO, nitrous oxide; HCC, ...

  13. The correlation between total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm DNA quality is important in male fertility. Oxidative stress increases sperm DNA damages. Antioxidants decrease production of free radicals and scavenge them. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical which is produced by most cells and has a dual role on cells. Low concentrations of NO is essential in biology and ...

  14. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To explore the antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli and its effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycleooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell damage in macrophage cells. Methods: Anti-oxidant activities were tested by measuring free ...

  15. The role of nitrite in nitric oxide homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite is endogenously produced as an oxidative metabolite of nitric oxide, but it also functions as a NO donor that can be activated by a number of cellular proteins under hypoxic conditions. This article discusses the physiological role of nitrite and nitrite-derived NO in blood flow regulatio...

  16. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nianzhen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca2+, possibly through store-operated Ca2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by

  17. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  18. Pain modulation by nitric oxide in the spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio M Freire

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a versatile messenger molecule first associated with endothelial relaxing effects. In the central nervous system (CNS, NO synthesis is primarily triggered by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and has a Janus face, with both beneficial and harmful properties, depending on concentration and the identity of its synthetic enzyme isoform. There are three isoforms of the NO synthesizing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS: neuronal (nNOS, endothelial (eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, each one involved with specific events in the brain. In CNS, nNOS is involved with modulation of synaptic transmission through long-term potentiation in several regions, including nociceptive circuits in the spinal cord. Here, we review the role played by NO on central pain sensitization.

  19. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestan, Karen K L; Marks, Jeremy D; Hecox, Kurt; Huo, Dezheng; Schreiber, Michael D

    2005-07-07

    Chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants are associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. In a previous randomized, controlled, single-center trial of premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome, inhaled nitric oxide decreased the risk of death or chronic lung disease as well as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia. We hypothesized that infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide would also have improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study of premature infants who had received inhaled nitric oxide or placebo to investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age. Neurologic examination, neurodevelopmental assessment, and anthropometric measurements were made by examiners who were unaware of the children's original treatment assignment. A total of 138 children (82 percent of survivors) were evaluated. In the group given inhaled nitric oxide, 17 of 70 children (24 percent) had abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, defined as either disability (cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no disability, but one score of less than 70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II), as compared with 31 of 68 children (46 percent) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.87; P=0.01). This effect persisted after adjustment for birth weight and sex, as well as for the presence or absence of chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. The improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome in the group given inhaled nitric oxide was primarily due to a 47 percent decrease in the risk of cognitive impairment (defined by a score of less than 70 on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index) (P=0.03). Premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide have improved neurodevelopmental

  1. Nitric oxide: Orchestrator of endothelium-dependent responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Félétou, Michel; Köhler, Ralf; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present review first summarizes the complex chain of events, in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, that leads to endothelium-dependent relaxations (vasodilatations) due to the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and how therapeutic...... interventions may improve the bioavailability of NO and thus prevent/cure endothelial dysfunction. Then, the role of other endothelium-derived mediators (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing (EDHF) and contracting (EDCF) factors, endothelin-1) and signals (myoendothelial coupling) is summarized also...

  2. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating secretory processes in rat lacrimal acinar cells. In addition, we wanted to determine whether the acinar cells possess endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity by measuring NO productio...... using the fluorescent NO indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2). We initiated investigations by adding NO from an external source by means of the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Cellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine 5'-phosphate (cGMP) ([cGMP]) were measured...

  3. Nitric oxide donors (nitrates), L-arginine, or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Philip Mw; Krishnan, Kailash; Appleton, Jason P

    2017-04-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) has multiple effects that may be beneficial in acute stroke, including lowering blood pressure, and promoting reperfusion and cytoprotection. Some forms of nitric oxide synthase inhibition (NOS-I) may also be beneficial. However, high concentrations of NO are likely to be toxic to brain tissue. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998, and last updated in 2002. To assess the safety and efficacy of NO donors, L-arginine, and NOS-I in people with acute stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 6 February 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2016), Embase (1980 to June 2016), ISI Science Citation Indexes (1981 to June 2016), Stroke Trials Registry (searched June 2016), International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) (searched June 2016), Clinical Trials registry (searched June 2016), and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched June 2016). Previously, we had contacted drug companies and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials comparing nitric oxide donors, L-arginine, or NOS-I versus placebo or open control in people within one week of onset of confirmed stroke. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. The review authors cross-checked data and resolved issues through discussion. We obtained published and unpublished data, as available. Data were reported as mean difference (MD) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included five completed trials, involving 4197 participants; all tested transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), an NO donor. The assessed risk of bias was low across the included studies; one study was double-blind, one open-label and three were single-blind. All included studies had blinded outcome assessment. Overall, GTN did not improve the primary outcome of death or dependency at the end of trial (modified Rankin Scale (m

  4. Nitric oxide formation in the oropharyngeal tract: possible influence of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteus, H; Mavropoulos, A; Palm, J P; Ulfgren, A-K; Bergström, J; Alving, K

    2004-11-01

    Cigarette smoking reduces the level of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air by an unknown mechanism. The view that part of the effect of cigarette smoking on NO production should occur in the oropharyngeal tract is supported by several studies. We have therefore compared smokers and non-smokers regarding non-enzymatic formation of NO from nitrite in the oral cavity since this is a primary candidate target for cigarette smoke. We have also looked at NO synthase-dependent NO formation in the mucosa of the oropharyngeal tract as an alternative target for the inhibitory effect induced by cigarette smoke. Smokers exhaled 67% lower levels of NO than controls (pnitrite, nitrate or ascorbate between smokers and non-smokers. Mouthwash with the antibacterial agent chlorhexidine reduced salivary nitrite (-65%) and exhaled NO levels (-10%) similarly in the two groups. Immunohistochemical techniques revealed dense expression of inducible (but not endothelial or neuronal) NO synthase in the squamous epithelium of non-inflamed tonsillar and gingival tissue biopsies. In the same biopsies, significant Ca2+ -independent citrulline-forming activity was detected. We found no difference between smoking and non-smoking subjects regarding NO-synthase expression and in vitro activity. In another group of non-smoking subjects (n=10), spraying the oropharyngeal tract with the NO-synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (250 mg) significantly reduced exhaled NO levels for at least 30 min (-18%, pnitrite in saliva. However, NO is also formed by inducible NO synthase in the squamous epithelium of the normal oropharyngeal tract. We suggest that cigarette smoking may down-regulate enzymatic NO formation in the oropharyngeal compartment as well as in the bronchial compartment.

  5. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs), and many molecules and biochemical processes may be involved in its development. This study examined the effects of modulating embryonic nitric oxide (NO) activity on the intestinal motility induced by ENS. One-hundred-and-twenty fertilized chicken eggs were assigned ...

  6. Insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antifungal and nitric oxide free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions derived from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana were screened in vitro for possible insecticidal, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities. Low insecticidal activity (20 %) was shown by chloroform (CHCl3) and aqueous fractions ...

  7. Evaluation of Fractioned Nitric Oxide in Chronic Cough Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Paediatr. Respir Rev 2006;7:9-14. 29. Pedük Y. Evaluation of etiologies of chronic cough in children. 2013; Available from: https://tez.yok.gov.tr. 30. Keskin O. The importance of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma and its correlation with host and environmental factors. 2010;. Available from: https://tez.yok.gov.tr.

  8. Role of nitric oxide and endogenous antioxidants in thyroxine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... blood samples collected for haematological indices through cardiac puncture and their stomachs prepared for gross and microscopic examinations to assess gastric healing. Gastric tissue protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and Nitric oxide (NO) were assessed as biomarkers ...

  9. Nitric oxide radical scavenging potential of some Elburz medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some plants scavenge nitric oxide (NO) with high affinity. For this purpose, forty extracts from 26 medicinal plants, growing extensively in Elburz mountains, were evaluated for their NO scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were also measured by Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 colorimetric ...

  10. Nitric oxide interferes with hypoxia signaling during colonic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Cintia Rabelo e Paiva; Moscato, Camila Henrique; Tomé, Renata Bortolin Guerra; Pedrazzoli, José; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation can induce a local reduction in oxygen levels that triggers an adaptive response centered on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Nitric oxide, a well-described inflammatory mediator, may interfere with hypoxia signaling. We aimed to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in hypoxia signaling during colonic inflammation. Colitis was induced by single (acute) or repeated (reactivated colitis) trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid administration in rats. In addition, one group of rats with reactivated colitis was also treated with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride to block nitric oxide synthase. Colitis was assessed by macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon samples. Hypoxia was determined using the oxygen-dependent probe, pimonidazole. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-induced factors (vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGF and apelin) was assessed using Western blotting. The single or repeated administration of trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid to rats induced colitis which was characterized by a high macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Hypoxia was observed with both protocols. During acute colitis, HIF-1α expression was not increased, but VEGF and apelin were increased. HIF-1α expression was inhibited during reactivated colitis, and VEGF and apelin were not increased. Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride blockade during reactivated colitis restored HIF-1α, VEGF and apelin expression. Nitric oxide could interfere with hypoxia signaling during reactivated colitis inflammation modifying the expression of proteins regulated by HIF-1α.

  11. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Karnieli E, Barzilai A, Rafaeloff R and Armoni M 1986 Distribution of glucose transporters in membrane fractions isolated from human adipose cells; relative to cell size; J. Clin. Invest. 78. 1051–1055. Li J, Hu X, Selvakumar P, Russell R R, Cushman S W, Holman. G D and Young L H 2004 Role of the nitric oxide pathway in.

  12. Nitric oxide inhibitory activity of Strychnos spinosa (loganiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions and extracts obtained from Strychnos spinosa leaves on a mediator of inflammation nitric oxide (NO). Materials and Methods: Leaves were extracted with acetone and separated into fractions with different polarities by solventsolvent ...

  13. Evaluation of Fractioned Nitric Oxide in Chronic Cough Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cough exceeding 3-8 weeks was defined as chronic cough in various guides. Asthma is the most common cause of chronic-specific cough. Causes other than asthma include prolonged bacterial bronchitis and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Nitric oxide (NO) causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation, ...

  14. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene Glu298Asp polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preeclampsia (PE) is the most serious complication of pregnancy that causes maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the exact pathophysiology of PE is unknown, a large number of studies have shown that abnormalities in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis may contribute to the development of this disorder. There are ...

  15. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous studies indicated an association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and maintenance of pregnancy, but it is rather controversial whether polymorphisms of the gene encoding for eNOS are associated with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs). Aim: The aim was to investigate ...

  16. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized during the past two decades as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. Even though the molecular mechanisms responsible by the naturally acquired immunity against malaria are still to be clarified, the production of NO seems to play an important role as a marker for ...

  17. Nitric oxide metabolites in goldfish under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie N.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS enzymes), regulates multiple physiological functions in animals. NO exerts its effects by binding to iron (Fe) of heme groups (exemplified by the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase) and by S-nitrosylation of proteins – and it is metab......Nitric oxide (NO), produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS enzymes), regulates multiple physiological functions in animals. NO exerts its effects by binding to iron (Fe) of heme groups (exemplified by the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase) and by S-nitrosylation of proteins......) in multiple tissues of a non-mammalian vertebrate (goldfish) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. NO metabolites were measured in blood (plasma and red cells) and heart, brain, gill, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle, using highly sensitive reductive chemiluminescence. The severity of the chosen hypoxia...... levels was assessed from metabolic and respiratory variables. In normoxic goldfish, the concentrations of NO metabolites in plasma and tissues were comparable with values reported in mammals, indicative of similar NOS activity. Exposure to hypoxia [at PO2 (partial pressure of O2) values close...

  18. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The data obtained provide insight into the mechanism of cell proliferation action of endogenous NO•, based on p53 status, and indicate manipulation of iNOS may offer exciting opportunities to improve the effectiveness of melanoma treatment. Keywords: Apoptosis, Human melanoma cells, Inducible nitric oxide ...

  19. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2008 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes. De Sousa, Karina*, Silva, Marcelo S. and Tavira, Luís T. Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, ...

  20. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed ...

  1. Ginsenoside Rb1 Reduces Nitric Oxide Production via Inhibition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect and the potential mechanisms of ginsenoside Rb1 on nitric oxide. (NO) production in chondrocytes. Methods: SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the presence of. 20, 40, 80 µM ginsenoside Rb1. NO concentration was assessed by the Griess ...

  2. Methodological aspects of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriele, C.; Wiel, E.C. van der; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Moll, H.A.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Jongste, J.C. de

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines for the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) recommend refraining from lung function tests (LFT) and certain foods and beverages before performing FE(NO) measurements, as they may lead to transiently altered FE(NO) levels. Little is known of such factors in infants. The

  3. Water vapour and carbon dioxide decrease nitric oxide readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMark, TW; Kort, E; Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH

    Measurement of nitric oxide levels in exhaled ah-is commonly performed using a chemiluminescence detector. However, water vapour and carbon dioxide affect the chemiluminescence process, The influence of these gases at the concentrations present in exhaled air has not vet been studied. For this in

  4. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO•) and influence of p53 status during apoptosis induced by a ... endogenous NO•, based on p53 status, and indicate manipulation of iNOS may offer exciting opportunities to improve the ..... agents, further research will be required to define more specifically the ...

  5. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: iNOS was over expressed in OKCs when compared with DC and RC suggesting that iNOS may contribute to the aggressive behavior of OKC. This is yet another evidence to support that OKC is the neoplasm. Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Immunohistochemistry, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Odontogenic ...

  6. NITRIC OXIDE INTERFERES WITH HYPOXIA SIGNALING DURING COLONIC INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Rabelo e Paiva CARIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Intestinal inflammation can induce a local reduction in oxygen levels that triggers an adaptive response centered on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs. Nitric oxide, a well-described inflammatory mediator, may interfere with hypoxia signaling. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in hypoxia signaling during colonic inflammation. Methods Colitis was induced by single (acute or repeated (reactivated colitis trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid administration in rats. In addition, one group of rats with reactivated colitis was also treated with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride to block nitric oxide synthase. Colitis was assessed by macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon samples. Hypoxia was determined using the oxygen-dependent probe, pimonidazole. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-induced factors (vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGF and apelin was assessed using Western blotting. Results The single or repeated administration of trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid to rats induced colitis which was characterized by a high macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Hypoxia was observed with both protocols. During acute colitis, HIF-1α expression was not increased, but VEGF and apelin were increased. HIF-1α expression was inhibited during reactivated colitis, and VEGF and apelin were not increased. Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride blockade during reactivated colitis restored HIF-1α, VEGF and apelin expression. Conclusions Nitric oxide could interfere with hypoxia signaling during reactivated colitis inflammation modifying the expression of proteins regulated by HIF-1α.

  7. Analysis of genetic variation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of 100 Malaysian native chickens was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for two candidate genes: inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1). The two genes were selected ...

  8. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  9. Regulation and control of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lok, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a novel storage and transport mechanism for nitric oxide (NO) mediated by glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), protects M1-macrophage (M1-MØ) models from large quantities of endogenous NO. This system stores and transp...

  10. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized during the past two decades as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. Even though the molecular mechanisms responsible by the naturally acquired immunity against malaria are still to be clarified, the production of NO seems to play an important role.

  11. Restoration Of Glutamine Synthetase Activity, Nitric Oxide Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain ...

  12. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], and enzymatic NO synthase activity. MRI guided biopsies documented more active plaques than macroscopic examination, and histological examination revealed further lesions. Inducible NOS (iNOS) was the dominant IR isoform, while reactive astrocytes were the dominant i...

  13. Nitric oxide synthesis and biological functions of nitric oxide released from ruthenium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During three decades, an enormous number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of nitric oxide (NO as a second messenger engaged in the activation of many systems including vascular smooth muscle relaxation. The underlying cellular mechanisms involved in vasodilatation are essentially due to soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC modulation in the cytoplasm of vascular smooth cells. sGC activation culminates in cyclic GMP (cGMP production, which in turn leads to protein kinase G (PKG activation. NO binds to the sGC heme moiety, thereby activating this enzyme. Activation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway entails Ca2+ signaling reduction and vasodilatation. Endothelium dysfunction leads to decreased production or bioavailability of endogenous NO that could contribute to vascular diseases. Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes have been studied as a new class of NO donors with potential therapeutic use in order to supply the NO deficiency. In this context, this article shall provide a brief review of the effects exerted by the NO that is enzymatically produced via endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activation and by the NO released from NO donor compounds in the vascular smooth muscle cells on both conduit and resistance arteries, as well as veins. In addition, the involvement of the nitrite molecule as an endogenous NO reservoir engaged in vasodilatation will be described.

  14. Nitric oxide regulates the heart by spatial confinement of nitric oxide synthase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, Lili A; Harrison, Robert W; Skaf, Michel W; Rosas, Gisele O; Cappola, Thomas P; Kobeissi, Zoulficar A; Hobai, Ion A; Lemmon, Christopher A; Burnett, Arthur L; O'Rourke, Brian; Rodriguez, E Rene; Huang, Paul L; Lima, João A C; Berkowitz, Dan E; Hare, Joshua M

    2002-03-21

    Subcellular localization of nitric oxide (NO) synthases with effector molecules is an important regulatory mechanism for NO signalling. In the heart, NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels but stimulates sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release, leading to variable effects on myocardial contractility. Here we show that spatial confinement of specific NO synthase isoforms regulates this process. Endothelial NO synthase (NOS3) localizes to caveolae, where compartmentalization with beta-adrenergic receptors and L-type Ca2+ channels allows NO to inhibit beta-adrenergic-induced inotropy. Neuronal NO synthase (NOS1), however, is targeted to cardiac SR. NO stimulation of SR Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in vitro, suggests that NOS1 has an opposite, facilitative effect on contractility. We demonstrate that NOS1-deficient mice have suppressed inotropic response, whereas NOS3-deficient mice have enhanced contractility, owing to corresponding changes in SR Ca2+ release. Both NOS1-/- and NOS3-/- mice develop age-related hypertrophy, although only NOS3-/- mice are hypertensive. NOS1/3-/- double knockout mice have suppressed beta-adrenergic responses and an additive phenotype of marked ventricular remodelling. Thus, NOS1 and NOS3 mediate independent, and in some cases opposite, effects on cardiac structure and function.

  15. Reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Willemien; de Mutsert, Renée; le Cessie, Saskia; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rabe, Klaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide is a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation that can be detected by a handheld device. Obesity may influence the reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements, by - for instance - decreased expiratory reserve volume. We analyzed triple exhaled nitric oxide

  16. Isoxazole derivatives as new nitric oxide elicitors in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oancea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles were obtained in good yields by regiospecific 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between aromatic nitrile oxides, generated in situ from the corresponding hydroxyimidoyl chlorides, with non-symmetrical activated alkynes in the presence of catalytic amounts of copper(I iodide. Effects of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation in Arabidopsis tissues was studied using specific diaminofluoresceine dyes as fluorescence indicators.

  17. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy

  18. Interleukin 1 beta induces diabetes and fever in normal rats by nitric oxide via induction of different nitric oxide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Bjerre, U; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Substantial in vitro evidence suggests that nitric oxide may be a major mediator of interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced pancreatic beta-cell inhibition and destruction in the initial events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of both...

  19. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  20. Antenatal insults modify newborn olfactory function by nitric oxide produced from neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B; Tan, Sidhartha

    2012-10-01

    Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking and gingivitis: focus on inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, B; Özmeric, N; Elgün, S; Barış, E

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease pathogenesis has been associated with smoking. Gingivitis is a mild and reversible form of periodontal disease and it tends to progress to periodontitis only in susceptible individuals. In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of smoking on host responses in gingivitis and to evaluate and compare the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in gingival tissue and NO and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis and healthy individuals. Forty-one participants were assigned to the gingivitis-smoker (n = 13), gingivitis (n = 13), healthy-smoker (n = 7) and healthy groups (n = 8). Clinical indices were recorded; gingival biopsy and gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from papillary regions. iNOS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The immunoreactive cells were semiquantitatively assessed. For the quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in gingival crevicular fluid, the NO assay kit was used. The amount of bFGF in gingival crevicular fluid was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The gingivitis-smoker group demonstrated a stronger iNOS expression than the non-smoker gingivitis group. iNOS expression intensity was lower in the non-smoker healthy group compared to that in healthy-smokers. No significant gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF level changes were observed between groups. Among patients with gingivitis, a positive correlation was detected between gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF levels (r = 0.806, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that smoking has significant effects on iNOS expression but not on gingival crevicular fluid NO or bFGF levels in healthy and patients with gingivitis. However, our results suggest that bFGF might be involved in the regulation of NO production via iNOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterization of exhaled nitric oxide: introducing a new reproducible method for nasal nitric oxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, J P; Graf, P; Lundberg, J O; Alving, K

    2000-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is present in the human nasal airways and has been suggested to originate primarily from the paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was to establish a new and reproducible method for measurement of nasal NO. Through repeated single-breath measurements the intra- and inter-individual variations of NO levels in nasally (into a tightly fitting mask covering the nose) and orally exhaled air were determined in healthy humans. Variations due to the methods used were investigated. The contribution of oral NO to the nasal exhalations by introducing a mouthwash procedure was also studied. This study shows distinct individual values of NO in nasally and orally exhaled air of healthy humans. Some diurnal variability was also found with a rise in NO in nasally and orally exhaled air over the day, but no, or little, day-to-day variability when comparing the results from separate mornings. There was no correlation between NO levels in nasally and orally exhaled air, whereas there was a strong correlation between NO levels in air exhaled through the left and right nostril. The levels of NO in air exhaled at 0.17 L x s(-1) through either nostril separately were higher than in air exhaled at the same flow rate through both nostrils simultaneously. After the introduction of a mouthwash procedure the level of NO in orally, but not nasally exhaled air was reduced. To conclude the method using nasal exhalation into a nose mask is highly reproducible. It is also suggested that subtracting the level of NO in orally exhaled air, after mouthwash, from that in nasally exhaled air, would adequately reflect nasal NO levels.

  3. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  4. Do tobacco stimulate the production of nitric oxide by up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in cancer: Immunohistochemical determination of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A comparative study in tobacco habituers and non-habituers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate the enhanced expression in OSCC of tobacco habituers when compared to OSCC of tobacco non-habituers indicating the effect of tobacco on nitric oxide. Carcinogenic chemical compounds in Tobacco induce nitric oxide production by iNOS, by its tumor-promoting effects which may enhance the process of carcinogenesis.

  5. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  6. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children.

  8. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Titanium for Nitric Acid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-07-01

    Tantalum and Niobium have good corrosion resistance in nitric acid as well as in molten chloride salt medium encountered in spent fuel nuclear reprocessing plants. Commercially, pure Ti (Cp-Ti) exhibits good corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium; however, in vapor condensates of nitric acid, significant corrosion was observed. In the present study, a thermochemical diffusion method was pursued to coat Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5 on Ti to improve the corrosion resistance and enhance the life of critical components in reprocessing plants. The coated samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, profilometry, micro-scratch test, and ASTM A262 Practice-C test in 65 pct boiling nitric acid. The SEM micrograph of the coated samples showed that uniform dense coating containing Ta2O5 and/or Nb2O5 was formed. XRD patterns indicated the formation of TiO2, Ta2O5/Nb2O5, and mixed oxide/solid solution phase on coated Ti samples. ASTM A262 Practice-C test revealed reproducible outstanding corrosion resistance of Ta2O5-coated sample in comparison to Nb2O5- and Ta2O5 + Nb2O5-coated sample. The hardness of the Ta2O5-coated Cp-Ti sample was found to be twice that of uncoated Cp-Ti. The SEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of protective oxide layer (Ta2O5, rutile TiO2, and mixed phase) on coated sample which improved the corrosion resistance remarkably in boiling liquid phase of nitric acid compared to uncoated Cp-Ti and Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy. Three phase corrosion test conducted on Ta2O5-coated samples in boiling 11.5 M nitric acid showed poor corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid due to poor adhesion of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coated samples needs to be optimized in order to improve the corrosion resistance in vapor and condensate phases of nitric acid.

  9. Nitric oxide-related drug targets in headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so-called del......SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so...... another very likely new treatment. It is more unlikely that antagonism of cGMP or its formation will be feasible, but augmenting its breakdown via phosphodiesterase activation is a possibility, as well as other ways of inhibiting the NO-cGMP pathway....

  10. NITRIC OXIDE AND ENDOTHELIN-1 IN CHILDREN WITH DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The important part in the group of biological compounds, participating in the regulation of the functions of the gastro-intestinal tract, is assigned to endothelial factors because of their impact on the majority of physiological and pathophysiological processes of the digestive system. The article provides information about physiological role of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 and presents a review of scientific data on the participation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of many digestive system diseases, emphasizing chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The authors accentuate the importance of endothelium endocrine function research in children with esophagogastroduodenal disorders at the beginning of puberty, which is the critical period of ontogenesis.

  11. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway. RGPT Jayasooriya, Y-J Jang, C-H Kang, MG Dilshara, D-O Moon, T-J Nam, YH Choi, G-Y Kim ...

  12. Diazeniumdiolated carbamates: a novel class of nitric oxide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandurdikar, Rahul S; Maciag, Anna E; Cao, Zhao; Keefer, Larry K; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2012-03-15

    We report an indirect method for synthesis of previously inaccessible diazeniumdiolated carbamates. Synthesis involves use of previously reported triisopropylsilyloxymethylated isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate (TOM-ylated IPA/NO). These novel diazeniumdiolated carbamate prodrugs upon activation release nitric oxide (NO) similar to their secondary amine counterparts. They are also efficient sources of intracellular NO. These prodrugs may have potential applications as therapeutic NO-donors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal...... and sex showed no such changes. Our data support the hypothesis that NO is a pathogenic factor in MS, and that NOS IR is strongly expressed in brain regions appearing normal by MRI...

  14. Nitric oxide synthase isoforms in spontaneous and salt hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojná, Silvie; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, Suppl. 2 (2007), S 338-S 338 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /17./. 15.06.2007-19.06.2007, Milan] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nitric oxide synthase isoforms * spontaneous and salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  15. Nitric oxide and non-quantal acetylcholine release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2003), s. 241-243 ISSN 1211-7579. [Celostátní konference biologické psychiatrie /11./. Luhačovice, 11.06.2003-14.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : nitric oxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Nitric oxide-related drug targets in headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so-called del......SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so......-called delayed headache that fulfils criteria for migraine without aura in migraine sufferers. Blockade of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) by L-nitromonomethylarginine effectively treats attacks of migraine without aura. Similar results have been obtained for chronic the tension-type headache and cluster headache....... Inhibition of the breakdown of cyclic guanylate phosphate (cGMP) also provokes migraine in sufferers, indicating that cGMP is the effector of NO-induced migraine. Similar evidence suggests an important role of NO in the tension-type headache and cluster headache. These very strong data from human...

  17. Exercise promotes collateral artery growth mediated by monocytic nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Millenaar, Dominic N; Werner, Christian; Schuh, Lisa; Degen, Achim; Bettink, Stephanie I; Lipp, Peter; van Rooijen, Nico; Meyer, Tim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is an important adaptive response to hampered arterial perfusion. It is unknown whether preventive physical exercise before limb ischemia can improve arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed at investigating the effects of endurance exercise before arterial occlusion on MNC function and collateral artery growth. After 3 weeks of voluntary treadmill exercise, ligation of the right femoral artery was performed in mice. Hindlimb perfusion immediately after surgery did not differ from sedentary mice. However, previous exercise improved perfusion restoration ≤7 days after femoral artery ligation, also when exercise was stopped at ligation. This was accompanied by an accumulation of peri-collateral macrophages and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hindlimb collateral and in MNC of blood and spleen. Systemic monocyte and macrophage depletion by liposomal clodronate but not splenectomy attenuated exercise-induced perfusion restoration, collateral artery growth, peri-collateral macrophage accumulation, and upregulation of iNOS. iNOS-deficient mice did not show exercise-induced perfusion restoration. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNC from iNOS-deficient mice into wild-type animals inhibited exercise-induced collateral artery growth. In contrast to sedentary controls, thrice weekly aerobic exercise training for 6 months in humans increased peripheral blood MNC iNOS expression. Circulating mononuclear cell-derived inducible nitric oxide is an important mediator of exercise-induced collateral artery growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite: Lessons from extreme animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; B. Jensen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    survival resides in concerted physiological responses, including strong metabolic depression, protection against oxidative damage and – in air breathing animals - redistribution of blood flow. Each of these responses is known to be tightly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and during hypoxia by its metabolite...... nitrite. The aim of this review is to highlight recent work illustrating the widespread roles of NO and nitrite in the tolerance to extreme oxygen deprivation, in particular in the red-eared slider turtle and crucian carp, but also in diving marine mammals. The emerging picture underscores the importance...... of NO and nitrite signaling in the adaptive response to hypoxia in vertebrate animals....

  19. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO x vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200 degrees C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time

  20. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  1. Dynamics of Nitric Oxide and Nitrous Oxide Emission during Nitrogen Conversion Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be a serious threat to the environment. Rising levels of N2O in the atmosphere contribute to global warming and destruction of the ozone layer. This thesis describes an investigation on the emission of NO and N2O during nitrogen conversion

  2. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  3. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  4. THE ESTROGENS / CHROMIUM INTERACTION IN THE NITRIC OXIDE GENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Ewa; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Musiala, Tomasz; Dlugosz, Anna

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of estrogens with environmental toxins in free radicals generation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which participates in cancerogenesis is not yet recognized. Chromium(VI) is widely present in environment. One of its toxicity pathway is free radicals generation. Estrogens have the ability to scavenge free radicals, but may also act as prooxidants. Both chromium(VI) and estrogens are classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens, so synergistic effect seems very dangerous. The interaction of chromium and estrogens in ROS generation are partly described but there are no reports on estrogen/chromium interaction on nitric oxide (NO) generation. The aim of the study was to examine the interaction of chromium(VI) and 17-p-estradiol (E2) on NO level in human blood as well as the role of E2 metabolites: 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 16a-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) in these processes. The NO level was estimated with the diagnostic kit (Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Detection Kit from Arbor Assays) in human blood in vitm. The results showed that Cr(VI) in used concentration (0.5; 1.0 and 5.0 gg/mL) decreases significantly NO level in blood, acting antagonistically to E2 and 4-OHE2. Estrogens (E2, 4-OHE2 and 16α-OHEI) do not protect against inhibiting effect of Cr(VI) on nitric oxide generation in blood because after combined exposure the decreased production of NO in blood was noted. In conclusion, presented results provide the information about the character of estrogen/Cr(VI) interaction in NO level in human blood. It is important knowledge for cardio protected effect e.g., hormone replacement therapy in environmental or occupational exposure to Cr(VI), chromium supplementation, also important for cancer risk evaluation.

  5. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  6. Nitric oxide in cerebral vasospasm: theories, measurement, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuta, Michael; Zuckerman, Scott L; Mocco, J

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, a large body of research has focused on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Literature searches were therefore conducted regarding the role of NO in cerebral vasospasm, specifically focusing on NO donors, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite in manifestation of vasospasm. Based off the assessment of available evidence, two competing theories are reviewed regarding the role of NO in vasospasm. One school of thought describes a deficiency in NO due to scavenging by hemoglobin in the cisternal space, leading to an NO signaling deficit and vasospastic collapse. A second hypothesis focuses on the dysfunction of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes NO, and subsequent generation of reactive nitrogen species. Both theories have strong experimental evidence behind them and hold promise for translation into clinical practice. Furthermore, NO donors show definitive promise for preventing vasospasm at the angiographic and clinical level. However, NO augmentation may also cause systemic hypotension and worsen vasospasm due to oxidative distress. Recent evidence indicates that targeting NOS dysfunction, for example, through erythropoietin or statin administration, also shows promise at preventing vasospasm and neurotoxicity. Ultimately, the role of NO in neurovascular disease is complex. Neither of these theories is mutually exclusive, and both should be considered for future research directions and treatment strategies.

  7. Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Vasospasm: Theories, Measurement, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siuta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a large body of research has focused on the role of nitric oxide (NO in the development of cerebral vasospasm (CV following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Literature searches were therefore conducted regarding the role of NO in cerebral vasospasm, specifically focusing on NO donors, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite in manifestation of vasospasm. Based off the assessment of available evidence, two competing theories are reviewed regarding the role of NO in vasospasm. One school of thought describes a deficiency in NO due to scavenging by hemoglobin in the cisternal space, leading to an NO signaling deficit and vasospastic collapse. A second hypothesis focuses on the dysfunction of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes NO, and subsequent generation of reactive nitrogen species. Both theories have strong experimental evidence behind them and hold promise for translation into clinical practice. Furthermore, NO donors show definitive promise for preventing vasospasm at the angiographic and clinical level. However, NO augmentation may also cause systemic hypotension and worsen vasospasm due to oxidative distress. Recent evidence indicates that targeting NOS dysfunction, for example, through erythropoietin or statin administration, also shows promise at preventing vasospasm and neurotoxicity. Ultimately, the role of NO in neurovascular disease is complex. Neither of these theories is mutually exclusive, and both should be considered for future research directions and treatment strategies.

  8. Application of nitric oxide measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Tufvesson, Ellen; Rolla, Giovanni; Bjermer, Leif; Alving, Kjell; Diamant, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, non-invasive method for the assessment of active, mainly Th2-driven, airway inflammation, which is sensitive to treatment with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Consequently, FeNO serves as a valued tool to aid diagnosis and monitoring in several asthma phenotypes. More recently, FeNO has been evaluated in several other respiratory, infectious, and/or immunological conditions. In this short review, we provide an overview of several clinical studies and discuss the status of potential applications of NO measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma.

  9. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between...... bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced...

  10. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant biotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Claudia; Durner, Jörg; Astier, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants. Recent progress has been made in defining their role during plant biotic interactions. Over the last decade, their function in disease resistance has been highlighted and focused a lot of investigations. Moreover, NO and ROS have recently emerged as important players of defense responses after herbivore attacks. Besides their role in plant adaptive response development, NO and ROS have been demonstrated to be involved in symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms. Here we review recent data concerning these three sides of NO and ROS functions in plant biotic interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric Oxide Manipulation: A Therapeutic Target for Peripheral Arterial Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Risk factor modification and endovascular and surgical revascularisation are the main treatment options at present. However, a significant number of patients still require major amputation. There is evidence that nitric oxide (NO and its endogenous inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA play significant roles in the pathophysiology of PAD. This paper reviews experimental work implicating the ADMA-DDAH-NO pathway in PAD, focussing on both the vascular dysfunction and effects within the ischaemic muscle, and examines the potential of manipulating this pathway as a novel adjunct therapy in PAD.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. PMID:28635681

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beg Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective : The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Design : Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naοve asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. Results : All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54±28.01 vs 22.00±6.69; P =0.0001 but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54±28.01 vs 84.78±39.32 P = 0.0285.The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. Conclusion : There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects.

  15. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Mohammed F. S.; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A.; Abba, Abdullah A.; Habib, Syed S.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naïve asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. RESULTS: All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54±28.01 vs 22.00±6.69; P=0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54±28.01 vs 84.78±39.32 P=0.0285).The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV1/FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. CONCLUSION: There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. PMID:19561927

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  17. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen upregulates cochlear constitutive nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Ming-Ching

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is a known adjuvant for treating ischemia-related inner ear diseases. Controversies still exist in the role of HBOT in cochlear diseases. Few studies to date have investigated the cellular changes that occur in inner ears after HBOT. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, is an important signaling molecule in cochlear physiology and pathology. Here we investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eardrum morphology, cochlear function and expression of NOS isoforms in cochlear substructures after repetitive HBOT in guinea pigs. Results Minor changes in the eardrum were observed after repetitive HBOT, which did not result in a significant hearing threshold shift by tone burst auditory brainstem responses. A differential effect of HBOT on the expression of NOS isoforms was identified. Upregulation of constitutive NOS (nNOS and eNOS was found in the substructures of the cochlea after HBOT, but inducible NOS was not found in normal or HBOT animals, as shown by immunohistochemistry. There was no obvious DNA fragmentation present in this HBOT animal model. Conclusions The present evidence indicates that the customary HBOT protocol may increase constitutive NOS expression but such upregulation did not cause cell death in the treated cochlea. The cochlear morphology and auditory function are consequently not changed through the protocol.

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  20. Nitric oxide heme interactions in nitrophorin from Cimex lectularius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, R.; Auerbach, H., E-mail: auerbach@physik.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Berry, R. E.; Walker, F. A. [The University of Arizona, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Schünemann, V. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The nitrophorin from the bedbug Cimex lectularius (cNP) is a nitric oxide (NO) carrying protein. Like the nitrophorins (rNPs) from the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, cNP forms a stable heme Fe(III)-NO complex, where the NO can be stored reversibly for a long period of time. In both cases, the NPs are found in the salivary glands of blood-sucking bugs. The insects use the nitrophorins to transport the NO to the victim’s tissues, resulting in vasodilation and reduced blood coagulation. However, the structure of cNP is significantly different to those of the rNPs from Rhodnius prolixus. Furthermore, the cNP can bind a second NO molecule to the proximal heme cysteine when present at higher concentrations. High field Mössbauer spectroscopy on {sup 57}Fe enriched cNP complexed with NO shows reduction of the heme iron and formation of a ferrous nitric oxide (Fe(II)-NO) complex. Density functional theory calculations reproduce the experimental Mössbauer parameters and confirm this observation.

  1. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniscalco M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Maniscalco,1 Carolina Vitale,2 Alessandro Vatrella,2 Antonio Molino,3 Andrea Bianco,4 Gennaro Mazzarella4 1Unit of Respiratory Diseases, Hospital “S Maria della Pietà” of Casoria, Naples, 2Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Federico II, 4Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second, University of Naples, Naples, Italy Abstract: The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. Keywords: asthma, inflammation, nasal nitric oxide

  2. Environmental Effects on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Allergic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania La Grutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and respiratory allergy. Environmental factors, especially indoor and outdoor air quality, may play an important role in triggering acute exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. The authors have reviewed the literature reporting effects of outdoor and indoor pollutants on FeNO in children. Although the findings are not consistent, urban and industrial pollution—mainly particles (PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2—as well as formaldehyde and electric baseboard heating have been shown to increase FeNO, whilst ozone (O3 tends to decrease it. Among children exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS, a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed in order to better investigate the effect of gene and environment interactions which may affect the interpretation of FeNO values in the management of children with asthma, clinicians are recommended to consider environmental exposures when taking medical histories for asthma and respiratory allergy. Further research is also needed to assess the effects of remedial interventions aimed at reducing/abating environmental exposures in asthmatic/allergic patients.

  3. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  4. Estimation of nitric oxide as an inflammatory marker in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is not only important in host defense and homeostasis but it is also regarded as harmful and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The presence of NO in periodontal disease may reflect the participation of an additional mediator of bone resorption responsible for disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the level of NO in serum in chronic periodontitis, and correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Sixty subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups. NO levels were assayed by measuring the accumulation of stable oxidative metabolite, nitrite with Griess reaction. Results showed subjects with periodontitis had significantly high nitrite in serum than healthy subjects. NO production is increased in periodontal disease, this will enable us to understand its role in disease progression and selective inhibition of NO may be of therapeutic utility in limiting the progression of periodontitis.

  5. Localization of Nitric Oxide in Wheat Roots by DAF Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wany, Aakanksha; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a free radical signal molecule. Various methods are available for measurement of NO. Out of all methods, fluorescent probes to localize NO is very widely used method. Diaminofluorescein in diacetate form (DAF-2DA) is most widely probe for NO measurement. This method is based on application of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) which is actively diffused into cells, once taken up by cells cytoplasmic esterases cleave the acetate groups to generate 4,5-diaminofluorescein; DAF-2. The generated DAF-2 can readily react with N2O3, which is an oxidation product of NO to generate the highly fluorescent DAF-2T (triazolofluorescein). There are various advantages and disadvantages associated with this method, but to its advantage in diffusion closely to NO producing sites, it is widely used for localization studies. Here, we describe method to make sections of the roots and localization of NO in roots subjected to hypoxic stress.

  6. Study of nitric oxide catalytic oxidation on manganese oxides-loaded activated carbon at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Fu-Tian [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Guang-Wei, E-mail: gwyu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Wang, Yin, E-mail: yinwang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Xing, Zhen-Jiao [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Liu, Xue-Jiao; Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Loading manganese oxides on activated carbon effectively promotes NO oxidation. • NO adsorption-desorption on activated carbon is fundamental to NO oxidation. • A high Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio contributes to NO oxidation by promoting lattice O transfer. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is an air pollutant that is difficult to remove at low concentration and low temperature. Manganese oxides (MnO{sub x})-loaded activated carbon (MLAC) was prepared by a co-precipitation method and studied as a new catalyst for NO oxidation at low temperature. Characterization of MLAC included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Activity tests demonstrated the influence of the amount of MnO{sub x} and the test conditions on the reaction. MLAC with 7.5 wt.% MnO{sub x} (MLAC003) exhibits the highest NO conversion (38.7%) at 1000 ppm NO, 20 vol.% O{sub 2}, room temperature and GHSV ca. 16000 h{sup −1}. The NO conversion of MLAC003 was elevated by 26% compared with that of activated carbon. The results of the MLAC003 activity test under different test conditions demonstrated that NO conversion is also influenced by inlet NO concentration, inlet O{sub 2} concentration, reaction temperature and GHSV. The NO adsorption-desorption process in micropores of activated carbon is fundamental to NO oxidation, which can be controlled by pore structure and reaction temperature. The activity elevation caused by MnO{sub x} loading is assumed to be related to Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio. Finally, a mechanism of NO catalytic oxidation on MLAC based on NO adsorption-desorption and MnO{sub x} lattice O transfer is proposed.

  7. Differential effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on endotoxin-induced liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, TA; Gouw, ASH; Klok, PA; Havinga, R; vanGoor, H; Roelofsen, H; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    1997-01-01

    Background & Aims: During endotoxemia, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production in the liver is increased, NO has been suggested to have a hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of iNOS and the effect of different

  8. Role of nitric oxide in glucose-, fructose and galactose-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have shown that the infusion of glucose, fructose and galactose resulted in significant increases in intestinal glucose uptake (IGU) and the role of nitric oxide in these responses was not known. The present study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide in the observed increases in IGU.

  9. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Zhou, MingFang; Zinck, Tina Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that has been suggested to be a key molecule for induction and maintenance of migraine attacks based on clinical studies, animal experimental studies and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity within the trigeminovascular...

  10. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  11. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Zhou, MingFang; Zinck, Tina Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that has been suggested to be a key molecule for induction and maintenance of migraine attacks based on clinical studies, animal experimental studies and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity within the trigeminovascul...

  12. Modulation of cholinergic airway reactivity and nitric oxide production by endogenous arginase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Hamer, M.A M; Pethe, S; Vadon-Le Goff, S; Boucher, J.-L; Zaagsma, Hans

    1 Cholinergic airway constriction is functionally antagonized by agonist-induced constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO). Since cNOS and arginase, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, use L-arginine as a common substrate, competition between both enzymes

  13. Nitric oxide fumigation for control of bulb mites on flower bulbs and tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation was studied for efficacy to control bulb mites in the genus Rhizoglyphus and effects on germination and growth of flower bulbs and tubers. Bulb mites on infested peanuts were fumigated with nitric oxide at different concentrations under ultralow oxygen conditions in 1.9L jar...

  14. Study of nitric oxide catalytic oxidation on manganese oxides-loaded activated carbon at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fu-Tian; Yu, Guang-Wei; Wang, Yin; Xing, Zhen-Jiao; Liu, Xue-Jiao; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an air pollutant that is difficult to remove at low concentration and low temperature. Manganese oxides (MnOx)-loaded activated carbon (MLAC) was prepared by a co-precipitation method and studied as a new catalyst for NO oxidation at low temperature. Characterization of MLAC included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Activity tests demonstrated the influence of the amount of MnOx and the test conditions on the reaction. MLAC with 7.5 wt.% MnOx (MLAC003) exhibits the highest NO conversion (38.7%) at 1000 ppm NO, 20 vol.% O2, room temperature and GHSV ca. 16000 h-1. The NO conversion of MLAC003 was elevated by 26% compared with that of activated carbon. The results of the MLAC003 activity test under different test conditions demonstrated that NO conversion is also influenced by inlet NO concentration, inlet O2 concentration, reaction temperature and GHSV. The NO adsorption-desorption process in micropores of activated carbon is fundamental to NO oxidation, which can be controlled by pore structure and reaction temperature. The activity elevation caused by MnOx loading is assumed to be related to Mn4+/Mn3+ ratio. Finally, a mechanism of NO catalytic oxidation on MLAC based on NO adsorption-desorption and MnOx lattice O transfer is proposed.

  15. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NO on alleviating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves were investigated. Arsenic (25 M) treatment induced significantly accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and led to serious lipid peroxidation in tall fescue leaves and the application of 100 M SNP before arsenic stress resulted ...

  16. Dynamics of Nitric Oxide and Nitrous Oxide Emission during Nitrogen Conversion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kampschreur, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be a serious threat to the environment. Rising levels of N2O in the atmosphere contribute to global warming and destruction of the ozone layer. This thesis describes an investigation on the emission of NO and N2O during nitrogen conversion processes. Emissions were measured at wastewater treatment plants and at lab-scale reactors to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Metabolic and kinetic models were used to identify pathways leading...

  17. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis A J; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-04-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits.

  18. Weaning of inhaled nitric oxide: is there a best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Ware

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO has been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates for many years. iNO was approved by the FDA in 1999 for hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF in term and near term infants, defined as > 34 weeks gestational age (GA. iNO is used for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN, secondary pulmonary hypertension caused by congenital heart disease (CHD, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and other pathologies. iNO has its effect locally on the pulmonary vasculature and has been studied extensively regarding its effect on morbidities such as: need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, oxygen requirements, and mechanical ventilatory support. However, protocols for weaning iNO and for the duration of iNO weaning have not been studied extensively. It has been shown that an abrupt discontinuation leads to rebound pulmonary hypertension.Methods: Electronic literature search and review of published articles on the use of iNO in the neonate.Results: Electronic databases including Medline and PubMed were searched from the years 1995-2015, using the keywords "iNO", "nitric oxide", "neonate", and "weaning nitric oxide." This search revealed 2,124 articles. Articles were determined to be eligible for review if they included a specific protocol for weaning iNO, and were published in English. 16 articles with specific protocols for iNO weaning have been identified and reviewed. The studies had enrolled a total of 1,735 neonates either at term either preterm and with a mean birth weight of 3.3 kg (± 2 kg. Main diagnoses included MAS, CHD (total anomalous pulmonary venous return [TAPVR], d-transposition of the great vessels [DTGV], atrial septal defect [ASD], pulmonary atresia [PA], hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLH], pneumonia, RDS, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, PPHN, CDH, sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia

  19. Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Ganoderma applanatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishnendu; Yonzone, Parinita; Rai, Manjula; Rupa, Acharya

    2005-10-01

    In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of Ganoderma applanatum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity when compared with standard drug catechin. IC50 values of crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts of G. applanatum were 604.8, 624 and 267 microg/ml, respectively in case of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 441, 520.5 and 166.16 microg/ml, respectively in case of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts also increased significantly nitric oxide production (156.67, 121.88 and 742 pmole/mg dry wt/hr, respectively) over the control. The results of present investigation revealed that G. applanatum have potential therapeutic use.

  20. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO. In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons.

  1. Curcumin overcomes the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marion Man-Ying; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Fong, Dunne

    2005-04-01

    Upon Leishmania infection, macrophages are activated to produce nitrogen and oxygen radicals simultaneously. It is well established that the infected host cells rely on nitric oxide (NO) as the major weapon against the intracellular parasite. In India where leishmaniasis is endemic, the spice turmeric is used prolifically in food and for insect bites. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is a scavenger of NO. This report shows that curcumin protects promastigotes and amastigotes of the visceral species, Leishmania donovani, and promastigotes of the cutaneous species, L. major, against the actions of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) and DETANONOate, which release NO, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), which releases NO and superoxide, and peroxynitrite, which is formed from the reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, curcumin, as an antioxidant, is capable of blocking the action of both NO and NO congeners on the Leishmania parasite.

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration in patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadziakiewicz, P; Knapik, P; Zakliczyński, M; Zembala, M; Urbańska, E; Pacholewicz, J

    2007-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled air in humans and its level may decrease in heart diseases. In the present study we prospectively investigated how heart transplantation treated with oral immunosuppresive drugs based on ciclosporine A influences the exhaled NO concentration (exNO). The study was performed in 17 patients after heart transplantation in various time after procedure and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers as a control group. Patients after heart transplantation were free of clinical signs of rejection. End-tidal concentration of exNO was measured by the use of a chemiluminescence method. We found no statistically significant differences in the exNO level between patients after heart transplantation and healthy controls (6.81+/-2.70 part per billion (ppb) in the transplant group vs. 6.01+/-3.43 ppb in the control group). We conclude that heart transplantation and immunosuppresive therapy do not influence the exhaled NO concentration.

  3. Isotope tracing enhancement of chemiluminescence assays for nitric oxide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Julia; Tran, Tuan; Turner, Nicole; Piazza, Abigail; Mills, Lauren; Slack, Ryan; Hauser, Sean; Alexander, J Steven; Grisham, Matthew B; Feelisch, Martin; Rodriguez, Juan

    2009-02-01

    Chemiluminescence assays are used widely for the detection of nitric oxide (NO)-derived species in biological fluids and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be interfaced with mass-sensitive detectors for parallel determination of isotopic abundance. Results obtained with tri-iodide and ascorbic acid-based reductive assays indicate that mass spectrometric detection enables NO isotope-tracing experiments to be carried out to a limit of detectability of a few picomoles, a sensitivity similar to that of standard gas phase chemiluminescence methods. The advantage afforded by mass spectrometric detection is demonstrated using the murine macrophage cell line J774, which is shown here to reduce 15NO3- to 15NO2- under anoxic conditions. The particular combination of an analytical and cellular system described here may hold promise for future characterization of the enzymatic pathways contributing to mammalian nitrate reductase activity, without background interference from 14NO2- derived from other sources.

  4. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...... in the sarcolemma as well as the cytoplasm of type I muscle fibres. NADPH diaphorase activity confirmed a higher level of NO synthase activity in the sarcolemma as well as the cytoplasm of type I muscle fibers. Histochemical staining for cytochrome oxidase showed a staining pattern similar to that observed for type...... I NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase activity. Type III NO synthase immunoreactivity was observed both in the endothelium of larger vessels and of microvessels. The results establish that human skeletal muscle expresses two different constitutive isoforms of NO synthase in different...

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Horta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and peroxynitrite (ONOO− in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host cells and the effector cells. We also discuss the role of neutrophil-derived oxygen and nitrogen reactive species during infection with Leishmania. We emphasize the role of these cells in the outcome of leishmaniasis early after infection, before the adaptive Th-cell immune response.

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide and spirometry in respiratory health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Hannhart, B; Ghezzo, H; Teculescu, D; Zmirou-Navier, D

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to pollutants in bakeries and hairdressing salons can cause airway syndromes varying from bronchial irritation to asthma. Workplace respiratory health surveillance aims to identify possible cases requiring further investigation. To compare the performance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and spirometry for health surveillance of apprentice bakers (ABs) and apprentice hairdressers (AHDs). Determinants of FE(NO) were also identified. Symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire. FE(NO) was measured and spirometry was carried out. Subjects with elevated FE(NO) (FE(NO) > upper limit normal), airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) smokers compared with atopic smokers and non-atopic subjects (P spirometry were not overlapping dimensions in ABs and hairdressers, each test contributing unique information on the physiological status of the respiratory system. FE(NO) may provide added information on airway inflammation not provided by spirometry.

  7. Nitric Oxide And Hypoxia Response In Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Caballano Infantes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of pluripotent cells (ESCs and iPSCs under conditions that maintain their pluripotency is necessary to implement a cell therapy program. Previously, we have described that low nitric oxide (NO donor diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO added to the culture medium, promote the expansion of these cell types. The molecular mechanisms are not yet known. We present evidences that ESC and iPSCs in normoxia in presence of low NO triggers a similar response to hypoxia, thus maintaining the pluripotency. We have studied the stability of HIF-1α (Hypoxia Inducible Factor in presence of low NO. Because of the close relationship between hypoxia, metabolism, mitochondrial function and pluripotency we have analyzed by q RT-PCR the expression of genes involved in the glucose metabolism such as: HK2, LDHA and PDK1; besides other HIF-1α target gene. We further analyzed the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC1α, TFAM and NRF1 and we have observed that low NO maintains the same pattern of expression that in hypoxia. The study of the mitochondrial membrane potential using Mito-Tracker dye showed that NO decrease the mitochondrial function. We will analyze other metabolic parameters, to determinate if low NO regulates mitochondrial function and mimics Hypoxia Response. The knowledge of the role of NO in the Hypoxia Response and the mechanism that helps to maintain self-renewal in pluripotent cells in normoxia, can help to the design of culture media where NO could be optimal for stem cell expansion in the performance of future cell therapies.

  8. Radiosensitization of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro by nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Makepeace, Carol M.; Hur, Won-Joo; Song, Chang W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the radiosensitivity of SCK tumor cells in oxic and hypoxic environments in vitro were studied. Methods and Materials: NO was delivered to cell suspensions using the NO donors 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine sodium salt (DEA/NO), and a spermine/nitric oxide complex (SPER/NO), which release NO at half-lives of 2.1 min and 39 min at pH 7.4, respectively. The cells were suspended in media containing DEA/NO or SPER/NO for varying lengths of time under oxic or hypoxic conditions, irradiated, and the clonogenicity determined. Results: Both compounds markedly radiosensitized the hypoxic cells. The drug enhancement ratios (DER) for 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 mM DEA/NO were 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0, respectively, and those for 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 mM SPER/NO were 1.6, 2.3, and 2.8, respectively. Aerobic cells were not radiosensitized by DEA/NO or SPER/NO. When DEA/NO and SPER/NO were incubated in solution overnight to allow release of NO, they were found to have no radiosensitizing effect under hypoxic or oxic conditions indicating the sensitization by the NO donors was due to the NO molecule released from these drugs. At the higher concentrations, SPER/NO was found to be cytotoxic in aerobic conditions but not in hypoxic conditions. DEA/NO was only slightly toxic to the cells in both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions: NO released from NO donors DEA/NO and SPER/NO is as effective as oxygen to radiosensitize hypoxic cells in vitro. Its application to the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells in solid tumors remains to be investigated

  9. Decoding the substrate supply to human neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Simon

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide, produced by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS from L-arginine is an important second messenger molecule in the central nervous system: It influences the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters and plays an important role in long-term potentiation, long-term depression and neuroendocrine secretion. However, under certain pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis, excessive NO production can lead to tissue damage. It is thus desirable to control NO production in these situations. So far, little is known about the substrate supply to human nNOS as a determinant of its activity. Measuring bioactive NO via cGMP formation in reporter cells, we demonstrate here that nNOS in both, human A673 neuroepithelioma and TGW-nu-I neuroblastoma cells can be fast and efficiently nourished by extracellular arginine that enters the cells via membrane transporters (pool I that is freely exchangeable with the extracellular space. When this pool was depleted, NO synthesis was partially sustained by intracellular arginine sources not freely exchangeable with the extracellular space (pool II. Protein breakdown made up by far the largest part of pool II in both cell types. In contrast, citrulline to arginine conversion maintained NO synthesis only in TGW-nu-I neuroblastoma, but not A673 neuroepithelioma cells. Histidine mimicked the effect of protease inhibitors causing an almost complete nNOS inhibition in cells incubated additionally in lysine that depletes the exchangeable arginine pool. Our results identify new ways to modulate nNOS activity by modifying its substrate supply.

  10. Nitric oxide as a potential biomarker in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesina Avdagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum nitric oxide (NO concentration in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD patients and its use as potential biomarker in differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD and in disease activity assessment. In 60 patients of both genders - 30 with ulcerative colitis and 30 with Crohn's disease - and 30 controls serum nitric oxide concentration was determined by measuring nitrite concentration, a stable metabolic product of NO with oxygen. Conversion of nitrates (NO3- to nitrites (NO2- was done with elementary zinc. The nitrite concentration was determined by classic colorimetrical Griess reaction. Median serum NO concentration was statistically different (p=0,0005 between UC patients (15.25 µmol/L; 13.47 - 19.88 µmol/L, CD patients (14.54 µmol/L; 13.03 -16.32 µmol/L and healthy controls (13.29 µmol/L; 12.40 - 13.92 µmol/L. When active UC and CD patients were compared with inactive UC and CD patients respectively a significant difference in serum NO level was found (p=0.0005. With a cut-off level of 17.39 µmol/L NO had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in discriminating between active and inactive UC patients. With cut-off value of 14.01 µmol/L serum NO level had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 69% in distinguishing between patients with active CD and inactive CD. Serum NO concentration is a minimally invasive and rapid tool for discriminating between active and inactive IBD patients and could be used as useful biomarker in monitoring of disease activity in IBD patients.

  11. DMPD: Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17513437 Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and arginin...on of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. PubmedID 17513437 Title Regula...tion of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. A

  12. New nitric oxide donors based on ruthenium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Lunardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors produce NO-related activity when applied to biological systems. Among its diverse functions, NO has been implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Despite the great importance of NO in biological systems, its pharmacological and physiological studies have been limited due to its high reactivity and short half-life. In this review we will focus on our recent investigations of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes as NO-delivery agents and their effects on vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. The high affinity of ruthenium for NO is a marked feature of its chemistry. The main signaling pathway responsible for the vascular relaxation induced by NO involves the activation of soluble guanylyl-cyclase, with subsequent accumulation of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. This in turn can activate several proteins such as K+ channels as well as induce vasodilatation by a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+. Oxidative stress and associated oxidative damage are mediators of vascular damage in several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. The increased production of the superoxide anion (O2- by the vascular wall has been observed in different animal models of hypertension. Vascular relaxation to the endogenous NO-related response or to NO released from NO deliverers is impaired in vessels from renal hypertensive (2K-1C rats. A growing amount of evidence supports the possibility that increased NO inactivation by excess O2- may account for the decreased NO bioavailability and vascular dysfunction in hypertension.

  13. Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACHER, PÁL; BECKMAN, JOSEPH S.; LIAUDET, LUCAS

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review. PMID:17237348

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase catalyzes ethanol oxidation to alpha-hydroxyethyl radical and acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porasuphatana, Supatra; Weaver, John; Rosen, Gerald M

    2006-06-15

    The physiologic function of nitric oxide synthases, independent of the isozyme, is well established, metabolizing L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO). This enzyme can also transfer electrons to O2, affording superoxide (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We have demonstrated that NOS1, in the presence of L-arginine, can biotransform ethanol (EtOH) to alpha-hydroxyethyl radical (CH3*CHOH). We now report that a competent NOS2 with l-arginine can, like NOS1, oxidize EtOH to CH3*CHOH. Once this free radical is formed, it is metabolized to acetaldehyde as shown by LC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC analysis. These observations suggest that NOS2 can behave similarly to cytochrome P-450 in the catalysis of acetaldehyde formation from ethanol via the generation of alpha-hydroxyethyl radical when L-arginine is present.

  15. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  16. Low temperature thermal oxidation of nitric oxide in polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Oliver; Ljungström, Evert; Svensson, Roger

    High concentrations of NO x (1500ppb) and high NO → NO2 conversion rates (100ppbh -1) have been measured in Göteborg during winter-time inversion periods. The conversion takes place without being significantly affected by light and the ozone concentration is always extremely low on these occasions. The dependence of the thermal oxidation 2 NO+ O2→ 2 NO2 on temperature, humidity and catalytic activity of different surfaces has been investigated in an extensive kinetic study. The reaction rate has a strong negative temperature dependence with apparent activation energies of -3.5 kj mole -1 for r.h. = 55 % and -7.3 kj mole -1for dry conditions. The reaction is surface catalysed and the experiments indicate that the thermal oxidation takes place in two steps, one rapid equilibrium reaction, forming intermediates such as N 2O 2 or NO 3, and one rate-determining step in which NO 2 is formed. The presence of an aerosol surface increased the reaction rate very slightly, while street surface material had a more significant influence. When the flow reactor walls were coated with salt-snow or road dirt mixtures to simulate the surface of a winter street, the reaction rate increased typically to 3.5 × 10 4M -2s -1 from 2.1 ×10 4M -2s -1 for a clean reactor at -2°C. These values should be compared with the generally accepted value for the reaction rate, which is 1.5 × 10 4M -2s -1 at 25°C. The experimental results allow conversion rates of ~100 NOppbh -1 at rush hours and ~ 40 NO ppb h -1 for normal or low traffic to be rationalized in terms of the thermal NO → NO2 reaction only, at an NO concentration of ~ 1000 ppb.

  17. Elevated circulating nitric oxide levels correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Fatma; Türkön, Hakan; Pek, Eren; Ozturk, Filiz Halici; Ünsal, Mesut

    2018-02-01

    Since the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for ongoing oxidative stress in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) patients have not yet been fully elucidated, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and other oxidative stress markers in the disease pathophysiology. Moreover, the relation between oxidative stress markers and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was also investigated. Women with pregnancies complicated by HEG (n = 33) were compared with pregnant women without HEG (n = 30) and with healthy non-pregnant women (n = 31). Serum NO, MDA, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and H. pylori infection status were determined for each subject. Serum NO levels and OSI index were found to be increased (p = .001 and .013, respectively) and TAS levels were decreased (p Hyperemesis gravidarum is an oxidative stress condition, as reflected by increased nitric oxide (NO) and decreased total antioxidant status activity, regardless of H. Pylori infection. What are the implications for clinical practice and/or further research? Full disclosure of the association between circulating NO and hyperemesis gravidarum would shed light on underlying biological mechanisms and could help clinical management of similar pregnancy-associated morbidity states.

  18. Effects of nitric oxide on neuromuscular properties of developing zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jay

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a bioactive signalling molecule that is known to affect a wide range of neurodevelopmental processes. However, its functional relevance to neuromuscular development is not fully understood. Here we have examined developmental roles of nitric oxide during formation and maturation of neuromuscular contacts in zebrafish. Using histochemical approaches we show that elevating nitric oxide levels reduces the number of neuromuscular synapses within the axial swimming muscles whilst inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis has the opposite effect. We further show that nitric oxide signalling does not change synapse density, suggesting that the observed effects are a consequence of previously reported changes in motor axon branch formation. Moreover, we have used in vivo patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of nitric oxide on physiological maturation of zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. We show that developmental exposure to nitric oxide affects the kinetics of spontaneous miniature end plate currents and impacts the neuromuscular drive for locomotion. Taken together, our findings implicate nitrergic signalling in the regulation of zebrafish neuromuscular development and locomotor maturation.

  19. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-04-01

    Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  20. Detection of nitric acid and nitric oxides in the terrestrial atmosphere in the middle-infrared spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Blecka

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for combined space and ground-based observations of the vertical distributions and the column densities of nitric acid and nitric oxide concentrations in the earth's atmosphere is discussed. We focus on the aspects that are particular to the idea of correlative measurements: geometrical considerations, simulations of the solar absorption spectra in the middle-infrared region corresponding to the different observational geometries, and the associated retrieval methods. These studies are done specifically for the Belgian-French experiment MIRAS (MIR Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and correlative ground-based FTIR measurements in the Tatra mountains.

  1. Nitric oxide and superoxide: interference with hypoxic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Bernhard; Zhou, Jie

    2007-07-15

    Sensing and responding to changes in oxygen partial pressure assures that the cellular oxygen supply is tightly controlled in order to balance the risks of oxidative damage vs. oxygen deficiency. The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) regulatory system is controlled by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), the von Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL), and the 26S proteasome and transduces changes in oxygenation to adequate intracellular adaptive responses. A functional HIF response requires stabilization of the alpha-subunit, e.g. HIF-1alpha, during hypoxia and dimerization with HIF-1beta, to drive target gene activation. Intriguingly, high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) stabilize HIF-1alpha and thus mimic a hypoxic response under normoxia. Mechanistically, NO blocks PHD activity and attenuates proline hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha. This causes dissociation of pVHL from HIF-1alpha and, consequently, HIF-1alpha accumulates because proteasomal destruction is impaired. However, during hypoxia low concentrations of NO facilitate destruction of HIF-1alpha and thus reverse HIF signaling. Under these conditions, NO impairs respiration and avoids oxygen gradients that limit PHD activity. An additional layer of complexity comprises the interaction of NO with O(2)(-). Signaling qualities attributed to NO are antagonized by compensatory flux rates of O(2)(-) and vice versa to adjust levels of HIF-1alpha under normoxia and hypoxia. The liaison of NO and hypoxia is versatile and ranges from courting to matrimony and divorce.

  2. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite: lessons from extreme animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Jensen, Frank B

    2015-03-01

    Among vertebrates able to tolerate periods of oxygen deprivation, the painted and red-eared slider turtles (Chrysemys picta and Trachemys scripta) and the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) are the most extreme and can survive even months of total lack of oxygen during winter. The key to hypoxia survival resides in concerted physiological responses, including strong metabolic depression, protection against oxidative damage and-in air-breathing animals-redistribution of blood flow. Each of these responses is known to be tightly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and during hypoxia by its metabolite nitrite. The aim of this review is to highlight recent work illustrating the widespread roles of NO and nitrite in the tolerance to extreme oxygen deprivation, in particular in the red-eared slider turtle and crucian carp, but also in diving marine mammals. The emerging picture underscores the importance of NO and nitrite signaling in the adaptive response to hypoxia in vertebrate animals. ©2015 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  3. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the nucleus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Chantale; Choufani, Faten; Avedanian, Levon; Bkaily, Ghassan; Gobeil, Fernand; Jacques, Danielle

    2010-03-01

    Recent work from our group showed that the nuclear envelope membranes contain several G protein-coupled receptors, including prostaglandin E2 (EP3R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors. Activation of EP3R increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) RNA expression in nuclei. eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) are reported to also be present at the nuclear level. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also localized at the nuclear level. In this review, we show that stimulation with NO donor sodium nitroprusside results in an increase of intranuclear calcium that was dependent on guanylate cyclase activation, but independent of MAPK. This increase in nuclear calcium correlated with an increase in nuclear transcription of iNOS. H2O2 and ET-1 increase both cytosolic and nuclear ROS in human endocardial endothelial cells and in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. This increase in ROS levels by H2O2 and ET-1 was reversed by the antioxidant glutathione. In addition, our results strongly suggest that cytosolic signalization is not only transmitted to the nucleus but is also generated by the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxidative stress can be sensed by the nucleus. These results highly suggest that ROS formation is also generated directly by the nucleus and that free radicals may contribute to ET-1 regulation of nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis.

  4. Carvedilol stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, K; Ikeda, U; Maeda, Y; Shimada, K

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the beta-adrenergic blocker carvedilol on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in cardiac myocytes. We measured the accumulation of nitrite, a stable oxidation product of NO, and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Incubation of the cultures with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta; 10 ng/ml) caused a marked increase in nitrite production. Although carvedilol alone showed no effect on nitrite accumulation, it significantly enhanced IL-1 beta-induced nitrite production by cardiac myocytes. The effect of carvedilol was completely abolished in the presence of aminoguanidine or actinomycin D. The nitrite production enhanced by carvedilol was accompanied by increased iNOS protein expression. Unlike carvedilol, other beta-blockers, namely propranolol, atenolol and arotinolol, did not enhance IL-1 beta-induced nitrite production. Addition of isoproterenol significantly increased nitrite production by IL-1 beta-stimulated cardiac myocytes. Atenolol suppressed this isoproterenol-induced nitrite accumulation, while carvedilol further increased the nitrite accumulation. These findings indicate that carvedilol increases NO synthesis in IL-1 beta-stimulated rat cardiac myocytes by a beta-adrenoceptor-independent mechanism. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, is often present in diabetic (DB patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J (db/db mice (10 weeks old and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic, IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic, IADB (intermittent air diabetic, and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice.

  6. Nitric oxide and nitrosative stress tolerance in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Anna; Gow, Neil A.R.; Brown, Alistair J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans encounters diverse environmental stresses when it is in contact with its host. When colonising and invading human tissues C. albicans is exposed to reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). ROS and RNI are generated in the first line of host defence by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. In order to escape these host-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses C. albicans has developed various detoxification mechanisms. One such mechanism is the detoxification of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate by the flavohaemoglobin enzyme, CaYhb1. Members of the haemoglobin superfamily are highly conserved and are found in archaea, eukaryotes, and bacteria. Flavohemoglobins have a dioxygenase activity (NOD) and contain three domains: a globin domain, an FAD-binding domain, and an NAD(P)-binding domain. Here we examine the nitrosative stress response in three fungal models: the pathogenic yeast C. albicans, the benign budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the benign fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We compare their enzymatic and non-enzymatic NO and RNI detoxification mechanisms and summarise fungal responses to nitrosative stress. PMID:21265777

  7. Nitric oxide levels are not changed in saliva of patients infected with hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Fernando N.; Gonçalves, Patricia L.; Porto, Simone A.C.; Pereira, Fausto E.L.; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine nitric oxide metabolite levels in saliva samples from hepatitis C virus-positive patients in an attempt to test the hypothesis if increased levels of nitric oxide metabolites correlates with the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva. Saliva of 39 HCV-positive patients and 13 HCV-negative patients, without clinical or laboratorial evidence of liver disease were tested for nitric oxide metabolites. HCV-RNA was detected in serum and saliva by a RT-PCR metho...

  8. Nitric oxide alleviates wheat yield reduction by protecting photosynthetic system from oxidation of ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caihong; Song, Yanjie; Guo, Liyue; Gu, Xian; Muminov, Mahmud A; Wang, Tianzuo

    2018-05-01

    Accelerated industrialization has been increasing releases of chemical precursors of ozone. Ozone concentration has risen nowadays, and it's predicted that this trend will continue in the next few decades. The yield of many ozone-sensitive crops suffers seriously from ozone pollution, and there are abundant reports exploring the damage mechanisms of ozone to these crops, such as winter wheat. However, little is known on how to alleviate these negative impacts to increase grain production under elevated ozone. Nitric oxide, as a bioactive gaseous, mediates a variety of physiological processes and plays a central role in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide in wheat leaves was found to increase in response to ozone. To study the functions of nitric oxide, its precursor sodium nitroprusside was spayed to wheat leaves under ozone pollution. Wheat leaves spayed with sodium nitroprusside accumulated less hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under ozone pollution, which can be accounted for by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase than in leaves treated without sodium nitroprusside. Consequently, net photosynthetic rate of wheat treated using sodium nitroprusside was much higher, and yield reduction was alleviated under ozone fumigation. These findings are important for our understanding of the potential roles of nitric oxide in responses of crops in general and wheat in particular to ozone pollution, and provide a viable method to mitigate the detrimental effects on crop production induced by ozone pollution, which is valuable for keeping food security worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitric Oxide as a Regulator of B. anthracis Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei G Popov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a key physiological regulator in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It can cause a variety of biological effects by reacting with its targets or/and indirectly inducing oxidative stress. NO can also be produced by bacteria including the pathogenic B. anthracis; however its role in the infectious process only begins to emerge. NO incapacitates macrophages by S-nitrosylating the intracellular proteins and protects B. anthracis from oxidative stress. It is also implicated in the formation of toxic peroxynitrite. In this study we further assessed the effects of B. anthracis NO produced by the NO synthase (bNOS on bacterial metabolism and host cells in experiments with the bNOS knockout Sterne strain. The mutation abrogated accumulation of nitrite and nitrate as tracer products of NO in the culture medium and markedly attenuated growth in both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The regulatory role of NO was also suggested by the abnormally high rate of nitrate denitrification by the mutant in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic regulation mediated by NO was reflected in reduced fermentation of glucose by the mutant correlating with the reduced toxicity of bacteria toward host cells in culture. The toxic effect of NO required permeabilization of the target cells as well as the activity of fermentation-derived metabolite in the conditions of reduced pH. The host cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of major survivor protein kinase AKT correlating with reduced toxicity of the mutant in comparison with Sterne. Our global proteomic analysis of lymph from the lymph nodes of infected mice harboring bacteria revealed numerous changes in the pattern and levels of proteins associated with the activity of bNOS influencing key cell physiological processes relevant to energy metabolism, growth, signal transduction, stress response, septic shock and homeostasis. This is the first in vivo observation of the bacterial NO effect on the

  10. Adrenoreceptors and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eConti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric Oxide (NO is a small molecule that continues to attract much attention from the scientific community.Since its discovery, it has been evident that NO has a crucial role in the modulation of vascular tone. NO is involved in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. NO effects can be either dependent or independent on cGMP, and rely also upon several mechanisms such as the amount of NO, the compartmentalisation of the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis (NOS, and the local redox conditions. Several evidences highlighted the correlation among adrenoreceptors activity, vascular redox status and NO bioavailability. It was suggested a possible crosstalk between NO and oxidative stress hallmarks in the endothelium function and adaptation, and in sympathetic vasoconstriction control. Adrenergic vasoconstriction is a balance between a direct vasoconstrictive effect on smooth muscle and an indirect vasorelaxant action caused by α2- and β-adrenergic endothelial receptor-triggered NO release. An increased oxidative stress and a reduction of NO bioavailability shifts this equilibrium causing the enhanced vascular adrenergic responsiveness observed in hypertension.The activity of NOS contributes to manage the adrenergic pathway, thus supporting the idea that the endothelium might control or facilitate β-adrenergic effects on the vessels and the polymorphic variants in β2-receptors and NOS isoforms could influence aging, some pathological conditions and individual responses to drugs. This seems to be dependent, almost in part, on differences in the control of vascular tone exerted by NO. Given its involvement in such important mechanisms, the NO pathway is implicated in aging process and in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Thus, it is essential to pinpoint NO involvement in the regulation of vascular tone for the effective clinical/therapeutic management of

  11. Nitric oxide-cytokinin interplay influences selenite sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotai, Nóra; Feigl, Gábor; Koós, Ágnes; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Pető, Andrea; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2016-10-01

    Selenite oppositely modifies cytokinin and nitric oxide metabolism in Arabidopsis organs. A mutually negative interplay between the molecules exists in selenite-exposed roots; and their overproduction causes selenite insensitivity. Selenium-induced phytotoxicity is accompanied by developmental alterations such as primary root (PR) shortening. Growth changes are provoked by the modulation of hormone status and signalling. Cytokinin (CK) cooperates with the nitric oxide (NO) in many aspects of plant development; however, their interaction under abiotic stress has not been examined. Selenite inhibited the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and reduced root meristem size through cell division arrest. The CK-dependent pARR5::GUS activity revealed the intensification of CK signalling in the PR tip, which may be partly responsible for the root meristem shortening. The selenite-induced alterations in the in situ expressions of cytokinin oxidases (AtCKX4::GUS, AtCKX5::GUS) are associated with selenite-triggered changes of CK signalling. In wild-type (WT) and NO-deficient nia1nia2 root, selenite led to the diminution of NO content, but CK overproducer ipt-161 and -deficient 35S:CKX2 roots did not show NO decrease. Exogenous NO (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, SNAP) reduced the pARR5::GFP and pTCS::GFP expressions. Roots of the 35S:CKX and cyr1 plants suffered more severe selenite-triggered viability loss than the WT, while in ipt-161 and gsnor1-3 no obvious viability decrease was observed. Exogenous NO ameliorated viability loss, but benzyladenine intensified it. Based on the results, selenite impacts development by oppositely modifying CK signalling and NO level. In the root system, CK signalling intensifies which possibly contributes to the nitrate reductase-independent NO diminution. A mutually negative CK-NO interplay exists in selenite-exposed roots; however, overproduction of both molecules worsens selenite sensing. Hereby, we suggest novel regulatory interplay and

  12. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelle, P.A.; Aneja, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3 - -N -1 dry weight, NH 3 -N∼23,080mg Nkg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N∼41,700mg Nkg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9ngNm -2 s -1 . Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±l.7ngNm -2 s -1 . The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0ng Nm -2 s -1 . An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed

  13. Dual inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E-2 production by polysubstituted 2-aminopyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Z.; Kverka, Miloslav; Dusilová, Adéla; Kmoníčková, E.; Jansa, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, July 1 (2016), s. 48-56 ISSN 1089-8603 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pyrimidines * Nitric oxide * Prostaglandin E-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.181, year: 2016

  14. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of soil nitric oxide (NO) flux, soil moisture, and soil nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) concentration measurements on Cerrado...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of soil nitric oxide (NO) flux, soil moisture, and soil nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) concentration measurements on...

  16. Arginase strongly impairs neuronal nitric oxide-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, H; Leusink, J; Bos, IST; Zaagsma, J; Meurs, H

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using guinea pig tracheal preparations, we have recently shown that endogenous arginase activity attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) nerve-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) production - due to competition with neuronal

  17. Hypotensive effect of hydroxylamine, an endogenous nitric oxide donor and SSAO inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Medina, M

    2007-01-01

    The endogenous compound hydroxylamine relaxes vascular smooth muscle in vitro, apparently through conversion to the vasodilator factor nitric oxide, but its effect on blood pressure has not been characterized. We found that in the anesthetized rat the amine elicits dose-related hypotension when administered by continuous iv infusion. In experiments designed to explore the mechanism of this effect, hydroxylamine was compared with the nitric oxide donor nitroprusside and the direct-acting vasodilator hydralazine, using pretreatments known to modify diverse mechanisms of vasodilation. Hydroxylamine hypotension was enhanced by the SSAO inhibitor isoniazid and the SSAO substrate methylamine, a pattern shared by hydralazine. Responses were blocked by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and were increased by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, a pattern shared by nitroprusside. It was concluded that hydroxylamine exerts hypotension partly through conversion to nitric oxide and partly by a "hydralazine-like" mechanism involving SSAO inhibition.

  18. Calcium-activated potassium channels - a therapeutic target for modulating nitric oxide in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Cardiovascular risk factors are often associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is also prognostic for occurrence of cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction is reflected by blunted vasodilatation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Endothelium...

  19. Involvement of nitric oxide in human transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal primary peristalsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Holloway, R. H.; Tytgat, G. N.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) is well accepted as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract; however, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in humans remains to be determined. Therefore, the effect of

  20. Arginase attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-induced nitric oxide generation and airway smooth muscle relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, H; Tio, MA; Zaagsma, J; Meurs, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that endogenous arginase activity potentiates airway responsiveness to methacholine by attenuation of agonist-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, presumably by competition with epithelial constitutive NO synthase for the common substrate, L-arginine. Using

  1. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  2. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  3. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental

  4. The Validity of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in Breath Condensate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Validity of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in Breath Condensate in the Evaluation of Controlled Asthma. Ahmed Elsayed Elhefny, Sahar Mohammad Mourad, Tamer Saeed Morsy, Maher Abdelnbi Kamel, Haydi Moustafa Mohamed ...

  5. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  6. Physiology of nitric oxide in the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosova, M; Mokra, D; Pepucha, L; Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Sterusky, M; Bencova, A

    2017-09-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous neurotransmitter and mediator. It participates in regulation of physiological processes in different organ systems including airways. Therefore, it is important to clarify its role in the regulation of both airway and vascular smooth muscle, neurotransmission and neurotoxicity, mucus transport, lung development and in the. surfactant production. The bioactivity of NO is highly variable and depends on many factors: the presence and activity of NO-producing enzymes, activity of competitive enzymes (e.g. arginase), the amount of substrate for the NO production, the presence of reactive oxygen species and others. All of these can change NO primary physiological role into potentially harmful. The borderline between them is very fragile and in many cases not entirely clear. For this reason, the research focuses on a comprehensive understanding of NO synthesis and its metabolic pathways, genetic polymorphisms of NO synthesizing enzymes and related effects. Research is also motivated by frequent use of exhaled NO monitoring in the clinical manifestations of respiratory diseases. The review focuses on the latest knowledge about the production and function of this mediator and understanding the basic physiological processes in the airways.

  7. Differential modulation of nitric oxide synthases in aging: therapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stêfany Bruno De Assis Cau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging is the term that describes the structural and functional disturbances of the vasculature with advancing aging. The molecular mechanisms of aging-associated endothelial dysfunction are complex, but reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and altered vascular expression and activity of NO synthase (NOS enzymes have been implicated as major players. Impaired vascular relaxation in aging has been attributed to reduced endothelial NOS (eNOS-derived NO, while increased inducible NOS (iNOS expression seems to account for nitrosative stress and disrupted vascular homeostasis. Although eNOS is considered the main source of NO in the vascular endothelium, neuronal NOS (nNOS also contributes to endothelial cells-derived NO, a mechanism that is reduced in aging. Pharmacological modulation of NO generation and expression/activity of NOS isoforms may represent a therapeutic alternative to prevent the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, this review will focus on drugs that modulate NO bioavailability, such as nitrite anions and NO-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone and estrogen, statins, resveratrol and folic acid, since they may be useful to treat/to prevent aging-associated vascular dysfunction. The impact of these therapies on life quality in elderly and longevity will be discussed.

  8. Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors, and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species, and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)═NO(-)], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates.

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  10. Genetic biosensors for imaging nitric oxide in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Emrah; Charoensin, Suphachai; Bischof, Helmut; Ramadani, Jeta; Gottschalk, Benjamin; Depaoli, Maria R; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Graier, Wolfgang F; Malli, Roland

    2018-02-01

    Over the last decades a broad collection of sophisticated fluorescent protein-based probes was engineered with the aim to specifically monitor nitric oxide (NO), one of the most important signaling molecules in biology. Here we report and discuss the characteristics and fields of applications of currently available genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for the detection of NO and its metabolites in different cell types. Because of its radical nature and short half-life, real-time imaging of NO on the level of single cells is challenging. Herein we review state-of-the-art genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for NO and its byproducts such as peroxynitrite, nitrite and nitrate. Such probes enable the real-time visualization of NO signals directly or indirectly on the level of single cells and cellular organelles and, hence, extend our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of NO formation, diffusion and degradation. Here, we discuss the significance of NO detection in individual cells and on subcellular level with genetic biosensors. Currently available genetically encoded fluorescent probes for NO and nitrogen species are critically discussed in order to provide insights in the functionality and applicability of these promising tools. As an outlook we provide ideas for novel approaches for the design and application of improved NO probes and fluorescence imaging protocols. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of nitric oxide-liberating cream on pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Farideh; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Pakniyat, Soroush; Namazi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-03-01

    Tinea versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Tinea versicolor is a common disease and has a high rate of recurrence. This is a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Faghihi Hospital Dermatology Department. Participants were older than 10 years with a clinical diagnosis of tinea versicolor and positive KOH preparation, and were divided in two groups: active and control (32 individuals in each). They were randomized to receive either nitric oxide (NO)-liberating cream as the active group and placebo as a control. Creams were applied twice daily on the affected sites for 10 days. Sixty-four patients were entered into the study (31 male and 33 female). No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of severity, age and sex distribution. There was significant improvement with acidified nitrite cream in the active group after 10 days (p = 0.000). NO is an important cytotoxic effector in immune defense against fungi that are too large to phagocyte. This study shows the efficacy of an exogenous NO-releasing cream in treating tinea versicolor.

  12. Nitric oxide measurements in the Arctic winter stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, D.W. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA)); Kawa, S.R. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA)); Chan, K.R. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) from five flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) are presented. The NO values and vertical gradient near 60{degree}N latitude are similar to previous measurements near 50{degree}N in winter (Ridley et al., 1984; 1987). The NO latitudinal gradient is distinctly negative outside of the polar vortex, approaching zero at the boundary of the vortex, and remaining below the 20 pptv detection limit inside the vortex. The low NO values in the vortex occur at solar zenith angles as low as 82{degree} indicating that NO{sub 2} values in the vortex are also low. Steady state NO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} (NO+NO{sub 2}) are calculated from measured NO, O{sub 3}, and ClO, and modeled photodissociation rates. NO{sub x} outside the vortex shows a negative dependence on latitude and solar zenith angle. The average ratio of NO{sub x} to NO{sub y} (at the same relative latitudes from different flight days) shows a strong latitude gradient with values near 0.08 at 12{degree} equatorward of the vortex edge, decreasing to less than 0.02 at the vortex boundary. Low NO{sub x} and NO{sub x}/NO{sub y} inside and near the vortex boundary may be indications of heterogeneous removal of ClONO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of nitric oxide in myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Won; Meuwly, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ligand migration of photodissociated nitric oxide (NO) in and around the active sites in myoglobin (Mb) are investigated. A distributed multipolar model for open-shell systems is developed and used, which allows one to realistically describe the charge distribution around the diatomic probe molecule. The IR spectra were computed from the trajectories for two conformational substates at various temperatures. The lines are narrow (width of 3–7 cm–1 at 20–100 K), in agreement with the experimental observations where they have widths of 4–5 cm–1 at 4 K. It is found that within one conformational substate (B or C) the splitting of the spectrum can be correctly described compared with recent experiments. Similar to photodissociated CO in Mb, additional substates exist for NO in Mb, which are separated by barriers below 1 kcal/mol. Contrary to full quantum mechanical calculations, however, the force field and mixed QM/MM simulations do not correctly describe the relative shifts between the B- and C-states relative to gas-phase NO. Free energy simulations establish that NO preferably localizes in the distal site and the barrier for migration to the neighboring Xe4 pocket is ΔGB→C = 1.7–2.0 kcal/mol. The reverse barrier is ΔGB←C = 0.7 kcal/mol, which agrees well with the experimental value of 0.7 kcal/mol, estimated from kinetic data.

  14. Structural dynamics controls nitric oxide affinity in nitrophorin 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Maes, Estelle M; Weichsel, Andrzej; Montfort, William R; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2004-09-17

    Nitrophorin 4 (NP4) is one of seven nitric oxide (NO) transporting proteins in the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus. In its physiological function, NO binds to a ferric iron centered in a highly ruffled heme plane. Carbon monoxide (CO) also binds after reduction of the heme iron. Here we have used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures to study CO and NO binding and migration in NP4, complemented by x-ray cryo-crystallography on xenon-containing NP4 crystals to identify cavities that may serve as ligand docking sites. Multiple infrared stretching bands of the heme-bound ligands indicate different active site conformations with varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Narrow infrared stretching bands are observed for photodissociated CO and NO; temperature-derivative spectroscopy shows that these bands are associated with ligand docking sites close to the extremely reactive heme iron. No rebinding from distinct secondary sites was detected, although two xenon binding cavities were observed in the x-ray structure. Photolysis studies at approximately 200 K show efficient NO photoproduct formation in the more hydrophilic, open NP4 conformation. This result suggests that ligand escape is facilitated in this conformation, and blockage of the active site by water hinders immediate reassociation of NO to the ferric iron. In the closed, low-pH conformation, ligand escape from the active site of NP4 is prevented by an extremely reactive heme iron and the absence of secondary ligand docking sites.

  15. Nitric oxide synthetase and Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing appendicectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether Helicobacter pylori forms part of the normal microenvironment of the appendix, whether it plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, and whether it is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) in appendicular macrophages. METHODS: Serology for H. pylori was performed on 51 consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy. Appendix samples were tested for urease activity, cultured and stained for H. pylori, graded according to the degree of inflammatory infiltrate, and probed immunohistochemically for iNOS expression. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 21 (range 7-51) years. Seventeen patients (33 per cent) were seropositive for H. pylori but no evidence of H. pylori was found in any appendix specimen. However, an enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in seropositive patients (P < 0.04) and the expression of macrophage iNOS in the mucosa of normal and inflamed appendix specimens was increased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: H. pylori does not colonize the appendix and is unlikely to be a pathogenic stimulus for appendicitis. Priming effects on mucosal immunology downstream from the foregut may occur after infection with H. pylori.

  16. Evaluation of Mapleson systems for administration of inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, I; Okamoto, K; Sato, T; Shibata, Y; Shiihara, K; Kikuta, K

    1996-03-01

    To assess the safety of nitric oxide (NO) inhalation during manual-controlled ventilation using Mapleson A, D, and F systems, we examined nitrogen dioxide (NO2) production using a chemiluminescence analyzer. The NO concentration was changed from 0 to 19 parts per million (ppm), and at each level of NO the oxygen (O2) concentration was changed from 21% to 100%. The NO2 concentration was observed to increase when either the O2 or NO concentration was increased. The maximum NO2 concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) of the Mapleson A, D, and F systems were 0.20±0.03, 0.15±0.03, and 0.17±0.02 ppm, respectively, when the concentrations of NO and O2 were 19 ppm and 100%, respectively. The NO2 concentrations of the Mapleson A system were significantly higher than those of either the Mapleson D or F system at 4, 8, and 12 ppm NO and 100% O2, and than that of the Mapleson D system at 19 ppm NO and 100% O2. From the viewpoint of NO2 production, we suggest that the Mapleson D and F systems are safer than the Mapleson A system when manual-controlled ventilation is required.

  17. Postprandial lipids accelerate and redirect nitric oxide consumption in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Kurt; Schroeder, Hobe J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and O2 are both three-to four-fold more soluble in biological lipids than in aqueous solutions. Their higher concentration within plasma lipids accelerates NO autoxidation to an extent that may be of importance to overall NO bioactivity. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that increased plasma lipids after a high-fat meal appreciably accelerate NO metabolism and alter the byproducts formed. We found that plasma collected from subjects after consumption of a single high-fat meal had a higher capacity for NO consumption and consumed NO more rapidly compared to fasting plasma. This increased NO consumption showed a direct correlation with plasma triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.006). The accelerated NO consumption in postprandial plasma was reversed by removal of the lipids from the plasma, was mimicked by the addition of hydrophobic micelles to aqueous buffer, and could not be explained by the presence of either free hemoglobin or ceruloplasmin. The products of NO consumption were shifted in postprandial plasma, with 55% more nitrite (n = 12, p = 0.002) but 50% less SNO (n = 12, p = 0.03) production compared to matched fasted plasma. Modeling calculations indicated that NO autoxidation was accelerated by about 48-fold in the presence of plasma lipids. We conclude that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert a significant influence on NO metabolism in plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitric oxide removal by wastewater bacteria in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hejingying; Leung, Dennis Y C; Wong, Chifat; Zhang, Tong; Chan, Mayngor; Leung, Fred C C

    2014-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important air pollutants in atmosphere mainly emitted from combustion source. A biotrickling filter was designed and operated to remove NO from an air stream using bacteria extracted from the sewage sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant. To obtain the best operation conditions for the biotrickling filter, orthogonal experiments (L9(3(4))) were designed. Inlet oxygen concentration was found to be the most significant factor of the biotrickling filter and has a significant negative effect on the system. The optimal conditions of the biotrickling filter occurred at a temperature of 40°C, a pH of 8.0 and a chemical oxygen demand of 165 mg/L in the recycled water with no oxygen in the system. The bacteria sample was detected by DNA sequencing technology and showed 93%-98% similarity to Pseudomonas mendocina. Moreover, a full gene sequencing results indicated the bacterium was a brand new strain and named as P. mendocina DLHK. This strain can transfer nitrate to organic nitrogen. The result suggested the assimilation nitrogen process in this system. Through the isotope experimental analysis, two intermediate products ((15)NO and (15)N2O) were found. The results indicated the denitrification function and capability of the biotrickling filter in removing NO. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitric Oxide: A Multitasked Signaling Gas in Plants

    KAUST Repository

    Domingos, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has evolved as a signaling hormone in many physiological processes in animals. In plants it has been demonstrated to be a crucial regulator of development, acting as a signaling molecule present at each step of the plant life cycle. NO has also been implicated as a signal in biotic and abiotic responses of plants to the environment. Remarkably, despite this plethora of effects and functional relationships, the fundamental knowledge of NO production, sensing, and transduction in plants remains largely unknown or inadequately characterized. In this review we cover the current understanding of NO production, perception, and action in different physiological scenarios. We especially address the issues of enzymatic and chemical generation of NO in plants, NO sensing and downstream signaling, namely the putative cGMP and Ca2+ pathways, ion-channel activity modulation, gene expression regulation, and the interface with other ROS, which can have a profound effect on both NO accumulation and function. We also focus on the importance of NO in cell–cell communication during developmental processes and sexual reproduction, namely in pollen tube guidance and embryo sac fertilization, pathogen defense, and responses to abiotic stress.

  20. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  1. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Fernandes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

  2. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nitric oxide cycle in mammals and the cyclicity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, V P

    2002-03-01

    This paper continues a series of reports considering nitric oxide (NO) and its cyclic conversions in mammals. Numerous facts are summarized with the goal of developing a general concept that would allow the statement of the multiple effects of NO on various systems of living organisms in the form of a short and comprehensive law. The current state of biological aspects of NO research is analyzed in term of elucidation of possible role of these studies in the system of biological sciences. The general concept is based on a notion on cyclic conversions of NO and its metabolites. NO cycles in living organisms and nitrogen turnover in the biosphere and also the Bethe nitrogen-carbon cycle in star matter are considered. A hypothesis that the cyclic organization of processes in living organisms and the biosphere reflects the evolution of life is proposed: the development of physiological functions and metabolism are suggested to be closely related to space and evolution of the Earth as a planet of the Solar System.

  4. Longevity of Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth inflorescences treated with nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO acts as anti senescence substance, which may extend the postharvest life of fruits, vegetables and flowers when they are treated with micro molar concentrations of compounds like the donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP. This work aimed to evaluate the effect pulsing or spraying of NO on the longevity of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences. After harvested, the inflorescences were pulsed for 6, 24 or 48 hours with 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 µM SNP or sprayed until run off with the same mentioned solutions. Controls were treated with distilled water. After the treatment, the flowers were placed in deionized water, which was changed every 2 days. No significant differences were observed on the longevity of flowers treated with 5, 10, 50 or 100 µM SNP, regardless of the mode of application. Inflorescences treated with 500 µM SNP had reduced longevity and increased flower abscission. In inflorescences kept in SNP solution, toxic symptoms such as darkening of the labellum resulting in reduced longevity compared with the control. The longevity of inflorescences sprayed with 500 µM SNP reduced from 6.8±0.57 to 5.1±0.82 days. Collectively, NO treatments were not able to extend the shelf life of E. ibaguense inflorescences and high concentrations of the NO donor compound in vase solution or spraying leads to toxicity symptoms on the flower labellum.

  5. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Gene Knockout of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Impaired Adaptation of Mouse Optokinetic Response Eye Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh, Akira; Kitazawa, Hiromasa; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Nagao, Soichi

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in synaptic transmission efficiency in the central nervous system. To gain an insight on the role of NO in cerebellar functions, we, here, measured the dynamics of the horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR), and the adaptation of HOKR in mice locally injected with NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) that inhibits NO synthesis and in mice devoid of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Local application of L-NMMA into the cer...

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms (G894T) in diabetes mellitus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-baz1 ; Farouk2; Tag Eldin2; Ezat2

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes. Genetic predisposition has been implicated in DN. The eNOS protein synthesizes nitric oxide constitutively via a reaction including the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, which involves the transfer of five electrons provided by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of G894T polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) ...

  7. Continuous electrochemical monitoring of nitric oxide production in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekarová, Michaela; Králová, Jana; Kubala, Lukáš; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Gregor, Č.; Hrbáč, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 394, č. 5 (2009), s. 1497-1504 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP524/05/P135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nitric oxide * macrophage s RAW 264.7 * nitric oxide sensor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.480, year: 2009

  8. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Lucía; Necakov, Aleksandar S.; Schwartz, Carol; Kimber, Sandra; Roberts, Ian J.H.; Krause, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide gas acts as a short-range signaling molecule in a vast array of important physiological processes, many of which include major changes in gene expression. How these genomic responses are induced, however, is poorly understood. Here, using genetic and chemical manipulations, we show that nitric oxide is produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer part...

  9. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved in the induction of NGF induced neck muscle nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Isaak, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck muscle nociception mediated by nitric oxide may play a role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache.OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses the involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the facilitation of neck muscle nociception after local application of nerve growth factor (NGF).METHODS: After administration of NGF into semispinal neck muscles, the impact of neck muscle noxious input on brainstem processing was monitored by the jaw-opening reflex in an...

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: a potential therapeutic target for cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinqiang; Song, Wanshan; Li, Lin; Fan, Xiang

    2016-03-22

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signaling molecule that regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF), playing a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. However, achieving the expected therapeutic efficacy is difficult using direct administration of NO donors. Therefore, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) becomes a potential therapeutic target for cerebrovascular diseases. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the importance of CBF to cerebrovascular function, and the roles of NO and eNOS in CBF regulation.

  11. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  12. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  13. [Higher nitric oxide levels are associated with disease activity in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Mahmoud; Habeeb, Reem Abdelmonem; El-Azizi, Noran Osama; Khattab, Dina Aziz; Abo-Shady, Rania Ahmed; Elkabarity, Rania Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress generated within inflammatory joints can produce autoimmune phenomena and joint destruction. Radical species with oxidative activity, including reactive nitrogen species, represent mediators of inflammation and cartilage damage. To assess serum nitric oxide as a marker of oxidative stress in Egyptian patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its relation to disease activity. 80 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were divided into 2 groups, according to the DAS-28 score: Group I: 42 patients with disease activity, and Group II: 38 patients with no disease activity. Forty age- and sex-matched individuals were included as control group (Group III). Routine laboratory investigations were done, and nitric oxide was measured using Elisa. Hand plain radiographies were done for radiological status scoring using the Sharp method. A comparison between nitric oxide in all three groups showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001), significantly higher levels were obtained among rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to controls, and higher levels were obtained in patients with active disease (mean±SD 82.38±20.46) in comparison to patients without active disease (35.53±7.15). Nitric oxide in Group I showed a significant positive correlation with morning stiffness (r=0.45), arthritis (r=0.43), platelet count (r=0.46), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.83), C-reactive protein (r=0.76) and Disease Activity Score (r=0.85). Nitric oxide showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.43) with hand radiographies (Sharp score) in Group I. There are increased levels of nitric oxide in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nitric oxide correlates significantly with disease activity, inflammatory markers and radiological joint status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Are exhaled nitric oxide measurements using the portable NIOX MINO repeatable?

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    Raza Abid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation and a portable analyser, the NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden, is now available. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the NIOX MINO measurements across age, sex and lung function for both absolute and categorical exhaled nitric oxide values in two distinct groups of children and teenagers. Methods Paired exhaled nitric oxide readings were obtained from 494 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, enrolled in an unselected birth cohort and 65 young people, aged 6-17 years, with asthma enrolled in an interventional asthma management study. Results The birth cohort participants showed a high degree of variability between first and second exhaled nitric oxide readings (mean intra-participant difference 1.37 ppb, 95% limits of agreement -7.61 to 10.34 ppb, although there was very close agreement when values were categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high (kappa = 0.907, p Conclusions The reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide is poor for absolute values but acceptable when values are categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high in children and teenagers. One measurement is therefore sufficient when using categorical exhaled nitric oxide values to direct asthma management but a mean of at least two measurements is required for absolute values.

  15. Lithium-Vanadium bronzes as model catalysts for the selective reduction of nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.; Bongers, Annemie; Enoch, Gert; Snel, Ruud; Ross, Julian R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of alkali metals on the selective reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia has been studied on bulk iron oxide and bulk vanadium oxide. The influence of additions of LiOH, NaOH and KOH on the activity was screened by pulse experiments carried out in the absence of gaseous oxygen; FTIR

  16. Antioxidant Functions of Nitric Oxide Synthase in a Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

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    Manisha Vaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide and its derivative peroxynitrites are generated by host defense system to control bacterial infection. However certain Gram positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus possess a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (SaNOS in their chromosome. In this study it was determined that under normal growth conditions, expression of SaNOS was highest during early exponential phase of the bacterial growth. In oxidative stress studies, deletion of SaNOS led to increased susceptibility of the mutant cells compared to wild-type S. aureus. While inhibition of SaNOS activity by the addition of L-NAME increased sensitivity of the wild-type S. aureus to oxidative stress, the addition of a nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, restored oxidative stress tolerance of the SaNOS mutant. The SaNOS mutant also showed reduced survival after phagocytosis by PMN cells with respect to wild-type S. aureus.

  17. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M.; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer – while not entirely understood – is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. PMID:26164533

  18. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine-615 contributes to nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart A; Kohlhaas, Christine F; Boyd, Alasdair R; Yalla, Krishna C; Walsh, Kenneth; Connell, John M C; Salt, Ian P

    2010-01-27

    Insulin stimulates endothelial NO (nitric oxide) synthesis via PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt-mediated phosphorylation and activation of eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) at Ser-1177. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 may be required, yet is not sufficient for insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. We therefore investigated the role of phosphorylation of eNOS at alternative sites to Ser-1177 as candidate parallel mechanisms contributing to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. Stimulation of human aortic endothelial cells with insulin rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of both Ser-615 and Ser-1177 on eNOS, whereas phosphorylation of Ser-114, Thr-495 and Ser-633 was unaffected. Insulin-stimulated Ser-615 phosphorylation was abrogated by incubation with the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin, infection with adenoviruses expressing a dominant-negative mutant PKB/Akt or pre-incubation with TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), but was unaffected by high culture glucose concentrations. Mutation of Ser-615 to alanine reduced insulin-stimulated NO synthesis, whereas mutation of Ser-615 to aspartic acid increased NO production by NOS in which Ser-1177 had been mutated to an aspartic acid residue. We propose that the rapid PKB-mediated stimulation of phosphorylation of Ser-615 contributes to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis.

  19. Simvastatin Attenuates Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Myeloperoxidase, and Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketab E. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media- (CM- induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

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    Chiara De Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS, fibromyalgia (FM, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTTn as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS, 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 −786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 −786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTTn polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI.

  1. Nitric oxide signalling and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the heart under stress [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Yin Hua Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1 NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS] and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2 NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3 NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation; 4 the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5 NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and different NO-related derivatives and triggers redox-dependent responses. However, nNOS inhibits cardiac oxidases to reduce the sources of oxidative stress in diseased hearts. Recent consensus indicates the importance of nNOS protein in cardiac protection under pathological stress. In addition, a dietary regime with high nitrate intake from fruit and vegetables together with unsaturated fatty acids is strongly associated with reduced cardiovascular events. Collectively, NO-dependent mechanisms in healthy and diseased hearts are better understood and shed light on the therapeutic prospects for NO and NOSs in clinical applications for fatal human heart diseases.

  2. Critical evaluation of pressurized microwave-assisted digestion efficiency using nitric acid oxidizing systems (M7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities of enhancement of a medium-pressure microwave-assisted digestion system for sample preparation in trace element analysis of biological material was investigated. Based on optimal digestion conditions for oxidizing systems with nitric acid, different digestion procedures were examined to minimize residual carbon. The substitution of nitric acid and the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ozone to nitric acid was evaluated. The residual carbon content of the digestate was determined coulometrically. Addition of hydrogen peroxide during organic oxidation reactions does not lower the resolved carbon in the solution. Ozone was tested as an additional, potentially non-contaminating, digestion/oxidation system to the nitric acid used in the sample preparation method. (author)

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors.

  4. Nitric oxide levels in patients with chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, S R; Agarwal, Rajni

    2013-07-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO), the L-arginine derivative, is tonically synthesised by the endothelium within the kidney and it plays a crucial role in the regulation of the blood pressure and the renal blood flow. NO regulates the renal function through the modulation of the vascular tone and sodium handling. With the progressive development of the renal insufficiency, it remains unclear whether the endogenous NO production is increased or decreased in the kidney. This study was carried out to determine whether there were any changes in the levels of NO and teir correlation with the routine parameters of the renal dysfunction in the patients of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF), as the disease progresses in conjunction with poor renal functions. Thirty patients with chronic renal disease which was caused by chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension, who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis (MHD) with serum creatinine levels of > 2.5 mg/dl, were included in this study. Thirty healthy voluntary blood donors were taken as the controls. NO was estimated by a spectrophotometric method by using cadmium reduction. The routine renal function tests, BUN and Creatinine were performed by the standard clinical chemistry procedures. The serum NO levels were found to be significantly increased (p insufficient blood purification, due to the common effect on their elimination pathways via the renal tract. Therefore, the alterations of the renal function, that are reflected in the changes of the creatinine concentration, will be accompanied by the changes in the serum NO. Thus, the determination of the NO levels in the peripheral blood may be useful in the assessment of the dialysis and they can also be used as markers in the follow up and the prognosis in these type of patients.

  5. Establishing normative nasal nitric oxide values in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Phillip S; Tian, Xin; Zahid, Maliha; Khalifa, Omar; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W

    2015-09-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease of impaired respiratory cilia motility, is often difficult to diagnose. Recent studies show low nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is closely linked to PCD, allowing the use of nNO measurement for PCD assessments. Nasal NO cutoff values for PCD are stratified by age, given nNO levels normally increase with age. However, normative values for nNO have not been established for infants less than 1 year old. In this study, we aim to establish normative values for nNO in infants and determine their utility in guiding infant PCD assessment. We obtained 42 nNO values from infants less than 1 year old without a history of PCD or recurrent sinopulmonary disease. Using regression analysis, we estimated the mean age-adjusted nNO values and established a 95% prediction interval (PI) for normal nNO. Using these findings, we were able to show 14 of 15 infant PCD patients had abnormally low nNO with values below the 95% PI. In this study we determined a regression model that best fits normative nNO values for infants less than 1 year old. This model identified the majority of PCD infants as having abnormally low nNO. These findings suggest nNO measurement can help guide PCD assessment in infants, and perhaps other pulmonary diseases with a link to low nNO. With early assessments, earlier clinical intervention may be possible to slow disease progression and help reduce pulmonary morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitric Oxide: The Coming of the Second Messenger

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    Ferid Murad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The concept of communications between cells or cell signaling dates back over 100 years to Pavlov. He discovered that neuronal signals, first generated by the smell of food and later by the ringing of a bell, enhanced gastric secretion. The neurons communicated with cells in the stomach. Today it is well established that cell signaling is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout the body and even between unicellular organisms such as yeast, fungi, and bacteria. The molecules that are used for the purpose of communicating between cells are diverse and comprise amino acids, peptides, proteins, and other organic molecules. These molecules, which number in the hundreds, were initially called “first messengers” and are now called hormones, cytokines, growth factors, paracrine substances, neurotransmitters, and a variety of other names. These molecules find their target cell by identifying and binding to a receptor that is mostly located on the surface of the target cell. This binding ensures the specificity of the interaction, since only cells with specific receptors will bind to specific ligands. The binding of the ligand to the receptor initiates a biochemical cascade, resulting in the accumulation of an intracellular second messenger, which then goes on to trigger the desired effect on the cell. The first second messenger, which was discovered in 1957, was cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP. Others came along in the ensuing 10–15 years. Today, we know there are many such molecules, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, nitric oxide (NO, calcium, diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositols, and more, some surely yet to be discovered. Many of these discoveries eventually led to a Nobel Prize.

  7. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Decreases during Academic Examination Stress in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Liu, Jiayan; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David

    2015-11-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is known to vary with multiple endogenous and exogenous factors. Laboratory stress and depressive mood have been associated with altered FeNO levels, but little is known about the susceptibility of FeNO to longer-lasting states of psychological stress in asthma. We sought to study changes in FeNO, lung function, and endogenous cortisol levels in students in a low-stress period during the academic term and in high-stress periods of up to 5 days during final exams. One hundred nine participants (35 with asthma) enrolled in a final examination stress study were assessed during the academic term (low stress) and during final exams (high stress). FeNO, spirometric lung function (FEV1, peak flow), salivary cortisol, and negative affect were measured at three time points. Control variables were medication use, cold symptoms, sex, and age. FeNO decreased substantially from low-stress baseline to the high-stress examination periods, with more pronounced decreases occurring in subjects with asthma (-11.5 ppb) than control subjects (-1.2 ppb). FEV1 decreased in both groups. Negative affect and cortisol increased during final exams, but these increases were smaller in asthma. Greater initial depression and greater cortisol increases were related to larger FeNO decreases during the final exam period, the latter only in asthma. Inhaled corticosteroid use did not affect these changes. Psychological stress and depressive mood are accompanied by decreases in both FeNO and lung function in asthma. Fluctuations related to life stress and mood levels should be considered in FeNO monitoring for asthma.

  9. Nitric oxide in plants: the roles of ascorbate and hemoglobin.

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    Xiaoguang Wang

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia.

  10. Nitric oxide inhibitory substances from Curcuma mangga rhizomes

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    Kanidta Kaewkroek

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp. is a member of the Zingiberaceae family commonly grown in Thailand. It is locally known as mango tumeric because of its mango-like smell when the fresh rhizomes are cut. C. mangga is a popular vegetable, the tips of the young rhizomes and shoots are consumed raw with rice. Medicinally, the rhizomes are used as a stomachic and for chest pains, fever, and general debility. It is also used in postpartum care. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract and compounds from C. mangga rhizomes against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW 264.7 cell line. From bioassay-guided fractionation, the chloroform fraction exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.1 g/ml, followed by the hexane fraction (IC50 = 3.8 g/ml and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.5 g/ml, respectively. Demethoxycurcumin (1 and 3-buten-2-one, 4-[(1R, 4aR, 8aR-decahydro-5, 5, 8a-trimethyl-2-methylene-1-naphthalenyl]-, (3E-rel- (2 were isolated from the chloroform- and hexane fractions, respectively. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (3 whose structure is similar to that of 1 was also tested for NO inhibitory activity. Of the tested compounds, compound 1 exhibited the highest activity with an IC50 value of 12.1 μM, followed by 3(IC50 = 16.9 M and 2 (IC50 = 30.3 M. These results suggest that C. mangga and its compounds exert NO inhibitory activity and have a potential to be developed as a pharmaceutical preparation for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Moreover, this is the first report of compound 2 that was isolated from C. mangga rhizomes.

  11. Nitric oxide metabolites in naturally occurring canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda S; Lobetti, Remo G; Becker, Pieter; Reyers, Fred; Vaughan-Scott, Tarquin

    2002-02-27

    Babesiosis, caused by the virulent haemoprotozoan parasite Babesia canis rossi, is an important disease of dogs in South Africa. The nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate and nitrite (collectively termed reactive nitrogen intermediates or RNIs) were measured in admission sera from dogs in a babesiosis-endemic area. Five groups were prospectively studied: mild uncomplicated (n=9), severe uncomplicated (severe anaemia) (n=10) and complicated babesiosis (n=11); and two groups of healthy aparasitaemic dogs: endemic controls from the study area (n=10) and experimental dogs kept in tick-free conditions (n=10). Four measures of RNI production were studied: (i) serum RNI; (ii) serum RNI/creatinine ratio; (iii) fractional clearance of RNI (FC(RNI)); (iv) fractional excretion of RNI (FE(RNI)). Marked elevations of serum RNI occurred in only two dogs, both in the severe uncomplicated group. The highest concentration (log value 5.29 micromol/l) was in a dog that died, but concentrations in the other four dogs that died were unremarkable (0, 0.34, 1.66 and 2.64 micromol/l). Age, appetite and free serum haemoglobin were significant covariates for measures of RNI production. There were no significant differences among the babesiosis groups for serum RNI. Adjustment for creatinine had minor effects on the results. All babesiosis groups had significantly higher serum RNI and RNI/creatinine than the tick-free control group, but did not differ from the endemic controls except for the severe uncomplicated group, which had higher RNI/creatinine. The complicated group had significantly lower FC(RNI) and FE(RNI) than all other groups, except for the tick-free control group, which had similar FE(RNI). The results indicate that, in an endemic area, measures of RNI production are unlikely to be useful indicators of severity or outcome in canine babesiosis.

  12. Starved Escherichia coli preserve reducing power under nitric oxide stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowers, Glen-Oliver F. [Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Robinson, Jonathan L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brynildsen, Mark P., E-mail: mbrynild@princeton.edu [Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) detoxification enzymes, such as NO dioxygenase (NOD) and NO reductase (NOR), are important to the virulence of numerous bacteria. Pathogens use these defense systems to ward off immune-generated NO, and they do so in environments that contain additional stressors, such as reactive oxygen species, nutrient deprivation, and acid stress. NOD and NOR both use reducing equivalents to metabolically deactivate NO, which suggests that nutrient deprivation could negatively impact their functionality. To explore the relationship between NO detoxification and nutrient deprivation, we examined the ability of Escherichia coli to detoxify NO under different levels of carbon source availability in aerobic cultures. We observed failure of NO detoxification under both carbon source limitation and starvation, and those failures could have arisen from inabilities to synthesize Hmp (NOD of E. coli) and/or supply it with sufficient NADH (preferred electron donor). We found that when limited quantities of carbon source were provided, NO detoxification failed due to insufficient NADH, whereas starvation prevented Hmp synthesis, which enabled cells to maintain their NADH levels. This maintenance of NADH levels under starvation was confirmed to be dependent on the absence of Hmp. Intriguingly, these data show that under NO stress, carbon-starved E. coli are better positioned with regard to reducing power to cope with other stresses than cells that had consumed an exhaustible amount of carbon. -- Highlights: •Carbon source availability is critical to aerobic E. coli NO detoxification. •Carbon source starvation, under NO stress, preserves intracellular NADH levels. •Preservation of NADH depends on starvation-dependent inhibition of Hmp induction.

  13. PINOT NOIR: pulmonic insufficiency improvement with nitric oxide inhalational response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen A; Devendra, Ganesh P; Kim, Yuli Y; Flamm, Scott D; Kalahasti, Vidyasagar; Arruda, Janine; Walker, Esteban; Boonyasirinant, Thananya; Bolen, Michael; Setser, Randolph; Krasuski, Richard A

    2013-09-04

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair and pulmonary valvotomy for pulmonary stenosis (PS) lead to progressive pulmonary insufficiency (PI), right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction. This study assessed whether pulmonary regurgitant fraction measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) could be reduced with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Patients with at least moderate PI by echocardiography undergoing clinically indicated CMR were prospectively enrolled. Patients with residual hemodynamic lesions were excluded. Ventricular volume and blood flow sequences were obtained at baseline and during administration of 40 ppm iNO. Sixteen patients (11 with repaired TOF and 5 with repaired PS) completed the protocol with adequate data for analysis. The median age [range] was 35 [19-46] years, BMI was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD), 50% were women and 75% were in NYHA class I. Right ventricular end diastolic volume index for the cohort was 157 ± 33 mL/m(2), end systolic volume index was 93 ± 20 mL/m(2) and right ventricular ejection fraction was 40 ± 6%. Baseline pulmonary regurgitant volume was 45 ± 25 mL/beat and regurgitant fraction was 35 ± 16%. During administration of iNO, regurgitant volume was reduced by an average of 6 ± 9% (p=0.01) and regurgitant fraction was reduced by an average of 5 ± 8% (p=0.02). No significant changes were observed in ventricular indices for either the left or right ventricle. iNO was successfully administered during CMR acquisition and appears to reduce regurgitant fraction in patients with at least moderate PI suggesting a potential role for selective pulmonary vasodilator therapy in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00543933.

  14. Buffering airway acid decreases exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Benjamin; Kelly, Robin; Urban, Peter; Liu, Lei; Henderson, Edward M; Doctor, Allan; Teague, W Gerald; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Erzurum, Serpil; Hunt, John F

    2006-10-01

    The human airway is believed to be acidified in asthma. In an acidic environment nitrite is converted to nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that buffering airway lining fluid acid would decrease the fraction of exhaled NO (F(ENO)). We treated 28 adult nonsmoking subjects (9 healthy control subjects, 11 subjects with mild intermittent asthma, and 8 subjects with persistent asthma) with 3 mL of 10 mmol/L phosphate buffered saline (PBS) through a nebulizer and then serially measured F(ENO) levels. Six subjects also received PBS mouthwash alone. F(ENO) levels decreased after buffer inhalation. The maximal decrease occurred between 15 and 30 minutes after treatment; F(ENO) levels returned to pretreatment levels by 60 minutes. The decrease was greatest in subjects with persistent asthma (-7.1 +/- 1.0 ppb); this was more than in those with either mild asthma (-2.9 +/- 0.3 ppb) or healthy control subjects (-1.7 +/- 0.3 ppb, P mouthwash. Neutralizing airway acid decreases F(ENO) levels. The magnitude of this change is greatest in persistent asthma. These data suggest that airway pH is a determinant of F(ENO) levels downstream from NO synthase activation. Airway biochemistry modulates F(ENO) levels. For example, nitrite is converted to NO in the airway, particularly the inflamed airway, by means of acid-based chemistry. Thus airway pH should be considered in interpreting clinical F(ENO) values. In fact, PBS challenge testing integrates airway pH and F(ENO) analysis, potentially improving the utility of F(ENO) as a noninvasive test for the type and severity of asthmatic airway inflammation.

  15. Intestinal nitric oxide synthase activity changes during experimental colon obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palásthy, Zsolt; Kaszaki, József; Lázár, György; Nagy, Sándor; Boros, Mihály

    2006-08-01

    The experiments in this study were designed to follow the time course of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the large bowel during acute mechanical ileus. Occlusion of the mid-transverse colon was maintained for 420 min in anesthetized dogs. Strain-gauge transducers were used to analyze motility changes on the hepatic and lienal flexures, respectively. Constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were determined in tissue biopsies, and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level was measured in the portal blood. Following completion of the baseline studies, the animals were treated with either 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, selective neuronal NOS inhibitor), or N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, non-selective NOS inhibitor). In the sham-operated group the cNOS activities differed significantly in the oral and aboral tissue samples (oral: 102.9; versus aboral: 62.1 fmol/mg protein/min). The obstruction elicited a significant increase in portal NOx and elevated tissue inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity. NNA treatment decreased the motility index in both intestinal segments for 60 min, but 120 min later the motility index was significantly elevated (2.5-fold increase in the oral part, and 1.8-fold enhancement in the aboral segment, respectively). Treatment with 7-NI decreased the cNOS activity in the oral and aboral parts by approximately 40% and 70%, respectively, and suppressed the motility increase in the aboral colon segment. The motility of the colon was either significantly increased or decreased, depending on the type and selectivity of the NOS inhibitor compounds applied. NO of neuronal origin is a transmitter that stimulates peristaltic activity; but an increased iNOS/nNOS ratio significantly moderates the obstruction-induced motility increase.

  16. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  17. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and effects of L-arginine and L-NMMA on nitric oxide production and fluid transport in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Normark, M

    2001-01-01

    Luminal nitric oxide (NO) is greatly increased in the colon of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. To define the source and consequence of enhanced NO production we have studied expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and nitrotyrosine in mucosal biopsies from these patients...

  18. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and effects of L-arginine on colonic nitric oxide production and fluid transport in patients with "minimal colitis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Andresen, Lars; Normark, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Some patients with idiopathic, chronic diarrhoea have minimal, non-specific colonic inflammation. As nitric oxide (NO) acts as a secretagogue in the colon, we studied the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in mucosal biopsies and the effects of NOS stimulation on colonic transfer of fluid...

  19. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  20. Improvement of Tissue Survival of Skin Flaps by 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ajami, Marjan; Asadi, Yasin; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Gorjipour, Fazel; Malekloo, Roya; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin flap grafting is a popular approach for reconstruction of critical skin and underlying soft tissue injuries. In a previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of two 5α-reductase inhibitors, azelaic acid and finasteride, on tissue survival in a rat model of skin flap grafting. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in graft survival mediated by these agents. Methods: A number of 42 male rats were randomly allocated into six groups: 1, normal saline topical application; 2, azelaic acid (100 mg/flap); 3, finasteride (1 mg/flap); 4, injection of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (i.p., 20 mg/kg); 5, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + azelaic acid (100 mg/flap, topical); 6, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + finasteride (1 mg/flap, topical). Tissue survival, level of nitric oxide, and iNOS expression in groups were measured. Results: Our data revealed that azelaic acid and finasteride significantly increased the expression of iNOS protein and nitric oxide (NO) levels in graft tissue (P azelaic acid- and finasteride-mediated survival of the skin flaps. PMID:25864816

  1. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and effects of L-arginine and L-NMMA on nitric oxide production and fluid transport in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Normark, M

    2001-01-01

    Luminal nitric oxide (NO) is greatly increased in the colon of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. To define the source and consequence of enhanced NO production we have studied expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and nitrotyrosine in mucosal biopsies from these patients. In ad...

  2. Nitric oxide donors for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Lattey, Katherine R; Kelly, Anthony J

    2016-12-05

    Sometimes it is necessary to bring on labour artificially because of safety concerns for the mother or baby. This review is one of a series of reviews of methods of labour induction using a standardised protocol. To determine the effects of NO donors (isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside) for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour, in comparison with placebo or no treatment or other treatments from a predefined hierarchy. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (15 August 2016) and the reference lists of trial reports. Clinical trials comparing NO donors for cervical ripening or labour induction with other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. Interventions include NO donors (isosorbide mononitrate, isosorbide dinitrate, nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside) compared with other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. This review is part of a series of reviews focusing on methods of induction of labour, based on a generic protocol. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. In this update, the quality of the evidence for the main comparison was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 23 trials (including a total of 4777 women). Included studies compared NO donors with placebo, vaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), intracervical PGE2, vaginal misoprostol and intracervical Foley catheter. The majority of the included studies were assessed as being at low risk of bias. Nitric oxide versus placebo There was no evidence of a difference for any of the primary outcomes analysed: vaginal delivery not achieved in 24 hours (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 to 1.15; one trial, 238 women; low-quality evidence), uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate (FHR) changes (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.62; two

  3. Nitric Oxide Accumulation: The Evolutionary Trigger for Phytopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida M. Santana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many publications highlight the importance of nitric oxide (NO in plant–bacteria interactions, either in the promotion of health and plant growth or in pathogenesis. However, the role of NO in the signaling between bacteria and plants and in the fate of their interaction, as well as the reconstruction of their interactive evolution, remains largely unknown. Despite the complexity of the evolution of life on Earth, we explore the hypothesis that denitrification and aerobic respiration were responsible for local NO accumulation, which triggered primordial antagonistic biotic interactions, namely the first phytopathogenic interactions. N-oxides, including NO, could globally accumulate via lightning synthesis in the early anoxic ocean and constitute pools for the evolution of denitrification, considered an early step of the biological nitrogen cycle. Interestingly, a common evolution may be proposed for components of denitrification and aerobic respiration pathways, namely for NO and oxygen reductases, a theory compatible with the presence of low amounts of oxygen before the great oxygenation event (GOE, which was generated by Cyanobacteria. During GOE, the increase in oxygen caused the decrease of Earth’s temperature and the consequent increase of oxygen dissolution and availability, making aerobic respiration an increasingly dominant trait of the expanding mesophilic lifestyle. Horizontal gene transfer was certainly important in the joint expansion of mesophily and aerobic respiration. First denitrification steps lead to NO formation through nitrite reductase activity, and NO may further accumulate when oxygen binds NO reductase, resulting in denitrification blockage. The consequent transient NO surplus in an oxic niche could have been a key factor for a successful outcome of an early denitrifying prokaryote able to scavenge oxygen by NO/oxygen reductase or by an independent heterotrophic aerobic respiration pathway. In fact, NO surplus could

  4. Nitric oxide and coronary vascular endothelium adaptations in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Levy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrew S Levy*, Justin CS Chung*, Jeffrey T Kroetsch*, James WE RushDepartment of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: This review highlights a number of nitric oxide (NO-related mechanisms that contribute to coronary vascular function and that are likely affected by hypertension and thus become important clinically as potential considerations in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary complications of hypertension. Coronary vascular resistance is elevated in hypertension in part due to impaired endothelium-dependent function of coronary arteries. Several lines of evidence suggest that other NO synthase isoforms and dilators other than NO may compensate for impairments in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS to protect coronary artery function, and that NO-dependent function of coronary blood vessels depends on the position of the vessel in the vascular tree. Adaptations in NOS isoforms in the coronary circulation to hypertension are not well described so the compensatory relationship between these and eNOS in hypertensive vessels is not clear. It is important to understand potential functional consequences of these adaptations as they will impact the efficacy of treatments designed to control hypertension and coronary vascular disease. Polymorphisms of the eNOS gene result in significant associations with incidence of hypertension, although mechanistic details linking the polymorphisms with alterations in coronary vasomotor responses and adaptations to hypertension are not established. This understanding should be developed in order to better predict those individuals at the highest risk for coronary vascular complications of hypertension. Greater endothelium-dependent dilation observed in female coronary arteries is likely related to endothelial Ca2+ control and eNOS expression and activity. In hypertension models, the coronary vasculature has not been

  5. Nitric oxide scavenging by hemoglobin or nitric oxide synthase inhibition by N-Nitro-L-arginine induces cortical spreading ischemia when K+0+ is increased in the subarachnoid space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.P.; Körner, K.; Ebert, Nathalie

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow, nitric oxide, potassium, spreading depression, vasospasm, migraine, migrainous stroke, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)...

  6. Increasing the Fungicidal Action of Amphotericin B by Inhibiting the Nitric Oxide-Dependent Tolerance Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Vriens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin B (AmB induces oxidative and nitrosative stresses, characterized by production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, in fungi. Yet, how these toxic species contribute to AmB-induced fungal cell death is unclear. We investigated the role of superoxide and nitric oxide radicals in AmB’s fungicidal activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a digital microfluidic platform, which enabled monitoring individual cells at a spatiotemporal resolution, and plating assays. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was used to interfere with nitric oxide radical production. L-NAME increased and accelerated AmB-induced accumulation of superoxide radicals, membrane permeabilization, and loss of proliferative capacity in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited AmB’s action. Hence, superoxide radicals were important for AmB’s fungicidal action, whereas nitric oxide radicals mediated tolerance towards AmB. Finally, also the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were more susceptible to AmB in the presence of L-NAME, pointing to the potential of AmB-L-NAME combination therapy to treat fungal infections.

  7. NO to cancer: The complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan; Peehl, Donna; Kim, Michelle M; Langecker, Peter; Fanger, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer - while not entirely understood - is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Semireduced Mechanism for Nitric Oxide Reduction by Non-Heme Diiron Complexes: Modeling Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey J; Speelman, Amy L; Kupper, Claudia; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Shanahan, James P; Alp, E Ercan; Hu, Michael; Zhao, Jiyong; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2018-02-21

    Flavodiiron nitric oxide reductases (FNORs) are a subclass of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) capable of preferential binding and subsequent reduction of NO to N 2 O. FNORs are found in certain pathogenic bacteria, equipping them with resistance to nitrosative stress, generated as a part of the immune defense in humans, and allowing them to proliferate. Here, we report the spectroscopic characterization and detailed reactivity studies of the diiron dinitrosyl model complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr)(NO) 2 ](OTf) 2 for the FNOR active site that is capable of reducing NO to N 2 O [Zheng et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4902-4905]. Using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and spectro-electrochemistry, we show that one reductive equivalent is in fact sufficient for the quantitative generation of N 2 O, following a semireduced reaction mechanism. This reaction is very efficient and produces N 2 O with a first-order rate constant k > 10 2 s -1 . Further isotope labeling studies confirm an intramolecular N-N coupling mechanism, consistent with the rapid time scale of the reduction and a very low barrier for N-N bond formation. Accordingly, the reaction proceeds at -80 °C, allowing for the direct observation of the mixed-valent product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, the initial reaction product is unstable and decays, ultimately generating the diferrous complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr) 2 ](OTf) and an unidentified ferric product. These results combined offer deep insight into the mechanism of NO reduction by the relevant model complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr)(NO) 2 ] 2+ and provide direct evidence that the semireduced mechanism would constitute a highly efficient pathway to accomplish NO reduction to N 2 O in FNORs and in synthetic catalysts.

  9. Ultra-low power thin film transistors with gate oxide formed by nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kim, W. B.; Matsumoto, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature fabrication method of SiO 2 /Si structure by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method, and applied it to thin film transistors (TFT). A silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) layer formed by the NAOS method at room temperature possesses 1.8 nm thickness, and its leakage current density is as low as that of thermally grown SiO 2 layer with the same thickness formed at ∼900 deg C. The fabricated TFTs possess an ultra-thin NAOS SiO 2 /CVD SiO 2 stack gate dielectric structure. The ultrathin NAOS SiO 2 layer effectively blocks a gate leakage current, and thus, the thickness of the gate oxide layer can be decreased from 80 to 20 nm. The thin gate oxide layer enables to decrease the operation voltage to 2 V (cf. the conventional operation voltage of TFTs with 80 nm gate oxide: 12 V) because of the low threshold voltages, i.e., -0.5 V for P-ch TFTs and 0.5 V for N-ch TFTs, and thus the consumed power decreases to 1/36 of that of the conventional TFTs. The drain current increases rapidly with the gate voltage, and the sub-threshold voltage is ∼80 mV/dec. The low sub-threshold swing is attributable to the thin gate oxide thickness and low interface state density of the NAOS SiO 2 layer. (authors)

  10. Intracellular conversion of environmental nitrate and nitrite to nitric oxide with resulting developmental toxicity to the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R Hannas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NO(x are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NO(x undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes.These experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2 and whole organisms Daphnia magna. We first evaluated the ability of cells to convert nitrate (NO(3(- and nitrite (NO(2(- to nitric oxide using amperometric real-time nitric oxide detection. Both NO(3(- and NO(2(- were converted to nitric oxide in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Further, nitric oxide trapping and fluorescent visualization studies revealed that perinatal daphnids readily convert NO(2(- to nitric oxide. Next, daphnids were continuously exposed to concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside (positive control and to concentrations of NO(3(- and NO(2(-. All three compounds interfered with normal embryo development and reduced daphnid fecundity. Developmental abnormalities were characteristic of those elicited by compounds that interfere with ecdysteroid signaling. However, no compelling evidence was generated to indicate that nitric oxide reduced ecdysteroid titers.Results demonstrate that nitrite elicits developmental and reproductive toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations due likely to its intracellular conversion to nitric oxide.

  11. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... week of pregnancy) with respiratory failure. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy is typically administered in the neonatal intensive care unit using a device that delivers the drug in constant concentrations. It... Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants Notice Notice is hereby given of the National Institutes of Health...

  12. Phenotypic Consequences of a Genetic Predisposition to Enhanced Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A; Khera, Amit V; Klarin, Derek; Natarajan, Pradeep; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Nomura, Akihiro; Haas, Mary; Aragam, Krishna; Ardissino, Diego; Wilson, James G; Schunkert, Heribert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Elosua, Roberto; Bown, Matthew J; Samani, Nilesh J; Baber, Usman; Erdmann, Jeanette; Gormley, Padhraig; Palotie, Aarno; Stitziel, Nathan O; Gupta, Namrata; Danesh, John; Saleheen, Danish; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2018-01-16

    Nitric oxide signaling plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and platelet activation. Here, we seek to understand the impact of a genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling on risk for cardiovascular diseases, thus informing the potential utility of pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway as a therapeutic strategy. We analyzed the association of common and rare genetic variants in 2 genes that mediate nitric oxide signaling (Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 [ NOS3 ] and Guanylate Cyclase 1, Soluble, Alpha 3 [ GUCY1A3 ]) with a range of human phenotypes. We selected 2 common variants (rs3918226 in NOS3 and rs7692387 in GUCY1A3 ) known to associate with increased NOS3 and GUCY1A3 expression and reduced mean arterial pressure, combined them into a genetic score, and standardized this exposure to a 5 mm Hg reduction in mean arterial pressure. Using individual-level data from 335 464 participants in the UK Biobank and summary association results from 7 large-scale genome-wide association studies, we examined the effect of this nitric oxide signaling score on cardiometabolic and other diseases. We also examined whether rare loss-of-function mutations in NOS3 and GUCY1A3 were associated with coronary heart disease using gene sequencing data from the Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium (n=27 815). A genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling was associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.45; P =5.5*10 -26 ], peripheral arterial disease (odds ratio 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.68; P =0.0005), and stroke (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.76; P =0.0006). In a mediation analysis, the effect of the genetic score on decreased coronary heart disease risk extended beyond its effect on blood pressure. Conversely, rare variants that inactivate the NOS3 or GUCY1A3 genes were associated with a 23 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI, 12-34; P =5.6*10 -5

  13. ExoMol line list - XXI. Nitric Oxide (NO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Bernath, Peter; Müller, Holger S. P.; McConkey, Stephanie; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Line lists for the X 2Π electronic ground state for the parent isotopologue of nitric oxide (14N16O) and five other major isotopologues (14N17O, 14N18O, 15N16O, 15N17O and 15N18O) are presented. The line lists are constructed using empirical energy levels (and line positions) and high-level ab initio intensities. The energy levels were obtained using a combination of two approaches, from an effective Hamiltonian and from solving the rovibronic Schrödinger equation variationally. The effective Hamiltonian model was obtained through a fit to the experimental line positions of NO available in the literature for all six isotopologues using the programs spfit and spcat. The variational model was built through a least squares fit of the ab initio potential and spin-orbit curves to the experimentally derived energies and experimental line positions of the main isotopologue only using the duo program. The ab initio potential energy, spin-orbit and dipole moment curves (PEC, SOC and DMC) are computed using high-level ab initio methods and the marvel method is used to obtain energies of NO from experimental transition frequencies. The line lists are constructed for each isotopologue based on the use of the most accurate energy levels and the ab initio DMC. Each line list covers a wavenumber range from 0 to 40 000 cm-1 with approximately 22 000 rovibronic states and 2.3-2.6 million transitions extending to Jmax = 184.5 and vmax = 51. Partition functions are also calculated up to a temperature of 5000 K. The calculated absorption line intensities at 296 K using these line lists show excellent agreement with those included in the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. The computed NO line lists are the most comprehensive to date, covering a wider wavenumber and temperature range compared to both the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. These line lists are also more accurate than those used in HITEMP. The full line lists are available from the CDS http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr and ExoMol www

  14. Nitric oxide levels of aqueous humor after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, U; Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Sancak, B; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2004-01-01

    To measure the nitric oxide (NO) levels of aqueous humor in rabbits after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and to evaluate the alterations of NO levels according to the PRK surgery steps, ablation depth, and time. Fifty eyes of 25 New Zealand white rabbits were included in the study. One eye was later randomly excluded from the study in order to equalize the number of eyes in groups. Eyes were divided into seven groups, each comprising seven eyes: unwounded control (Group 1), epithelial scrape (Group 2; aqueous humor samples taken at the 4th hour), superficial PRK (Group 3; samples taken at the 4th hour), deep PRK (Group 4; samples taken at the 4th hour), epithelial scrape (Group 5; samples taken at the 24th hour), superficial PRK (Group 6; samples taken at the 24th hour), and deep PRK (Group 7; samples taken at the 24th hour). The corneal epithelium was mechanically removed in surgical groups. The authors performed superficial corneal ablation (59 microm) in Groups 3 and 6 and deep corneal ablation (99 microm) in Groups 4 and 7. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the 4th hour (Groups 2-4) or 24th hour (Groups 5-7) after corneal surgeries. NO measurements were performed indirectly by using the Griess reaction with a spectrophotometer. Aqueous humor NO levels 4 hours after corneal surgery were statistically significantly lower than the control group (p0.05). At the 24th hour, the deep PRK group had significantly lower NO levels than both the control group and Groups 5 and 6 (p0.05) but remained stable at lower levels in deep PRK groups (p<0.05). Corneal surgery caused low NO levels in aqueous humor 4 hours after surgery. However, 24 hours after surgery, NO levels normalized following epithelial scrape and superficial PRK and were stable at lower levels in the deep PRK group. Complications of deep PRK application are possibly induced by low NO existence in the aqueous humor.

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 μg/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and

  16. Antibacterial activity of nitric oxide releasing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B.; Manosalva, Nixson; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Pelegrino, Milena T.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Rubilar, Olga; Duran, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known potent antimicrobial agents. Similarly, the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has important antibacterial activity, and due to its instability, the combination of NO and nanomaterials has been applied in several biomedical applications. The aim of this work was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of a new NO-releasing AgNPs. Herein, AgNPs were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by catechin, a natural polyphenol and potent antioxidant agent, derived from green tea extract. Catechin acts as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule on the surface of AgNPs, minimizing particle agglomeration. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. The results showed the formation of AgNPs with average hydrodynamic size of 44 nm, polydispersity index of 0.21, and zeta potential of -35.9 mV. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of the AgNP core and cathecin as capping agent. The low molecular weight mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which contain free thiol group, was added on the surface of catechin-AgNPs, leading to the formation of MSA-catechin-AgNPs (the NO precursor nanoparticle). Free thiol groups of MSA-catechin-AgNPs were nitrosated leading to the formation of S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA), the NO donor. The amount of 342 ± 16 µmol of NO was released per gram of S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs. The antibacterial activities of catechin-AgNPs, MSA-catechin-AgNPs, and S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs were evaluated towards different resistant bacterial strains. The results demonstrated an enhanced antibacterial activity of the NO-releasing AgNP. For instance, the minimal inhibitory concentration values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) incubated with AgNPs-catechin, AgNPs-catechin-MSA, and AgNPs-catechin-S-nitroso-MSA were found to be 62, 125 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. While in the case of

  17. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by the herbal preparation Padma 28 in macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeslinger, T; Friedl, R; Volf, I; Brunner, M; Koller, E; Spieckermann, P G

    2000-11-01

    Padma 28 is a mixture of herbs used in traditional Tibetan medicine with anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effects of Padma 28 on nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Padma 28 (0-900 microg/mL) induced a concentration dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein expression showed a concentration dependent reduction as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Padma 28. Padma 28 decreased iNOS mRNA levels as shown by RT-PCR. Aqueous extracts from costi amari radix (costus root, the dried root of Saussurea lappa) and the outer cover of myrobalani fructus (the dried fruit of Terminalia chebula), constituents of the complex herb preparation Padma 28, were found to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthesis by decreasing iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA levels. The inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis might contribute to the anti-inflammatory activities of Padma 28.

  18. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  19. Oxidized lipoproteins induce long-lasting inhibition of nitric oxide synthase from a murine endothelioma cell line (bEnd.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliatto, G; Musanti, R; Pirillo, A; Ghiselli, G

    1995-04-01

    The vascular endothelium produces nitric oxide, which has vasodilatory properties. It has been postulated that some lipoproteins may increase arterial vascular tone by decreasing the availability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. The mechanism underlying this effect, however, is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of native and oxidized human low- and high-density lipoproteins on the nitric oxide synthetic activity of an endothelioma cell line (bEnd.4). Oxidized lipoproteins were obtained by incubation with CuSO4. The production of nitric oxide by the cells was monitored by quantifying the nitrite concentration in the medium using Greiss reagent. The synthesis of nitric oxide by the bEnd.4 cell line was calcium-dependent and was abolished by a selective inhibitor of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase. Incubation with oxidized lipoproteins caused a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide synthetic activity. At a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml cholesterol, oxidized low- and high-density lipoproteins inhibited the production of nitric oxide by 27 and 51%, respectively, within 6h. The lipid fraction obtained from the native or the oxidized lipoproteins mimicked the effect of the intact lipoproteins. These results support the involvement of oxidized lipoproteins in the modulation of endothelial functions relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Nitric oxide and related factors linked to oxidation and inflammation as possible biomarkers of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Roberto; Manucha, Walter

    2018-02-21

    As a prevalent cardiovascular disease, heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality. Therefore, there is a special interest in the study of efficient markers associated with risk and / or prediction of cardiovascular events. Multiple candidates are proposed, especially those involved in oxidative and inflammatory processes typical of cardiovascular disease, such as superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite. There is a lack of knowledge on the potential usefulness of these systems as biomarkers. This review aims to contribute to a better understanding of these systems, as well as an improved patient profile. Furthermore, a deep knowledge of these complex systems would also allow proposing new lines of research for the development of new therapeutic tools as a promising start for new approaches to this disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Propolis attenuates oxidative injury in brain and lung of nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Selamoglu-Talas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blocking of nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity may reason vasoconstriction with formation of reactive oxygen species. Propolis has biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant effects of propolis which natural product on biochemical parameters in brain and lung tissues of acute nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME.Methods: Rats have been received L-NAME (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, NOS inhibitor for 15 days to produce hypertension and propolis (200mg/kg, by gavage the lastest 5 of 15 days.Results: There  were  the  increase  (P<0.001  in  the  malondialdehyde  levels  in  the  L-NAME treatment groups when compared to control rats, but the decrease (P<0.001 in the catalase activities in both brain and lung tissues. There were statistically changes (P<0.001 in these parameters of L-NAME+propolis treated rats as compared with L-NAME-treated group.Conclusion: The application of L-NAME to the Wistar rats resulted in well developed oxidative stress. Also, propolis may influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of hypertensive diseases and oxidative stress.

  2. The clinical use of exhaled nitric oxide in wheezing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The body of published work on the role of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in the study of bronchial inflammation allows it to be classed as a simple, non-invasive measurement that is very useful in evaluating asthmatic patients.During a prospective study into the effects of air pollution on the health of the population of Viseu (Saud’AR Project, children with a clinical history of wheezing were identified through using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. Children later filled in a new standardised questionnaire and underwent skin-prick-tests, spirometry and FENO measurement. Their mean age was 7.8 ± 1.1 years. Comparing those who wheezed in the 6 months before evaluation (n = 27 with those who didn’t, statistical differences for ΔFEV1 (8% median versus 4.5%, p = 0.0399 and for FENO (23 ppb median versus 12 ppb, p = 0.0195, respectively were observed. Concerning children who needed a bronchodilator in the six previous months (n = 19 and those who didn’t, there was also a statistically significant difference in FENO: 27 ppb median versus 11 ppb median, respectively; p < 0.0001. When comparing children who needed an unscheduled medical appointment in the six months previous to the evaluation (n = 9 and those who didn’t, there was also significant differences for FENO: 28 ppb median versus 13 ppb median, p = 0.0029. In conclusion, the existence of symptoms seems to be better related to FENO than spirometry. Resumo: Encontram-se publicados múltiplos trabalhos sobre o papel das determinações do óxido nítrico no ar exalado (FENO no âmbito do estudo da inflamação brônquica que nos permitem afirmar que se trata duma medição simples, não invasiva e de grande utilidade na avaliação do doente asmático.No decurso de um estudo prospectivo sobre o impacto da poluição do ar sobre a saúde da

  3. Original Article Pubertal Development of Penile Nitric Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    The discovery of nitric ox- ide (NO) as an intercellular messenger or neurotransmitter has opened a new era for identifying the important mechanisms under- ... le- vels were significantly lower in the 40d- old rats than in the 54d and 65d-old animals. (p<0.05), but there were no statistically signi- ficant differences between the ...

  4. Salicylate inhibits LDL oxidation initiated by superoxide/nitric oxide radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M; Kapiotis, S; Hofbauer, R; Exner, M; Seelos, C; Held, I; Gmeiner, B

    1999-02-19

    Simultaneously produced superoxide/nitric oxide radicals (O2*-/NO*) could form peroxynitrite (OONO-) which has been found to cause atherogenic, i.e. oxidative modification of LDL. Aromatic hydroxylation and nitration of the aspirin metabolite salicylate by OONO- has been reported. Therefore we tested if salicylate may be able to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO* by scavenging the OONO reactive decomposition products. When LDL was exposed to simultaneously produced O2*-/NO* using the sydnonimine SIN-1, salicylate exerted an inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation as measured by TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide formation and alteration in electrophoretic mobility of LDL. The cytotoxic effect of SIN-1 pre-oxidised LDL to endothelial cells was also diminished when salicylate was present during SIN-1 treatment of LDL. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that salicylate was converted to dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) derivatives in the presence of SIN-1. 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were even more effective to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO*. Because O2*-/NO* can occur in vivo, the results may indicate that salicylate could act as an efficacious inhibitor of O2*-/NO* initiated atherogenic LDL modification, thus further supporting the rationale of aspirin medication regarding cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Cyclic nitroxides inhibit the toxicity of nitric oxide-derived oxidants: mechanisms and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara Augusto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The substantial therapeutic potential of tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy and related cyclic nitroxides as antioxidants has stimulated innumerous studies of their reactions with reactive oxygen species. In comparison, reactions of nitroxides with nitric oxide-derived oxidants have been less frequently investigated. Nevertheless, this is relevant because tempol has also been shown to protect animals from injuries associated with inflammatory conditions, which are characterized by the increased production of nitric oxide and its derived oxidants. Here, we review recent studies addressing the mechanisms by which cyclic nitroxides attenuate the toxicity of nitric oxidederived oxidants. As an example, we present data showing that tempol protects mice from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and discuss the possible protection mechanism. In view of the summarized studies, it is proposed that nitroxides attenuate tissue injury under inflammatory conditions mainly because of their ability to react rapidly with nitrogen dioxide and carbonate radical. In the process the nitroxides are oxidized to the corresponding oxammonium cation, which, in turn, can be recycled back to the nitroxides by reacting with upstream species, such as peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide, or with cellular reductants. An auxiliary protection mechanism may be down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The possible therapeutic implications of these mechanisms are addressed.O considerável potencial terapêutico de tempol (4-hidroxi-2,2, 6,6-tetrametil-1piperiniloxila e nitróxidos cíclicos relacionados como antioxidantes tem estimulado inúmeros estudos de suas reações com espécies reativas derivadas de oxigênio. Em comparação, as reações de nitróxidos com oxidantes derivados do óxido nítrico têm sido investigadas menos frequentemente. Todavia, essas reações são relevantes porque o tempol é também capaz de proteger

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates the nitric oxide component of reflex cutaneous vasodilatation during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tanner C; Keen, Jeremy T; Simmons, Grant H; Alexander, Lacy M; Wong, Brett J

    2014-12-01

    Recent data suggests neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mediates the NO component of reflex cutaneous vasodilatation with passive heat stress. We tested the hypothesis that nNOS inhibition would attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilatation during sustained dynamic exercise in young healthy humans. All subjects first performed an incremental V̇O2, peak test to exhaustion on a custom-built supine cycle ergometer. On a separate day, subjects were instrumented with four intradermal microdialysis fibres on the forearm and each randomly assigned as: (1) lactated Ringer's (control); (2) 20 mm Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (non-selective NOS inhibitor); (3) 5 mm N-propyl-l-arginine (nNOS inhibitor); and (4) 10 mm N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine dihydrochloride [endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor]. Following microdialysis placement, subjects performed supine cycling with the experimental arm at heart level at 60% V̇O2, peak for a period sufficient to raise core temperature 0.8°C. At the end of cycling, all microdialysis sites were locally heated to 43°C and sodium nitroprusside was perfused to elicit maximal vasodilatation. Mean arterial pressure, skin blood flow via laser-Doppler flowmetry and core temperature via ingestible telemetric pill were measured continuously; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flowmetry/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum. There was no significant difference between control (58 ± 2%CVCmax) and nNOS-inhibited (56 ± 3%CVCmax) sites in response to exercise-induced hyperthermia. The increase in CVC at eNOS-inhibited (41 ± 3%CVCmax) and non-selective NOS-inhibited (40 ± 4%CVCmax) sites were significantly attenuated compared to control and nNOS-inhibited (P exercise. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  7. Nitric oxide releasing Tygon materials: studies in donor leaching and localized nitric oxide release at a polymer-buffer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Jessica M; Lantvit, Sarah M; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2013-10-09

    Tygon is a proprietary plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) polymer that is used widely in bioapplications, specifically as extracorporeal circuits. To overcome issues with blood clot formation and infection associated with the failure of these medical devices upon blood contact, we consider a Tygon coating with the ability to release the natural anticlotting and antibiotic agent, nitric oxide (NO), under simulated physiological conditions. These coatings are prepared by incorporating 20 w/w% S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) donor into a Tygon matrix. These films release NO on the order of 0.64 ± 0.5 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1), which mimics the lower end of natural endothelium NO flux. We use a combination of assays to quantify the amount of GSNO that is found intact at different time points throughout the film soak, as well as monitor the total thiol content in the soaking solution due to any analyte that has leached from the polymer film. We find that a burst of GSNO is released from the material surface within 5 min to 1 h of soaking, which only represents 0.25% of the total GSNO contained in the film. After 1 h of film soak, no additional GSNO is detected in the soaking solution. By further considering the total thiol content in solution relative to the intact GSNO, we demonstrate that the amount of GSNO leached from the material into the buffer soaking solution does not contribute significantly to the total NO released from the GSNO-incorporated Tygon film (leaching is experienced, and the lost GSNO is from the material surface. Varying the donor concentration from 5 to 30 w/w% GSNO within the film does not result in significantly different NO release profiles. Additionally, the steady NO flux associated with the system is predominantly due to localized release from the material, and not donor lost to soaking solution. The surface properties of these materials generally imply that they are useful for blood-contacting applications.

  8. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  9. Behaviour of nitric oxide trails deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstein, I. J.; Aikin, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    The transient behavior of a nitric oxide trail deposited at approximately 60 km altitude is studied by the solution of the appropriate multidimensional diffusion equation which includes terms representing the effects of wind shear. Similar analysis is then carried out for the situation in the stratosphere. Trail behavior is found to be relatively independent of altitude and background ozone, but strongly dependent on the magnitude of eddy diffusity and the initial nitric oxide concentration. The nitric oxide trail reacts with ambient ozone to form nitrogen dioxide. For a trail 100 m initial radius, an ozone hole will form to a maximum size in 4 to 6 hours and then decay. The overall recovery time of the atmosphere following the creation of the trail is less than 12 hours.

  10. Association of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms With Acute Rejection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpira, Negar; Namazi, Soha; Malahi, Sayan; Kazemi, Kourosh

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene have been associated with altered endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial nitric oxide synthase -786T/C and 894G/T polymorphism and their haplotypes on the occurrence of acute rejection episodes in liver transplant recipients. We conducted a case control study in which 100 liver transplant recipients and 100 healthy controls were recruited from Shiraz Transplant Center. The patients used triple therapy including tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone for immunosuppression maintenance. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients included 60 men and 40 women (mean age, 32.35 ± 10.2 y). There was a significant association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 894G/T and acute rejection episode. The GT* gen-otype and acute rejection episodes had a significant association (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-6.15; P = .03). The GG and GT* genotype and T* allele frequency were significantly different between patients and control subjects (P = .001). Haplotype TT* was higher in recipients than control subjects (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.25; P = .01). Haplotype TG was higher in the control group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.96; P = .02). Our results suggest a relation between different endothelial nitric oxide synthase geno-types and risk of acute rejection episodes. However, further study is necessary to determine genetic susceptibility for transplant patients.

  11. Ferulic acid and its water-soluble derivatives inhibit nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikugawa, Masaki; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported that two water-soluble derivatives of ferulic acid (1-feruloyl glycerol, 1-feruloyl diglycerol) previously developed by our group exhibited protective effects against amyloid-β-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we aimed to further understand this process by examining the derivatives' ability to suppress abnormal activation of astrocytes, the key event of neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) derivatives on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The results showed that these compounds inhibited NO production and iNOS expression in a concentration-dependent manner and that the mechanism underlying these effects was the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. This evidence suggests that FA and its derivatives may be effective neuroprotective agents and could be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  12. The effect of energetic electron precipitation on the nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetre, Camilla

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this thesis has been the study of the chemical effects of the electron precipitation in the upper atmosphere, and mainly the increase of thermospheric nitric oxide (NO). NO plays an important role in the temperature balance for the mesosphere and thermosphere.In this project auroral electron precipitation data, derived from the Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) and the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) on board the Polar satellite, have been used together with NO density measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE)

  13. Increased Salt-Sensitivity in Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Allison M.; Chafe, Linda L.; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Van Vliet, Bruce N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although impaired nitric oxide production contributes importantly to salt-sensitivity, the role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has received little attention. In the present study we compared the effects of a high-salt diet on the blood pressure response of eNOS knockout (eNOS−/−) and control (eNOS+/+) mice. Methods: Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, pulse pressure, and activity levels were recorded by telemetry in mice fed a regular-salt diet (0...

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex

    2003-01-01

    Several motility disorders originate in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our knowledge of factors governing survival of the ENS is poor. Changes in the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in enteric neurons occur after neuronal injury and in intestinal...... adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  15. [Application of inhaled nitric oxide in extreme preterm neonates with with BPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulova, P; Slancheva, B

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome nitric oxide blockage during cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polzik, Peter; Hansen, Marco Bo; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy during cyanide (CN) intoxication. METHODS: 39 anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CN intoxication (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially) with or without previous nitric oxide...... synthase (NOS) inhibition by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) injection (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Subsequently, either HBO₂ therapy (284 kPa/90 minutes), normobaric oxygen therapy (100% oxygen/90 minutes) or nothing was administered. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to measure...

  17. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow was quanti......The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....

  18. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Lucía; Necakov, Aleksandar S; Schwartz, Carol; Kimber, Sandra; Roberts, Ian J H; Krause, Henry M

    2011-07-15

    Nitric oxide gas acts as a short-range signaling molecule in a vast array of important physiological processes, many of which include major changes in gene expression. How these genomic responses are induced, however, is poorly understood. Here, using genetic and chemical manipulations, we show that nitric oxide is produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer partner, Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3). Manipulation of these interactions leads to gross alterations in feeding behavior, fat deposition, and developmental timing. These neuroendocrine interactions and consequences appear to be conserved in vertebrates.

  19. Nitric oxide reduces aluminum toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in the roots of Cassia tora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Sheng; Yang, Zhi-Min

    2005-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a key signaling molecule has been involved in mediation of various biotic and abiotic stress-induced physiological responses in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NO on Cassia tora L. plants exposed to aluminum (Al). Plants pre-treated for 12 h with 0.4 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, and subsequently exposed to 10 microM Al treatment for 24 h exhibited significantly greater root elongation as compared with the plants without SNP treatment. The NO-promoted root elongation was correlated with a decrease in Al accumulation in root apexes. Furthermore, oxidative stress associated with Al treatment increased lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species, and the activation of lipoxygenase and antioxidant enzymes was reduced by NO. Such effects were confirmed by the histochemical staining for the detection of peroxidation of lipids and loss of membrane integrity in roots. The ameliorating effect of NO was specific, because the NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] completely reversed the effect of NO on root growth in the presence of Al. These results indicate that NO plays an important role in protecting the plant against Al-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Altered contractile response due to increased beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy: the role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Loyer, Xavier; Le Guen, Morgan; Mabrouk, Nejma; David, Jean-Stéphane; Camors, Emmanuel; Carusio, Nunzia; Vivien, Benoît; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    In the diabetic heart, the positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is altered and beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors are down-regulated, whereas beta3 adrenoceptor is up-regulated. In heart failure, beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation induces a negative inotropic effect that results from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3)-derived nitric oxide production. The objective of our study was to investigate the role of beta3-adrenoceptor in diabetic cardiomyopathy. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (dobutamine echocardiography) and in vitro (left ventricular papillary muscle) in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of beta3-adrenoceptor inhibition on the inotropic response was studied in vitro. Immunoblots and NOS activities were performed in heart homogenates (electron paramagnetic resonance) and isolated cardiomyocytes. Data are mean percentage of baseline +/- SD. The impaired positive inotropic effect was confirmed in diabetes both in vivo (121 +/- 15% vs. 160 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (112 +/- 5% vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In healthy rat, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified in presence of beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (174 +/- 20%), nonselective NOS inhibitor (N -nitro-l-arginine methylester [l-NAME]; 183 +/- 19%), or selective NOS1 inhibitor (vinyl-l-N-5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-ornithine [l-VNIO]; 172 +/- 13%). In diabetes, in parallel with the increase in beta3-adrenoceptor protein expression, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (137 +/- 8%; P < 0.05), l-NAME (133 +/- 11%; P < 0.05), or l-VNIO (130 +/- 13%; P < 0.05). Nitric oxide was exclusively produced by NOS1 within diabetic cardiomyocytes. NOS2 and NOS3 proteins were undetectable. beta3-Adrenoceptor is involved in altered positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. This effect is mediated by NOS1-derived nitric oxide in diabetic

  1. Catalytic studies of nitric oxide: A. Reduction of nitric oxide with methane over alumina supported rhidium. B. Characterization of alumina supported cobalt molybdate for olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetic studies at 300/sup 0/-400/sup 0/C in a gradientless recirculating reactor showed that nitric oxide reduction was first order in methane and -0.63 order in nitric oxide, with an activation energy of 18.4 kcal/mole, and a deuterium kinetic isotope effect of 1.9, suggesting that dissociative methane adsorption is the rate-determining step. Nitrogen-15 tracer studies showed that the reaction involves N/sub 2/O as a surface intermediate, and a mechanism is proposed involving two-step dissociation of adsorbed NO to adsorbed N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/ and surface oxygen atoms, which rapidly poison the catalyst unless removed by methane. Propylene metathesis to ethylene and 2-butene over cobalt molybdate was studied by nitric oxide poisoning and shown to follow Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Two different dual-site mechanisms, one involving propylene adsorption on adjacent molybdenum atoms and the other involving adsorption of two propylene molecules on one molybdenum atom, fit the data equally well. An upper limit to the active site density was determined as 2.5 x 10/sup 13//sq cm at 27/sup 0/C, i.e., only 9Vertical Bar3< of the surface molybdenum atom density.

  2. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis following severe hypoxia-ischemia restores autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in newborn lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, CA; Steendijk, P; van Bel, F; Baan, J.

    Birth asphyxia impairs the autoregulatory ability of the cerebral blood flow. Inappropriate synthesis of vasodilatory nitric oxide may be important in this respect. We investigated if nitric oxide synthesis inhibition by N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (NLA) could restore cerebral autoregulation after

  3. A common variant in RAB27A gene is associated with fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzigon, E.; Nadif, R.; Thompson, E. E.; Concas, M. P.; Kuldanek, S.; Du, G.; Brossard, M.; Lavielle, N.; Sarnowski, C.; Vaysse, A.; Dessen, P.; van der Valk, R. J. P.; Duijts, L.; Henderson, A. J.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; de Jongste, J. C.; Casula, S.; Biino, G.; Dizier, M. -H.; Pin, I.; Matran, R.; Lathrop, M.; Pirastu, M.; Demenais, F.; Ober, C.; Koppelman, G. H.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    BackgroundExhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. ObjectiveWe sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether

  4. Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase Deficiency Impairs the Long-Term Memory of Olfactory Fear Learning and Increases Odor Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Heldt, Scott A.; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    Experience-induced changes associated with odor learning are mediated by a number of signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), which is predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. Mice…

  5. L-arginine supplementation in hyperdynamic endotoxemic pigs: effect on nitric oxide synthesis by the different organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Soeters, Peter B.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Meijer, Alfred J.; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Under septic conditions, the protective role of nitric oxide in the organs may become compromised at a time of increased demand as a result of decreased availability of L-arginine. It remains unknown whether supplementation with L-arginine, as a substrate, can modulate organ nitric oxide

  6. L-Arginine is not the limiting factor for nitric oxide synthesis by human alveolar macrophages in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijsers, RBR; ten Hacken, NHT; Van Ark, [No Value; Folkerts, G; Nijkamp, FP; Postma, DS

    2001-01-01

    Unlike murine mononuclear phagocytes, human macrophages do not release high amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in vitro despite the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To determine whether this limited NO synthesis in vitro is due to limited availability of the NOS substrate L-arginine, and putative

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, A; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, E

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may re...

  8. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  9. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress is associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and retinal structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashi; Saxena, Sandeep; Srivastav, Khushboo; Shukla, Rajendra K; Mishra, Nibha; Meyer, Carsten H; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine plasma nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in diabetic retinopathy and its association with severity of disease. Prospective observational study. A total of 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls were included. Severity of retinopathy was graded according to early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) classification. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band (ISel) disruption and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alteration were graded using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Data were statistically analyzed. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, NO assay and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured using standard protocol. Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increase in plasma levels of LPO (P diabetic retinopathy. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that increased plasma LPO, NO and decreased GSH levels are associated with in vivo structural changes in inner segment ellipsoid and RPE. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. The role of nitric oxide in muscle fibers with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengan, Celia H.; Kiyomoto, Beatriz H.; Godinho, Rosely O.; Gamba, Juliana; Neves, Afonso C.; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary S.B.; Gabbai, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    NO has been pointed as an important player in the control of mitochondrial respiration, especially because of its inhibitory effect on cytochrome c oxidase (COX). However, all the events involved in this control are still not completely elucidated. We demonstrate compartmentalized abnormalities on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity on muscle biopsies of patients with mitochondrial diseases. NOS activity was reduced in the sarcoplasmic compartment in COX deficient fibers, whereas increased activity was found in the sarcolemma of fibers with mitochondrial proliferation. We observed increased expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in patients and a correlation between nNOS expression and mitochondrial content. Treatment of skeletal muscle culture with an NO donor induced an increase in mitochondrial content. Our results indicate specific roles of NO in compensatory mechanisms of muscle fibers with mitochondrial deficiency and suggest the participation of nNOS in the signaling process of mitochondrial proliferation in human skeletal muscle

  11. Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.

  12. Anticonvulsion effect of acupuncture might be related to the decrease of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Huang, Z N; Cheng, J S

    1999-01-01

    To measure the levels of hippocampal nitric oxide synthase isoforms in penicillin induced epilepsy and to test the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on changes of these levels during epilepsy, we injected penicillin into rat hippocampus to make an epilepsy model and performed electroacupuncture treatment on "Feng Fu" (DU 16) and "Jin Suo" (DU 8) points in Wistar rats. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA levels of rat hippocampus were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA markedly increased (pepilepsy, whereas no significant change in epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA was observed. EA inhibited the epilepsy and decreased nNOS (pepilepsy caused an increase in nNOS and iNOS, and the EA anticonvulsant effect might be related to the decrease of these nitric oxide synthases.

  13. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M

    2009-10-05

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130-190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy.

  14. Nitric oxide alleviated arsenic toxicity by modulation of antioxidants and thiol metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a gaseous signalling molecule and has a profound impact on plant growth and development. It is reported to serve as pro oxidant as well as antioxidant in plant system. In present study, we evaluated the protective role of nitric oxide against AsV toxicity in rice plants. Arsenate exposure has hampered the plant growth, reduced the chlorophyll content and enhanced the oxidative stress while the exogenous NO supplementation has reverted these symptoms. Nitric oxide supplementation has reduced the As accumulation in root as well as shoot. Nitric oxide supplementation to AsV exposed plants has reduced the gene expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Arsenate stress significantly impacted thiol metabolism, it reduced GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio and enhanced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation maintained the GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation reverted AsV induced iron deficiency in shoot and had significant impact of gene expression level of various iron transporters (OsYSL2, OsFRDL1, OsIRT1 and OsIRO2. Conclusively, exogenous application of nitric oxide could be advantageous against AsV toxicity and could confer the tolerance to AsV stress in rice.

  15. Bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, F. L.; Rado, V.; Fabbri, L. M.; Sterk, P. J.; Di Maria, G. U.; Geppetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    Gastroesophageal acid reflux into the airways can trigger asthma attacks. Indeed, citric acid inhalation causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, but the mechanism of this effect has not been fully clarified. We investigated the role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide (NO) on the citric

  16. Efficacy and residue analysis of nitric oxide fumigation of strawberries for control of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an effective fumigant against various insect pests on postharvest products under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions. NO showed efficacy against all life stages of insect pests with varied fumigation time and temperature, and had feasible cost-effectiveness to...

  17. Serum uric acid levels and leukocyte nitric oxide production in multiple sclerosis patients outside relapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, JP; Ramsaransing, GSM; Heerserna, DJ; Heerings, M; Wilczak, N; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: A number of studies found that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have low serum levels of uric acid. It is unclear whether this represents a primary deficit or secondary effect. Uric acid is a scavenger of peroxynitrite, which is the product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide.

  18. Opposing effects of nitric oxide and prostaglandin inhibition on muscle mitochondrial VO2 during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert C; Fuentes, Teresa; Hellsten, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) together play a role in regulation blood flow during exercise. NO also regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption through competitive binding to cytochrome c oxidase. Indomethacin both uncouples and inhibits the electron transport chain in a concentration...

  19. Sesquiterpene lactone trilobolide activates production of interferon-γ and nitric oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmoníčková, Eva; Harmatha, Juraj; Vokáč, Karel; Kostecká, Petra; Farghali, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 8 (2010), s. 1213-1219 ISSN 0367-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : trilobolide * nitric oxide * sesquiterpene lactones Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2010

  20. Nitric oxide inhibition enhances platelet aggregation in experimental anti-Thy-1 nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Albrecht, EWJA; Heeringa, P; Klok, PA; van der Horst, MLC; de Jager-Krikken, A; Bakker, WW; Moshage, H

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper we studied the role of nitric oxide radicals (NO) on platelet aggregation, fibrinogen deposition, superoxide formation, peroxynitrite formation, hemodynamics, and leukocyte migration in the Thy-1 model of glomerulonephritis. To first study the baseline kinetics of these

  1. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nordgaard, I; Matzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in excess by the inflamed human colon is generally considered a pathway of mucosal damage. In an attempt to quantify colonic mucosal production of NO in various forms of colitis we performed 'steady-state' gas perfusion of whole colon in 11 patients with ulcerative...

  2. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide : evaluation of six different sampling methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter-de Groot, K. M.; van der Ent, C. K.

    Specific guidelines are developed for the measurement of bronchial FE(NO), however, nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is not standardised yet, resulting in divergent nNO values. This study compares six different sampling methods for nNO as described in the literature, to analyse their outcome and

  3. Off-line sampling of exhaled air for nitric oxide measurement in children: methodological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); S.L. Schellekens; A. Kroesbergen; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air is a noninvasive method to assess airway inflammation in asthma. This study was undertaken to establish the reference range of exhaled NO in healthy school-aged children and to determine the influence of ambient NO, noseclip

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide in spray painters exposed to isocyanates : Effect modification by atopy and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonaid, Badri Sadat; Pronk, Anjoeka; Doekes, Gert; Heederik, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isocyanate asthma is one of the most frequently identified forms of occupational asthma in industrialised countries. The underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. There is only limited information about the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and occupational exposure to

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide in spray painters exposed to isocyanates: Effect modification by atopy and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonaid, B.S.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isocyanate asthma is one of the most frequently identified forms of occupational asthma in industrialised countries. The underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. There is only limited information about the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and occupational exposure to

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  7. Nitric oxide is a key molecule in migraine and other vascular headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may play a key role in migraine and other vascular headaches since glyceryl trinitrate (a donor of NO) and histamine (which probably activates endothelial NO formation) both cause a pulsating dose-dependent headache with several migrainous characteristics. At relatively high doses...

  8. Manipulation of nitric oxide in an animal model of acute liver injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of altering nitric oxide release on acute liver injury, the associated gut injury and bacterial translocation, at different time intervals. Methods: An acute rat liver injury model induced by D-galactosamine was used. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four main groups: normal control, acute liver ...

  9. of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and serum level of vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    Davignon and Ganz, 2004). NO is synthe- sized via a reaction that includes the conversion of L- arginine to L-citruline catalyzed by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which is one of the three isoforms of the enzyme (Mayer and Hemmens, 1997) ...

  10. Variations in exhaled nitric oxide concentration after three types of dives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pieter-Jan; Houtkooper, Antoinette; van Hulst, Rob

    2010-01-01

    An increase in exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FENO) occurs during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease or other inflammatory processes of the airway. Raised FENO levels are also observed during normobaric, mild hyperoxic exposures, whereas after hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure the

  11. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To monitor the changes in nitric oxide levels and synovium thickness index in synovial fluid following intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate. Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee from April 2014 to January 2015 in The Third Hospital of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, China ...

  12. Is flow-mediated dilation nitric oxide mediated?: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Groenewoud, H.M.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive index of endothelial function and vascular health in humans. Studies examining the role of nitric oxide (NO) are not conclusive. In this article, we quantified the contribution of NO in FMD of conduit arteries and explored the effect of the protocol (ie,

  13. L-arginine increases nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-Arginine supplementation increased plasma L-Arginine concentration ([R]) in both groups of subjects (p<0.001 in each group) and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration ([NOx]) (p<0.01 in each group). Change (Δ) [R] correlated positively with Δ [NOx] in both groups (+ 0.7 in each group). L-Arginine supplementation ...

  14. Nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptotic cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, V. A.; de Groot, C. J.; Lucassen, P. J.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Tilders, F. J.; van Dam, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight

  15. Chemiluminescence from the reaction of Ba 3D with nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.A.; Solarz, R.W.; Dubrin, J.W.; Brotzmann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of laser excited Ba*( 3 D) states with nitric oxide is presented. BaO product is not detected, although the channel is thermodynamically open, and instead chemiluminescence is observed. Experiments which suggest that radiative recombination, Ba + NO → BaNO* → BaNO, is the observed reaction channel will also be presented

  16. Astrocytes and microglia express inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hardin-Pouzet, H; Verge, G

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), may play a role in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We show upregulation of iNOS mRNA in CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using antibodies against mouse i...

  17. Evidence for the role of nitric oxide in the circulation of the dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohinai, Z; Balla, I; Marczis, J; Vass, Z; Kovách, A G

    1995-08-01

    Many authors have studied the hemodynamics of the dental pulp; however, there are scarcely any data regarding the involvement of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the regulatory mechanism. Thus, we have examined the physiological effects of (1) NG-nitro-L-arginine as an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis and (2) the nitric oxide donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine on blood flow and vascular resistance in the canines of anesthetized cats to study the potential involvement of nitric oxide in the regulation of dental vascular homeostasis. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood gases, pH, cardiac output, and tissue blood flow were determined prior to and 15 min after i.v. administration of either NG-nitro-L-arginine (30 mg/kg, n = 9) or 3-morpholinosydnonimine (1 mg/kg, n = 7). Blood flow was measured by radioactive-labeled microspheres. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the two groups of cats. The dental pulp blood flow decreased to 53 +/- 13% (p pulpal blood circulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine : laser-based detection and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most polluting components in the exhaust gases of a diesel engines. Therefore, knowledge of the time and place where it is produced during the combustion process is of interest to find a way to reduce diesel engine emissions. Non-intrusive optical diagnostics, based

  19. Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Mandon, Julien; Persijn, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims After a series of seminal works during the last decade of the 20th century nitric oxide (NO) is now firmly placed in the pantheon of plant signals. NO acts in plant-microbe interactions, responses to abiotic stress, stomatal regulation and a range of developmental processes...

  20. Nitric oxide-generating l-cysteine-grafted graphene film as a blood-contacting biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhen; Dou, Ruixia; Zu, Mian; Liu, Xueying; Yin, Wenyan; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Jingbo; Yan, Liang; Gu, Zhanjun

    2016-06-24

    By using polyethylenimine molecules as the linker, l-cysteine was immobilized onto graphene nanosheets, endowing the biocompatible l-cysteine-functionalized graphene film with the ability for catalytic decomposition of exogenous or endogenous donors to generate nitric oxide, and thus inhibiting the platelet activation and aggregation and reducing platelet adhesion.

  1. Some Phenolic Compounds Increase the Nitric Oxide Level in Endothelial Cells in Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  2. Some phenolic compounds increase the nitric oxide level in endothelial cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.; Keuer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  3. Nitric oxide metabolites in gnotobiotic piglets orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trebichavský, Ilja; Zídek, Zdeněk; Franková, Daniela; Zahradníčková, Marie; Šplíchal, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2001), s. 353-358 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nitric oxide metabolites Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  4. [Nitric oxide: from the mechanism of action to pharmacological effects in cerebrovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateeva, V V; Vorobyova, O V

    The article presents the data of studies of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. It is emphasized that endothelial dysfunction contributes to the formation of cerebrovascular diseases. Generalized data on preparations with endothelioprotective effect, as well as own data on the use of the preparation 'Divaza' in patients of middle and advanced age with chronic cerebrovascular disease are given.

  5. Detoxification of nitric oxide by flavohemoglobin and the denitrification pathway in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ephemeral nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, highly reactive, environmentally rare, and a potent signaling molecule in organisms across kingdoms of life. This gaseous small molecule can freely transverse membranes and has been implicated in aspects of pathogenicity both in animal and plant ho...

  6. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides involves flavohemoglobins and the denitrification pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly mobile and potent signaling molecule, yet as a free radical it can also cause nitrosative stress to cells. To alleviate negative effects from excessive accumulation of endogenous NO or from potential exogenous sources, flavohemoglobin proteins can convert NO into nonto...

  7. Detoxification of nitric oxide by Fusarium verticillioides is linked to denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent cellular signaling molecule and a byproduct of nitrogen metabolism. High concentrations of NO are a form of nitrosative stress, and to alleviate this stress, organisms utilize flavohemoglobins to convert NO into nontoxic nitrate ions. We have investigated the capacity o...

  8. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  9. Role of nitric oxide in the airway response to exercise in healthy and asthmatic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gouw, H. W.; Marshall-Partridge, S. J.; van der Veen, H.; van den Aardweg, J. G.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Sterk, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    A role of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested in the airway response to exercise. However, it is unclear whether NO may act as a protective or a stimulatory factor. Therefore, we examined the role of NO in the airway response to exercise by using N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an NO synthase

  10. Nitric oxide production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in infected cystic fibrosis sputum consumes oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus Ernst

    2014-01-01

    analysed by quantifying and visualizing the NO production. NO production was detected by optode measurements combined with fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) with N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) resulted in reduced O(2) consumption...

  11. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Brond, Lone; Christensen, Sten

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in neuroglycopenia-induced insulin and glucagon secretion in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrén, Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.

    1995-01-01

    Neuroglycopenia induced by administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose is known to stimulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon in mice by a mechanism that is dependent on neural activity. In the present study, we examined whether the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) is involved in this process.

  13. Prolonged local forearm hyperinsulinemia induces sustained enhancement of nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Thomas S; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Dominguez, Helena

    2005-01-01

    -dependent and -independent vasodilation.N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was coinfused to test the degree of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Insulin infusion for 60 min enhanced serotonin-induced vasodilation by 37% compared to vehicle, p = .016. This increase was maintained for 4 h and was blocked by L...

  14. [Release of iron ions from transferrin under the effect of nitric oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumabaeva, T T; Baĭder, L M; Kuropteva, Z V

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of EPR signals from the iron-transporting blood protein Fe(3+)-transferrine after the administration of sodium nitrite and metronidazole to animals was studied. It was shown that exogenin nitric oxide produced by nitrocompounds resulted in the release of iron from Fe(3+)-transferrine.

  15. Nitric Oxide and Interlukin-6 Levels in Intellectual Disability Adults with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Beiker, Reut; Morad, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) are highly reactive mediators that have been shown to play different roles in a variety of different biological process. The role of NO and IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of brain seizures is still questionable. In order to evaluate the role of NO and IL-6 in neurological disorders such as seizures, we…

  16. Nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with pain intensity in chronic pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, A.; Zacharowski, K.; Boehm, O.; Stevens, M. [=Markus F.; Lipfert, P.; von Giesen, H.-J.; Wolf, A.; Freynhagen, R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory cytokines as well as nitric oxide (NO) play a key role in the pathogenesis of persistent and exaggerated pain states. To document this, we investigated whether a range of cytokines and NO were detectable in the plasma of chronic pain patients and whether cytokine and NO

  17. Nitric oxide diffusing capacity versus spirometry in the early diagnosis of emphysema in smokers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der; Gietema, H.; Zanen, P.; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Bosch, J.M. van den

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) is independent of pulmonary capillary blood volume and equals the membrane diffusing capacity. Therefore the DLNO could be more sensitive in detecting alveolar destruction than the DLCO. We measured flow-volumes curves, DLNO, DLCO, the transfer

  18. Novel Insights into the Electrochemical Detection of Nitric Oxide in Biological Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekarová, Michaela; Lojek, Antonín; Hrbáč, J.; Kuchta, R.; Kadlec, J.; Kubala, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 8-12 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-40882P Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : nitric oxide * electrochemical detector * biological systems Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  19. Effects of L-arginine pretreatment on nitric oxide metabolism and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during porcine endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, Martijn; Bruins, Maaike J.; Kessels, Fons; Luiking, Yvette C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is accompanied by an increased need for and a decreased supply of arginine, reflecting a condition of arginine deficiency. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine pretreatment on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) production and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during

  20. The synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a new nitric oxide donor agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Profire Lenuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new xanthine nitric oxide donor (TSP-81 has been discussed. The designed compound includes two structural moieties - theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine and acetaminophen (4-hydroxyacetanilide linked by the nitric oxide donor alkyl chain as a spacer. The compound has been characterized by microanalysis (CHN, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, TG and DTG. The thermal behaviour showed that TSP-81 melts with decomposition, in four steps, the most important ones being the 2nd one (the registered weight loss being 17.6 % and the 3rd one (with a registered weight loss of 30.4 %. The toxicity degree, the anti-inflammatory effect and the ability of releasing nitric oxide of the TSP-81 have also been evaluated. The biological assays established that TSP-81 exhibits enhanced biological properties such as lower toxicity and higher anti-inflammatory effect in reference with theophylline and acetaminophen, the drugs used as parents molecules. The TSP-81 is approximately 2 times more active than theophylline and 4 times more active than acetaminophen in reducing cotton pellet-granuloma formation. Furthermore, the release of nitric oxide (NO appears to have an important contribution to enhancing the anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. Constitutive expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the normal human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Normark, M

    2002-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the human colon is considered expressed only in inflammatory states such as ulcerative or collagenous colitis. As subtle iNOS labelling was previously observed in some colonic mucosal biopsies from a heterogeneous group of controls with non-inflamed bowel...

  2. Dual inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production by polysubstituted 2-aminopyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Kverka, Miloslav; Dusilová, Adéla; Kmoníčková, Eva; Jansa, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, jul (2016), s. 48-56 ISSN 1089-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0172 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : pyrimidines * nitric oxide * prostaglandin E-2 Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.181, year: 2016

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide in endotoxin-exposed adults: effect modification by smoking and atopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Doekes, G.; Wouters, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to endotoxin is associated with non-allergic asthma and other airway inflammatory reactions. Little is known about the role of mucosal nitric oxide (NO) production in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation. The objective was to explore exposure-response relationships

  4. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  5. Formation of nitric oxide in an industrial burner measured by 2-D laser induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    We have performed two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2-D LIF) measurements of nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical distributions in an industrial burner at atmospheric pressure. The relative 2-D LIF data of NO were set to an absolute scale by calibration with probe sampling combined with gas analysis. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs.

  6. Experience with inhaled nitric oxide therapy in hypoxic respiratory failure of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Arvind; Callander, Ian; Stack, Jacqueline; Momsen, Tracey; Sterling-Levis, Katy

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to be effective in the management of persistent pulmonory hypertension of newborn (PPHN). To retrospectively analyse data to determine the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the management of newborns with PPHN in terms of survival and changes in oxygenation status. Neo-natal data since inception of iNO therapy at the unit (past six years) was reviewed. Pertinent demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records of newborns that received inhaled nitric oxide therapy during their stay. Details of underlying illnesses, other therapeutic modalities, arterial blood gas, ventilatory and nitric oxide parameters were assessed and analysed to ascertain efficacy of iNO. A total of 36 babies (gestational age ranging from 24-41 weeks) received iNO during this period; two were excluded from final analysis. Overall survival rate was 80 percent. There was a statistically significant increase in systemic oxygenation (PaO2) from 41.1 +/- 2.1 mmHg to 128.5 +/- 13.2 mmHg and a decline in oxygenation index (OI) from 49.4 +/- 5.9 to 17.3 +/- 2.5, when assessed after four hours (P < 0.001). Mean duration of iNO therapy was 63 +/- 7.3 hours and the maximum methaemoglobin levels were noted to be 2.1 percent. Inhaled nitric oxide appears to be an effective rescue therapy for the management of PPHN associated with hypoxic respiratory failure. It is safe and well tolerated with no evidence of clinical or biochemical side effects.

  7. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G.

    2016-01-01

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  8. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G., E-mail: bipin@amrita.edu

    2016-08-15

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  9. Dysregulated nitric oxide signaling as a candidate mechanism of fragile X syndrome and other neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eColvin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology underpinning psychiatric disorders is essential for the development of targeted molecular therapies. For fragile X syndrome (FXS, recent mechanistic studies have been focused on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR signaling pathway. This line of research has led to the discovery of promising candidate drugs currently undergoing various phases of clinical trial, and represents a model of how biological insights can inform therapeutic strategies in neurodevelopmental disorders. Although mGluR signaling is a key mechanism at which targeted treatments can be directed, it is likely to be one of many mechanisms contributing to FXS. A more complete understanding of the molecular and neural underpinnings of the disorder is expected to inform additional therapeutic strategies. Alterations in the assembly of neural circuits in the neocortex have been recently implicated in genetic studies of autism and schizophrenia, and may also contribute to FXS. In this review, we explore dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing neocortex as a novel candidate mechanism of FXS. This possibility stems from our previous work demonstrating that neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1 or nNOS is regulated by the FXS protein FMRP in the mid-fetal human neocortex. Remarkably, in the mid-late fetal and early postnatal neocortex of human FXS patients, NOS1 expression is severely diminished. Given the role of nitric oxide in diverse neural processes, including synaptic development and plasticity, the loss of NOS1 in FXS may contribute to the etiology of the disorder. Here, we outline the genetic and neurobiological data that implicate neocortical dysfunction in FXS, review the evidence supporting dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing FXS neocortex and its contribution to the disorder, and discuss the implications for targeting nitric oxide signaling in the treatment of FXS and other psychiatric

  10. Dysregulated nitric oxide signaling as a candidate mechanism of fragile X syndrome and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Steven M; Kwan, Kenneth Y

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology underpinning psychiatric disorders is essential for the development of targeted molecular therapies. For fragile X syndrome (FXS), recent mechanistic studies have been focused on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling pathway. This line of research has led to the discovery of promising candidate drugs currently undergoing various phases of clinical trial, and represents a model of how biological insights can inform therapeutic strategies in neurodevelopmental disorders. Although mGluR signaling is a key mechanism at which targeted treatments can be directed, it is likely to be one of many mechanisms contributing to FXS. A more complete understanding of the molecular and neural underpinnings of the disorder is expected to inform additional therapeutic strategies. Alterations in the assembly of neural circuits in the neocortex have been recently implicated in genetic studies of autism and schizophrenia, and may also contribute to FXS. In this review, we explore dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing neocortex as a novel candidate mechanism of FXS. This possibility stems from our previous work demonstrating that neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1 or nNOS) is regulated by the FXS protein FMRP in the mid-fetal human neocortex. Remarkably, in the mid-late fetal and early postnatal neocortex of human FXS patients, NOS1 expression is severely diminished. Given the role of nitric oxide in diverse neural processes, including synaptic development and plasticity, the loss of NOS1 in FXS may contribute to the etiology of the disorder. Here, we outline the genetic and neurobiological data that implicate neocortical dysfunction in FXS, review the evidence supporting dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing FXS neocortex and its contribution to the disorder, and discuss the implications for targeting nitric oxide signaling in the treatment of FXS and other psychiatric illnesses.

  11. iNOS-derived nitric oxide promotes glycolysis by inducing pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Zhu, Lingqun; Hao, Bingtao; Gao, Wenwen; Wang, Qianli; Li, Keyi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Mengqiu; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Qiaohong; Li, Xiqing; Zhong, Zhuo; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Guanghui; Xu, Yang; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Qiuzhen

    2017-05-16

    Aerobic glycolysis is essential for tumor growth and survival. Activation of multiple carcinogenic signals contributes to metabolism reprogramming during malignant transformation of cancer. Recently nitric oxide has been noted to promote glycolysis but the mechanism remains elusive. We report here the dual role of nitric oxide in glycolysis: low/physiological nitric oxide (≤ 100 nM) promotes glycolysis for ATP production, oxidative defense and cell proliferation of ovary cancer cells, whereas excess nitric oxide (≥ 500 nM) inhibits it. Nitric oxide has a positive effect on glycolysis by inducing PKM2 nuclear translocation in an EGFR/ERK2 signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, iNOS induced by mild inflammatory stimulation increased glycolysis and cell proliferation by producing low doses of nitric oxide, while hyper inflammation induced iNOS inhibited it by producing excess nitric oxide. Finally, iNOS expression is abnormally increased in ovarian cancer tissues and is correlated with PKM2 expression. Overexpression of iNOS is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor survival outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Our study indicated that iNOS/NO play a dual role of in tumor glycolysis and progression, and established a bridge between iNOS/NO signaling pathway and EGFR/ERK2/PKM2 signaling pathway, suggesting that interfering glycolysis by targeting the iNOS/NO/PKM2 axis may be a valuable new therapeutic approach of treating ovarian cancer.

  12. Soil fluxes of methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide from aggrading forests in coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Heather E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil exchanges of greenhouse and other gases are poorly known for Pacific Northwest forests where gradients in nutrient availability and soil moisture may contribute to large variations in fluxes. Here we report fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) over multiple seasons from three naturally N-rich, aggrading forests of coastal Oregon, USA. Mean methane uptake rates (3.2 mg CH4 m−2 d−1) were high compared with forests globally, negatively related to water-filled pore space (WFPS), but unrelated to N availability or temperature. Emissions of NO (6.0 μg NO–N m−2 h−1) exceeded N2O (1.4 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1), except when WFPS surpassed 55%. Spatial variation in NO fluxes correlated positively with soil nitrate concentrations (which generally exceeded ammonium concentrations, indicating the overall high N status for the sites) and negatively with soil pH, and at one site increased with basal area of N2-fixing red alder. Combined NO and N2O emissions were greatest from the site with highest annual net N mineralization and lowest needle litterfall C/N. Our findings of high CH4 uptake and NO/N2O ratios generally >1 most likely reflect the high porosity of the andic soils underlying the widespread regenerating forests in this seasonally wet region.

  13. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riganti, Chiara; Costamagna, Costanzo; Doublier, Sophie; Miraglia, Erica; Polimeni, Manuela; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario

    2008-01-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkBα. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H 2 O 2 , were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-κB activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed

  14. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L -1 ) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH -1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Sensitive electrochemical detection of nitric oxide based on AuPt and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonggang; Forsyth, Heidi; Khaper, Neelam; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-06-20

    Since nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in many biological processes, its precise detection is essential toward an understanding of its specific functions. Here we report on a facile and environmentally compatible strategy for the construction of an electrochemical sensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles. The prepared nanocomposites were further employed for the electroanalysis of NO using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and amperometric methods. The dependence of AuPt molar ratios on the electrochemical performance was investigated. Through the combination of the advantages of the high conductivity from rGO and highly electrocatalytic activity from AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles, the AuPt-rGO based NO sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 7.35 μA μM(-1) and a low detection limit of 2.88 nM. Additionally, negligible interference from common ions or organic molecules was observed, and the AuPt-rGO modified electrode demonstrated excellent stability. Moreover, this optimized electrochemical sensor was practicable for efficiently monitoring the NO released from rat cardiac cells, which were stimulated by l-arginine (l-arg), showing that stressed cells generated over 10 times more NO than normal cells. The novel sensor developed in this study may have significant medical diagnostic applications for the prevention and monitoring of disease.

  16. Ghrelin enhances food intake and carbohydrate oxidation in a nitric oxide dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Shayan; Mirza, Aaisha; Howell, Erin; Currie, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    In the present study we sought to investigate interactions between hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) and ghrelin signaling on food intake and energy substrate utilization as measured by the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Guide cannulae were unilaterally implanted in either the arcuate (ArcN) or paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were pretreated with subcutaneous (2.5-10mg/kg/ml) or central (0-100pmol) N-nitro-l-Arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) followed by 50pmol of ghrelin administered into either the ArcN or PVN. Both l-NAME and ghrelin were microinjected at the onset of the active cycle and food intake and RER were assessed 2h postinjection. RER was measured as the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expelled relative to the volume of oxygen consumed (VCO 2 /VO 2 ) using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter. Our results demonstrated that peripheral and central l-NAME pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated ghrelin induced increases in food intake and RER in either the ArcN or PVN. In fact the 100pmol dose largely reversed the metabolic effects of ghrelin in both anatomical regions. These findings suggest that ghrelin enhancement of food intake and carbohydrate oxidation in the rat ArcN and PVN is NO-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of fire on biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Boston, Penelope J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Sebacher, Shirley

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) before and after a controlled burn conducted in a chaparral ecosystem on June 22, 1987, showed significantly enhanced emissions of both gases after the burn. Mean NO emissions from heavily burned and wetted (to simulate rainfall) sites exceeded 40 ng N/sq m s, and increase of 2 to 3 compared to preburn wetted site measurements. N2O emissions from burned and wetted sites ranged from 9 to 22 ng N/sq m s. Preburn N2O emissions from these wetted sites were all below the detection level of the instrumentation, indicating a flux below 2 ng N/sq m s. The flux of NO exceeded the N2O flux from burned wetted sites by factors ranging from 2.7 to 3.4. These measurements, coupled with preburn and postburn measurements of ammonium and nitrate in the soil of this chaparral ecosystem and measurements of NO and N2O emissions obtained under controlled laboratory conditions, suggest that the postfire enhancement of NO and N2O emissions is due to production of these gases by nitrifying bacteria.

  18. Nitric oxide, cholesterol oxides and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in plasma of patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moriel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify disturbances of nitric oxide radical (·NO metabolism and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in human essential hypertension. The concentrations of·NO derivatives (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols and nitrotyrosine, water and lipid-soluble antioxidants and cholesterol oxides were measured in plasma of 11 patients with mild essential hypertension (H: 57.8 ± 9.7 years; blood pressure, 148.3 ± 24.8/90.8 ± 10.2 mmHg and in 11 healthy subjects (N: 48.4 ± 7.0 years; blood pressure, 119.4 ± 9.4/75.0 ± 8.0 mmHg.Nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiols were measured by chemiluminescence and nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. Antioxidants were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. Hypertensive patients had reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperemia (H: 9.3 and N: 15.1% increase of diameter 90 s after hyperemia, and lower levels of ascorbate (H: 29.2 ± 26.0, N: 54.2 ± 24.9 µM, urate (H: 108.5 ± 18.9, N: 156.4 ± 26.3 µM, ß-carotene (H: 1.1 ± 0.8, N: 2.5 ± 1.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, and lycopene (H: 0.4 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, in plasma, compared to normotensive subjects. The content of 7-ketocholesterol, 5alpha-cholestane-3ß,5,6ß-triol and 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol in LDL, and the concentration of endothelin-1 (H: 0.9 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/ml in plasma were increased in hypertensive patients. No differences were found for ·NO derivatives between groups. These data suggest that an increase in cholesterol oxidation is associated with endothelium dysfunction in essential hypertension and oxidative stress, although ·NO metabolite levels in plasma are not modified in the presence of elevated cholesterol oxides.

  19. Simulation of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from tropical primary forests in the Costa Rican Atlantic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuguanga Liu; William A. Reiners; Michael Keller; Davis S. Schimel

    2000-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are important atmospheric trace gases participating in the regulation of global climate and environment. Predictive models on the emissions of N2O and NO emissions from soil into the atmosphere are required. We modified the CENTURY model (Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51 (1987) 1173) to simulate the emissions of N2O and NO from...

  20. Reduced plasma adiponectin levels relative to oxidized low density lipoprotein and nitric oxide in coronary artery disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Basati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin is a circulating hormone that is produced exclusively by adipocytes and has antiinflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. The hypothesis that there are differences in adiponectin levels between stable and unstable coronary-artery disease patients remains controversial. Furthermore, the potential relationships between the plasma adiponectin level and the inflammatory and non-inflammatory markers (oxidized low density lipoprotein and nitric oxide in patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease relative to normal subjects have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether plasma adiponectin levels differ among patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease and among control subjects, and to correlate plasma adiponectin level with inflammatory and clinical risk factors (such as oxidized-LDL and nitric oxide in these patients. METHODS: This study included 50 control subjects, 50 stable angina patients and 50 unstable angina patients with angiographically documented coronary-artery disease. Plasma adiponectin and oxidized-LDL levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Plasma nitric oxide, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid profile levels were also measured. RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin levels were lower in the unstable angina patients (4.9 ± 1.30 µg/mL than in the stable angina patients (6.34 ± 1.0 µg/mL or in the controls (9.25 ± 1.8 µg/mL; these levels were also significantly lower in stable angina patients versus controls (p<0.001. Plasma adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with oxidized-LDL, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile and other clinical risk factors but positively correlated with nitric oxide. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels were found to be lower in both stable and unstable angina patients relative to control subjects, and the correlation between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular markers is weakened in these patients.

  1. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resulting in nitrosative stress, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial dysfunction which may contribute to develop- ment of atherosclerosis (Nishevitha et al. 2009). Oxidative. DNA damage includes DNA strand breaks and ... diovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension or renal failure, and 150 patients with angiographically ...

  2. Possible nitric oxide modulation in the protective effect of trazodone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of present study suggest that NO modulation is involved in the protective effect of trazodone against sleep deprivation-induced anxiety like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. Keywords: Anxiety, locomotor activity, oxidative stress, sleep deprivation, trazodone, L-arginine, L-NAME, methylene blue.

  3. Serum Nitric Oxide as a Predictive Biomarker for Bevacizumab in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Satoshi; Takagi, Hironori; Owada, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Yamaura, Takumi; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Okabe, Naoyuki; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Osugi, Jun; Hoshino, Mika; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Shio, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Reportedly, hypertension tends to be associated with response to bevacizumab therapy, because bevacizumab suppresses vascular nitric oxide production. In this study we examined the predictive value of nitric oxide in bevacizumab-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC treated with bevacizumab-based regimens were evaluated retrospectively. Serum NOx (NO 2 - /NO 3 - ) was assayed by the Griess method. Serum nitric oxide levels were decreased after two courses of bevacizumab treatment in our responder group (p=0.02). According to the change in nitric oxide levels after the second course of treatment, median progression-free survival was 11.0 months in the group with decreased serum nitric oxide and 7.6 months in the group with increased serum nitric oxide (p=0.08). Serum nitric oxide levels could be a predictive biomarker for response to bevacizumab in NSCLC patients. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of retinopathy: evidences from preclinical and clinical researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatrilova, Radka; Kubatka, Peter; Caprnda, Martin; Büsselberg, Dietrich; Krasnik, Vladimir; Vesely, Pavol; Saxena, Sandeep; Ruia, Surabhi; Mozos, Ioana; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Dos Santos, Katia Goncalves

    2017-04-08

    Retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness and visual disability in working-aged people. The pathogenesis of retinopathy is an actual and still open query. Alterations contributing to oxidative and nitrosative stress, including elevated nitric oxide and superoxide production, changes in the expression of different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase or endogenous antioxidant system, have been implicated in the mechanisms how this ocular disease develops. In addition, it was documented that renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the progression of retinopathy. Based on comprehensive preclinical and clinical researches in this area, the role of above-mentioned factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy and ischaemic proliferative retinopathy is reviewed in this study. Moreover, the genetic susceptibility factors involved in the development of the retinopathy and possible strategies that utilize antioxidants as additive therapy are also highlighted here. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigations on the oxidation of nitric acid plutonium solutions with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of ozone with nitric acid Pu solutions was studied as a function of reaction time, acid concentration and Pu concentration. Strong nitric acid Pu solutions are important in nuclear fuel element production and reprocessing. The Pu must be converted into hexavalent Pu before precipitation from the homogeneous solution together with uranium-IV, ammonia and CO 2 in the form of ammonium uranyl/plutonyl carbonate (AUPuC). Formation of a solid phase during ozonation was observed for the first time. The proneness to solidification increases with incrasing plutonium concentrations and with decreasing acid concentrations. If the formation of a solid phase during ozonation of nitric acid Pu solutions cannot be prevented, the PU-IV oxidation process described is unsuitable for industrial purposes as Pu solutions in industrial processes have much higher concentrations than the solutions used in the present investigation. (orig./EF) [de

  6. The stress corrosion cracking performance of pure zirconium and zirconium alloys in highly oxidizing nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, H.; Kajimura, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Labs.

    1996-05-01

    Zr has been used for many plants dealing with nitric acid due to its high corrosion resistance. However, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurrence has recently been reported on Zr immersed in hot nitric acid. Here corrosion performance and countermeasures against SCC of Zr, Zr-Ti and Zr-Ti-Ta alloys in HNO{sub 3} were studied. Ti has good general corrosion and SCC resistance in highly oxidizing HNO{sub 3}, although it is severely attacked in pure HNO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. Ta is an excellent corrosion resistant material over all concentrations of nitric acid. Alloying Ti and/or Ta into Zr has synergistic effects on improving both the general corrosion and SCC resistance. The optimization of corrosion resistance has been studied in Zr alloys. (Author).

  7. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  8. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  9. Tunneling corrosion mechanism of the hot forged austenitic stainless steel in highly oxidizing nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Hiroo; Kajimura, Haruhiko

    1993-01-01

    Austenitic Stainless Steels have been used for reprocessing plants where spent nuclear fuels are dealt with in hot nitric acid. Conventional stainless steels are resistant enough to nitric acid. However, they are prone to localized corrosion when nitric acid becomes highly oxidizing with birth of oxidants such as Ce 4+ or Cr 6+ ion during the reprocessing. Pitting type corrosion, so-called tunneling or end-grain corrosion occurred on the forgings of 25%-20%-Nb stainless steel (310Nb stainless steel) in such nitric acid solutions because of transpassive corrosion. It has been well known that metal surfaces of steel products casted, forged or rolled are susceptible to the tunneling corrosion in aggressive corrosion media. Nevertheless, neither clear explanations of the mechanism nor definite countermeasures have been proposed yet. This paper describes the mechanism and countermeasures on the tunneling corrosion of stainless steels in nitric acid relevant to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The results obtained are as follows: both general and intergranular corrosion occur on austenitic stainless steels in boiling 8N HNO 3 with Cr 6+ ions. Tunneling corrosion is initiated and propagates at the metal surfaces of 310Nb stainless steel forgings along chromium depleted areas vertical to metal flows. The grooves due to the tunneling corrosion are of diameters of 0.5 to 2 mm with a maximum depth of 6mm depending on exposure time and Cr 6+ concentration in nitric acid. Tunneling corrosion proceeds by build up of galvanic corrosion cells with Cr depleted parts as anodes and their neighborhoods as cathodes. The Cr depleted parts are formed during solidification of ingots and still retained parallel to the metal flow even after forging. The ESR (Electro Slag Remelting) is one of the useful preventive methods to tunneling corrosion from the view point of steel homogenization

  10. Involvement of beta 3-adrenoceptor in altered beta-adrenergic response in senescent heart: role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Aurélie; Tesse, Angela; Loyer, Xavier; Michelet, Pierre; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2008-12-01

    In senescent heart, beta-adrenergic response is altered in parallel with beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor down-regulation. A negative inotropic effect of beta3-adrenoceptor could be involved. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that beta3-adrenoceptor plays a role in beta-adrenergic dysfunction in senescent heart. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (echocardiography-dobutamine, electron paramagnetic resonance) and in vitro (isolated left ventricular papillary muscle, electron paramagnetic resonance) in young adult (3-month-old) and senescent (24-month-old) rats. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunolabeling (confocal microscopy), nitric oxide production (electron paramagnetic resonance) and beta-adrenoceptor Western blots were performed in vitro. Data are mean percentages of baseline +/- SD. An impaired positive inotropic effect (isoproterenol) was confirmed in senescent hearts in vivo (117 +/- 23 vs. 162 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (127 +/- 10 vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In the young adult group, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified by the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 183 +/- 19%), the selective NOS1 inhibitor vinyl-L-N-5(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (L-VNIO; 172 +/- 13%), or the selective NOS2 inhibitor 1400W (183 +/- 19%). In the senescent group, in parallel with beta3-adrenoceptor up-regulation and increased nitric oxide production, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by L-NAME (151 +/- 8%; P < 0.05) and L-VNIO (149 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) but not by 1400W (132 +/- 11%; not significant). The positive inotropic effect induced by dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate was decreased in the senescent group with the specific beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 (167 +/- 10 vs. 142 +/- 10%; P < 0.05). NOS1 and NOS2 were significantly up-regulated in the senescent rat. In senescent cardiomyopathy, beta3-adrenoceptor overexpression plays an important role in the

  11. The Effect of Aging and Exogenous Testosterone Replacement on Nitric Oxide Concentration and Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Corpus Cavernosum

    OpenAIRE

    Shiono, Manabu

    2001-01-01

    The effects of testosterone replacement on the nitric oxide (NO) concentration and activity of NO synthase (NOS) in the penis were investigated. Male Wistar rats (n = 39) were divided into 5 groups: 14-week-old males, 13-month-old males, 15-month-old males, 15-month-old males treated with low-dose testosterone replacement and 15-month-old males treated with high-dose testosterone replacement. The testosterone concentration in serum and the NO concentration in penile tissue were measured, and ...

  12. Arsenic triggers the nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leterrier, Marina; Airaki, Morad; Palma, José M.; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination by arsenic constitutes a problem in many countries, and its accumulation in food crops may pose health complications for humans. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved at various levels in the mechanism of responding to environmental stress in higher plants. Using Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to different arsenate concentrations, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to determine the status of ROS and RNS metabolisms. Arsenate provoked a significant reduction in growth parameters and an increase in lipid oxidation. These changes were accompanied by an alteration in antioxidative enzymes and the nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, with a significant increase in NO content, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity and protein tyrosine nitration as well as a concomitant reduction in glutathione and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) content. Our results indicate that 500 μM arsenate (AsV) causes nitro-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis, being the glutathione reductase and the GSNOR activities clearly affected. - Highlights: ► In Arabidopsis, arsenate provokes damages in the membrane integrity of root cells. ► As induces an oxidative stress according to an increase in lipid oxidation. ► NO content and protein tyrosine nitration increases under arsenate stress. ► Arsenate provokes a reduction of GSH, GSSG and GSNO content. ► Arsenate induces a nitro-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. - Arsenic stress affects nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) metabolism which provokes a nitro-oxidative stress.

  13. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  14. Inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthases exert contrasting effects during rat intestinal recovery following fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junta; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Machida, Naomi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Saito, Yuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of endogenous inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase on recovery from intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during refeeding in rats. Rats were divided into five groups, one of which was fed ad libitum, and four of which underwent 72 h of fasting, followed by refeeding for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively. iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein levels in jejunal tissues were measured, and mucosal height was histologically evaluated. Apoptotic indices, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) transcription levels, nitrite levels (as a measure of nitric oxide [NO] production),8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation (indicating reactive oxygen species [ROS] levels), crypt cell proliferation, and the motility indices (MI) were also estimated. Associations between mucosal height and NOS protein levels were determined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Notably, we observed significant increases in mucosal height and in neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression as refeeding time increased. Indeed, there was a significant positive correlation between neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein level and mucosal height during the 48-h refeeding period ( r = 0.725, P fasting. Our finding suggests that refeeding likely repairs fasting-induced jejunal atrophy by suppressing iNOS expression and subsequently inhibiting NO, ROS, and IFN-γ as apoptosis mediators, and by promoting neuronal nitric oxide synthase production and inducing crypt cell proliferation via mechanical stimulation. Impact statement Besides providing new data confirming the involvement of iNOS and nNOS in intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting, this study details their expression and function during recovery from this condition following refeeding. We demonstrate a significant negative correlation between iNOS and nNOS levels during refeeding, and associate this with cell proliferation

  15. Modeling the solar cycle change in nitric oxide in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite have shown that low-latitude nitric oxide densities at 110 km decrease by about a factor of 8 from January 1982 to April 1985. This time period corresponds to the descending phase of the last solar cycle where the monthly smoothed sunspot number decreased from more than 150 to less than 25. In addition, nitric oxide was observed to vary by a factor of 2 over a solar rotation, during high solar activity. A one-dimensional, globally averaged model of the thermosphere and upper mesosphere has been used to study the height distribution of nitric oxide (NO) and its response to changes in the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) through the solar cycle and over a solar rotation. The primary source of nitric oxide is the reaction of excited atomic nitrogen, N( 2 D), with molecular oxygen. The atomic nitrogen is created by a number of ion-neutral reactions and by direct dissociation of molecular nitrogen by photons and photoelectrons. The occurrence of the peak nitric oxide density at or below 115 km is a direct consequence of ionization and dissociation of molecular nitrogen by photoelectrons, which are produced by the solar flux below 30.0 nm (XUV). Nitric oxide is shown to vary over the solar cycle by a factor of 7 at low latitudes in the lower thermosphere E region, due to the estimated change in the solar EUV flux, in good agreement with the SME satellite observations. The NO density is shown to be strongly dependent on the temperature profile in the lower thermosphere and accounts for the difference between the current model and previous work. Wavelengths less than 1.8 nm have little impact on the NO profile. A factor of 3 change in solar flux below 5.0 nm at high solar activity produced a factor of 2 change in the peak NO density, consistent with SME observations over a solar rotation; this change also lowered the peak to 100 km, consistent with rocket data. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Nitric Oxide - Its Importance in Swallowing, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS is localized in the central nervous system, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. These are regions that are implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. In rats and rabbits, NOS has been shown to be present in the nucleus subcentralis of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and is thought to be responsible for the central programming of the striated muscle component of esophageal peristalsis. Beyak and co-workers from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario provided evidence that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. They studied oropharyngeal swallowing as well as esophageal peristalsis, and determined the functional role of brain stem nitric oxide by examining the effects of blockade of central nervous system NOS on swallowing, and on primary and secondary peristalsis. Administering NOS inhibitors intravenously or intracerebroventricularly into the fourth ventricle produced a number of oropharyngeal swallows and induced primary peristalsis in the smooth muscle portion of the esophageal body. NOS reduced the number of oropharyngeal swallows and the incidence of primary peristalsis in both smooth and striated muscle, and reduced the amplitude of peristalsis and smooth muscle contraction. This suggests that nitric oxide is a functional neurotransmitter in the central pattern generator responsible for swallowing and the central control of esophageal peristalsis. Peripherally administered NOS inhibitor can access structures within the blood-brain barrier to affect neuronal activity and physiological function. The central pattern generated for swallowing and esophageal peristalsis is suggested to be a serial network of linked neurons within the nucleus of the solitary

  17. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lima-Cabello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  19. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  20. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  1. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alleviating effect of exogenous nitric oxide in cucumber seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... oxidation (Shi et al., 2007). To protect cells and organelles from the damaging effects of ROS, complex antioxidant defense system have been evolved which comprises of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase. (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reeducate (GR). (Lee et al., 2000; ...

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis. Rajesh G. Kumar, Mrudula K. Spurthi, Kishore G. Kumar, Sanjib K. Sahu and Surekha H. Rani. J. Genet. 91, 349–352. Table 1. The demographic and clinical data of the CHD patient and control groups. Variable. Patient. Control. Power calculation. Samples. 150. 150.

  4. [Techniques and complementary techniques. Complementary treatments: nitric oxide, prone positioning and surfactant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos Sánchez, I; Vázquez Martínez, J L; Otheo de Tejada, E; Ros, P

    2003-11-01

    The management of hypoxic respiratory failure is based on oxygen delivery and ventilatory support with lung-protective ventilation strategies. Better understanding of acute lung injury have led to new therapeutic approaches that can modify the outcome of these patients. These adjunctive oxygenation strategies include inhaled nitric oxide and surfactant delivery, and the use of prone positioning. Nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator that when inhaled, improves oxygenation in clinical situations such as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When applied early in ARDS, prone positioning improves distribution of ventilation and reduces the intrapulmonary shunt. The surfactant has dramatically decreased mortality caused by hyaline membrane disease in premature newborns, although the results have been less successful in ARDS. Greater experience is required to determine whether the combination of these treatments will improve the prognosis of these patients.

  5. Nitric oxide and HSV vaginal infection in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benencia, Fabian; Gamba, Gisela; Cavalieri, Hernan; Courreges, Maria Cecilia; Benedetti, Ruben; Villamil, Soledad Maria; Massouh, Ernesto Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Here we study the role of nitric oxide in the vaginal infection of Balb/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes early postinfection. iNOS was also found to be activated in cells recovered from vaginal washings of infected animals. Animals treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor, showed a dose-dependent increase in vaginal pathology after viral infection compared to controls. Viral titers in vaginal washings and vaginas were higher in AG-treated mice. Treated animals presented higher PMN counts in vaginal washings compared to controls. Histopathology studies revealed a profound inflammatory exudate in vaginal tissue of treated animals. Finally, RT-PCR analysis showed increased expression of the chemokines MIP-2 and RANTES in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes of these animals

  6. Involvement of the nitric oxide in melatonin-mediated protection against injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenguo; He, Yifan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gu, Wenzhen; Wu, Zhi; Zhu, Xiao; Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen

    2018-05-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly synthesized by the pineal gland in vertebrates and known well as an endogenous regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. It has been demonstrated that melatonin is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes showing antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions. Accumulating evidence has clearly revealed that melatonin regulates NO/NOS system through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article reviews the latest evidence for the effects of melatonin on NO/NOS regulation in different organs and disease conditions, the potential cellular mechanisms by which melatonin is involved in organ protection are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association Between Increased Vascular Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Progression to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Lye, David; Yeo, Tsin W

    2015-09-01

    In a prospective longitudinal adult study, vascular nitric oxide bioavailability measured as reactive hyperemia index was significantly higher at enrollment in patients who developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (n = 11), compared with the non-DHF group (n = 63) and those with other febrile illnesses (n = 25) (P = .01). After adjustment for age, fever day, and body mass index, enrollment reactive hyperemia index was associated with a 4-fold increased risk for DHF, and predicted DHF with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.86. Increased vascular nitric oxide in dengue is associated with increased vascular permeability and impaired homeostasis and may have utility as a predictor of DHF. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Intersection of interferon and hypoxia signal transduction pathways in nitric oxide-induced tumor apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, D S; Bao, C; Wang, T; Huang, E L; Ratovitski, E A; Pardoll, D A; Lowenstein, C J

    2001-05-01

    Activated macrophages play a central role in antitumor immunity. However, the stimuli that activate macrophages to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. Because the center of solid tumors can be hypoxic, we hypothesized that hypoxia may be an important signal in activating macrophages to kill tumor cells. Hypoxia stimulates IFN-primed macrophages to express the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and to synthesize nitric oxide (NO). We show that this synergy between IFN and hypoxia is mediated by the direct interaction of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), which are both required for the hypoxic transcription of NOS2. This interaction between HIF-1 and IRF-1 may explain the mechanism by which macrophages infiltrating into tumors are activated to express NOS2 and to produce NO, a mediator of tumor apoptosis.

  9. Immunocytochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase in the brain of the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, G; Funk, U; Mayer, B

    1994-12-20

    The distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the chicken brain was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Strongly stained neurones were concentrated in the paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, ventral pallidum, olfactory tubercle, parts of the neostriatum, mesencephalic reticular formation and locus coeruleus. Cells in these areas have previously been shown to stain for NADPH-diaphorase, a histochemical activity associated with NOS. However, various structures which NADPH-diaphorase staining has suggested to contain NOS were not immunoreactive: these included the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, magnocellular preoptic neurones, the median eminence, subcommissural organ and mesencephalic trigeminal neurones. NOS was sparsely present in the hyperstriatum ventrale, providing evidence against the involvement of nitric oxide in certain forms of learning and memory processes known to occur in this region.

  10. Review Paper: Role of Nitric Oxide on Dopamine Release and Morphine-Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Arash Motahari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic effects of opioids use on public health and the economy are documented clearly in numerous studies. Repeated morphine administration can lead to either a decrease (tolerance or an increase (sensitization in its behavioral and rewarding effects. Morphine-induced sensitization is a major problem and plays an important role in abuse of the opioid drugs. Studies reported that morphine may exert its effects by the release of nitric oxide (NO. NO is a potent neuromodulator, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS. However, the exact role of NO in the opioid-induced sensitization is unknown. In this study, we reviewed the role of NO on opioid-induced sensitization in 2 important, rewarding regions of the brain: nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmentum. In addition, we focused on the contribution of NO on opioid-induced sensitization in the limbic system.

  11. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...... used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains controversial. This Cochrane review was originally published in 2003, and has been updated in 2010 and 2016. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effects of administration of inhaled nitric oxide on mortality in adults and children...... data and resolved disagreements by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effects of INO in adults and children and on various clinical and physiological outcomes. We presented pooled estimates of the effects...

  12. Association of arginase I or nitric oxide-related factors with job strain in healthy workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Nagaoka, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between job strain and arginase I in 378 healthy Japanese factory workers by a cross-sectional study measuring nitric oxide (NO)-related parameters (arginase I, L-arginine, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and NOx), clinical parameters, and job strain using a Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek. Arginase I and FEV1% were negatively correlated with job strain and positively correlated with job control and social support. FeNO and hs-CRP were negatively correlated with job strain. Multiple regression analysis showed negative association of arginase I with job strain and positive association with job control and social support in females. It is concluded that serum levels of arginase I may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of job stress in healthy female workers, although many factors can be influencing the data. PMID:28403218

  13. Indirect evaluation of corneal apoptosis in contact lens wearers by estimation of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Contact lens induced trauma to the corneal epithelium results in increased release of inflammatory mediators. The keratocyte apoptosis is directly related to epithelial injury and has been correlated with increased production of nitric oxide. Potent antioxidant enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage by inactivating reactive oxygen species and thus inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims at determination of total nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears which will be an indirect criteria for assessing apoptosis. Materials and Methods : Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were estimated in tears of 25 soft contact lens wearers and compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. Results : Statistically significant increase of nitric oxide (P< 0.001, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.001 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.001 levels was seen in tears of contact lens wearers as compared to controls. There was also statistically significant increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.01, with increase in the total duration of contact lens wear in years. Conclusions : Increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears of contact lens wearers suggested that contact lens wear suppresses the process of apoptosis. However, it was also postulated that the increased levels of nitric oxide balances the anti-apoptotic activities of increased levels of antioxidant enzymes by its pro-apoptotic activity leading to protective outcomes in contact lens wearers.

  14. Impairment of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in cerebellar slices prepared from the hph-1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M P; Briddon, A; Land, J M; Clark, J B; Heales, S J

    1996-09-30

    In this study, the effect of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway has been investigated in cerebellar slices derived from the hph-1 mouse. This animal displays a partial deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin. Basal levels of cGMP were significantly reduced (-29.5%) in the hph-1 mouse cerebellum compared to controls. Following kainate stimulation (500 microM) cGMP levels increased in both control and hph-1 preparations but were again significantly lower (-29.1%) in the hph-1 mouse. Exposure of slices to the nitric oxide donors, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and S-nitroso-glutathione, revealed no difference in cGMP accumulation between the two groups. These findings suggest that the cerebellar nitric oxide/cGMP pathway may be impaired in partial tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency states due to diminished nitric oxide formation.

  15. The effect of antioxidants on the nitric oxide balance and prevention of spontaneous hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, O.; Kojšová, S.; Paulis, L.; Janega, P.; Zicha, Josef; Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Šimko, F.; Andriantsitohaina, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. S2 (2005), S232-S232 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /15./. 17.06.2005-21.06.2005, Milan] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/3185/24; VEGA(SK) 1/0532/03; APVT(SK) 51-017902; APVT(SK) 51-013802 Keywords : antioxidants * nitric oxide * spontaneous hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  16. The Relation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Nitric Oxide Levels to Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis of Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Kasım

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the differential diagnosis of bacterial, tuberculous and viral meningitis, and the relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NO levels and meningitis prognosis. Twenty patients with bacterial meningitis, 9 with tuberculous meningitis, 11 with viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis and 21 control patients were included in the study. CSF NO levels were investigated by measuring the levels of nitrite with a colorimetric test...

  17. Effects of nitric oxide on resistance to bacterial infection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, E. (INSERM, Paris, France); Bouley, G.; Blayo, M.C.

    1981-06-01

    Continuous exposure to 2 ppM nitric oxide (NO) for as long as 4 wk did not reduce the resistance of male mice to infection by aerosol inoculation with Pasteurella multocida. In contrast, mortality was slightly enhanced and survival shortened in NO-exposed compared to control female mice; however, the importance of these small differences is uncertain. These results suggest only that male and famale mice did not react similarly to the infectious challenge after exposure to NO.

  18. Middle T antigen-transformed endothelial cells exhibit an increased activity of nitric oxide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Endothelioma cell lines transformed by polyoma virus middle T antigen (mTa) cause cavernous hemangiomas in syngeneic mice by recruitment of host cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO), as measured by nitrite and citrulline production, was significantly higher in mTa-transformed endothelial cells in comparison with nontransformed control cells. The maximal activity of NO synthase (NOS) was about 200-fold higher in cell lysates from the tEnd.1 endothelioma cell line than in lysates from non...

  19. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad; Minarma Siagian; Dewi Irawati SS

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) i...

  20. The role of nitric oxide in the maintenance of vasoactive balance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Šimko, F.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl.2 (2007), S7-S16 ISSN 0862-8408 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; APPV(SK) 0596-06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nitric oxide * vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction factors * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  1. Melatonin effect on hypertension and nitric oxide balance in the heart and aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Paulis, L.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Šimko, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. S6 (2006), s. 395-395 ISSN 0263-6352. [Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension /21./. 15.10.2006-19.10.2006, Fukuoka] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * nitric oxide balance * hypertension * SHR and WKY rat * heart and aorta Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  2. Aspirin induces nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium: a novel mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, D; Berkels, R; Grosser, N; Schröder, H; Gründemann, D; Schömig, E

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to test the hypothesis that aspirin may stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium, a pivotal factor for maintenance of vascular homeostasis.Clinical evidence suggests that low-dose aspirin may improve vascular endothelial function. Since other cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors showed no beneficial vascular effects, aspirin may exhibit a vasculoprotective, COX-independent mechanism.Luminal NO release was monitored in real time on dissected porcine coron...

  3. Nitric Oxide Contributes to Behavioral, Cellular, and Developmental Responses to Low Oxygen in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Wingrove, James A.; O’Farrell, Patrick H.

    1999-01-01

    A nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling pathway is thought to play an important role in mammalian vasodilation during hypoxia. We show that Drosophila utilizes components of this pathway to respond to hypoxia. Hypoxic exposure rapidly induced exploratory behavior in larvae and arrested the cell cycle. These behavioral and cellular responses were diminished by an inhibitor of NO synthase and by a polymorphism affecting a form of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Conversely, these response...

  4. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson MD; Poyton RO

    2015-01-01

    Marina D Hendrickson, Robert O Poyton Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is responsible for cellular adaptations to hypoxia. While oxygen (O2) negatively regulates its stability, many other factors affect HIF-1 stability and activity, including nitric oxide (NO). NO derived from l-arginine and nitrite (NO2–) could nitrosylate or nitrate HIF-1 and multiple proteins involv...

  5. Interactions between Nitric Oxide and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling Pathways in Inflammatory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Nels; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Induction and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) and excessive production of NO are common features of almost all diseases associated with infection and acute or chronic inflammation, although the contribution of NO to the pathophysiology of these diseases is highly multifactorial and often still a matter of controversy. Because of its direct impact on tissue oxygenation and cellular oxygen (O2) consumption and redistribution, the ability of NO to regulate various aspects of hypo...

  6. The role of nitric oxide during embryonic epidermis development of Xenopus laevis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tománková, Silvie; Abaffy, Pavel; Šindelka, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2017), s. 862-871 ISSN 2046-6390 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR LK21305; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Development * Nitric oxide * Epidermis * Xenopus laevis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Bio logy OBOR OECD: Developmental bio logy Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2016

  7. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Exenatide Increases Capillary Perfusion Independent of Nitric Oxide in Healthy Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tonneijck, Lennart; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H; Serné, Erik H

    2015-06-01

    The insulinotropic gut-derived hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases capillary perfusion via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in rodents. This improves skeletal muscle glucose use and cardiac function. In humans, the effect of clinically used GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on capillary density is unknown. We aimed to assess the effects of the GLP-1RA exenatide on capillary density as well as the involvement of nitric oxide in humans. We included 10 healthy overweight men (age, 20-27 years; body mass index, 26-31 kg/m(2)). Measurements were performed during intravenous infusion of placebo (saline 0.9%), exenatide, and a combination of exenatide and the nonselective nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine. Capillary videomicroscopy was performed, and baseline and postocclusive (peak) capillary densities were counted. Compared with placebo, exenatide increased baseline and peak capillary density by 20.1% and 8.3%, respectively (both P=0.016). Concomitant L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine infusion did not alter the effects of exenatide. Vasomotion was assessed using laser Doppler fluxmetry. Exenatide nonsignificantly reduced the neurogenic domain of vasomotion measurements (R=-5.6%; P=0.092), which was strongly and inversely associated with capillary perfusion (R=-0.928; P=0.036). Glucose levels were reduced during exenatide infusion, whereas levels of insulin were unchanged. Acute exenatide infusion increases capillary perfusion via nitric oxide-independent pathways in healthy overweight men, suggesting direct actions of this GLP-1RA on microvascular perfusion or interaction with vasoactive factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, and cyclic ADP-ribose

    OpenAIRE

    Durner, Jörg; Wendehenne, David; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to perform multiple roles during plant defense responses to microbial attack, acting in the initial defense and possibly as cellular signaling molecules. In animals, nitric oxide (NO) is an important redox-active signaling molecule. Here we show that infection of resistant, but not susceptible, tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus resulted in enhanced NO synthase (NOS) activity. Furthermore, administration of NO donors or recombinant mammalian NOS to tobacco ...

  9. Regulation of type 17 helper T-cell function by nitric oxide during inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Niedbala, Wanda; Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Fukada, Sandra Y.; Vieira, Silvio Manfredo; Mitani, Akio; Sonego, Fabiane; Mirchandani, Ananda; Nascimento, Daniele C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Liew, Foo Y.

    2011-01-01

    Type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are implicated in the pathogenesis many of human autoimmune diseases. Development of Th17 can be enhanced by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) whose ligands include the environmental pollutant dioxin, potentially linking environmental factors to the increased prevalence of autoimmune disease. We report here that nitric oxide (NO) can suppress the proliferation and function of polarized murine and human Th17 cells. NO also inhibits AHR expression i...

  10. Effect of Genistein on reproductive parameter and serum nitric oxide levels in morphine-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Jalili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The predominant phytoestrogen in soy and derived products is the isoflavone Genistein. Genistein has antioxidant properties. Morphine is a main psychoactive chemical in opium that can increase the generation of free radicals and therefore it could adversely affects the spermatogenesis. Objective: The main goal was to investigate whether the Genistein could protect morphine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone and nitric oxide in blood serum. Materials and Methods: In this study, various doses of Genistein (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg and Genistein plus morphine (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg were administered interaperitoneally to 48 male mice for 30 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=6 and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility and morphology, testis weight and histology, testosterone hormone (ELISA method, FSH and LH hormones (immunoradiometry and serum nitric oxide (griess assay were analyzed and compared. Results: The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone (0.03 ng/mg LH and FSH level, histological parameters, count, viability (55.3%, morphology and motility of sperm cells (1%, testis weight (0.08 gr and increase nitric oxide compared to saline group (p=0.00. However, administration of Genistein and Genistein plus morphine significantly boosted motility, morphology, count, viability of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal thickness, testosterone, LH and FSH while decrease nitric oxide level in all groups compared to morphine group (p<0.025. Conclusion: It seems that Genistein administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevent morphine- induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  11. Efficacy of serum nitric oxide level estimation in assessing the severity of necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettu, Srinivas Reddy; Wig, Jai Dev; Khullar, Madhu; Singh, Gurpreet; Gupta, Rajesh

    2003-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of necrotizing pancreatitis is unclear. In a prospective study, the clinical course of 40 patients diagnosed as having acute necrotizing pancreatitis was followed using computed tomography severity score (CTSS) and serial APACHE II scoring. The serum nitric oxide levels in the form of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) were estimated on admission and on day 3. Occurrence of complications, need for intervention, incidence of organ failure, and outcome were noted. The efficacy of CTSS, APACHE II scores, and RNI levels in predicting morbidity and mortality was assessed. The correlation between CTSS, APACHE II scores, and RNI levels was studied. The study group showed significantly higher levels of RNI as compared with the control group (159.1 vs. 106.0 nmol/ml, p RNI levels were not affected by the occurrence of local complications or distant-organ failure. The RNI levels on admission were significantly higher in the subset of patients who developed bacterial sepsis (195.5 vs. 134.7 nmol/ml, p RNI levels on admission in the non-survivors were higher as compared with those of the survivors (216.0 vs. 140.1 nmol/ml, p RNI levels and the CTSS in these patients (p RNI levels and APACHE II scores. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is associated with raised serum nitric oxide levels at its early stage. Patients with higher serum nitric oxide levels are at a significantly higher risk of sepsis and mortality. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  12. Procedures of Laboratory Fumigation for Pest Control with Nitric Oxide Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Masuda, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant for postharvest pest control. This paper provides detailed protocols for conducting NO fumigation on fresh products and procedures for residue analysis and product quality evaluation. An airtight fumigation chamber containing fresh fruit and vegetables is first flushed with nitrogen (N2) to establish an ultralow oxygen (ULO) environment followed by injection of NO. The fumigation chamber is then kept at a low temperature of 2 - 5 °C for a speci...

  13. Macula Densa Nitric Oxide Synthase 1β Protects against Salt-Sensitive Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Wei, Jin; Stec, David E; Roman, Richard J; Ge, Ying; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Eddie Y; Zhang, Jie; Hansen, Pernille B Laerkegaard; Fan, Fan; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Lei; Pollock, Jennifer; Huang, Paul L; Fu, Yiling; Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Ruisheng

    2016-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important negative modulator of tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness. We recently found that macula densa expresses α-, β-, and γ-splice variants of neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and NOS1β expression in the macula densa increases on a high-salt diet. This study tested whether upregulation of NOS1β expression in the macula densa affects sodium excretion and salt-sensitive hypertension by decreasing tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness. Expression levels of NOS1β mRNA and protein were 30- and five-fold higher, respectively, than those of NOS1α in the renal cortex of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, macula densa NO production was similar in the isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus of wild-type (WT) and nitric oxide synthase 1α-knockout (NOS1αKO) mice. Compared with control mice, mice with macula densa-specific knockout of all nitric oxide synthase 1 isoforms (MD-NOS1KO) had a significantly enhanced tubuloglomerular feedback response and after acute volume expansion, significantly reduced GFR, urine flow, and sodium excretion. Mean arterial pressure increased significantly in MD-NOS1KO mice (Psalt diet. After infusion of angiotensin II, mean arterial pressure increased by 61.6 mmHg in MD-NOS1KO mice versus 32.0 mmHg in WT mice (Psalt diet. These results indicate that NOS1β is a primary NOS1 isoform expressed in the macula densa and regulates the tubuloglomerular feedback response, the natriuretic response to acute volume expansion, and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. These findings show a novel mechanism for salt sensitivity of BP and the significance of tubuloglomerular feedback response in long-term control of sodium excretion and BP. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by systemic N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine administration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, U; Bangsbo, J; Langberg, Henning

    2000-01-01

    We examined whether the formation or the release of the vasodilators adenosine, prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and potassium (K(+)) increase in skeletal muscle interstitium in response to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition. Five subjects performed one-legged knee extensor exercise at 30 W without (con......-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha concentration in controls was 1.17+/-0.20 ng/ml at rest and increased (p0.05) in L-NAME. The interstitial K(+) concentration in controls increased (p...

  15. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins ha...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  16. l-Arginine Availability Modulates Local Nitric Oxide Production and Parasite Killing in Experimental Trypanosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gobert, Alain P.; Daulouede, Sylvie; Lepoivre, Michel; Boucher, Jean Luc; Bouteille, Bernard; Buguet, Alain; Cespuglio, Raymond; Veyret, Bernard; Vincendeau, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule of the immune system in eliminating numerous pathogens. Peritoneal macrophages from Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice express type II NO synthase (NOS-II), produce NO, and kill parasites in the presence of l-arginine in vitro. Nevertheless, parasites proliferate in the vicinity of these macrophages in vivo. The present study shows that l-arginine availability modulates NO production. Trypanosomes use l-arginine for polyamine synthesis,...

  17. Differential effects of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates on nitric oxide and cytokines in rat hepatocytes and macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostecká, Petra; Holý, Antonín; Farghali, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 342-349 ISSN 1567-5769 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * cytokines * nitric oxide Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.417, year: 2012

  18. Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Silica Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hetrick, Evan M.; Shin, Jae Ho; Paul, Heather S.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica nanoparticles to kill biofilm-based microbial cells is reported. Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans were formed in vitro and exposed to NO-releasing silica nanoparticles. Replicative viability experiments revealed that ≥ 99% of cells from each type of biofilm were killed via NO release, with the greatest efficacy (≥ 99.999% killing) against gram-negative...

  19. Arginine-based inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase: therapeutic potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víteček, Jan; Lojek, Antonín; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Kubala, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    In the past three decades, nitric oxide has been well established as an important bioactive molecule implicated in regulation of cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that much effort has been made to find specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), the enzymes responsible for production of nitric oxide. Among the many NOS inhibitors developed to date, inhibitors based on derivatives and analogues of arginine are of special interest, as this category includes a relatively high number of compounds with good potential for experimental as well as clinical application. Though this group of inhibitors covers early nonspecific compounds, modern drug design strategies such as biochemical screening and computer-aided drug design have provided NOS-isoform-specific inhibitors. With an emphasis on major advances in this field, a comprehensive list of inhibitors based on their structural characteristics is discussed in this paper. We provide a summary of their biochemical properties as well as their observed effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we focus in particular on their pharmacology and use in recent clinical studies. The potential of newly designed specific NOS inhibitors developed by means of modern drug development strategies is highlighted.

  20. Arginine-Based Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Therapeutic Potential and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Víteček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, nitric oxide has been well established as an important bioactive molecule implicated in regulation of cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that much effort has been made to find specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS, the enzymes responsible for production of nitric oxide. Among the many NOS inhibitors developed to date, inhibitors based on derivatives and analogues of arginine are of special interest, as this category includes a relatively high number of compounds with good potential for experimental as well as clinical application. Though this group of inhibitors covers early nonspecific compounds, modern drug design strategies such as biochemical screening and computer-aided drug design have provided NOS-isoform-specific inhibitors. With an emphasis on major advances in this field, a comprehensive list of inhibitors based on their structural characteristics is discussed in this paper. We provide a summary of their biochemical properties as well as their observed effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we focus in particular on their pharmacology and use in recent clinical studies. The potential of newly designed specific NOS inhibitors developed by means of modern drug development strategies is highlighted.

  1. Placental Vesicles Carry Active Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Their Activity is Reduced in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mejia, Carolina; Kandzija, Neva; Zhang, Wei; Mhlomi, Vuyane; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Burdujan, Alexandra; Tannetta, Dionne; Dragovic, Rebecca; Sargent, Ian L; Redman, Christopher W; Kishore, Uday; Vatish, Manu

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia, a multisystem hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with increased systemic vascular resistance. Placentae from patients with preeclampsia have reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and, thus, less nitric oxide (NO). Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV), comprising microvesicles (STBMV) and exosomes, carry signals from the syncytiotrophoblast to the mother. We hypothesized that STBEV-bound eNOS (STBEV-eNOS), capable of producing NO, are released into the maternal circulation. Dual-lobe ex vivo placental perfusion and differential centrifugation was used to isolate STBEV from preeclampsia (n=8) and normal pregnancies (NP; n=11). Plasma samples of gestational age-matched preeclampsia and NP (n=6) were used to isolate circulating STBMV. STBEV expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, confirming placental origin. STBEV coexpressed eNOS, but not inducible nitric oxide synthase, confirmed using Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunodepletion. STBEV-eNOS produced NO, which was significantly inhibited by N   G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (eNOS inhibitor; P preeclampsia-perfused placentae had lower levels of STBEV-eNOS (STBMV; P preeclampsia women had lower STBEV-eNOS expression compared with that from NP women ( P preeclampsia placentae, as well as in plasma. The lower STBEV-eNOS NO production seen in preeclampsia may contribute to the decreased NO bioavailability in this disease. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. The Effect of Central Amygdala Nitric Oxide in Expression Of Drug Seeking Behaviors

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    Mahnaz Rahimpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies shows L-arginin (nitric oxide precursor increases conditioned place preference and drug seeking behaviors whereas LG-nitro-arginine methyl ester L-NAME( as nitric oxide synthase inhibitor decreases this process. In this project, effects of intra-central amygdale bilateral injection of nitric oxide agents on drug-seeking behaviors including rearing, sniffing and compartment entrance were investigated. Method: animals were wistar male rats (200-250 g which allowed to be recovered after they’re being suffered from a surgery by strereotaxis apparatus to be cannulated in coordination of central amygdale nucleus (CeA. CPP was conducted using a five-day schedule of unbiased procedure. Findings: morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg s.c induced significant drug-seeking behaviors. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg i.p injection pretesting (after conditioning by morphine 7.5 mg/kg decreased the expression of behaviors. When L-arginine (0.3-3 µgr/rat injected intra–CeA prior to naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, increased behaviors but L-NAME (0.3-3 µgr/rat intra–CeA injections prior to L-arginine (0.3 µgr/rat pretesting, caused significant decreasement of L-arginine response. Conclusion: NO in the CeA may play an important role in the drug seeking behaviors induced of morphine.

  3. Distribution of Nitric Oxide-Producing Cells along Spinal Cord in Urodeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada A Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a unique neurotransmitter, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes in the organism. There are little data about the neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of amphibians. In this respect, the present study aims to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide producing cells in the spinal cord of urodele and to find out the possibility of a functional locomotory role to this neurotransmitter. The results of the present study demonstrate a specific pattern of NADPH-d labeling in the selected amphibian model throughout the spinal cord length as NADPH-d-producing cells and fibres were present in almost all segments of the spinal cord of the salamander investigated. However, their number, cytological characteristics and labeling intensity varied significantly. It was noticed that the NO-producing cells (NO-PC were accumulated in the ventral side of certain segments in the spinal cord corresponding to the brachial and sacral plexuses. In addition, the number of NO-PC was found to be increased also at the beginning of the tail and this could be due to the fact that salamanders are tetrapods having bimodal locomotion, namely swimming and walking.

  4. [Nitric oxide pathway and female lower urinary tract. Physiological and pathophysiological role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, X; Rischmann, P; Arnal, J-F; Malavaud, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to review the literature on nitric oxide and female lower urinary tract. A literature review through the PubMed library until December, 31 2012 was carried out using the following keywords: lower urinary tract, bladder, urethra, nervous central system, innervation, female, women, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, urinary tract infection. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms, the neuronal (nNOS) and the endothelial (eNOS), are constitutively expressed in the lower urinary tract. Nevertheless, nNOS is mainly expressed in the bladder neck and the urethra. In the bladder, NO modulates the afferent neurons activity. In pathological condition, inducible NOS expression induces an increase in detrusor contractility and bladder wall thickness and eNOS facilitates Escherichia coli bladder wall invasion inducing recurrent urinary tract infections. In the urethra, NO play a major role in smooth muscle cells relaxation. The NO pathway plays a major role in the female lower urinary tract physiology and physiopathology. While it acts mainly on bladder outlet, in pathological condition, it is involved in bladder dysfunction occurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina D Hendrickson, Robert O Poyton Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is responsible for cellular adaptations to hypoxia. While oxygen (O2 negatively regulates its stability, many other factors affect HIF-1 stability and activity, including nitric oxide (NO. NO derived from l-arginine and nitrite (NO2– could nitrosylate or nitrate HIF-1 and multiple proteins involved in HIF-1 regulation, and can allow HIF-1 to escape normoxic degradation. In turn, HIF-1 can increase NO production through multiple mechanisms, including increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and subunit 4-2 of cytochrome c oxidase (COX4-2 expression. There is therefore a high degree of crosstalk between HIF-1 and NO signaling. As such, many cellular responses to NO are mediated by HIF-1, and vice versa. This includes, but is not limited to, angiogenesis, apoptosis, senescence, and metabolic changes. These pathways all have important functions in normal physiology and when altered can contribute or, in some cases, lead to pathogenesis. Keywords: HIF, nitric oxide, Cco/NO mitochondrial signaling, ROS/RNS, cancer

  6. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway on methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Francisco JWS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate treatment has been associated to intestinal epithelial damage. Studies have suggested an important role of nitric oxide in such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO, specifically iNOS on the pathogenesis of methotrexate (MTX-induced intestinal mucositis. Methods Intestinal mucositis was carried out by three subcutaneous MTX injections (2.5 mg/kg in Wistar rats and in inducible nitric oxide synthase knock-out (iNOS-/- and wild-type (iNOS+/+ mice. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with the NOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG; 10 mg/Kg or L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, one hour before MTX injection and daily until sacrifice, on the fifth day. The jejunum was harvested to investigate the expression of Ki67, iNOS and nitrotyrosine by immunohistochemistry and cell death by TUNEL. The neutrophil activity by myeloperoxidase (MPO assay was performed in the three small intestine segments. Results AG and L-NAME significantly reduced villus and crypt damages, inflammatory alterations, cell death, MPO activity, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining due to MTX challenge. The treatment with AG, but not L-NAME, prevented the inhibitory effect of MTX on cell proliferation. MTX induced increased expression of iNOS detected by immunohistochemistry. MTX did not cause significant inflammation in the iNOS-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest an important role of NO, via activation of iNOS, in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis.

  7. Synthesis of nitric oxide in human osteoblasts in response to physiologic stimulation of electrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ayman; Kim, Paul; Cho, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Electrotherapy for bone healing, remodeling and wound healing may be mediated by modulation of nitric oxide (NO). Using NO-specific fluorophore (DAF-2), we report here that application of non-invasive, physiologic electrical stimulation induces NO synthesis in human osteoblasts, and that such NO generation is comparable to that induced by estrogen treatment. For example, application of a sinusoidal 1 Hz, 2 V/cm (peak to peak) electrical stimulation (ES) increases NO-bound DAF-2 fluorescence intensity by a 2-fold within 60 min exposure by activating nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Increase in the NO level is found to depend critically on the frequency and strength of ES. While the frequency of 1 Hz ES seems optimal, the ES strength >0.5 V/cm is required to induce significant NO increase, however. Nitric oxide synthesis in response to ES is completely prevented by blocking estrogen receptors using a competitive inhibitor, suggesting that NO generation is likely initiated by activation of estrogen receptors at the cell surface. Based on these findings, physiologic stimulation of electrotherapy appears to represent a potential non-invasive, non-genomic, and novel physical technique that could be used to regulate NO-mediated bone density and facilitate bone remodeling without adverse effects associated with hormone therapy.

  8. Different sources of nitric oxide mediate neurovascular coupling in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Labra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the link between neuronal responses and metabolic signals is fundamental to our knowledge of brain function and it is a milestone in our efforts to interpret data from modern non invasive optical techniques such as fMRI, which are based on the close coupling between metabolic demand of active neurons and local changes in blood flow. The challenge is to unravel the link. Here we show, using spectrophotometry to record oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and metahemoglobin (MetHb (surrogate markers of cerebral flow and nitric oxide levels respectively together with extracellular neuronal recordings in vivo and applying a multiple polynomial regression model, that the markers are able to predict up about 80% of variability in neuronal response. Furthermore, we show that the coupling between blood flow and neuronal activity is heavily influenced by nitric oxide (NO. While neuronal responses show the typical saturating response, blood flow shows a linear behaviour during contrast-response curves, with nitric oxide from different sources acting differently for low and high intensity.

  9. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V

    2005-01-31

    We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  10. Treatment Of Sunitinib-Induced Hypertension In Solid Tumors By Nitric Oxid Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Leon

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension (HT is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. Hypertension observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of hypertension. Although the exact mechanism by TKIs induce hypertension has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS and nitric oxide (NO production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition.

  11. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis of nitric oxide-responsive phosphoproteins in cotton leaf.

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    Shuli Fan

    Full Text Available Knowledge of phosphorylation events and their regulation is crucial to understanding the functional biology of plant proteins, but very little is currently known about nitric oxide-responsive phosphorylation in plants. Here, we report the first large-scale, quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum treated with sodium nitroprusside (nitric oxide donor by utilizing the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method. A total of 1315 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1528 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1020 cotton phosphoproteins. Among them, 183 phosphopeptides corresponding to 167 phosphoproteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated in response to sodium nitroprusside. Several of the phosphorylation sites that we identified, including RQxS, DSxE, TxxxxSP and SPxT, have not, to our knowledge, been reported to be protein kinase sites in other species. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, RNA metabolism, intracellular transport and so on. This study reveals unique features of the cotton phosphoproteome and provides new insight into the biochemical pathways that are regulated by nitric oxide.

  13. Hormonal Regulation of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Cardio-metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar-Milovanovic, Emina; Zafirovic, Sonja; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Trebaljevac, Jovana; Obradovic, Milan; Cenic-Milosevic, Desanka; Isenovic, Esma R

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential biochemical, cardio-metabolic risk marker. The production of NO is catalyzed by different isoforms of enzymes, NO synthases (NOS). An altered NO level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Activity of NOS and NO production are regulated by various hormones under physiological and pathophysiological condition. Data used for this review were obtained by searching the electronic database [PUBMED/MEDLINE 1984 - May 2016]. Additionally, abstracts from national and international diabetes and cardiovascular related meetings were searched. The main data search terms were: nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, cardio-metabolic risk, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, estradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1. In this review, we summarize the recent literature data related to the regulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible (iNOS) activity/expression, and thereby NO production by the hormones: estradiol (E2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Understanding the regulation of NO production by different hormones such as E2, and IGF-1 may provide novel and useful knowledge regarding how endothelial dysfunction (ED) is linked with cardio-metabolic alterations and diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Do endogenous opioids and nitric oxide participate in the anticonvulsant action of dipyrone?

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    G.M.L. Reis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It was previously reported that systemic administration of dipyrone inhibited the tonic component of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in both the electroshock and the audiogenic seizure models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the anticonvulsant action of dipyrone by assessing the role of nitric oxide and opioids in the electroshock (female 60- to 90-day-old Wistar rats, N = 5-11 and audiogenic seizure (female 60- to 90-day-old Wistar audiogenic rats, N = 5-11 models of epilepsy. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, sc significantly reversed the anticonvulsant effect of dipyrone in rats submitted to the induction of audiogenic seizures (ANOVA/Bonferroni's test, suggesting the involvement of opioid peptides in this action. In the electroshock model no reversal of the anticonvulsant effect of dipyrone by naloxone (5 mg/kg, sc was demonstrable. The acute (120 mg/kg, ip and chronic (25 mg/kg, ip, twice a day/4 days administration of L-NOARG did not reverse the anticonvulsant action of dipyrone in the audiogenic seizure model, suggesting that the nitric oxide pathway does not participate in such effect. Indomethacin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, ip used for comparison had no anticonvulsant effect in the audiogenic seizure model. In conclusion, opioid peptides but not nitric oxide seem to be involved in the anticonvulsant action of dipyrone in audiogenic seizures.

  15. Distribution of nitric oxide-producing cells along spinal cord in urodeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mayada A.; Fahmy, Gehan H.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Sabry, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a unique neurotransmitter, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes in the organism. There are little data about the neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of amphibians. In this respect, the present study aims to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide producing cells in the spinal cord of urodele and to find out the possibility of a functional locomotory role to this neurotransmitter. The results of the present study demonstrate a specific pattern of NADPH-d labeling in the selected amphibian model throughout the spinal cord length as NADPH-d-producing cells and fibers were present in almost all segments of the spinal cord of the salamander investigated. However, their number, cytological characteristics and labeling intensity varied significantly. It was noticed that the NO-producing cells (NO-PC) were accumulated in the ventral side of certain segments in the spinal cord corresponding to the brachial and sacral plexuses. In addition, the number of NO-PC was found to be increased also at the beginning of the tail and this could be due to the fact that salamanders are tetrapods having bimodal locomotion, namely swimming and walking. PMID:25309330

  16. Geomagnetic control of mesospheric nitric oxide concentration from simultaneous D and F region ionization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.N.; Shirke, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations are made of D-region electron density profiles derived from 'partial reflection' measurements over a low latitude station (Ahmedabad) during a year of low solar activity. The index relating the electron density with the solar zenith angle is found to increase towards lower zenith angles suggesting both diurnal and seasonal variations in the Nitric oxide concentration. A close correlation is also found between the electron density at 80 km and the maximum ionization density in the F region above. This is interpreted as due to concomitant variation of a sizeable fraction of the Nitric oxide concentration in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with the overhead F region ionization. A simplified global model is presented for the mesospheric Nitric oxide concentration based on the morphological features of F region and the relationship existing between the ionization levels in F and D regions. Many observed features of the D region ionization including the solar zenith angle dependence, latitudinal and geomagnetic anomaly and long term variability are explained on the basis of this model

  17. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Induction in the Antitumorigenic and Neurotoxic Effects of 2-Methoxyestradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gorska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 2-Methoxyestradiol, one of the natural 17β-estradiol derivatives, is a novel, potent anticancer agent currently being evaluated in advanced phases of clinical trials. The main goal of the study was to investigate the anticancer activity of 2-methoxy-estradiol towards osteosarcoma cells and its possible neurodegenerative effects. We used an experimental model of neurotoxicity and anticancer activity of the physiological agent, 2-methoxyestradiol. Thus, we used highly metastatic osteosarcoma 143B and mouse immortalized hippocampal HT22 cell lines. The cells were treated with pharmacological (1 μM, 10 μM concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol. Experimental: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and 3-nitrotyrosine protein levels were determined by western blotting. Cell viability and induction of cell death were measured by MTT and PI/Annexin V staining and a DNA fragmentation ELISA kit, respectively. Intracellular levels of nitric oxide were determined by flow cytometry. Results: Here we demonstrated that the signaling pathways of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer may overlap. We presented evidence that 2-methoxyestradiol, in contrast to 17β-estradiol, specifically affects neuronal nitric oxide synthase and augments 3-nitrotyrosine level leading to osteosarcoma and immortalized hippocampal cell death. Conclusions: We report the dual facets of 2-methoxyestradiol, that causes cancer cell death, but on the other hand may play a key role as a neurotoxin.

  18. [Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and nitric oxide in response to two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Dilek; Dikmen, Bayazit; Kaçmaz, Murat; Taşpınar, Vildan; Ornek, Dilşen; Turan, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF) and low flow (Group LF). Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t0) and end (t1) of the operation and after 24h (t2). Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of heat shock protein 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase during early anesthetic and ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Billstrom, Amie R; Zielonka, Jacek; Krolikowski, John G; Bienengraeber, Martin W; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Philip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2009-02-01

    Nitric oxide is known to be essential for early anesthetic preconditioning (APC) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of myocardium. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that Hsp90-eNOS interactions modulate APC and IPC. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits after coronary occlusion and reperfusion in the absence or presence of preconditioning within 30 min of isoflurane (APC) or 5 min of coronary artery occlusion (IPC), and with or without pretreatment with geldanamycin or radicicol, two chemically distinct Hsp90 inhibitors, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase NOS inhibitor. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells or mouse cardiomyocytes, in the absence or presence of Hsp90 inhibitors or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Interactions between Hsp90 and eNOS, and eNOS activation, were assessed with immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy. APC and IPC decreased infarct size (by 50% and 59%, respectively), and this action was abolished by Hsp90 inhibitors. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester blocked APC but not IPC. Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells concomitantly with an increase in Hsp90-eNOS interaction (immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry). Pretreatment with Hsp90 inhibitors abolished isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production and decreased Hsp90-eNOS interactions. Isoflurane did not increase nitric oxide production in mouse cardiomyocytes, and eNOS was below the level of detection. The results indicate that Hsp90 plays a critical role in mediating APC and IPC through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that endothelial cells are important contributors to nitric oxide-mediated signaling during APC.

  20. Hyperglycemia adversely modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase during anesthetic preconditioning through tetrahydrobiopterin- and heat shock protein 90-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Jager, Zachary; Sullivan, Corbin; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Du, Jianhai; Vladic, Nikolina; Shi, Yang; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Phillip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is regulated by (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and heat shock protein 90. The authors tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia abolishes anesthetic preconditioning (APC) through BH4- and heat shock protein 90-dependent pathways. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits in the absence or presence of APC (30 min of isoflurane), with or without hyperglycemia, and in the presence or absence of the BH4 precursor sepiapterin. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal (5.5 mm) or high (20 mm) glucose conditions, with or without sepiapterin (10 or 100 microm). APC decreased myocardial infarct size compared with control experiments (26 +/- 6% vs. 46 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05), and this action was blocked by hyperglycemia (43 +/- 4%). Sepiapterin alone had no effect on infarct size (46 +/- 3%) but restored APC during hyperglycemia (21 +/- 3%). The beneficial actions of sepiapterin to restore APC were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (47 +/- 2%) and the BH4 synthesis inhibitor N-acetylserotonin (46 +/- 3%). Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production to 177 +/- 13% of baseline, and this action was attenuated by high glucose concentrations (125 +/- 6%). Isoflurane increased, whereas high glucose attenuated intracellular BH4/7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) (high performance liquid chromatography), heat shock protein 90-endothelial nitric oxide synthase colocalization (confocal microscopy) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation (immunoblotting). Sepiapterin increased BH4/BH2 and dose-dependently restored nitric oxide production during hyperglycemic conditions (149 +/- 12% and 175 +/- 9%; 10 and 100 microm, respectively). The results indicate that tetrahydrobiopterin and heat shock protein 90-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity play a central

  1. Lack of haemodynamic effects of nitric oxide on post-capillary pulmonary hypertension induced by acute sino-aortic denervation

    OpenAIRE

    Galinier, Michel; Rougé, Pierre; Fourcade, Joëlle; Senard, Jean-Michel; Albenque, Jean-Paul; Balanescu, Serban; Doazan, Jean-Philippe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bounhoure, Jean-Paul; Montastruc, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The aims of the present experiments were to define a new experimental model of pulmonary hypertension induced by a post-capillary mechanism and to assess the haemodynamic effects of nitric oxide on post-capillary pulmonary hypertension.Cardiopulmonary variables of 28 male beagle dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose, 16 spontaneous breathing and 12 with assisted ventilation, were studied before and after sino-aortic denervation (SAD). The haemodynamic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (25 p.p.m.,...

  2. Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and nitric oxide in response to two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycı, Dilek; Dikmen, Bayazit; Kaçmaz, Murat; Taşpınar, Vildan; Ornek, Dilşen; Turan, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF) and low flow (Group LF). Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t0) and end (t1) of the operation and after 24h (t2). Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t1 and t2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma levels of interleukin-10 and nitric oxide in response to two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Kalayci

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated interleukin-10 and nitric oxide plasma levels following surgery to determine whether there is a correlation between these two variables and if different desflurane anesthesia flow rates influence nitric oxide and interleukin-10 concentrations in circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients between 18 and 70 years and ASA I-II physical status who were scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy were enrolled in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated into two groups to receive two different desflurane anesthesia flow rates: high flow (Group HF and low flow (Group LF. MEASUREMENTS: Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (t 0 and end (t 1 of the operation and after 24 h (t 2. Plasma interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels were measured using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay and a Griess reagents kit, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were assessed. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to interleukin-10 levels at the times of measurement. Interleukin-10 levels were increased equally in both groups at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations. For both groups, nitric oxide circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations. However, the nitric oxide value was lower for Group HF compared to Group LF at t 2. No correlation was found between the IL-10 and nitric oxide levels. CONCLUSION: Clinical usage of two different flow anesthesia forms with desflurane may increase interleukin-10 levels both in Group HF and Group LF; nitric oxide levels circulating concentrations were significantly reduced at times t 1 and t 2 compared with preoperative concentrations; however, at 24 h postoperatively they were higher in Group LF compared to Group HF. No correlation was detected between interleukin-10 and nitric oxide levels.

  4. Differential contributions of nitric oxide synthase isoforms at hippocampal formation to negative feedback regulation of penile erection in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2002-01-01

    We established previously that a novel negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of penile erection, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis, exists in the hippocampal formation (HF). This study further evaluated the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at the HF in this process.Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats that were anaesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate were used, and in...

  5. Functioning of nitric oxide cycle in gastric mucosa of rats under excessive combined intake of sodium nitrate and fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ye. Akimov; V. O. Kostenko

    2016-01-01

    In the article the function of nitric oxide (·NO) cycle in rat’s gastric mucosa was assessed under excessive combined chronic fluoride and nitrate intake during 30 days. It was estimated that general nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) was increased during excessive sodium fluoride intake meanwhile influence on gene­ral nitrate reduction was not statistically significant, but general nitrite reduction was increased. General arginase activity decreased. Excessive sodium nitrate intake decreas...

  6. Synthesis of N-(Methoxycarbonylthienylmethylthioureas and Evaluation of Their Interaction with Inducible and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Threadgill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two isomeric N-(methoxycarbonylthienylmethylthioureas were synthesised by a sequence of radical bromination of methylthiophenecarboxylic esters, substitution with trifluoroacetamide anion, deprotection, formation of the corresponding isothiocyanates and addition of ammonia. The interaction of these new thiophene-based thioureas with inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase was evaluauted. These novel thienylmethylthioureas stimulated the activity of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS.

  7. The effects of diabetes, hypothemia and nitric oxide sinthase blockade on vascular escape and tachyphylaxis in the rabbit isolated kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Lira de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    The endothelium plays a crucial role in the vascular tone, releasing relaxing and contracting factors â among the first ones the gas nitric oxide, produced from the amino acid L-arginine and a group of enzimes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). This study evaluated the effects of L-arginine as well as NOS inibitors on vascular escape and tachyphylaxis of rabbit kidneys. Furthermore the effects of diabetes and hypothermia were studied also. Normal and alloxan treated diabetic rabbit kidne...

  8. NITRIC OXIDE ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHIL IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF THE CHILDREN WITH BACTERIAL AND VIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Molochniy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of nitric oxide activity of neutrophil leucocytic and freeradical processes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the children with bacterial and viral meningitison the acute period diseases. The peculiarities or activity of freeradical processes and nitric oxide of cerebrospinal fluid with bacterial meningitis in acute period diseases and activities of studies of ferments with the health children. 

  9. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  10. Hypobaric hypoxia induced arginase expression limits nitric oxide availability and signaling in rodent heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjulata; Padhy, Gayatri; Vats, Praveen; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate regulation of cardiac arginase expression during hypobaric hypoxia and subsequent effect on nitric oxide availability and signaling. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (282mmHg for 3h) and ARG1 expression was monitored. The expression levels of eNOS and eNOS(Ser1177) were determined by Western blotting, cGMP levels were measured by ELISA and amino acid concentrations were measured by HPLC analysis. Transcription regulation of arginase was monitored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay with anti-c-Jun antibody for AP-1 consensus binding site on ARG1 promoter. Arginase activity was inhibited by intra-venous dose of N-(ω)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) prior to hypoxia exposure and subsequent effect on NO availability and oxidative stress were evaluated. Hypobaric hypoxia induced cardiac arginase expression by recruiting c-Jun to AP-1 binding site on ARG1 promoter. This increased expression redirected l-arginine towards arginase and resulted in limited endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, nitric oxide (NO) availability and cGMP mediated signaling. Inhibition of arginase restored the eNOS activity, promoted cardiac NO availability and ameliorated peroxynitrite formation during hypoxia. Hypoxic induced arginase under transcription control of AP-1 reciprocally regulates eNOS activity and NO availability in the heart. This also results in cardiac oxidative stress. This study provides understanding of hypoxia-mediated transcriptional regulation of arginase expression in the heart and its subsequent effect on eNOS activity, NO availability and signaling as well as cardiac oxidative stress. This information will support the use of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics for pathological hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dispersal of human and plant pathogens biofilms via nitric oxide donors at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Durie, Ian A; Henríquez, Tania; Satkute, Aiste; Matuszewska, Marta; Prado, Raphael Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide donors capable of manipulating nitric oxide-mediated signaling in bacteria could induce dispersal of biofilms. Encased in extracellular polymeric substances, human and plant pathogens within biofilms are significantly more resistant to sanitizers. This is particularly a problem in refrigerated environments where food is processed. In an exercise aimed to study the potential of nitric oxide donors as biofilm dispersal in refrigerated conditions, we compared the ability of different nitric oxide donors (SNAP, NO-aspirin and Noc-5) to dislodge biofilms formed by foodborne, human and plant pathogens treated at 4 °C. The donors SNAP and Noc-5 were efficient in dispersing biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. The biomasses were decreased up to 30 % when compared with the untreated controls. When the plant pathogens Pectobacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sp. were tested the dispersion was mainly limited to Pectobacterium carotovorum biofilms, decreasing up to 15 % after exposure to molsidomine. Finally, the association of selected nitric oxide donors with sanitizers (DiQuat, H2O2, peracetic acid and PhenoTek II) was effective in dispersing biofilms. The best dispersal was achieved by pre-treating P. carotovorum with molsidomine and then peracetic acid. The synergistic effect was estimated up to ~35 % in dispersal when compared with peracetic acid alone. The association of nitric oxide donors with sanitizers could provide a foundation for an improved sanitization procedure for cleaning refrigerate environments.

  12. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide mediate plasticity of neuronal calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaieva, Olena; Brot, Nathan; Weissbach, Herbert; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2000-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are important participants in signal transduction that could provide the cellular basis for activity-dependent regulation of neuronal excitability. In young rat cortical brain slices and undifferentiated PC12 cells, paired application of depolarization/agonist stimulation and oxidation induces long-lasting potentiation of subsequent Ca2+ signaling that is reversed by hypoxia. This potentiation critically depends on NO production and involves cellular ROS utilization. The ability to develop the Ca2+ signal potentiation is regulated by the developmental stage of nerve tissue, decreasing markedly in adult rat cortical neurons and differentiated PC12 cells.

  13. Antioxidant factors, nitric oxide levels, and cellular damage in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysa Ribeiro Schalcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The immune response caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a risk factor for the development of oxidative stress (OS in leprosy patients. This study aimed to assess OS in leprosy patients before the use of a multidrug therapy. Methods We evaluated the nitric oxide (NO concentration; antioxidant capacity; levels of malondialdehyde, methemoglobin and reduced glutathione; and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in leprosy patients. Results We observed lower SOD activity in these leprosy patients; however, the NO levels and antioxidant capacity were increased. Conclusions The infectious process in response to M. leprae could primarily be responsible for the OS observed in these patients.

  14. Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal by ultraviolet/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Moheb Shahrestani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In present study, the mass transfer-reaction kinetic parameters of nitric oxide (NO removal by ultraviolet (UV/H 2 O 2 process in a bubble column reactor in the presence of SO 2 are calculated. Materials and Methods: The mass balance equation for NO through a layer thickness of δ, under the steady state condition is solved, and NO absorption rate is calculated. The value of rate constants and Ha numbers are obtained based on experimental data under different conditions. Results: The calculations indicate that the values of Ha number are >3. The values of rate constants (k obs are fitted to some empirical equations for different operating conditions. It is observed that the value of k obs increases with an increase in H 2 O 2 concentration and UV radiation intensity while it decreases with an increase in NO and SO 2 inlet concentrations. The values of rate constants are in order of 10−5 , expect for SO 2 , which are in order of 10−7 . The results reveal that there is a good agreement between calculated and experimental values where the maximum absolute error is 16.18% related to UV light intensities between 0 and 0.012 W/m 3 . Conclusion: The obtained values of Ha numbers under different condition confirm that the absorption process of gas in the liquid phase is a fast reaction. The maximum error values resulted from a comparison between the calculated NO absorption rates and the experimental ones are acceptable.

  15. Platelet hyperaggregability in obesity: is there a role for nitric oxide impairment and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natália Rodrigues Pereira; Siqueira de Medeiros, Mariana; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Matsuura, Cristiane; Perszel, Monique Bandeira Moss; Noronha Filho, Gerson; Brunini, Tatiana Mc; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Claúdio

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown that platelet activation markers are consistently elevated in obesity, contributing to its prothrombotic state. In order to improve the understanding of the regulation of platelet function in obesity, the aim of this study was to investigate the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in obese adults without other cardiovascular risk factor. Seventeen obese (body mass index [BMI] 35.9±1.0 kg/m(2) ) and eighteen age-matched normal weight subjects (BMI 22.0±0.6 kg/m(2) ) were included in this study. l-arginine influx was measured with incubation of l-[(3) H]-arginine. NO synthase (NOS) and arginase activities were determined by the citrulline assay and the conversion of l-[(14) C]-arginine to [(14) C]-urea, respectively. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the study analyzed: platelet aggregation; intraplatelet antioxidant enzymes, via superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities; and systemic levels of l-arginine, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Obese patients presented a significant decrease of platelet l-arginine influx, NOS activity, and cGMP levels, along with platelet hyperaggregability. On the presence of NO donor, platelet aggregation was similar between the groups. The fibrinogen and CRP systemic levels were significantly higher and SOD activity was reduced in obesity. No significant differences were observed in plasma levels of l-arginine and intraplatelet arginase and catalase activities between groups. The diminished NO bioavailability associated with inflammatory status and impaired enzymatic antioxidant defence may contribute to future cardiovascular complications in obesity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Nitric oxide reduces oxidative damage induced by water stress in sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cechin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main environmental constraints that can reduce plant yield. Nitric oxide (NO is a signal molecule involved in plant responses to several environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective effect of a single foliar application of 0, 1, 10 or 100 µM of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP in sunflower plants under water stress. Water stressed plants treated with 1μM SNP showed an increase in the relative water content compared with 0 μM SNP. Drought reduced the shoot dry weight but SNP applications did not result in alleviation of drought effects. Neither drought nor water stress plus SNP applications altered the content of photosynthetic pigments. Stomatal conductance was reduced by drought and this reduction was accompanied by a significant reduction in intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthesis. Treatment with SNP did not reverse the effect of drought on the gas exchange characteristics. Drought increased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and proline and reduced pirogalol peroxidase (PG-POD activity, but did not affect the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. When the water stressed plants were treated with 10 μM SNP, the activity of PG-POD and the content of proline were increased and the level of MDA was decreased. The results show that the adverse effects of water stress on sunflower plants are dependent on the external NO concentration. The action of NO may be explained by its ability to increase the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes.

  17. Osteopontin protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Fa; Foda, Hussein D

    2010-04-05

    Exposure of adult mice to more than 95% O(2) produces a lethal injury by 72 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of murine hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein produced principally by macrophages. OPN inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates large amounts of nitric oxide production. However, the relationship between nitric oxide and endogenous OPN in lung tissue during hyperoxia-induced ALI has not yet been elucidated, thus we examined the role that OPN plays in the hyperoxia-induced lung injury and its relationships with NOS. One hundred and forty-four osteopontin knock-out (KO) mice and their matched wild type background control (WT) were exposed in sealed cages > 95% oxygen or room air for 24- 72 hours, and the severity of lung injury was assessed; expression of OPN, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and iNOS mRNA in lung tissues at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the detection of iNOS, eNOS, and OPN protein in lung tissues. OPN KO mice developed more severe acute lung injury at 72 hours of hyperoxia. The wet/dry weight ratio increased to 6.85 +/- 0.66 in the KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia as compared to 5.31 +/- 0.92 in the WT group (P < 0.05). iNOS mRNA (48 hours: 1.04 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01; 72 hours: 0.89 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) and eNOS mRNA (48 hours: 0.62 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05; 72 hours: 0.67 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) expression was more significantly increased in OPN KO mice than their matched WT mice when exposed to hyperoxia. IHC study showed higher expression of iNOS (20.54 +/- 3.18 vs. 12.52 +/- 2.46, P < 0.05) and eNOS (19.83 +/- 5.64 vs. 9.45 +/- 3.82, P < 0.05) in lung tissues of OPN KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia. OPN can protect against

  18. Regulation of nitric oxide production by δ-opioid receptors during glaucomatous injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Husain

    Full Text Available To determine the roles of nitric oxide in glaucomatous injury and its regulation by δ-opioid-receptor activation, animals were treated with: 1 a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine; AG; 25 mg/kg, i.p.; 2 δ-opioid-receptor agonist (SNC-121; 1 mg/kg, i.p.; or 3 with both drugs simultaneously for 7 days, once daily. The loss in retinal ganglion cell (RGC numbers and their function in glaucomatous eyes were significantly improved in the presence of AG or SNC-121; however, we did not see any significant additive or synergistic effects when animals were treated with both drugs simultaneously. The levels of nitrate-nitrite were significantly increased in the glaucomatous retina when compared with normal retina (normal retina 86±9 vs. glaucomatous retina 174±10 mM/mg protein, which was reduced significantly when animals were treated either with SNC-121 (121±7 mM/mg protein; P<0.05 or AG (128±10 mM/mg protein; P<0.05. Additionally, SNC-121-mediated reduction in nitrate-nitrite levels was not only blocked by naltrindole (a δ-opioid-receptor antagonist, but naltrindole treatment potentiated the nitrate-nitrite production in glaucomatous retina (235±4 mM/mg protein; P<0.001. As expected, naltrindole treatment also fully-blocked SNC-121-mediated retina neuroprotection. The nitrotyrosine level in the glaucomatous retina was also increased, which was significantly reduced in the SNC-121-treated animals. Additionally, the expression level of iNOS was clearly increased over the control levels in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerves, which was also reduced by SNC-121 treatment. In conclusion, our data support the notion that nitric oxide plays a detrimental role during glaucomatous injury and inhibition of nitric oxide production provided RGC neuroprotection. Furthermore, δ-opioid receptor activation regulates the production of nitric oxide via inhibiting the activity of iNOS in the retina and optic nerve.

  19. The antioxidant tempol decreases acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Ozelia; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Ferraz, Karina C; Sertório, Jonas T; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-11-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT) is a critical condition associated with acute pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and hemolysis contribute to APT-induced pulmonary hypertension, possibly as a result of increased nitric oxide (NO) consumption. We hypothesized that the antioxidant tempol could attenuate APT-induced hemolysis, and therefore attenuate APT-induced increases in plasma NO consumption. APT was induced in anesthetized sheep with autologous blood clots. The hemodynamic effects of tempol infused at 1.0mg/kg/min 30 min after APT were determined. Hemodynamic measurements were carried out every 15 min. To assess oxidative stress, serum 8-isoprostanes levels were measured by ELISA. Plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations and NO consumption by plasma samples were determined. An in vitro oxidative AAPH-induced hemolysis assay was used to further validate the in vivo effects of tempol. APT caused pulmonary hypertension, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance in proportion with the increases in 8-isoprostanes, plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and NO consumption by plasma (all PTempol attenuated the hemodynamic alterations by approximately 15-20% and blunted APT-induced increases in 8-isoprostanes, in cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and the increases in NO consumption by plasma (PTempol dose-dependently attenuated AAPH-induced in vitro hemolysis (Ptempol decrease APT-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption, thus attenuating APT-induced pulmonary hypertension. © 2013.

  20. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in the mud-dwelled air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis under condition of water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be an important regulator molecule for regulating the multiple signaling pathways and also to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including that of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme that produces NO from l-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) while dwelling inside the mud peat under semidry conditions. Desiccation stress, due to mud-dwelling for 2 weeks, led to significant increase of NO concentration in different tissues and in plasma of singhi catfish, and also the increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver with an accompanying increase of toxic ammonia level in different tissues. Mud-dwelling also resulted to induction of iNOS activity, expression of iNOS protein in different tissues after 7 days with further increase after 14 days, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Further, mud-dwelling also resulted to a significant expression of iNOS mRNA after 7 days with a more increase of mRNA level after 14 days, suggesting that the desiccation stress caused transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated the zonal specific expression of iNOS protein in different tissues. Desiccation stress also led to activation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor кB (NFкB) in hepatic cells. These results suggest that the activation of iNOS gene under desiccation-induced stresses such as high ammonia load was probably mediated through the activation of one of the major transcription factors, the NFкB. This is the first report of desiccation-induced induction of iNOS gene, iNOS protein expression leading to more generation of NO while living inside the mud peat under condition of water shortage in any air-breathing teleosts. 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved