WorldWideScience

Sample records for nih study reveals

  1. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposed to long before diagnosis is a major advantage.” The method of using baby teeth to measure ... Feed Connect with Us Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer ...

  2. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 5, 2013 NIH study provides clarity on supplements for protection against blinding eye disease Adding omega- ... acids did not improve a combination of nutritional supplements commonly recommended for treating age-related macular degeneration ( ...

  3. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Jacqueline M.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Park, Yikyung; Lian, Min; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Graubard, Barry I.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Residing in deprived areas may increase risk of mortality beyond that explained by a person's own SES-related factors and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and all-cause, cancer- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality for men and women after accounting for education and other important person-level risk factors. Methods In the longitudinal NIH-AARP Study, we analyzed data from healthy participants, ...

  4. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  5. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  6. Sizing the Problem of Improving Discovery and Access to NIH-Funded Data: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Kevin B; Sheehan, Jerry R; Huerta, Michael F; Knecht, Lou S; Mork, James G; Humphreys, Betsy L

    2015-01-01

    This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It focuses on those datasets that are "invisible" or not deposited in a known repository. We analyzed NIH-funded journal articles that were published in 2011, cited in PubMed and deposited in PubMed Central (PMC) to identify those that indicate data were submitted to a known repository. After excluding those articles, we analyzed a random sample of the remaining articles to estimate how many and what types of invisible datasets were used in each article. About 12% of the articles explicitly mention deposition of datasets in recognized repositories, leaving 88% that are invisible datasets. Among articles with invisible datasets, we found an average of 2.9 to 3.4 datasets, suggesting there were approximately 200,000 to 235,000 invisible datasets generated from NIH-funded research published in 2011. Approximately 87% of the invisible datasets consist of data newly collected for the research reported; 13% reflect reuse of existing data. More than 50% of the datasets were derived from live human or non-human animal subjects. In addition to providing a rough estimate of the total number of datasets produced per year by NIH-funded researchers, this study identifies additional issues that must be addressed to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical research data: the definition of a "dataset," determination of which (if any) data are valuable for archiving and preservation, and better methods for estimating the number of datasets of interest. Lack of consensus amongst annotators about the number of datasets in a given article reinforces the need for a principled way of thinking about how to identify and characterize biomedical datasets.

  7. Sizing the Problem of Improving Discovery and Access to NIH-Funded Data: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Read

    Full Text Available This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH. It focuses on those datasets that are "invisible" or not deposited in a known repository.We analyzed NIH-funded journal articles that were published in 2011, cited in PubMed and deposited in PubMed Central (PMC to identify those that indicate data were submitted to a known repository. After excluding those articles, we analyzed a random sample of the remaining articles to estimate how many and what types of invisible datasets were used in each article.About 12% of the articles explicitly mention deposition of datasets in recognized repositories, leaving 88% that are invisible datasets. Among articles with invisible datasets, we found an average of 2.9 to 3.4 datasets, suggesting there were approximately 200,000 to 235,000 invisible datasets generated from NIH-funded research published in 2011. Approximately 87% of the invisible datasets consist of data newly collected for the research reported; 13% reflect reuse of existing data. More than 50% of the datasets were derived from live human or non-human animal subjects.In addition to providing a rough estimate of the total number of datasets produced per year by NIH-funded researchers, this study identifies additional issues that must be addressed to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical research data: the definition of a "dataset," determination of which (if any data are valuable for archiving and preservation, and better methods for estimating the number of datasets of interest. Lack of consensus amongst annotators about the number of datasets in a given article reinforces the need for a principled way of thinking about how to identify and characterize biomedical datasets.

  8. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  9. Potentiostatic and ac impedance studies of the hydrogen electrodes used in Ni/H2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Helloco, Jean-Guy; Bojkov, Hristo; Parthasarathy, Arvind; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    In a study of electrode activity for hydrogen evolution and hydrogen ionization, knowledge of the detailed kinetics and of the surface coverage by adsorbed hydrogen is essential. In the Ni/H2 battery, the hydrogen electrode is subjected to high hydrogen pressure; elucidation of the variation of kinetic parameters with hydrogen pressure is therefore of interest. Potentiostatic and ac impedance spectroscopic techniques were used in the present study. The equivalent circuit of the reaction, the kinetic parameters, and their pressure dependence have been determined.

  10. Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Design: The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50–71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. Results: In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:24552754

  11. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnair...

  12. Irradiation of Polystyrene and Polypropylene to study NIH 3T3 fibroblasts adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, C.R. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: delgrosso@tandar.cnea.gov.a [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Ibanez, I. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Gerencia de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas de la Energia Nuclear, Dpto. de Radiobiologia, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Duran, H. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Gerencia de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas de la Energia Nuclear, Dpto. de Radiobiologia, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Chappa, V.C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Mazzei, R. [U.A. Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA, Dpto. Ing. Quimica, UTN FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    When polymers are irradiated with heavy ions new chemical groups are created in a few microns of the material. The irradiation changed the polarity and wettability on the surface so that could enhance the biocompatibility of the modified polymer. The study of chemistry and nanoscale topography of the biomaterial is important in determining its potential applications in medicine and biotechnology, because their strong influence on cell function, adhesion and proliferation. In this study, thin films of Polystyrene and Polypropylene samples were modified by irradiation with low energy ion beams (30-150 keV) and swift heavy ions both with various fluences and energies. The changes were evaluated with different methods. Adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques. The correlations between physicochemical properties as a function of different irradiations parameters were compared with cell adhesion on the modified polymer surface.

  13. Irradiation of Polystyrene and Polypropylene to study NIH 3T3 fibroblasts adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, C.R.; Grosso, M.F. del; Ibanez, I.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Duran, H.; Chappa, V.C.; Mazzei, R.; Behar, M.

    2010-01-01

    When polymers are irradiated with heavy ions new chemical groups are created in a few microns of the material. The irradiation changed the polarity and wettability on the surface so that could enhance the biocompatibility of the modified polymer. The study of chemistry and nanoscale topography of the biomaterial is important in determining its potential applications in medicine and biotechnology, because their strong influence on cell function, adhesion and proliferation. In this study, thin films of Polystyrene and Polypropylene samples were modified by irradiation with low energy ion beams (30-150 keV) and swift heavy ions both with various fluences and energies. The changes were evaluated with different methods. Adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques. The correlations between physicochemical properties as a function of different irradiations parameters were compared with cell adhesion on the modified polymer surface.

  14. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program: bonding scientists and clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Boehm, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Summary The majority of the biomedical research workforce and funds are focused on studying common diseases and the development of drugs to treat them. However, some of the most remarkable discoveries in physiology and medicine are uncovered by studying rare conditions, because the importance of certain molecular mechanisms is revealed only when their dysfunction results in disease. In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP), which ...

  15. Structural studies of disordered Mg2NiH4 formed by mechanical grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnebro, Ewa; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Noréus, Dag

    1999-01-01

    The low temperature phase of Mg2NiH4 was mechanically ground in argon atmosphere. The ordered monoclinic structure was destroyed to form the disordered cubic structure, previously only found above 510 K. With a Guinier-Hagg X-ray camera the cell parameter was determined to be a=6.492(3) Angstrom...

  16. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development (PedsDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lindsay; Chang, Lin-Ching; Nayak, Amritha; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Botteron, Kelly N; McCracken, James; McKinstry, Robert C; Rivkin, Michael J; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Rumsey, Judith; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study was designed with the final goal of providing a controlled-access database; open to qualified researchers and clinicians, which could serve as a powerful tool for elucidating typical brain development and identifying deviations associated with brain-based disorders and diseases, and as a resource for developing computational methods and image processing tools. This paper focuses on the DTI component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. In this work, we describe the DTI data acquisition protocols, data processing steps, quality assessment procedures, and data included in the database, along with database access requirements. For more details, visit http://www.pediatricmri.nih.gov. This longitudinal DTI dataset includes raw and processed diffusion data from 498 low resolution (3 mm) DTI datasets from 274 unique subjects, and 193 high resolution (2.5 mm) DTI datasets from 152 unique subjects. Subjects range in age from 10 days (from date of birth) through 22 years. Additionally, a set of age-specific DTI templates are included. This forms one component of the larger NIH MRI study of normal brain development which also includes T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data, and demographic, clinical and behavioral data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and mortality: NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Major

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Residing in deprived areas may increase risk of mortality beyond that explained by a person's own SES-related factors and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and all-cause, cancer- and cardiovascular disease (CVD-specific mortality for men and women after accounting for education and other important person-level risk factors.In the longitudinal NIH-AARP Study, we analyzed data from healthy participants, ages 50-71 years at study baseline (1995-1996. Deaths (n = 33831 were identified through December 2005. Information on census tracts was obtained from the 2000 US Census. Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for quintiles of neighborhood deprivation.Participants in the highest quintile of deprivation had elevated risks for overall mortality (HR(men = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.24; HR(women = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.22 and marginally increased risk for cancer deaths (HR(men = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; HR(women = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.22. CVD mortality associations appeared stronger in men (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.49 than women (HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.38. There was no evidence of an effect modification by education.Higher neighborhood deprivation was associated with modest increases in all-cause, cancer- and CVD-mortality after accounting for many established risk factors.

  19. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Methods: Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Results: Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Conclusions: Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. PMID:26082405

  20. Vitamin E intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Sarah; Kamangar, Farin; Freedman, Neal D.; Wright, Margaret E.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Dixon, L. Beth; Subar, Amy; Schatzkin, Arthur; Abnet, Christian C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the association of dietary α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and supplemental vitamin E intake with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC; n = 158), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC; n = 382), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA; n = 320), and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA; n = 327) in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of approximately 500,000 people. Data on dietary and supplemental vitamin E intake were collected using a validated questionnaire at b...

  1. NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. The NIH is engaging the scientific community in the development of policies to improve the sex balance in research. The present, past, and future presidents of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, in order to encourage thoughtful discussion among scientists, pose a series of questions to generate ideas in three areas: 1. research strategies, 2. educational strategies, and 3. strategies to monitor effectiveness of policies to improve the sex balance in research. By promoting discussion within the scientific community, a consensus will evolve that will move science forward in a productive and effective manner. PMID:25780556

  2. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-06-27

    Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber intake on total death and cause-specific deaths. We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20 126 deaths in men and 11 330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate relative risk comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P for trend, Dietary fiber intake also lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24% to 56% in men and by 34% to 59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits.

  3. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber on total death and cause-specific deaths. Methods We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20,126 deaths in men and 11,330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate RR comparing the highest vs. the lowest quintile =0.78, 95% CI:0.73–0.82, p-trend, Dietary fiber intake also lowered risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24%–56% in men and 34%–59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men, but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Conclusions Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits. PMID:21321288

  4. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45; p(trend) = 0.01), added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16-4.16; p(trend) = 0.009) and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; Ptrend = 0.01); added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16–4.16; Ptrend = 0.009); and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. PMID:21328345

  6. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi eOliveras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogues. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I, displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM in these three rat types (Experiment 1, as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low PPI scores (Experiment 2. The results from Exp. 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Exp. 2, Low-PPI NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to Medium-PPI and High-PPI NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps at risk phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia.

  7. Quasielastic neutron scattering and infra-red band contour study of H2O reorientations in [Ni(H2O)6] (ClO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, J.A.; Janik, J.M.; Otnes, K.; Stanek, T.

    1980-01-01

    IR band contour measurements carried out for [Ni(H 2 O) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 revealed an existence of fast H 2 O 180 deg flips around Ni-O axes at room temperatures. These flips were subjected to a more accurate study by the quasielastic neutron scattering method. Correlation times of the order of picosecond were obtained for room temperatures and the barrier to rotation of ca. 7 kcal/mole. The results are compared to those previously obtained for [Mg(H 2 O) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 and also to those for [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 and [Mg(NH 3 ) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 . (author)

  8. NIH Clinical Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH Clinical Center consists of two main facilities: The Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, which opened in 2005, houses inpatient units, day hospitals,...

  9. Public access and use of health research: an exploratory study of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy using interviews and surveys of health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jamie; Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren

    2011-11-21

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. This study assesses health personnel's current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. The results provide grounds for expecting the NIH

  10. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people, according to a National Institutes of Health study. Scientists have known for years that age is a ... adulthood or infancy affect methylation profiles. These additional studies will help scientists better understand why methylation happens as people march ...

  11. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Moore, Steven C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Inskip, Peter D; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-12-01

    Several case-control studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce risk for glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer. Prospective investigations have not observed such an association, but these studies lacked adequate brain cancer case numbers and did not stratify by histologic subtype. We prospectively investigated the association between NSAID use and risk of all glioma as well as the risk of glioblastoma subtype in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. The frequency of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID use 1 year prior to baseline was ascertained using a self-administered questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models with age as the underlying time metric, adjusted for sex, race, and history of heart disease. The analysis included 302,767 individuals, with 341 incident glioma cases (264 glioblastoma). No association was observed between regular use (>2 times/wk) of aspirin and risk of glioma (HR = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.87-1.56) or glioblastoma (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.83-1.64) as compared with no use. Null associations were also observed for nonaspirin NSAID use (HR for glioma = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.65-1.25 and HR for glioblastoma = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56-1.20) as compared with no use. Our findings from this large prospective study do not support an inverse association between NSAIDs and risk of all glioma or glioblastoma. 2011 AACR

  12. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, G M; Park, Y; Subar, A F; Schap, T E; Reedy, J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis considers combinations of food intake and may offer a better measure to assess diet-cancer associations than examining individual foods or nutrients. Although tobacco exposure is the major risk factor for lung cancer, few studies have examined whether dietary patterns, based on preexisting dietary guidelines, influence lung cancer risk. After controlling for smoking, we examined associations between four diet quality indices-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-and lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed in 460 770 participants. Over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up, 9272 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were as follows: HEI-2010=0.83 (0.77-0.89), AHEI-2010=0.86 (0.80-0.92), aMED=0.85 (0.79-0.91) and DASH=0.84 (0.78-0.90). Among the individual components of the dietary indices, higher consumption of whole grains and fruits was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk for several of the diet indices. Total index score analyses stratified by smoking status showed inverse associations with lung cancer for former smokers; however, only HEI-2010 was inversely associated in current smokers and no index score was inversely associated among never smokers. Although smoking is the factor most strongly associated with lung cancer, this study adds to a growing body of evidence that diet may have a modest role in reducing lung cancer risk, especially among former smokers.

  13. Association of dietary fat intakes with risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study

    OpenAIRE

    O’Doherty, Mark G.; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Murray, Liam J.; Cantwell, Marie M.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995–1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the...

  14. NIH mouse study finds gut microorganisms may determine cancer treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intact gut commensal microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms living in the intestine, is required for optimal response to cancer therapy, according to a mouse study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)

  15. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  16. Body mass index and mortality in non-Hispanic black adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Hartge, Patricia; Moore, Steven C; Kitahara, Cari M; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, kg/m(2), BMI ≥30) is higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites, the relation of BMI to total mortality in non-Hispanic blacks is not well defined. We investigated the association between BMI and total mortality in 16,471 non-Hispanic blacks in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort of adults aged 50-71 years. During an average of 13 years of follow-up, 2,609 deaths were identified using the Social Security Administration Death Master File and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. Among individuals with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline and had a BMI of 20 or greater, the relative risk for total death was 1.12 (95% CI:1.05, 1.19, for a 5-unit increase in BMI) in men and 1.09 (95% CI:1.03, 1.15) in women. Among never smokers with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline, relative risks for total death for BMI 25-death in black men, but not in black women, while obesity is related to an increased risk of death in both black men and women. A large pooled analysis of existing studies is needed to systematically evaluate the association between a wide range of BMIs and total mortality in blacks.

  17. NIH on the web | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. Coffee Drinking and Cutaneous Melanoma Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Neal D.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the United States. Modifiable risk factors, with the exception of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), are poorly understood. Coffee contains numerous bioactive compounds and may be associated inversely with melanoma. However, previous epidemiological evidence is limited. Methods: Coffee intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire in the National Institutes of Health–AARP prospective cohort study. Among 447 357 non-Hispanic whites who were cancer-free at baseline, 2904 incident cases of malignant melanoma were identified during 4 329 044 person-years of follow-up, with a median of 10.5 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee intake and subsequent melanoma risk with non–coffee drinkers as the reference group. Statistical tests were two-sided, and P values less than .05 were interpreted as statistically significant. Results: The highest category of coffee intake was inversely associated with malignant melanoma (≥4 cups/day: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.93, P trend = .01). This association was statistically significant for caffeinated (≥4 cups/day: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.89, P trend = .01) but not for decaffeinated coffee (P trend = .55). Conclusions: Higher coffee intake was associated with a modest decrease in risk of melanoma in this large US cohort study. Additional investigations of coffee intake and its constituents, particularly caffeine, with melanoma are warranted. PMID:25604135

  19. Prevalence of Prostatitis-Like Symptoms and Outcomes of NIH-CPSI in Outpatients with Lifelong and Acquired PE: Based on a Large Cross-Sectional Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, which were associated with prostatitis-like symptoms (PLS. We intended to explore the prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms and outcomes of National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI scores in outpatients with lifelong (LPE and acquired premature ejaculation (APE. From December 2013 to December 2015, a total of 498 consecutive heterosexual men with PE and 322 male healthy subjects without PE were enrolled. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire on demographics information, sexual and medical histories, and the NIH-CPSI. Assessment of NIH-CPSI and definition of PLS and PE were used to measure the PLS and NIH-CPSI scores and ejaculatory function for all subjects. Finally, a total of 820 subjects (including 498 men in PE group and 322 men in control group were enrolled in our study. The mean ages were significantly different between PE and no PE groups. Men with PE reported worse PLS and higher NIH-CPSI scores (P < 0.001 for all. Similar findings were also observed between men with LPE and APE. Men with APE also reported higher rates of PLS and scores of NIH-CPSI (P < 0.001 for all. Multivariate analysis showed that PLS and NIH-CPSI scores were significantly associated with PE.

  20. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program: bonding scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gahl

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the biomedical research workforce and funds are focused on studying common diseases and the development of drugs to treat them. However, some of the most remarkable discoveries in physiology and medicine are uncovered by studying rare conditions, because the importance of certain molecular mechanisms is revealed only when their dysfunction results in disease. In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH launched the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP, which recruits and selects patients who suffer from diseases of unknown etiology, and studies their causes at the clinical, genetic and cellular levels. In this Editorial, we discuss how the UDP has enabled the discovery of several new diseases and disease mechanisms through collaborations between clinical and basic science teams, using the power of both clinical medicine and biological models. Establishing programs with similar infrastructure at other centers around the world could help to benefit patients, their families and the entire medical community, by enhancing research productivity for rare and novel diseases.

  1. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-05-01

    We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. At baseline in 1995-1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than "none" prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.69-1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.48-1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95 % CI, 0.67-1.01). The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They could also be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance.

  2. Body mass index and mortality in non-Hispanic black adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikyung Park

    Full Text Available Although the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, kg/m(2, BMI ≥30 is higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites, the relation of BMI to total mortality in non-Hispanic blacks is not well defined.We investigated the association between BMI and total mortality in 16,471 non-Hispanic blacks in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort of adults aged 50-71 years.During an average of 13 years of follow-up, 2,609 deaths were identified using the Social Security Administration Death Master File and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusting for potential confounders.Among individuals with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline and had a BMI of 20 or greater, the relative risk for total death was 1.12 (95% CI:1.05, 1.19, for a 5-unit increase in BMI in men and 1.09 (95% CI:1.03, 1.15 in women. Among never smokers with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline, relative risks for total death for BMI 25-<30, 30-<35, 35-<40, and 40-50, compared with BMI 20-<25, were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.78, 1.56 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.28, 2.48 (95% CI: 1.53, 4.05, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.39, respectively, in men and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.04, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.57, 1.35 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.90, and 1.93 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.81, respectively, in women.Our findings suggest that overweight is related to an increased risk of death in black men, but not in black women, while obesity is related to an increased risk of death in both black men and women. A large pooled analysis of existing studies is needed to systematically evaluate the association between a wide range of BMIs and total mortality in blacks.

  3. Dietary consumption of advanced glycation end products and pancreatic cancer in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Duan, Zhigang; Chen, Liang; Kahle, Lisa; Risch, Adam; Subar, Amy F; Cross, Amanda J; Hollenbeck, Albert; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary; Sinha, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds present in uncooked foods as well as in foods cooked at high temperatures. AGEs have been associated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in patients with diabetes. Dietary AGEs are an important contributor to the AGE pool in the body. N(ϵ)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) AGE is one of the major biologically and chemically well-characterized AGE markers. The consumption of red meat, which is CML-AGE rich, has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer in men. With the use of a published food CML-AGE database, we estimated the consumption of CML AGE in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and evaluated the association between CML-AGE consumption and pancreatic cancer and the mediating effect of CML AGE on the association between red meat consumption and pancreatic cancer. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for pancreatic cancer. During an average of 10.5 y of follow-up, we identified 2193 pancreatic cancer cases (1407 men and 786 women) from 528,251 subjects. With the comparison of subjects in the fifth and the first quintiles of CML-AGE consumption, we observed increased pancreatic cancer risk in men (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.93, P-trend = 0.003) but not women (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.72, P-trend = 0.42). Men in the highest quintile of red meat consumption had higher risk of pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.70), which attenuated after adjustment for CML-AGE consumption (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.53). Dietary CML-AGE consumption was associated with modestly increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men and may partially explain the positive association between red meat and pancreatic cancer. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Study of smart antibacterial PCL-xFe3O4thin films using mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai B, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Ajay V; Jain, Shilpee

    2017-05-01

    Surface energy plays a major role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell interactions with biomedical devices. In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-xFe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (PCL-xFO NPs; x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 wt% FO concentration in PCL) composite thin films were developed for skin tissue regeneration. The surface properties in terms of roughness, surface energy, wettability of the thin films were altered with the incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. These thin films show antimicrobial properties and cyto-compatibility with NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The porosity and thickness of the films were controlled by varying RPM of the spin coater. Interestingly, at 1000 RPM the roughness of the film decreased with increasing concentrations of FO NPs in PCL, whereas the surface energy increased with increasing FO NPs concentrations. Furthermore, the spreading of NIH-3T3 cells grown on PCL-xFO thin films was less as compared to control (TCPS), however cells overcame this effect after 48 h of seeding and cells spread similarly to those grown on TCPS after 48 h. Also, the incorporation of FO NPs in thin films induced inner membrane permeabilization in E. coli bacteria leading to bacterial cell death. The viability of E. coli bacteria decreased with increasing concentration of FO NPs in PCL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 795-804, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. NIH bows to part of Rifkin suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M

    1984-11-30

    Having lost a round in its legal battle with Jeremy Rifkin over field tests of genetically engineered bacteria, the National Institutes of Health will conduct the simpler of two ecological analyses required by the National Environmental Policy Act on three proposed experiments. In May 1984 a federal district court ruling halted a University of California field test pending a decision on Rifkin's 1983 suit, which alleged that NIH had violated the Act by approving experiments without studying the ecological consequences. Still to be decided by the U.S. Court of Appeals is whether NIH must also issue full-scale environmental impact statements.

  6. NIH Funding within Otolaryngology: 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Hunter, Jacob B; Mistry, Akshitkumar M; Espahbodi, Mana; Deasey, Matthew; Niesner, K J; Labadie, Robert F

    2017-11-01

    Objective Analyze grants awarded between 2005 and 2014 to otolaryngology departments that appear in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RePORTER database, summarize characteristics of grant recipients associated with otolaryngology departments as listed in the RePORTER between 2005 and 2014, and identify trends in otolaryngology NIH funding between 2005 and 2014 by topic. Study Design Case series. Setting NIH database inquiry. Subjects Grant recipients. Methods The RePORTER was queried for all grants awarded to otolaryngology departments between 2005 and 2014. All grants classified as new, renewal, or revision were included while duplicates were excluded. Results In total, 475 grants to 51 institutions were categorized by topic and subtopic. Internet searches were conducted for characteristics of 352 principal investigators. Sixty-seven percent of awardees had a PhD, 22% had an MD, and 11% had an MD/PhD. Sex ratios varied by degrees held. Although 31% of all grant recipients were women, this ratio was not seen when recipients were classified by degree type, with 78% of women holding a PhD compared with 55% of men ( P = .0013). Of the award types, 39% were R01s, 15% were R21s, and 10% were R03s. The top 3 represented topics were otology/neurotology (52%), audiology (25%), and head and neck surgery (14%). The mean annual award amount, after adjusting for inflation to 2014 dollars, was $226,495.76, with 72.8% awarded by the National Institute of Deafness and Communication Disorders. Twenty percent of awardees received multiple grants. Conclusion NIH funding in otolaryngology tends to be awarded to those with PhDs studying the hearing sciences, with 1 in 5 having multiple awards. As in other areas of NIH funding, women are underrepresented overall.

  7. A Cohort Study of Adolescent and Midlife Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Dseagu, Vanessa L Z; Thompson, Frances E; Subar, Amy F; Ruder, Elizabeth H; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Potischman, Nancy; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2017-08-01

    Given the long latency period of pancreatic cancer, exploring the influence of early and midlife exposures will further advance our understanding of the disease. We assessed associations between diet and pancreatic cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. In 1996, a total of 303,094 participants completed 2 food frequency questionnaires that assessed diet at ages 12-13 years and 10 years previously. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Through the end of 2006, a total of 1,322 pancreatic cancer cases occurred (average follow up time = 10.1 years). When comparing the highest tertiles with the lowest, carbohydrate intake during adolescence (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.99), but not 10 years before baseline, was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Total fat intake 10 years before baseline was significantly associated with increased risk (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.34), while risk was higher for high fat intake during both adolescence and midlife. Calcium intake 10 years before baseline was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), as was a change from low intake in adolescence to high intake in midlife (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). Our study found a number of dietary factors present during adolescence and midlife to be associated with pancreatic cancer. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  9. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  10. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  11. Be an NIH Reviewer: Contribute to Multidisciplinary Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda L

    2018-03-01

    One of the best ways to contribute to multidisciplinary research and to improve your own knowledge of the review process at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is to serve as a peer reviewer for research, traineeship, and small business innovation research proposals. Proactive targeted outreach to Scientific Review Officers (SROs) at NIH will increase your chances to become a reviewer. Reviewers with nursing expertise are especially welcome as multidisciplinary research is becoming more prevalent. Steps to identify a likely study section, contact the correct SRO, and review responsibly are described in this article, written by an experienced NIH review officer.

  12. NIH Scientists Try to Crack the Brain's Memory Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recordings to study how the human brain remembers. Courtesy of Zaghloul lab, NIH/NINDS. News Press Releases ... up Meeting Now That You Are Funded Small Business Grants Overview Areas of Interest Budget Information Grant ...

  13. Understanding Food Allergy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents Understanding Food Allergy Follow us Understanding Food Allergy Latest Updates from NIH Food allergies are often ... ways to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.” Food allergy studies With so many unanswered questions surrounding food ...

  14. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis--With colorectal cancer risk: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Wirfält, Elisabet; Flood, Andrew; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F

    2010-02-15

    The authors compared dietary pattern methods-cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis-with colorectal cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,306). Data from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (1995-1996) were used to identify 4 clusters for men (3 clusters for women), 3 factors, and 4 indexes. Comparisons were made with adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, distributions of individuals in clusters by quintile of factor and index scores, and health behavior characteristics. During 5 years of follow-up through 2000, 3,110 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, the vegetables and fruits cluster, the fruits and vegetables factor, the fat-reduced/diet foods factor, and all indexes were associated with reduced risk; the meat and potatoes factor was associated with increased risk. In women, reduced risk was found with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and increased risk with the meat and potatoes factor. For men, beneficial health characteristics were seen with all fruit/vegetable patterns, diet foods patterns, and indexes, while poorer health characteristics were found with meat patterns. For women, findings were similar except that poorer health characteristics were seen with diet foods patterns. Similarities were found across methods, suggesting basic qualities of healthy diets. Nonetheless, findings vary because each method answers a different question.

  15. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  16. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  17. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The new functional variant, or allele, is ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... areas of its research: MedlinePlus . medlineplus.gov . Type "Parkinson's disease" in the Search box. NIHSeniorHealth —Parkinson's Disease http:// ...

  19. ZADOVOLJSTVO UPORABNIKOV TURISTIČNIH STORITEV

    OpenAIRE

    Stanonik, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Zadovoljstvo uporabnikov turističnih storitev je eden ključnih dejavnikov za uspešno poslovanje ponudnikov turističnih storitev. V teoretičnem delu diplomske naloge smo na kratko razjasnili glavna pojma turizem ter zadovoljstvo. Opisali smo nekaj dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na zadovoljstvo uporabnikov turističnih storitev. Govorimo o kakovosti storitev v turizmu, nakupnem vedenju turistov ter o lojalnosti turistov. Opisali smo tudi samo merjenje zadovoljstva turistov ter razjasnili kako se v ...

  20. Strategies for retaining study participants in behavioral intervention trials: retention experiences of the NIH Behavior Change Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coday, Mace; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Goldman Sher, Tamara; Tennant, Jennifer; Greaney, Mary L; Saunders, Sandra D; Somes, Grant W

    2005-04-01

    Failing to retain an adequate number of study participants in behavioral intervention trials poses a threat to interpretation of study results and its external validity. This qualitative investigation describes the retention strategies promoted by the recruitment and retention committee of the Behavior Change Consortium, a group of 15 university-based sites funded by the National Institutes of Health to implement studies targeted toward disease prevention through behavior change. During biannual meetings, focus groups were conducted with all sites to determine barriers encountered in retaining study participants and strategies employed to address these barriers. All of the retention strategies reported were combined into 8 thematic retention categories. Those categories perceived to be most effective for retaining study participants were summarized and consistencies noted among site populations across the life course (e.g., older adults, adults, children, and adolescents). Further, possible discrepancies between site populations of varying health statuses are discussed, and an ecological framework is proposed for use in future investigations on retention.

  1. Pre-diagnostic lifestyle factors and survival after colon and rectal cancer diagnosis in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelser, Colleen; Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Elena, Joanne W.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Park, Yikyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the relationship of lifestyle factors with mortality among colorectal cancer patients. Methods Among NIH-AARP Diet and Health study participants we identified 4,213 colon and 1,514 rectal cancer cases through linkage to state cancer registries and determined date and cause of death using the National Death Index. Lifestyle factors were assessed at baseline and included: healthy diet (measured by Healthy Eating Index 2005; HEI-2005), body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking. We examined the association of factors individually and combined into a lifestyle score with five-year mortality from all-causes, colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We estimated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among colon cancer survivors, smokers had increased risk of total mortality (RR 1.74; 95% CI 1.45–2.08) and colorectal cancer mortality (1.46; 1.17–1.82), compared to never smokers. Obese (BMI ≥30) individuals had increased risk of all death (1.19; 1.02–1.39) and CVD death (1.84; 1.05–3.23), compared to normal weight (BMI 18.5 to rectal cancer survivors, individuals in the highest quintile of HEI-2005 scores had reduced all-cause mortality (0.60; 0.42–0.86) compared to those in the lowest. Higher combined lifestyle scores were associated with a 46% lower risk of total mortality (0.54; 0.32–0.91). Conclusion Healthier lifestyle before cancer diagnosis was associated with improved overall survival after diagnosis with colorectal cancer. PMID:24591061

  2. Adolescent and mid-life diet and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, Melissa Z; Potischman, Nancy; Park, Yikyung; Thompson, Frances E; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Kitahara, Cari M

    2015-11-15

    Although thyroid cancer is suspected to have a nutritional etiology, prospective studies examining the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer are lacking. During 1996-1997, NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study participants, ages 51-72 years, completed a 37-item food frequency questionnaire about diet at ages 12-13 years (adolescence) and 10 years before baseline (mid-life). Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 325 individuals (143 men and 182 women) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for intakes of foods and food groups comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles. Adolescent intakes of chicken/turkey (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.97-2.60; ptrend  mid-life intake of sweet baked goods was nonsignificantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.96-2.00; ptrend  = 0.11), but intake of butter/margarine was inversely associated with risk (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; ptrend  = 0.03). Among men, higher adolescent consumption of canned tuna was positively associated with risk of thyroid cancer (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01-2.83; ptrend  = 0.03), and greater mid-life intake of broccoli was associated with a twofold increased risk (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.13-3.99; ptrend  mid-life diet, including iodine-rich foods and goitrogens, may influence thyroid cancer risk. © 2015 UICC.

  3. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use is associated with reduced risk of inflammation-associated cancers: NIH-AARP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancers, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has been associated with reduced risk of several cancers. To further refine the magnitude of NSAID-related associations, in particular for cancers related to inflammation, such as alcohol-, infection-, obesity-, and smoking-related cancers, as well as for less common cancers, we evaluated the use of NSAIDs and cancer risk in a very large cohort. We used propensity scores to account for potential selection bias and hypothesized that NSAID use is associated with decreased cancer incidence.We conducted a prospective study among 314,522 participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Individuals who completed the lifestyle questionnaire, which included NSAID use, in 1996-1997 were followed through 2006. Information on cancer incidence was ascertained by linking to cancer registries and vital status databases.During 2,715,994 person-years of follow-up (median 10.1 person-years, there were 51,894 incident cancers. Compared with non-users of NSAIDs, individuals who reported use in the 12 months prior to interview had a significantly lower risk of all inflammation-related cancer, alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers [hazard ratio (HR (95% CI 0.90 (0.87-0.93, 0.80 (0.74-0.85, 0.82 (0.78-0.87, 0.88 (0.84-0.92, and 0.88 (0.85-0.92 respectively].After accounting for potential selection bias, our data showed an inverse association between NSAID use and alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers and support the hypothesis that inflammation is related to an increased risk of certain cancers.

  4. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  5. Estimating the NIH Efficient Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world’s largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: “…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability.” Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions–one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Methods and Findings Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH “efficient frontier”, the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Conclusions Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  6. NIH Launches National COPD Action Plan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  7. NIH Supported Technologies of the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  8. Solving the Undiagnosed Disease Puzzle at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  9. Hearing loss research from NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Among those attending the NIH MedlinePlus magazine launch on Capitol Hill were (l-r) NIH ...

  11. I. NIH TOOLBOX COGNITION BATTERY (CB): INTRODUCTION AND PEDIATRIC DATA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Bauer, Patricia J.; Zelazo, Philip David; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David L.; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Havlik, Richard J.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Borosh, Beth G.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents the pediatric portion of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. The NIH Toolbox is an initiative of the Neuroscience Blueprint, a collaborative framework through which 16 NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices jointly support neuroscience-related research, to accelerate discoveries and reduce the burden of nervous system disorders. The CB is one of four modules that measure cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor health across the lifespan. The CB is unique in its continuity across childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and old age, and in order to help create a common currency among disparate studies, it is also available at low cost to researchers for use in large-scale longitudinal and epidemiologic studies. This chapter describes the evolution of the CB; methods for selecting cognitive subdomains and instruments; the rationale for test design; and a validation study in children and adolescents, ages 3–15 years. Subsequent chapters feature detailed discussions of each test measure and its psychometric properties (Chapters 2–6), the factor structure of the test battery (Chapter 7), the effects of age and education on composite test scores (Chapter 8), and a final summary and discussion (Chapter 9). As the chapters in this monograph demonstrate, the CB has excellent psychometric properties, and the validation study provided evidence for the increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities with age. PMID:23952199

  12. RACE, ETHNICITY, AND NIH RESEARCH AWARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498

  13. Bush favours research at Pentagon and NIH

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    2001-01-01

    The first budget from George W. Bush increases funding for military research and the NIH, while environmental work is drastically cut. The rest of civilian science funding is essentially frozen (1 page).

  14. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Info Lines Health Services Locator HealthCare.gov NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science ... Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library Resources Research Resources Clinical Research Resources Safety, Regulation and Guidance More » Quick Links ...

  15. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  16. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  17. Healthline | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Carlos Zarate of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) looks at a patient's electromagnetic brain activity with a powerful and fast MEG brain imaging scanner. NIH Research Uncovers New Clue to Treating ...

  18. Monsanto may bypass NIH in microbe test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Marjorie

    1985-01-11

    The Monsanto Company is planning to ask the Environmental Protection Agency for clearance to field test a genetically engineered microbial pesticide, bypassing the traditional approval process of the National Institutes of Health. Although only federally funded institutions are required to obtain NIH approval for genetic engineering tests, Monsanto is the first company to bypass the NIH regulatory process, which has become mired in a lawsuit brought by Jeremy Rifkin.

  19. NIH Institutes and MLN MedlinePlus Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] ... nih.gov (301) 496-7301 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) www.nimh.nih.gov 1-866- ...

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of ZnO-Fe3O4 Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA-MB-231) and Mouse Fibroblast (NIH 3T3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gunjan; Rayamajhi, Sagar; KC, Biplab; Paudel, Siddhi Nath; Karna, Deepak; Shrestha, Bhupal G.

    2016-12-01

    Novel magnetic composite nanoparticles (MCPs) were successfully synthesized by ex situ conjugation of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Fe3O4 NPs using trisodium citrate as linker with an aim to retain key properties of both NPs viz. inherent selectivity towards cancerous cell and superparamagnetic nature, respectively, on a single system. Successful characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by XRD, TEM, FTIR, and VSM analyses. VSM analysis showed similar magnetic profile of thus obtained MCPs as that of naked Fe3O4 NPs with reduction in saturation magnetization to 16.63 emu/g. Also, cell viability inferred from MTT assay showed that MCPs have no significant toxicity towards noncancerous NIH 3T3 cells but impart significant toxicity at similar concentration to breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The EC50 value of MCPs on MDA-MB-231 is less than that of naked ZnO NPs on MDA-MB-231, but its toxicity on NIH 3T3 was significantly reduced compared to ZnO NPs. Our hypothesis for this prominent difference in cytotoxicity imparted by MCPs is the synergy of selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhausting scavenging activity of cancerous cells, which further enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 NPs on cancer cells. This dramatic difference in cytotoxicity shown by the conjugation of magnetic Fe3O4 NPs with ZnO NPs should be further studied that might hold great promise for the development of selective and site-specific nanoparticles.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of ZnO-Fe3O4 Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA-MB-231) and Mouse Fibroblast (NIH 3T3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gunjan; Rayamajhi, Sagar; Kc, Biplab; Paudel, Siddhi Nath; Karna, Deepak; Shrestha, Bhupal G

    2016-12-01

    Novel magnetic composite nanoparticles (MCPs) were successfully synthesized by ex situ conjugation of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Fe 3 O 4 NPs using trisodium citrate as linker with an aim to retain key properties of both NPs viz. inherent selectivity towards cancerous cell and superparamagnetic nature, respectively, on a single system. Successful characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by XRD, TEM, FTIR, and VSM analyses. VSM analysis showed similar magnetic profile of thus obtained MCPs as that of naked Fe 3 O 4 NPs with reduction in saturation magnetization to 16.63 emu/g. Also, cell viability inferred from MTT assay showed that MCPs have no significant toxicity towards noncancerous NIH 3T3 cells but impart significant toxicity at similar concentration to breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The EC50 value of MCPs on MDA-MB-231 is less than that of naked ZnO NPs on MDA-MB-231, but its toxicity on NIH 3T3 was significantly reduced compared to ZnO NPs. Our hypothesis for this prominent difference in cytotoxicity imparted by MCPs is the synergy of selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhausting scavenging activity of cancerous cells, which further enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe 3 O 4 NPs on cancer cells. This dramatic difference in cytotoxicity shown by the conjugation of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 NPs with ZnO NPs should be further studied that might hold great promise for the development of selective and site-specific nanoparticles. Schematic representation of the conjugation, characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of Fe 3 O 4 -ZnO magnetic composite particles (MCPs).

  2. Audition assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Howard J.; Frisina, Robert; Dubno, Judy R.; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Wallhagen, Margaret; Kraus, Nina; Griffith, James W.; Walton, Joseph P.; Eddins, David A.; Newman, Craig; Victorson, David; Warrier, Catherine M.; Wilson, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox project has assembled measurement tools to assess a wide range of human perception and ability across the lifespan. As part of this initiative, a small but comprehensive battery of auditory tests has been assembled. The main tool of this battery, pure-tone thresholds, measures the ability of people to hear at specific frequencies. Pure-tone thresholds have long been considered the “gold standard” of auditory testing, and are normally obtained in a clinical setting by highly trained audiologists. For the purposes of the Toolbox project, an automated procedure (NIH Toolbox Threshold Hearing Test) was developed that allows nonspecialists to administer the test reliably. Three supplemental auditory tests are also included in the Toolbox auditory test battery: assessment of middle-ear function (tympanometry), speech perception in noise (the NIH Toolbox Words-in-Noise Test), and self-assessment of hearing impairment (the NIH Toolbox Hearing Handicap Inventory Ages 18–64 and the NIH Toolbox Hearing Handicap Inventory Ages 64+). Tympanometry can help differentiate conductive from sensorineural pathology. The NIH Toolbox Words-in-Noise Test measures a listener's ability to perceive words in noisy situations. This ability is not necessarily predicted by a person's pure-tone thresholds; some people with normal hearing have difficulty extracting meaning from speech sounds heard in a noisy context. The NIH Toolbox Hearing Handicap Inventory focuses on how a person's perceived hearing status affects daily life. The test was constructed to include emotional and social/situational subscales, with specific questions about how hearing impairment may affect one's emotional state or limit participation in specific activities. The 4 auditory tests included in the Toolbox auditory test battery cover a range of auditory abilities and provide a snapshot of a participant's auditory capacity. PMID:23479544

  3. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the NIH Clinical Center. NIH Genetic Sleuths Diagnose Mysterious Inherited Disorder Researchers for the National Institutes of Health’s Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) have pinpointed a genetic mutation as the cause of a rare and debilitating blood vessel disorder that had defied ...

  4. TV Star Jim Parsons Shines Light on NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parsons Shines Light on NIH Research Follow us TV Star Jim Parsons Shines Light on NIH Research Documentary highlights key sickle cell and cancer trials Photo: Courtesy of Discovery 'First in Human,' a three-part documentary series from the Discovery Channel, follows four patients at ...

  5. Memory Conditions at a Glance | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clinical trials and studies. National Institute on Aging (NIA): Forgetfulness resources; www.nia.nih.gov/health/featured/memory-cognitive-health MedlinePlus: medlineplus.gov ; in the Search box, ...

  6. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Ainsztein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Extracellular RNA (exRNA Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies, (c identifying exRNA biomarkers of disease, (d demonstrating clinical utility of exRNAs as therapeutic agents and developing scalable technologies required for these studies, and (e developing a community resource, the exRNA Atlas, to provide the scientific community access to exRNA data, standardized exRNA protocols, and other useful tools and technologies generated by funded investigators.

  7. Rifkin and NIH win in court ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M

    1985-03-15

    On 27 February 1985 Judge J. Skelly Wright of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that experiments involving the release of genetically altered organisms into the environment can proceed, provided that their potential ecological effects have been properly evaluated. The ruling has been hailed as a victory by both the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin brought suit against NIH in 1983, charging that the agency had failed to evaluate adequately the environmental impact of some deliberate release experiments. Sun discusses the implications of the judge's ruling. She also describes a move by private companies to submit their recombinant DNA experiment proposals to the Environmental Protection Agency rather than to NIH, which has regulatory authority only over academic researchers.

  8. A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianzhong; Forrest, J Craig; Zhang, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    With the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in humans and the outbreak of devastating porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus in swine, therapeutic intervention is urgently needed. However, anti-coronavirus drugs currently are not available. In an effort to assist rapid development of anti-coronavirus drugs, here we screened the NIH Clinical Collection in cell culture using a luciferase reporter-expressing recombinant murine coronavirus. Of the 727 compounds screened, 84 were found to have a significant anti-coronavirus effect. Further experiments revealed that 51 compounds blocked virus entry while 19 others inhibited viral replication. Additional validation studies with the top 3 inhibitors (hexachlorophene, nitazoxanide and homoharringtonine) demonstrated robust anti-coronavirus activities (a reduction of 6 to 8log10 in virus titer) with an IC50 ranging from 11nM to 1.2μM. Furthermore, homoharringtonine and hexachlorophene exhibited broad antiviral activity against diverse species of human and animal coronaviruses. Since the NIH Clinical Collection consists of compounds that have already been through clinical trials, these small molecule inhibitors have a great potential for rapid development as anti-coronavirus drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Graphic Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. The ABCs of GERD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. The Eyes Have It | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  12. What is Diabetes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  13. The Opioid Crisis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  14. NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine: Health, Medical & Wellness Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Web site for NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine. Our purpose is to present you with the ... sponsorship and other charitable donations for NIH MedlinePlus magazine's publication and distribution, many more thousands of Americans ...

  15. A Lifelong Asthma Struggle | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  16. NIH Extends Support for Genomics Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Earlier this month the NIH announced plans to expand the scope of its Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project, better known as ENCODE. The new funds will support efforts to characterize gene regulatory elements in various cell types. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and save. Also, to help bring the latest advances in science and medicine home to the American family, this coming May ... about this and many, many more topical, timely advances in future issues of NIH MedlinePlus ... Winter 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number 1 Page ...

  18. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research Past ... Symptoms The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be related to DVT itself or ...

  19. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents MLA ... From You We want your feedback on the magazine and ideas for future issues, as well as ...

  20. The Children's Inn at NIH turns 25 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Children's Inn The Children's Inn at NIH turns 25 Past Issues / ... home …" for all families! What to Expect at The Children's Inn The Children's Inn enhances opportunities for ...

  1. Mandating Access: Assessing the NIH's Public Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that the full text of NIH-supported articles be made freely available on PubMed Central (PMC) -- the largest and most commonly used repository of biomedical literature. This paper examines how this "PMC mandate" impacted publishing patterns in biomedicine and researcher access to the biomedical literature. Using ~1 million NIH articles and several matched comparison samples, I find that NIH articles are more likely to be published in t...

  2. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the magazine NIH MedlinePlus the magazine is published quarterly, in print and on the ... up for a free subscription to NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Librarians may order this magazine in bulk . Please ...

  3. NIH Teams with Public Libraries for ‘All of Us’ Research Program | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us’ Research Program Follow us NIH Teams with Public Libraries for ‘All of Us’ Research Program NIH is ... and improve health. Some other goals include: Giving public library staff tools to improve health literacy Highlighting public ...

  4. 2016 NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a million Americans live with spinal cord injuries. Spinal cord damage can lead to serious disabilities, including paralysis. In a proof-of-concept study, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord helped ...

  5. Examining the Predictive Validity of NIH Peer Review Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mark D; Nakamura, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The predictive validity of peer review at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has not yet been demonstrated empirically. It might be assumed that the most efficient and expedient test of the predictive validity of NIH peer review would be an examination of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications produced from funded projects. The present study used a large dataset to examine the rationale for such a study, to determine if it would satisfy the requirements for a test of predictive validity. The results show significant restriction of range in the applications selected for funding. Furthermore, those few applications that are funded with slightly worse peer review scores are not selected at random or representative of other applications in the same range. The funding institutes also negotiate with applicants to address issues identified during peer review. Therefore, the peer review scores assigned to the submitted applications, especially for those few funded applications with slightly worse peer review scores, do not reflect the changed and improved projects that are eventually funded. In addition, citation metrics by themselves are not valid or appropriate measures of scientific impact. The use of bibliometric indices on their own to measure scientific impact would likely increase the inefficiencies and problems with replicability already largely attributed to the current over-emphasis on bibliometric indices. Therefore, retrospective analyses of the correlation between percentile scores from peer review and bibliometric indices of the publications resulting from funded grant applications are not valid tests of the predictive validity of peer review at the NIH.

  6. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, Arthur; Mouw, Traci; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Thompson, Frances E

    2007-05-01

    Whether the intake of dietary fiber can protect against colorectal cancer is a long-standing question of considerable public health import, but the epidemiologic evidence has been inconsistent. The objective was to investigate the relation between dietary fiber and whole-grain food intakes and invasive colorectal cancer in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. The analytic cohort consisted of 291 988 men and 197 623 women aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed with a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1995-1996; 2974 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified during 5 y of follow-up. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer. The multivariate RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake quintile (RR(Q5-Q1)) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.15; P for trend = 0.96). In analyses of fiber from different food sources, only fiber from grains was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate RR(Q5-Q1): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; P for trend = 0.01). Whole-grain intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk: the multivariate RR(Q5-Q1) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89) for the whole cohort (P for trend cancer. In this large prospective cohort study, total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas whole-grain consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk.

  7. Endodoncija mliječnih zuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančić Jokić, Nataša; Bakarčić, Danko; Rolič, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Endodoncija se bavi morfologijom, fiziologijom i patologijom zubne pulpe i periapeksnog tkiva. Mliječni zubi imaju veliku pulpnu komoru, prominentne pulpne rogove, te tanju caklinu i dentin. Ekspozicija pulpe uzrokovana je karijesom, a njegovim širenjem dolazi do patoloških promjena u zubnoj pulpi, u koje spadaju reverzibilni pulpitis, ireverzibilni pulpitis, hiperplastični pulpitis, nekroza i gangrena. Svrha je endodontske terapije mliječnih zuba očuvanje žvačne, razvojne, fonetske i estetsk...

  8. The Children's Inn at NIH - Three Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young patient's eye exam to track eye movements. Photo courtesy of: The National Eye Institute. As Chief of the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch at the NIH's National Eye Institute, Dr. Brian Brooks "works with tough cases, kids with rare inherited eye diseases that most don' ...

  9. 77 FR 54584 - Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ..., researchers in gene and cell therapy, and microbiologists. In addition, a day-long public discussion of the... changes. Human gene transfer also raises scientific, medical, social, and ethical considerations that... replicate does not raise significant biosafety concerns that warrant oversight under the NIH Guidelines...

  10. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seile Yohannes

    Full Text Available The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01, the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144, and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66 are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub

  11. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  12. Cervical cancer: summary of the NIH consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de examinar algunos aspectos aún no definidos del tratamiento del cáncer de cuello uterino y de la calidad de la vida de los pacientes, el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (EUA y la Oficina de Aplicaciones Médicas de la Investigación, pertenecientes a los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH, convocaron una Conferencia para el Desarrollo de Consenso sobre el Cáncer de Cuello de Útero. El panel de expertos, que se compuso de 13 miembros, se concentró en los siguientes interrogantes: 1 ¿Cómo se pueden fortalecer las iniciativas para prevenir el cáncer cervico-uterino? 2 ¿Cuál es el tratamiento apropiado del cáncer de cuello de útero en estadio temprano? 3 ¿Cuál es el tratamiento adecuado del cáncer cervicouterino recurrente o en estadio avanzado? 4 ¿Qué nuevos rumbos seguirán las investigaciones sobre el cáncer de cuello de útero? En este informe se resumen las conclusiones a las que se llegó en la Conferencia sobre estas cuestiones. La declaración de consenso se puede pedir gratuitamente a los NIH.

  13. Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells. METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively. CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells. KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3

  14. Analyzing the innate immunity of NIH hairless mice and the impact of gut microbial polymorphisms onListeria monocytogenesinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Hao; Ren, Wen-Zhi; Gao, Wei; Hao, Yang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Jian; Quan, Fu-Shi; Hu, Jin-Ping; Yuan, Bao

    2017-12-05

    Spontaneous mutant hairless (HL) mice are often used to study hair growth and hair follicle development, and they often exhibit immune dysfunctions. Listeria monocytogenes , an important food-borne bacterium, has been used in animal models to study immune responses to infection. Herein, we analyzed the innate immunity of HL mice and the impact of gut microbial polymorphisms on L. monocytogenes infection. Compared to NIH mice, NIH HL mice were more susceptible to L. monocytogenes , as weight losses, mortality, bacterial load, and histopathological lesions were more severe; the decrease in monocytes may be an important underlying reason. The degree of spleen damage was reduced after co-housing, indicating that the host guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. High-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA demonstrated that gut microbiota composition differed between NIH HL and NIH mice. Infection with L. monocytogenes induced an increase in the number of bacteria belonging to the Rikenellaceae family and Gammaproteobacteria class, and decreased bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales class and Lachnospiraceae family. A substantial reduction in Clostridiales bacteria in infected HL mice may cause a serious infection. The Mycoplasma genus was present only in NIH HL mice and was, thus, considered a biomarker. The results of this study improve our understanding of the use of NIH HL mice as a good animal model of innate immune dysfunction.

  15. A systematic review of the inclusion of mechanisms of action in NIH-funded intervention trials to improve medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Falzon, Louise; Sundquist, Kevin J; Julian, Jacob; Meli, Laura; Sumner, Jennifer A; Kronish, Ian M

    2018-02-01

    Medication nonadherence contributes to morbidity/mortality, but adherence interventions yield small and inconsistent effects. Understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation and maintenance of adherence could improve interventions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) support adherence research, but it is unclear whether existing NIH-funded research incorporates mechanisms. We conducted a systematic review to determine the proportion of NIH-funded adherence trials that have tested hypothesized mechanisms of intervention effects. We included randomized and quasi-randomized NIH-funded trials with medication adherence in adults as the primary outcome. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases from inception to 6/2016, references, and clinicaltrials.gov. Two of 18 (11%) NIH-funded trials tested a hypothesized mechanism of an intervention's effect on medication adherence. Another 44 studies with medication adherence as a secondary outcome were described in protocol form, and are either ongoing or never published results, but none mentioned mechanism tests. Overall, 3% of NIH-funded trials with adherence as an outcome conducted, or plan to conduct, tests of behavior change mechanisms. These results mirror previous findings that very few studies of behavior change interventions actually test the mechanism by which the intervention is hypothesized to improve health behaviors. We must understand mechanisms if we are to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The current state of funded NIH grants in implementation science in genomic medicine: a portfolio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan C; Clyne, Mindy; Kennedy, Amy E; Chambers, David A; Khoury, Muin J

    2017-10-26

    PurposeImplementation science offers methods to evaluate the translation of genomic medicine research into practice. The extent to which the National Institutes of Health (NIH) human genomics grant portfolio includes implementation science is unknown. This brief report's objective is to describe recently funded implementation science studies in genomic medicine in the NIH grant portfolio, and identify remaining gaps.MethodsWe identified investigator-initiated NIH research grants on implementation science in genomic medicine (funding initiated 2012-2016). A codebook was adapted from the literature, three authors coded grants, and descriptive statistics were calculated for each code.ResultsForty-two grants fit the inclusion criteria (~1.75% of investigator-initiated genomics grants). The majority of included grants proposed qualitative and/or quantitative methods with cross-sectional study designs, and described clinical settings and primarily white, non-Hispanic study populations. Most grants were in oncology and examined genetic testing for risk assessment. Finally, grants lacked the use of implementation science frameworks, and most examined uptake of genomic medicine and/or assessed patient-centeredness.ConclusionWe identified large gaps in implementation science studies in genomic medicine in the funded NIH portfolio over the past 5 years. To move the genomics field forward, investigator-initiated research grants should employ rigorous implementation science methods within diverse settings and populations.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 26 October 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.180.

  18. Synthetic peptide TEKKRRETVEREKE derived from ezrin induces differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulkina, Marina; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Pichugin, Aleksey; Mazurov, Dmitriy; Ataullakhanov, Ravshan; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson

    2017-09-15

    Synthetic 14 AA peptide (Gepon) derived from the hinge region of ezrin, a protein that links cell surface molecules to intracellular actin filaments, accelerates and facilitates wound and ulcer healing in clinical applications. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and involved in enhanced healing of wounds with Gepon are not yet understood. The purpose of current study was to investigate intracellular signaling pathways involved in the effect of this peptide on wild type and genetically modified (CD44 KO) NIH/3T3 embryonic mouse fibroblasts. Gepon treatment of NIH/3T3 cells resulted in morphological and biochemical changes, characteristic of differentiated fibroblasts. While treatment of NIH/3T3 cells with TGF-β1 triggered the activation of both canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways, exposure of fibroblasts to Gepon activated only the ERK1/2 dependent pathway without modulating SMAD dependent signaling pathway. Knocking out hyaluronic acid CD44 receptor did not change Gepon or TGF-β1 dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways and assembling of α-SMA-positive filaments. Gepon dependent differentiation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts is based on activation of ERK1/2 kinase, non-canonical intracellular signaling pathway. Our data suggest that the treatment of fibroblasts with Gepon triggers activation of the non-canonical (SMAD independent) intracellular signaling pathway that involves ERK1/2kinase phosphorylation. Activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the increase in formation of α-SMA containing stress filaments induced by Gepon were independent on presence of CD44 receptor in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, our observation designates the significance and sufficiency of MAPK pathway mediated activation of fibroblasts with Gepon for healing of erosion, ulcers and wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NIH's National Institute of Nursing Research Is Changing Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues NIH's National Institute of Nursing Research Is Changing Lives Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... on. From childbirth to end-of-life care, nursing research is aimed at helping patients across the entire ...

  20. Rethinking Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urge to drink becomes as compelling as hunger. Genetic makeup and environment contribute to the risk ... NIAAA) www.niaaa.nih.gov Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) World Services www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Group ...

  1. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers ... interaction has always been important to me, but working with these patients in Zambia lit a fire ...

  2. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as overeating, smoking, drug or alcohol abuse, gambling and even compulsive use of computers and social ... Some NIH-funded research is exploring whether certain medications can help to disrupt hard-wired behaviors and ...

  3. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab facility is to generate and distribute high quality, validated mouse monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets found...

  4. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Controlling Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents In ... to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent ...

  5. What is COPD? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What is COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents COPD ... a walk, even washing and dressing. What Is COPD? Watch an animation at: NIH's COPD website How ...

  6. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  7. 78 FR 27977 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) SUMMARY: The NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (NIH OBA) proposes to revise the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic... smallpox and reports of skin pustules developing in some research participants receiving intravenous...

  8. Microscopic study reveals the singular origins of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, G.; Nowak, A.; Rakocy, K.; Solomon, S.

    2008-04-01

    Anderson [Science 177, 293 (1972)] proposed the concept of complexity in order to describe the emergence and growth of macroscopic collective patterns out of the simple interactions of many microscopic agents. In the physical sciences this paradigm was implemented systematically and confirmed repeatedly by successful confrontation with reality. In the social sciences however, the possibilities to stage experiments to validate it are limited. During the 90's a series of dramatic political and economic events have provided the opportunity to do so. We exploit the resulting empirical evidence to validate a simple agent based alternative to the classical logistic dynamics. The post-liberalization empirical data from Poland confirm the theoretical prediction that the dynamics is dominated by singular rare events which insure the resilience and adaptability of the system. We have shown that growth is led by few singular “growth centers" (Fig. 1), that initially developed at a tremendous rate (Fig. 3), followed by a diffusion process to the rest of the country and leading to a positive growth rate uniform across the counties. In addition to the interdisciplinary unifying potential of our generic formal approach, the present work reveals the strong causal ties between the “softer" social conditions and their “hard" economic consequences.

  9. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  10. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  11. Inferences on radiation carcinogenesis revealed by selected studies in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustad, L.K.; Goldman, M.; Rosenblatt, L.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of heterogeneous populations of animals with long lives and humans, exposed to various radionuclides and particularly those related to the nuclear energy fuel cycle, are instructive for deriving inferences relative to the cinogenic risk of energy-related radiation. Dose-response curves for various radionuclides [with varying half-lives, qualities of radiation (LET), and metabolic characteristics] provide similarities regardless of the species studied or the tissues at risk

  12. Friends of the National Library of Medicine, Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Dear Readers, WELCOME to NIH MedlinePlus , the magazine. The purpose of NIH MedlinePlus , the magazine, is to provide you with a FREE , trusted ... medical information. Published four times a year, the magazine showcases the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) latest ...

  13. Developmental palaeontology of Reptilia as revealed by histological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P Martin

    2010-06-01

    Among the fossilized ontogenetic series known for tetrapods, only more basal groups like temnospondyl amphibians have been used extensively in developmental studies, whereas reptilian and synapsid data have been largely neglected so far. However, before such ontogenetic series can be subject to study, the relative age and affiliation of putative specimens within a series has to be verified. Bone histology has a long-standing tradition as being a source of palaeobiological and growth history data in fossil amniotes and indeed, the analysis of bone microstructures still remains the most important and most reliable tool for determining the absolute ontogenetic age of fossil vertebrates. It is also the only direct way to reconstruct life histories and growth strategies for extinct animals. Herein the record of bone histology among Reptilia and its application to elucidate and expand fossilized ontogenies as a source of developmental data are reviewed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Panax ginseng total protein promotes proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating extracellular signal-related kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuenan Chen

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Our studies suggest that GTP promoted proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating the ERK signal pathway, which shed light on a potential function of GTP in promoting wound healing.

  15. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliuos, Pooyan; Schulze, Jennifer; Schomaker, Markus; Reuter, Günter; Stolle, Stefan R O; Werner, Darja; Ripken, Tammo; Lenarz, Thomas; Warnecke, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI) electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB) onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated. Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB. Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release. Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  16. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Aliuos

    Full Text Available Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated.Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB.Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release.Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  17. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  19. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion

  20. Genetic manipulation: NIH concede part of Rifkin suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    Officials at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have acceded to a major claim in a lawsuit brought by anti-genetic engineering activist Jeremy Rifkin to halt field trials involving the release of recombinant organisms into the environment. In an appeal filed with the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Washington, NIH agreed to produce an environmental assessment of individual experiments as demanded by U.S. District Court Judge John Sirica in May, while continuing to appeal Sirica's ruling that an impact statement on the full environmental release program is required. The appeals court is scheduled to hear the case in December. Meanwhile, on another front, the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee has rejected another Rifkin proposal to ban all transfers of genetic materials from one mammalian species to the germline of another.

  1. PhysioNet: an NIH research resource for complex signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena; Moody, George B; Henry, Isaac; Goldberger, Ary L

    2003-01-01

    The Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals, supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is intended to promote and facilitate investigations in the study of cardiovascular and other complex biomedical signals. The resource website (www.physionet.org) has 3 interdependent components: 1) PhysioBank is an archive of well-characterized digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data, including databases of electrocardiogram and heart rate time series from patients with heart failure, coronary disease, sleep apnea syndromes, and cardiac arrhythmias; 2) PhysioToolkit is a library of open-source software for physiologic signal processing and analysis; and 3) PhysioNet, for which the resource is named, is an on-line forum for dissemination and exchange of recorded biomedical signals and open-source software for analyzing them. PhysioNet, in cooperation with the annual Computers in Cardiology conference, hosts a series of challenges inviting participants to tackle clinically interesting problems that are either unsolved or not well solved. PhysioNet invites contributions of databases and software from the biomedical community.

  2. Executive Function in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: the NIH EXAMINER battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jane E.; Possin, Katherine L.; Girard, Jonathan M.; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Theories of ADHD increasingly highlight the role of neuropsychological impairment in ADHD; however, a consistent and identifiable pattern of performance on tests is not well established. The NIH EXAMINER battery provides measures of common variance across multiple executive function tests within specific domains and was used to characterize which executive functions are most affected in children with ADHD. Thirty-two children (24 male), ages 8–15 years (M=12.02, SD=2.29), diagnosed with ADHD and no comorbid disorder completed the NIH EXAMINER battery. Sixty age and gender matched healthy controls were chosen from a database of participants enrolled in the NIH EXAMINER multi-site study. Children with ADHD performed worse on the working memory score compared with the controls. No differences were found on the cognitive control or fluency scores. For children with ADHD, poorer working memory performance predicted parent report of child learning problems. Cognitive control and fluency scores did not predict learning problems. In summary, working memory emerges as a primary impairment in children with ADHD who have no comorbid disorders. Furthermore, working memory weaknesses may underlie the academic problems often seen in children with ADHD. PMID:24103310

  3. Executive function in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the NIH EXAMINER battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jane E; Possin, Katherine L; Girard, Jonathan M; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Theories of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increasingly highlight the role of neuropsychological impairment in ADHD; however, a consistent and identifiable pattern of performance on tests is not well established. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER) battery provides measures of common variance across multiple executive function tests within specific domains and was used to characterize which executive functions are most affected in children with ADHD. Thirty-two children (24 male), ages 8-15 years (M = 12.02; SD = 2.29), diagnosed with ADHD and no comorbid disorder completed the NIH EXAMINER battery. Sixty age and gender matched healthy controls were chosen from a database of participants enrolled in the NIH EXAMINER multi-site study. Children with ADHD performed worse on the working memory score compared with the controls. No differences were found on the cognitive control or fluency scores. For children with ADHD, poorer working memory performance predicted parent report of child learning problems. Cognitive control and fluency scores did not predict learning problems. In summary, working memory emerges as a primary impairment in children with ADHD who have no comorbid disorders. Furthermore, working memory weaknesses may underlie the academic problems often seen in children with ADHD.

  4. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  5. From the lab - Diet’s Role in Disease Risk | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases. They also compared data on participants’ age, sex, ethnicity, and education. These results suggest ways to change eating habits that may help improve health. Source NIH Research Matters: www.nih.gov/news-events/ ...

  6. A Journey with Mid-life Hearing Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  7. From the lab - Exercise Key to Keeping Weight Off | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  8. A Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome - Genetic Testing | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  9. Understanding Asthma from the Inside Out | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. Life with an artificial pancreas | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. New Breast Cancer Treatment Approved | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  12. From the lab - Noninvasive Lung Cancer Testing on the Horizon | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  13. Achoo! Cold, Flu, or Something Else? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  14. Understanding and preventing tick bites | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  15. Don’t Let Asthma Define You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF 2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  16. Is Genetic Testing Right for You? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. What Happens at the House of Hope | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  19. Gum Disease by the Numbers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. From the lab - Progress Against Zika | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  1. Questions and Answers about Psoriasis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  2. The Future of Asthma Monitoring | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. Too ‘Stubborn’ to Give in to COPD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  4. Battling C. Difficile: Don’t Delay | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  5. The Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  6. Breathtaking: Managing a COPD Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  7. An Inside Look at Genetic Counseling | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  8. From the lab - Can Potassium Help Your Heart? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  9. Despite the Shutdown, Rescheduled NIH Research Festival Brings Science to the Forefront | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Although it was delayed by almost a month because of the federal shutdown, the NIH Research Festival still took place at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., and attendance was high.

  10. Transforming Discovery into Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may face an even greater struggle. Since 1980, obesity has more than doubled among U.S. children ages two through five, nearly tripled among young people over age six. This translates into tens-of-millions of Americans who are ... national obesity, NIH has undertaken a variety of innovative approaches ...

  11. NIH Peer Review: Scored Review Criteria and Overall Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mark D.; Vancea, Adrian; Chen, Mei-Ching; Chacko, George

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest source of funding for biomedical research in the world. Funding decisions are made largely based on the outcome of a peer review process that is intended to provide a fair, equitable, timely, and unbiased review of the quality, scientific merit, and potential impact of the research. There have…

  12. NIH Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH researchers must immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention, and then consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Manager about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  13. How Is Psoriasis Treated? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Living with Psoriasis How Is Psoriasis Treated? Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... nih.gov/ Clinical Trials — www.clinicaltrials.gov National Psoriasis Foundation — www.psoriasis.org American Academy of Dermatology — ...

  14. Patch Pd para Nih-Nik de Chico Mello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Montechiari e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Pure Data patch was commissioned by the Ensemble Nih-Nik for the premier of the homonymous 1993 piece by Brazilian composer Chico Mello at the SiMN 2014 + matrix14 on tour festival (Curitiba, Brazil.

  15. "My Experience with Shingles." | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be taking part in an NIH-sponsored research program that later helped find a vaccine to prevent the disease. In a video interview made for the public and available on MedlinePlus.gov , Spicer tells about her bout with shingles and the antiviral drug that eased her symptoms when she developed ...

  16. Protecting Yourself From Shingles | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at special risk of developing shingles. Thanks to research funded by the NIH, there is now there is a vaccine called VZV (Zostavax) that can help prevent shingles in people 60 and older. There are antiviral drugs that can help to lower the severity ...

  17. NIH workshop summary: shaping the development of an iodine research initiative for the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at NIH sponsored a workshop May 12–13, 2011, to bring together representatives from various NIH Institutes and Centers as a first step in developing an NIH iodine initiative. The workshop also provided an opportunity to identify research needs that would infor...

  18. [The effect of microencapsulated NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 cells on bioengineered dermis function in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaohua; Chen, Shaozong; Jin, Yan; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yu; Li, Wangzhou; Lei, Zhanjun

    2007-02-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) can promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve as well as contraction and reepithelization of wound. We constructed a bioengineered dermis containing microencapsulated NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 cells and study the effect of the microencapsule to the bioengineered dermis and seed cells. NGF gene was transfected into NIH-3T3 cells and enclosed into alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulation and cultivated in vitro. Content of NGF in microencapsules culturing supernatant was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These microencapsules were co-cultured with epidermic cells and fibroblast cells. Bioengineered dermis was constructed with NGF-expressing micorencapsules as seed cells using tissue engineering method. NIH-3T3 microencapsules, empty microencapsules, normal culture media were control groups. After one week culture, the characteristics of the dermis were described by MTT test, the content of hydroxyproline (HP), HE staining and ultrastructure photograph. We found the NGF-expressing microencapsulates can secret NGF steadly after cultured 8w in vitro, promot the proliferation of epidermic cells and secret collagen of fibroblast cells. These functions can maintaine in bioengineered dermis. So NGF-expressing NIH-3T3 microencapsulates can promote the quality of bioengineered dermis.

  19. OPTIMIRANJE LOGISTIČNIH PROCESOV DISTRIBUCIJSKEGA CENTRA MERCATOR PTUJ

    OpenAIRE

    Plohl, Damjan

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava logistične procese v Mercatorjevem distribucijskem centru na Ptuju. Predstavi teoretične vidike relevantnih logističnih procesov, analizira trenutno stanje v Distribucijskem centru Mercator Ptuj in podaja predloge izboljšav trenutnega stanja na področju logistike v njem. V zaključnem delu so predlagane rešitve in izboljšave tudi ekonomsko ovrednotene.

  20. Dietary Supplement Research Portfolio at the NIH, 2009–201112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Regan, Karen S.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009–2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement–related funding for FYs 2009–2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women’s reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  1. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  2. Patterns of Feedback on the Bridge to Independence: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis of NIH Mentored Career Development Award Application Critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Anna; Dattalo, Melissa; Regner, Caitlin; Filut, Amarette; Carnes, Molly

    2016-01-01

    NIH Mentored Career Development (K) Awards bridge investigators from mentored to independent research. A smaller proportion of women than men succeed in this transition. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyze reviewers' narrative critiques of K award applications and explore thematic content of feedback provided to male and female applicants. We collected 88 critiques, 34 from 9 unfunded and 54 from 18 funded applications, from 70% (n = 26) of investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with K awards funded between 2005 and 2009 on the first submission or after revision. We qualitatively analyzed text in the 5 critique sections: candidate, career development plan, research plan, mentors, and environment and institutional commitment. We explored thematic content within these sections for male and female applicants and for applicants who had received a subsequent independent research award by 2014. Themes revealed consistent areas of criticism for unfunded applications and praise for funded applications. Subtle variations in thematic content appeared for male and female applicants: For male applicants criticism was often followed by advice but for female applicants it was followed by questions about ability; praise recurrently characterized male but not female applicants' research as highly significant with optimism for future independence. Female K awardees that obtained subsequent independent awards stood out as having track records described as "outstanding." This exploratory study suggests that K award reviewer feedback, particularly for female applicants, should be investigated as a potential contributor to research persistence and success in crossing the bridge to independence.

  3. NIH Research on Concussion and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents Dr. Anne McKee is a pioneer in the study of athletes' brains and the ... recently gave the Joseph Leiter Lecture at the Medical Library Association's annual conference. Her topic was "Boxing, ...

  4. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: Insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Violet Troller-Renfree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, highly socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  5. Cell shrinkage as a signal to apoptosis in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin B; Friborg, Christel R; Schneider, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a hallmark of the apoptotic mode of programmed cell death, but it is as yet unclear whether a reduction in cell volume is a primary activation signal of apoptosis. Here we studied the effect of an acute elevation of osmolarity (NaCl or sucrose additions, final osmolarity 687...... mosmol l(-1)) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to identify components involved in the signal transduction from shrinkage to apoptosis. After 1.5 h the activity of caspase-3 started to increase followed after 3 h by the appearance of many apoptotic-like bodies. The caspase-3 activity increase was greatly enhanced...

  6. Tightening conflict-of-interest policies: the impact of 2005 ethics rules at the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Darren E; DesRoches, Catherine M; Bristol, Steffanie J; Clarridge, Brian; Campbell, Eric G

    2010-11-01

    To determine both the intended and unintended effects of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2005 ethics rules by examining changes in publishing rates and the frequency of external relationships among NIH scientists. After identifying eligible intramural scientists and administrators from institutes' Web pages and central directories, a mailed survey was administered to 900 NIH research faculty between October 2008 and January 2009 (response rate 70.1%). Eighty percent of respondents believed the NIH ethics rules were too restrictive. Whereas 45% of respondents believed the rules positively impacted the public's trust in the NIH, 77% believed the rules hindered the NIH's ability to complete its mission. Implementation of the ethics rules significantly decreased self-reported government-industry relationships among NIH faculty (from 51.8% to 33.2%, P impact on NIH faculty participation in nonindustrial professional service roles and had no detectable change in publishing behavior (5.29 articles per researcher per year from 2002-2005 versus 5.26 from 2005-2008, P = .88). The NIH ethics rules accomplished much of what they were intended to do, limiting relationships with industry while maintaining NIH researchers' association with external scientific and professional organizations. However, the rules negatively affected personnel morale and the perceived progress of research.

  7. Report of the NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:26388962

  8. REPORT OF THE NIH TASK FORCE ON RESEARCH STANDARDS FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:24787228

  9. Radiation Oncology and Online Patient Education Materials: Deviating From NIH and AMA Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Arpan V.; Hansberry, David R.; Agarwal, Nitin; Clump, David A.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care–related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Methods: Radiation oncology–related internet-based patient education materials were downloaded from 5 major professional websites (American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Brachytherapy Society, (RadiologyInfo.org), and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Additional patient education documents were downloaded by searching for key radiation oncology phrases using Google. A total of 135 articles were downloaded and assessed for their readability level using 10 quantitative readability scales that are widely accepted in the medical literature. Results: When all 10 assessment tools for readability were taken into account, the 135 online patient education articles were written at an average grade level of 13.7 ± 2.0. One hundred nine of the 135 articles (80.7%) required a high school graduate's comprehension level (12th-grade level or higher). Only 1 of the 135 articles (0.74%) met the AMA and NIH recommendations for patient education resources to be written between the third-grade and seventh-grade levels. Conclusion: Radiation oncology websites have patient education material written at an educational level above the NIH and AMA recommendations; as a result, average American patients may not be able to fully understand them. Rewriting radiation oncology patient education resources would likely contribute to the patients' understanding of their health and treatment

  10. Radiation Oncology and Online Patient Education Materials: Deviating From NIH and AMA Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Arpan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Hansberry, David R. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Agarwal, Nitin [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Clump, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Heron, Dwight E., E-mail: herond2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care–related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Methods: Radiation oncology–related internet-based patient education materials were downloaded from 5 major professional websites (American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Brachytherapy Society, (RadiologyInfo.org), and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Additional patient education documents were downloaded by searching for key radiation oncology phrases using Google. A total of 135 articles were downloaded and assessed for their readability level using 10 quantitative readability scales that are widely accepted in the medical literature. Results: When all 10 assessment tools for readability were taken into account, the 135 online patient education articles were written at an average grade level of 13.7 ± 2.0. One hundred nine of the 135 articles (80.7%) required a high school graduate's comprehension level (12th-grade level or higher). Only 1 of the 135 articles (0.74%) met the AMA and NIH recommendations for patient education resources to be written between the third-grade and seventh-grade levels. Conclusion: Radiation oncology websites have patient education material written at an educational level above the NIH and AMA recommendations; as a result, average American patients may not be able to fully understand them. Rewriting radiation oncology patient education resources would likely contribute to the patients' understanding of their health and treatment

  11. Radiation Oncology and Online Patient Education Materials: Deviating From NIH and AMA Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Arpan V; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E

    2016-11-01

    Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care-related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Radiation oncology-related internet-based patient education materials were downloaded from 5 major professional websites (American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Brachytherapy Society, RadiologyInfo.org, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Additional patient education documents were downloaded by searching for key radiation oncology phrases using Google. A total of 135 articles were downloaded and assessed for their readability level using 10 quantitative readability scales that are widely accepted in the medical literature. When all 10 assessment tools for readability were taken into account, the 135 online patient education articles were written at an average grade level of 13.7 ± 2.0. One hundred nine of the 135 articles (80.7%) required a high school graduate's comprehension level (12th-grade level or higher). Only 1 of the 135 articles (0.74%) met the AMA and NIH recommendations for patient education resources to be written between the third-grade and seventh-grade levels. Radiation oncology websites have patient education material written at an educational level above the NIH and AMA recommendations; as a result, average American patients may not be able to fully understand them. Rewriting radiation oncology patient education resources would likely contribute to the patients' understanding of their health and treatment options, making each physician-patient interaction more productive

  12. Associations Between NIH Funding and Advanced Bibliometric Indices Among Radiological Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Jiang, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Whereas data support the h index (reflecting both publications and citations) as an indicator of academic productivity, other advanced bibliometric indices aiming to address shortcomings of the h index remain poorly studied. Our objective was to compare the associations between bibliometric indices and total National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant funding among investigators within U.S. academic radiology departments. NIH grant funding amounts for 400 NIH-funded investigators within radiology departments were obtained from Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research. Investigators' publications and associated citations were identified using Scopus. Indices computed for each investigator included: publication count, citation count, h index, i-10 index, hc index (h index adjusted for recency of publications), m quotient (h index adjusted for career duration), and e index and g index (both account for highly cited articles). Spearman correlations were performed between indices and funding. Multivariable linear regression was performed to identify significant independent predictors of funding. For MD investigators: the indices exhibited no-to-weak correlations with funding (r = 0.173-0.387); m quotient exhibited the largest correlation and was the only significant (albeit weak) independent predictor of funding (P = 0.011). For PhD investigators: correlation with funding was weak for m quotient (r = 0.323), although moderate for other indices (r = 0.518-0.568); publication count exhibited highest correlation; publication count (P < 0.001) and hc index (P = 0.024) were significant independent predictors of funding. Bibliometric indices were more strongly associated with grant funding for PhD than for MD radiology investigators, with publication count exhibiting the strongest association in the latter group. Time-weighted adjustments, as reflected by the m quotient and hc index, may improve efforts to predict funding using bibliometrics. Copyright

  13. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, N.R.; Duara, R.; Creasey, H.; Grady, C.L.; Haxby, J.V.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings

  14. Electrochemical behavior of heavily cycled nickel electrodes in Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of charge and discharge voltage changes with cycling of Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. A study has also been made of electrochemical behavior of the nickel electrodes from the cycled Ni/H2 cells as a function of overcharge amounts. Discharge voltages depressed gradually with cycling for cells having high KOH concentrations (31 to 36 percent), but the voltages increased for those having low KOH concentrations (21 to 26 percent). To determine if there was a crystallographic change of the active material due to cycling, electrochemical behavior of nickel electrodes was studied in an electrolyte flooded cell containing either 31 or 26 percent KOH electrolyte as a function of the amount of overcharge. The changes in discharge voltage appear to indicate crystal structure changes of active material from gamma-phase to beta-phase in low KOH concentrations, and vice versa in high KOH concentration.

  15. PRIPRAVA IN KARAKTERIZACIJA NANOKRISTALINIČNIH TERNARNIH KADMIJEVIH HALKOGENIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Denac, Boštjan

    2014-01-01

    Polprevodni materiali kot CdSe, CdTe, in CdSexTe1-x so osnova modernih elektronskih naprav. Znano je, da se polprevodni teluridi uporabljajo za senzorje, laserje, optične filtre, solarne celice in za mnoge druge naprave. Prav tako obetajoča za uporabo v solarnih celicah, fotoprevodnikih in tankoplastnih tranzistorih je mešanica binarnih halkogenidov s sestavo CdSexTe1-x. Ternarni kadmijevi halkogenidi so bili pripravljeni z uporabo različnih sinteznih metod: hidrotermalno, z mikrovalovi i...

  16. Ethics in Psychiatric Research: A Review of 25 Years of NIH-funded Empirical Research Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, James; Bante, Holly; Hadley, Whitney B

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reviews the past 25 years of empirical research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on matters of ethics in psychiatric research. METHODS: Using the NIH RePORTER and Medline databases, we identified 43 grants and 77 publications that involved the empirical study of a matter of ethics in research involving mental health service users. RESULTS: These articles provide original and useful information on important topics, most especially the capacity to consent and the voluntariness of consent. For example, participants who share a diagnosis vary widely in levels of cognitive impairment that correlate with decisional capacity, and capacity to consent can be enhanced easily using iterative consent processes. Few articles address matters of justice or benefits in research, particularly from the perspectives of participants. No articles address matters of privacy, confidentiality, or researcher professionalism. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the usefulness of data from the studies conducted to date, current research on research ethics in psychiatry does not adequately address the concerns of service users as expressed in recent publications.

  17. T24 HRAS transformed NIH/3T3 mouse cells (GhrasT-NIH/3T3) in serial tumorigenic in vitro/in vivo passages give rise to increasingly aggressive tumorigenic cell lines T1-A and T2-A and metastatic cell lines T3-HA and T4-PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durwood B; Merrill, Gerald A; Brenner, Frederic J; Lytle, Laurie S; Lam, Tan; McElhinney, Aaron; Anders, Joel; Rock, Tara Tauber; Lyker, Jennifer Kier; Barcus, Scott; Leslie, Kara Hust; Kramer, Jill M; Rubenstein, Eric M; Pryor Schanz, Karen; Parkhurst, Amy J; Peck, Michelle; Good, Kimberly; Granath, Kristi Lemke; Cifra, Nicole; Detweiler, Jessalee Wantz; Stevens, Laura; Albertson, Richard; Deir, Rachael; Stewart, Elisabeth; Wingard, Katherine; Richardson, Micah Rose; Blizard, Sarah B; Gillespie, Lauren E; Kriley, Charles E; Rzewnicki, Daniel I; Jones, David H

    2016-01-01

    -10 days. T1-A, T-2A, T3-HA and T4-PA cells when injected i.v. into the tail produced local metastasis in non-nude or nude NIH/Swiss mice. T4-PA cells were more widely metastatic than T3-HA cells when injected i.v. into nude mice. Evaluation of the injected mice indicated a general increase in metastatic potential of each cell line in the progression as compared to the GhrasT-NIH/3T3 transformed cells. A new photomicrographic technique to follow growth rates within six preselected 2×2mm(2) grids per plate is described. Average doubling times of the transformed cells GhrasT-NIH/3T3 (17h), T1A (17.5h), T2A (15.5h), T3-HA (17.5h) and T4-PA (18.5h) (average 17.2h) were significantly faster (P=0.006) than NIH Swiss primary embryonic cells and NIH/3T3 cells (22 h each). This cell series is currently used in this lab for studies of cancer cell inhibitors, mitochondrial biogenesis and gene expression and is available for further study by other investigators for intra- and inter-laboratory comparisons of WGS, transcriptome sequencing, SKY and other analyses. The genome rearrangements in these cells together with their phenotypic properties may help provide more insights into how one tumorigenic progression occurred to produce the various cell lines that led to the highly metastatic T4-PA cell line. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a highly immunogenic fraction of Entamoeba histolytica (NIH:200) and their application in the detection of current amoebic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, K; Das, P; Johnson, T M; Chaudhuri, P P; Das, D; Nair, G B

    1993-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against a highly immunogenic fraction derived by the chromatographic separation of the soluble preparation of axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain NIH:200) trophozoites. Isotype characterization of the six MAbs revealed that four belonged to the IgM class and one each to the IgG1 and the IgG2a subclasses. The immunoreactivity patterns and the specificity of the MAbs with homologous and heterologous antigens were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot technique and by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs reacted intensely with isolates of E. histolytica (strain NIH:200 as well as a local isolate MX1) but showed no reactivity with Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba hartmanni, free-living amoeba (Acanthamoeba harticolus) and other enteric parasites. Using the IgG1 MAb as a detecting antibody, a polyclonal-monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of E. histolytica antigens in stool samples of infected patients. The detection limit of the assay was 8 ng of amoebic antigen. This test was found to be specific and sensitive and yielded 100% positive results in cases with amoebiasis but did not react with controls included in the evaluation. The MAb-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in this study will be an important test for the diagnosis of E. histolytica in the feces of infected humans; however, the limitation of the test is the inability to discriminate the pathogenic status of the amoeba detected in the stool.

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  20. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420).

  1. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  2. NIH/NCATS/GRDR® Common Data Elements: A leading force for standardized data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Yaffa R; McInnes, Pamela

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of the NIH/NCATS GRDR® program is to serve as a central web-based global data repository to integrate de-identified patient clinical data from rare disease registries, and other data sources, in a standardized manner, to be available to researchers for conducting various biomedical studies, including clinical trials and to support analyses within and across diseases. The aim of the program is to advance research for many rare diseases. One of the first tasks toward achieving this goal was the development of a set of Common Data Elements (CDEs), which are controlled terminologies that represent collected data. A list of 75 CDEs was developed by a national committee and was validated and implemented during a period of 2 year proof of concept. Access to GRDR CDEs is freely available at: https://grdr.ncats.nih.gov/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=5. The GRDR CDEs have been the cornerstone of the GRDR repository, as well as of several other national and international patient registries. The establishment of the GRDR program has elevated the issue of data standardization and interoperability for rare disease patient registries, to international attention, resulting in a global dialog and significant change in the mindset of registry developers, patient advocacy groups, and other national and international organizations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adolescents: Is There a Difference Depending on the NIH and Rotterdam Criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiah, Kanetee; Colmenares, Ana; Bidet, Maud; Tubiana-Rufi, Nadia; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Delcroix, Christine; Jacquin, Paul; Martin, Delphine; Benadjaoud, Lila; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Laborde, Kathleen; Robert, Jean-Jacques; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Polak, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is more frequently observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adult women than in nondiabetic women. No such prevalence has yet been studied in adolescent girls with T1DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PCOS in adolescent girls with T1DM and to determine the clinical and hormonal features associated with the disorder. A cross-sectional study of 53 adolescent girls (gynecological age >2 years) referred for routine evaluation for T1DM was conducted. We diagnosed PCOS using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Rotterdam criteria. 26.4 and 47.9% of adolescents had PCOS according to NIH (NIH-PCOS) and Rotterdam (Rotterdam-PCOS) criteria. 66.7% of NIH-PCOS adolescents had a complete phenotype associated with hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, and polycystic ovarian morphology, unlike only 33.3% of the Rotterdam-PCOS adolescents. A family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was more frequent in PCOS than in non-PCOS girls, whichever criteria were used. Late pubertal development and a T1DM diagnosis close to puberty were factors associated with NIH-PCOS. Adolescents with T1DM had a high prevalence of PCOS. More differences between PCOS and non-PCOS patients were found using the NIH criteria, suggesting that clinical characteristics might be more accurate for diagnosing PCOS in girls with T1DM. A family history of T2DM is associated with a high risk of PCOS. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Space Station Freedom NiH2 cell testing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bruce; Frate, Dave

    1994-02-01

    Testing for the Space Station Freedom Nickel Hydrogen Cell Test Program began in 1990 at Crave Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The program has included receipt inspection, random vibration, acceptance, characterization, and life cycle testing of Ni-H2 cells in accordance with the NASA LeRC Interagency Order C-31001-J. A total of 400 Ni-H2 cells have been received at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane from three separate manufacturers; Yardney Technical Products (Yardney), Eagle Picher Industries (Eagle Picher), and Gates Energy Products (Gates). Of those, 308 cells distributed among 39 packs have undergone life cycle testing under a test regime simulating low earth orbit conditions. As of 30 September 1993, there are 252 cells assembled into 32 packs still on life cycle test. Since the beginning of the program, failed cells have been detected in all phases of testing. The failures include the following; seven 65 AmpHr and 81 AmpHr Yardney cells were found to be leaking KOH on receipt, one 65 AmpHr Eagle Picher cell failed the acceptance test, one 65 AmpHr Gates cell failed during the characterization test, and six 65 AmpHr Gates cells failed the random vibration test. Of the 39 life cycle packs, testing on seven packs, 56 cells, has been suspended because of low end of discharge voltages. All of the failed life cycle packs were cycled at 60% depth of discharge.

  5. 77 FR 41191 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Effectiveness of the NIH Curriculum Supplements Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... NIH Curriculum Supplements Programs SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirements of section 3506(c)(2... review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: The Effectiveness of the NIH Curriculum Supplements Programs Survey. Type of Information Collection Request: Extension of the previously approved collection...

  6. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the ``NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health'' to be held... the public. Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, a sugar...

  7. 78 FR 50424 - NIH Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Program: Invitation To Solicit Nonclinical and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Cooperative Research and... Health (NIH), invites industry organizations (including corporations, partnerships, limited partnerships..., (2) the scientist has the resources to complete his or her part of the project, and (3) the IC...

  8. Hubris in Grantland: Languor and Laissez-faire Greet Conflict of Interest at the NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    New rules are coming for sanitizing conflicts of interest in research financed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), dispenser of the government's biggest budget for civilian science, some $31 billion this year. The conflicted need not fear. The draft rules, soon to be made final, continue the NIH's longtime practice of trust but don't…

  9. The Brain Takes Center Stage at 2014 NIH Research Festival | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer The 2014 NIH Research Festival, Sept. 22–24, focused on the human brain for two, very specific, reasons: to coincide with the White House BRAIN Initiative and to highlight the John Edward Porter Neuroscience Research Center, which opened earlier this year on the NIH campus.

  10. 75 FR 3745 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights; Notice Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the ``NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New... will be open to the public. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) is the delivery of a baby through the...

  11. Construction of a eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG and its transient expression in NIH3T3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao LI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector for HuR and analyze its expression and biological function in NIH3T3 cells.Methods The total RNA was extracted from NIH3T3 cells and reverse transcribed to cDNAs.The coding region sequence of mouse HuR was then amplified by PCR and subcloned into the pcDNA3.1-FLAG plasmid.The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG was verified by PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis,confirmed by DNA sequence analysis,and then transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells with Lipofectamine LTX.The expression of HuR protein was determined by Western blotting,and the mRNA level of HuR and DUSP1 were analyzed by using real-time PCR.Result The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-HuR-FLAG was correctly constructed.Twenty-four hours after transfection of the recombinant plasmid into NIH3T3 cells,the fusion protein was found to have highly expressed in the cells as revealed by Western blotting.Real-time PCR results detected that the over-expression of HuR could up-regulate the expression of DUSP1.Conclusion The eukaryotic expression vector for HuR-FLAG fusion protein has been successfully constructed and transiently expressed in NIH3T3 cells.It can be used in further analysis of the posttranscriptional regulation of DUSP1 by HuR in cancer cells.

  12. 42 CFR 68a.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for Individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM FOR... to the award of educational loan payments under the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for... relative to income, to conduct clinical research as NIH employees. ...

  13. Advances in Sleep Studies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that focuses on: Better understanding of how a lack of sleep increases the risk for obesity, diabetes, heart disease, ... to sleep disorders. The adverse effects from a lack of sleep on body and brain. Summer 2015 Issue: Volume ...

  14. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases [it

  15. Report of the NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; Delitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Note from PTJ's Editor in Chief: Both investigators and readers get frustrated reading research on low back pain because of different definitions of “chronic” and different outcome measures. Lack of consensus on study methods makes it difficult to determine if contradictory findings are based on different methods or different interventions; lack of consensus also prevents synthesis across studies. Dr. Partap Khalsa, Deputy Director, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, announced the release of Research Standards for Chronic Low Pain, and the hope is that future investigations will adopt them and reduce variability in research reporting. The task force on research standards was an international, multidisciplinary team including Anthony Delitto, PT, PhD, FAPTA. Its findings have been published in leading pain journals. PTJ is among the first professional journals to share the report with its readers. Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients' lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. Therefore, NIH Pain Consortium charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimum dataset to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which

  16. Psoriasis Doesn't Slow Down Texan Brian LaFoy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. From the lab - New Discovery About Middle-Age Weight Gain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. From the lab - Rare Gene Mutation May Have Link to Common Cold | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  19. Journalist Liz Hernandez hopes to make Alzheimer’s a thing of the past | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  1. Comparative study of the human ficolins reveals unique features of Ficolin-3 (Hakata antigen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, Tina; Fog, Lea Munthe; Madsen, Hans O

    2007-01-01

    The ficolins and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are collagen-like defence proteins that serve as recognition molecules in lectin complement pathway. Differential features that may indicate diverse functions of these proteins are poorly understood. In this study we compared important biological...... features of the ficolins and MBL. We investigated the tissue distribution of the FCN1-3 and the MBL2 genes encoding the ficolins and MBL by quantitative PCR. Recombinant proteins were produced and structural and biological characteristics were investigated and compared. Our main findings were that FCN3 m......RNA was highly expressed in the liver and lung compared with the other genes revealing the lung as the tissue with the highest FCN3 expression pattern. Ficolin-3 revealed higher complement activating capacity compared with Ficolin-2, MBL and Ficolin-1 and was highly resistant to bacterial collagenase treatment...

  2. NIH Research on Treating Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine helped fund the study. Scientists at the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) ... to assess in infants and children. NINR-supported scientists are carrying out a number of studies that examine the effects of pain and pain ...

  3. Association between nih stroke scale score and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, S.; Fazal, N.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between baseline national institutes of health stroke scale score and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical unit-IV, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from May 2009 to October 2009. Patients and Methods: Patients who presented with stroke within 24 hours of onset of symptom and had a developing infarct on the CT- scan were further evaluated for neurological impairment using NIH stroke scale. The baseline NIHSS score was calculated using a proforma. Age of the patient, gender and time of presentation to the hospital was recorded. Follow-up was done on the 7th day of admission using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). Results: Total number of subjects was 150. Good outcome (GOS=1-2) was noticed in those subjects who had a low baseline NIHSS score (0-6) while poor outcome (GOS=3-5) was noticed in those subjects who had a higher baseline NIHSS score (>16)( p value< 0.05). In cases who had a moderate score (7-15); the ratio of good outcome to bad outcome was almost 70:30. Likewise good outcome (GOS=1-2) was noticed in those subjects who were younger (less than 45 years) while poor outcome (GOS=3-5) was noticed in the elderly (more than 45 years)( p value< 0.05). Similarly patients who presented within 12 hrs of symptom onset had a good outcome compared to those who presented after 12 hrs( p value< 0.05). Conclusion: Baseline NIH Stroke Scale score is strongly associated with functional outcome after 1 week of acute ischemic stroke. (author)

  4. Insights into antiviral innate immunity revealed by studying hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies on the interactions of the positive strand RNA virus hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the host have contributed to several discoveries in the field of antiviral innate immunity. These include revealing the antiviral sensing pathways that lead to the induction of type I interferon (IFN) during HCV infection and also the importance of type III IFNs in the antiviral immune response to HCV. These studies on HCV/host interactions have contributed to our overall understanding of viral sensing and viral evasion of the antiviral intracellular innate immune response. In this review, I will highlight how these studies of HCV/host interactions have led to new insights into antiviral innate immunity. Overall, I hope to emphasize that studying antiviral immunity in the context of virus infection is necessary to fully understand antiviral immunity and how it controls the outcome of viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  6. Data mining a small molecule drug screening representative subset from NIH PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-03-01

    PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.

  7. Cardamom extract induces cell proliferation by increasing potassium currents in NIH3T3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Sonia; Hassan, Sohail; Imran, Sumaira; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Faheem; Dar, Asim

    2017-11-01

    Amommum subulatum (Roxb.) or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different fractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol (1-2 μ/ml), n-hexane (1 μ/ml), butane (2 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (1-2 μ/ml) for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol (C 10 H 18 O) and Terpinyl acetate (C10H17OOCCH3) by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol (1 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (2 μ/ml) significantly increased (p<0.01) the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Whereas, butanol fraction (2 μ/ml) significantly decreased (p<0.01) the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K+ currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing.

  8. Metabolomics study of cereal grains reveals the discriminative metabolic markers associated with anatomical compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Moazzami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profile of different anatomical compartments of cereal grains i.e. bran and endosperm in order to gain further insightsinto their possible role in the beneficial health effects of whole grain products (WG. Polar watersoluble metabolites in 64 bran and endosperm, samples from rye and wheat were observed using600 MHz NMR. Bran samples had higher contents of 12 metabolites than endosperm samples. A comparative approach revealed higher contents of azelaic acid and sebacic acid in bran than in endosperm. In a pilot study, the consumption of WG rye bread (485 g caused NMR signals in 24h urine corresponding to azelaic acid. The relatively high abundance, anatomical specificity, patternof metabolism, urinary excretion in human, antibacterial, and anticancer activities suggest further studying of azelaic acid when exposure to WG or beneficial effects of WG are investigated.

  9. Comparison among different "revealers" in the study of accelerated blood clearance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaifan; Wang, Lirong; Su, Yuqing; Liu, Mengyang; Feng, Rui; Song, Yanzhi; Deng, Yihui

    2018-03-01

    The markers are the "revealers" of accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon. PEGylated nanocarriers labeled with various markers have been used to explore the mechanism of ABC. However, different markers were labeled on different nanocarriers, and the influence of different markers on ABC phenomenon is questionable. In this study, tocopheryl nicotinate (TN), N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, triethylammonium salt (NBD-DPPE), and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetra-methylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) were selected as markers. ABC index (0-30min) was used as an evaluation indicator to reveal ABC phenomenon after repeated injections of PEGylated emulsions (PEs) in Wistar rats. No significant difference was observed in ABC index (0-30min) of PE labeled with the three markers (P>0.05), suggesting that the results of previous studies using these markers were comparable and interchangeable. Of the three markers, TN required tedious analytical method and showed proliferative effect on liver cells, while NBD-DPPE fluorescence was easily interfered by tissues and its phospholipid composition affected ABC analysis. On the contrary, DiR was deemed superior due to its near-infrared fluorescence, high-sensitivity, and convenient analytical detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Jih-Heng

    2006-05-05

    Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, have been characterized to possess antioxidative and anti-genotoxic activities. However, their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated carcinogenesis are still unclear. In the present study, H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells were used to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of T. catappa water extract (TCE) and punicalagin. In the cell proliferation assay, TCE and punicalagin suppressed the proliferation of H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells with a dose-dependent manner but only partially affected non-transformed NIH3T3 cells proliferation. The differential cytotoxicity of TCE/punicalagin on the H-ras-transformed and non-transformed NIH3T3 cells indicated the selectivity of TCE/punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation. TCE or punicalagin treatment reduced anchorage-independent growth that could be due to a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The intracellular superoxide level, known to modulate downstream signaling of Ras protein, was decreased by punicalagin treatments. The levels of phosphorylated JNK-1 and p38 were also decreased with punicalagin treatments. Thus, the chemopreventive effect of punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation could result from inhibition of the intracellular redox status and JNK-1/p38 activation.

  11. UGOTAVLJANJE IN ZAGOTAVLJANJE SMOTRNOSTI PORABE JAVNOFINANČNIH SREDSTEV NA PRIMERU SLOVENSKIH OBČIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jelušič, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    V Sloveniji smo v zadnjih letih priča vse večje usmerjenosti širše javnosti k smotrni porabi javnofinančnih sredstev. Izvajanje nadzora nad zagotavljanjem smotrnosti porabe javnofinančnih sredstev predstavlja ključnega pomena za izboljšanje javnofinančne slike v Sloveniji. V magistrski nalogi želimo proučiti področje zagotavljanja smotrnosti porabe javnofinančnih sredstev s poudarkom na državnem revidiranju. Magistrska naloga je sestavljena iz dveh delov, teoretičnega in empriričnega. V ...

  12. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print ...

  13. Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus. Among the 14 Mp1p homologs, only Mp1p is a virulence factor binding a variety of host proteins, fatty acids and lipids. There are 23 polyketide synthase genes, one for melanin and two for mitorubrinic acid/mitorubrinol biosynthesis, which are virulence factors. Another polyketide synthase is for biogenesis of the diffusible red pigment, which consists of amino acid conjugates of monascorubin and rubropunctatin. Novel microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs and processing proteins are present. The dicer protein, dcl-2, is required for biogenesis of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, which are more highly expressed in hyphal cells. Comparative transcriptomics showed that tandem repeat-containing genes were overexpressed in yeast phase, generating protein polymorphism among cells, evading host’s immunity. Comparative proteomics between yeast and hyphal cells revealed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, up-regulated in hyphal cells, is an adhesion factor for conidial attachment.

  14. The molecular mechanism regulating the autonomous circadian expression of Topoisomerase I in NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Megumi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Masaaki

    2009-02-27

    To identify whether Topoisomerase I (TopoI) has autonomous circadian rhythms regulated by clock genes, we tested mouse TopoI (mTopoI) promoter oscillation in NIH3T3 cells using a real-time monitoring assay and TopoI mRNA oscillations using real-time RT-PCR. Analysis of the mTopoI promoter region with Matlnspector software revealed two putative E-box (E1 and E2) and one DBP/E4BP4-binding element (D-box). Luciferase assays indicated that mTopoI gene expression was directly regulated by clock genes. The real-time monitoring assay showed that E-box and D-box response elements participate in the regulation of the circadian expression of mTopoI. Furthermore, a gel-shift assay showed that E2 is a direct target of the BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimer and DBP binds to the putative D-site. These results indicate that TopoI is expressed in an autonomous circadian rhythm in NIH3T3 cells.

  15. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  16. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Ray

    2018-03-07

    One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  17. Protein expression studies of desmoplakin mutations in cardiomyopathy patients reveal different molecular disease mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T. B.; Hansen, J.; Nissen, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to investigate protein expression in myocardial and epidermal tissue of ARVC and CS patients carrying DSP mutations in order to elucidate potential molecular disease mechanisms. Genetic investigations identified three ARVC patients carrying different heterozygous DSP mutations in addition...... to a homozygous DSP mutation in a CS patient. The protein expression of DSP in mutation carriers was evaluated in biopsies from myocardial and epidermal tissue by immunohistochemistry. Keratinocyte cultures were established from skin biopsies of mutation carriers and characterized by reverse transcriptase...... polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and protein mass spectrometry. The results showed that the mutation carriers had abnormal DSP expression in both myocardial and epidermal tissue. The investigations revealed that the disease mechanisms varied accordingly to the specific types of DSP mutation...

  18. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pritchard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  19. A passionate way of being: A qualitative study revealing the passion spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. Halonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Being engaged in an activity one is passionate about has been tied to feeling life is worth living for. Existing research in passion has explored this phenomenon purely using quantitative research methodology, and by tying an individual’s passion to a specific activity. In this study, passion was explored in semi-structured interviews with 12 participants. The qualitative grounded theory analysis revealed a passionate way of being, with passion being located in the individual rather than in a specific activity. A new phenomenon to positive psychology, a passionate way of being is about having a purpose, creating positive impact, and pursuing variety. These key elements, amongst others, created a reinforcing, self-sustaining spiral, which offered a route to hedonic and eudaimonic happiness, generally serving to enhance life (though it could also detract from life if it became overpowering.

  20. Effect of polysaccharides of ganoderma lucidum (PGL) on cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblast exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiuqing; Wu Shiling; Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of γ-irradiation on cell cycle and proliferation of fibroblasts and the radioprotective effect of PGL in term of cellular level. Methods: The cells in the control group and PGL (50 mg/L. 100 mg/L. 150 mg/L) groups were irradiated with 15 Gy γ-rays. The cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry after irradiation within 12 h. Results: The percentage of G 0 -G 1 phase was 52.76% in the positive control group. Compared with the negative control group (90.9%), the proliferation of NIH3T3 was promoted significantly (P 0 -G 1 phases in the GPL (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L) groups were 66.17%, 71.73%, 76.10% respectively, the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells was inhibited by adding GPL. compared with the positive control group, in the 50 mg/L group P < 0.05, in the 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L groups P < 0.01. It was found that the apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells had little change after comparing non-irradiated group with the irradiated groups. Conclusion: Radiation with γ-rays at a dose of 15 Gy, can significantly stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, but no induced apoptosis can not be achieve within 12 h after irradiation. PGL can inhibit cell proliferation, so PGL has radioprotective activity on cell levels

  1. Video Tells a Mother's Story of Caring Support | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youtube-nocookie.com/embed/-hOBYFS_Z68 The video Rachel's Mom discusses the wonderful support the family received ... www.ninr.nih.gov . "The day my daughter Rachel was diagnosed with neuroblastoma was very difficult, probably ...

  2. HealthLines The Pain Before the Fall | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CTSA), a nationwide affiliation of medical research institutions led by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), part of the NIH. ResearchMatch connects anyone interested and residing in the U.S. with thousands ...

  3. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research That Benefits Everyone's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information and actually alter their own health behaviors. Global Health Focus —Partnering with the World Health Organization, the Gates Foundation, and other philanthropies, the opportunity has never been better for NIH ...

  4. NLM MedlinePlus Magazine Team | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current issue contents Magazine Team Follow us Magazine Team National Library of Medicine at the National ... MLS, MA TREASURER Dennis Cryer, MD NIH MedlinePlus magazine is published by Friends of the NLM in ...

  5. NIH Exported Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools: Expenditures and Results (ExPORTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services — Research projects funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), other DHHS Operating Divisions (AHRQ, CDC, FDA, HRSA, SAMHSA), and the Department of Veterans...

  6. Go4Life:Success Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... husband and I like to go to the gym together to stay active. I ride the stationary ... a moderate exercise routine and a low-fat diet. NIHSenior Health Videos Exercising with the NIH Directors ...

  7. Saying "Yes!" to Careers in Health Care | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... From You! We want your feedback on the magazine, ideas for future issues, as well as questions ... com ) or send mail to Editor, NIH MedlinePlus Magazine, P.O. Box 18427, Greensboro, NC 27419-8427. ...

  8. The Match of Her Life | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... answer questions for this issue of NIH MedlinePlus magazine about her breast cancer. You discovered you had ... way of healing. As this issue of the magazine went to press, Navratilova was receiving radiation therapy ...

  9. The Future of Personalized Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. The Future of Personalized Medicine, From NIH Director Dr. ... advance personalized medicine. What does this mean for the average American? Personalized medicine means taking better care ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  11. Adhesion, Proliferation and Migration of NIH/3T3 Cells on Modified Polyaniline Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmontová, Petra; Capáková, Zdenka; Mikušová, Nikola; Maráková, Nela; Kašpárková, Věra; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr

    2016-09-15

    Polyaniline shows great potential and promises wide application in the biomedical field thanks to its intrinsic conductivity and material properties, which closely resemble natural tissues. Surface properties are crucial, as these predetermine any interaction with biological fluids, proteins and cells. An advantage of polyaniline is the simple modification of its surface, e.g., by using various dopant acids. An investigation was made into the adhesion, proliferation and migration of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on pristine polyaniline films and films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids. In addition, polyaniline films supplemented with poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid at various ratios were tested. Results showed that the NIH/3T3 cell line was able to adhere, proliferate and migrate on the pristine polyaniline films as well as those films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids; thus, utilization of said forms in biomedicine appears promising. Nevertheless, incorporating poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid altered the surface properties of the polyaniline films and significantly affected cell behavior. In order to reveal the crucial factor influencing the surface/cell interaction, cell behavior is discussed in the context of the surface energy of individual samples. It was clearly demonstrated that the lesser the difference between the surface energy of the sample and cell, the more cyto-compatible the surface is.

  12. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considera...

  13. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spatially explicit land use and land cover information provided by Landsat moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is needed to more efficiently balance the production of goods and services over landscapes. For example, economic trade-offs are needed to provide both clean groundwater resources and other non-environmental goods and services produced by activities that affect the vadose zone and thus contribute to contamination of groundwater. These trade-off choices are made by numerous economic agents and are constrained by many social institutions including governmental regulations at many levels, contractual obligations and traditions. In effect, on a social level, society acts as if it values groundwater by foregoing other goods to protect these resources. The result of the protection afforded to groundwater resources is observable by measuring contamination in well samples. This observed level of groundwater contamination risk is the revealed preference of society as a whole for clean groundwater. We observed the risk of groundwater contamination in a sampling of well data from our study area (35 counties of Eastern Iowa.) We used a proportional hazard model to quantify the nitrate contamination survival implied by the panel of 19,873 well data, where remaining below a 10 mg/ml maximum contamination level (MCL) is defined as survival. We tested the data for evidence that the levels of protection provided to these resources is correlated with aquifer and vadose zone characteristics and geographic location and whether it changed over time and with economic and other conditions. We demonstrate the use of a nitrate conditioned hazard function for projecting the survival of wells based on nitrate exposure information over the 1940 to 2010 time period. We discuss results of simulations of the survival process that demonstrate the economic significance of this approach. We find that aquifer survival has been significantly improving over time. The principle of

  14. Fish gut-liver immunity during homeostasis or inflammation revealed by integrative transcriptome and proteome studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-11-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.

  15. Single exosome study reveals subpopulations distributed among cell lines with variability related to membrane content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis of exosomes focuses primarily on bulk analysis, where exosome-to-exosome variability cannot be assessed. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to study the chemical composition of single exosomes. We measured spectra of individual exosomes from 8 cell lines. Cell-line-averaged spectra varied considerably, reflecting the variation in total exosomal protein, lipid, genetic, and cytosolic content. Unexpectedly, single exosomes isolated from the same cell type also exhibited high spectral variability. Subsequent spectral analysis revealed clustering of single exosomes into 4 distinct groups that were not cell-line specific. Each group contained exosomes from multiple cell lines, and most cell lines had exosomes in multiple groups. The differences between these groups are related to chemical differences primarily due to differing membrane composition. Through a principal components analysis, we identified that the major sources of spectral variation among the exosomes were in cholesterol content, relative expression of phospholipids to cholesterol, and surface protein expression. For example, exosomes derived from cancerous versus non-cancerous cell lines can be largely separated based on their relative expression of cholesterol and phospholipids. We are the first to indicate that exosome subpopulations are shared among cell types, suggesting distributed exosome functionality. The origins of these differences are likely related to the specific role of extracellular vesicle subpopulations in both normal cell function and carcinogenesis, and they may provide diagnostic potential at the single exosome level.

  16. Brain structure, function, and genetics revealed by studies of the eye and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodiya, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the structure and function of the human brain is intrinsically interesting and fundamental to improved diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human neurological diseases, which constitute an increasing global burden. The intimate connections between brain and face, and brain and eye, have been utilized to access brain structure and function. Concepts and recent progress are reviewed here. Continued work on biological links between brain and eye or face has uncovered further genetic abnormalities causing facial or eye anomalies, which in either case may clearly indicate changes in the underlying brain. Cause and effect can be difficult to disentangle, but the use of conditional animal models can help establish whether brain changes are the result of face or eye changes or the result of a parallel influence on brain and eye or face. The application of newer methods and technologies such as parameterization of facial characteristics and comparative genomic hybridization has led to new discoveries and insights. Further interdisciplinary studies into brain structure and function through the windows of the face and the eye, with the application of genome-wide studies in larger cohorts, will potentially enable more discovery and critically may reveal unsuspected therapeutic targets in human disease.

  17. Oxidation mechanism of chalcopyrite revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first principles studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaolu; Hua, Xiaoming; Zheng, Yongfei; Lu, Xionggang; Li, Shenggang; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian

    2018-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies revealed that the iron site on the chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surface was preferably oxidized to the Cu site when exposed to an oxidizing environment. Extensive density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the surface structure of chalcopyrite and its reaction with both molecular oxygen (O2) and water. The adsorption and dissociation of a single O2 molecule, a single H2O molecule, as well as both molecules at the Fe and Cu sites on the CuFeS2 (001) surface were studied. Consistent with our experimental observation, the Fe site was found to be preferred for the adsorption and dissociation of O2 due to its lower energy barrier and greater exothermicity. The dissociation of H2O on the CuFeS2 (001) surface by itself was found to be unfavorable both thermodynamically and kinetically. However, the surface formed upon O2 dissociation was predicted to be much more reactive with H2O, which was attributed to favorable hydrogen transfer to the O site formed upon O2 dissociation to hydrogen transfer to the S site due to the much weaker Ssbnd H bond than the Osbnd H bond.

  18. Genetic studies revealed differences between European and North American populations of Calypogeia azurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Calypogeia azurea, a widespread, subboreal-montane liverwort species, is one of a few representatives of the Calypogeia genus that are characterized by the occurrence of blue oil bodies. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic variation and population structure of C. azurea originating from different parts of its distribution range (Europe and North America. Plants of C. azurea were compared with C. peruviana, another Calypogeia species with blue oil bodies. In general, 339 gametophytes from 15 populations of C. azurea were examined. Total gene diversity (HT estimated on the basis of nine isozyme loci of C. azurea at the species level was 0.201. The mean Nei’s genetic distance between European populations was equal to 0.083, whereas the mean genetic distance between populations originating from Europe and North America was 0.413. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that 69% of C. azurea genetic variation was distributed among regions (Europe and North America, 15% - among populations within regions, and 16% - within populations. Our study revealed that C. azurea showed genetic diversity within its geographic distribution. All examined samples classified as C. azurea differed in respect of isozyme patterns from C. peruviana.

  19. Gene-Environment Interplay in Common Complex Diseases: Forging an Integrative Model—Recommendations From an NIH Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Ebony B.; McAllister, Kimberly; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Wanke, Kay; Balshaw, David; Rutter, Joni; Reedy, Jill; Shaughnessy, Daniel; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Paltoo, Dina; Atienza, Audie; Bierut, Laura; Kraft, Peter; Fallin, M. Daniele; Perera, Frederica; Turkheimer, Eric; Boardman, Jason; Marazita, Mary L.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Suomi, Stephen J.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lowe, William L.; Goldman, Lynn R.; Duggal, Priya; Gunnar, Megan R.; Manolio, Teri A.; Green, Eric D.; Olster, Deborah H.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is recognized that many common complex diseases are a result of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors, studies of gene-environment interaction remain a challenge and have had limited success to date. Given the current state-of-the-science, NIH sought input on ways to accelerate investigations of gene-environment interplay in health and disease by inviting experts from a variety of disciplines to give advice about the future direction of gene-environment interaction studies. Participants of the NIH Gene-Environment Interplay Workshop agreed that there is a need for continued emphasis on studies of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in disease and that studies need to be designed around a multifaceted approach to reflect differences in diseases, exposure attributes, and pertinent stages of human development. The participants indicated that both targeted and agnostic approaches have strengths and weaknesses for evaluating main effects of genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The unique perspectives represented at the workshop allowed the exploration of diverse study designs and analytical strategies, and conveyed the need for an interdisciplinary approach including data sharing, and data harmonization to fully explore gene-environment interactions. Further, participants also emphasized the continued need for high-quality measures of environmental exposures and new genomic technologies in ongoing and new studies. PMID:21308768

  20. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10/sup 6/ receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest /sup 125/I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10/sup 6/ receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10/sup -9/ M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10/sup 7/ receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  1. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10 6 receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest 125 I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10 6 receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10 -9 M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10 7 receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The α and β subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the α and β subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  2. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Yao, Licheng; Xia, Tingting; Liao, Xuebin; Zhu, Deyu; Xiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    The human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (hKMO) is a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and neurologic disorders. Inhibition of KMO by Ro 61-8048, a potent, selective, and the most widely used inhibitor of KMO, was shown effective in various models of neurodegenerative or neurologic disorders. However, the molecular basis of hKMO inhibition by Ro 61-8048 is not clearly understood. Here, we report biochemistry studies on hKMO and crystal structures of an hKMO homolog, pfKMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens, in complex with the substrate l-kynurenine and Ro 61-8048. We found that the C-terminal ∼110 aa are essential for the enzymatic activity of hKMO and the homologous C-terminal region of pfKMO folds into a distinct, all-α-helical domain, which associates with the N-terminal catalytic domain to form a unique tunnel in proximity to the substrate-binding pocket. The tunnel binds the Ro 61-8048 molecule, which fills most of the tunnel, and Ro 61-8048 is hydrogen bonded with several completely conserved residues, including an essential catalytic residue. Modification of Ro 61-8048 and biochemical studies of the modified Ro 61-8048 derivatives suggested that Ro 61-8048 inhibits the enzyme in an allosteric manner by affecting the conformation of the essential catalytic residue and by blocking entry of the substrate or product release. The unique binding sites distinguish Ro 61-8048 as a noncompetitive and highly selective inhibitor from other competitive inhibitors, which should facilitate further optimization of Ro 61-8048 and the development of new inhibitory drugs to hKMO.-Gao, J., Yao, L., Xia, T., Liao, X., Zhu, D., Xiang, Y. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

  3. A genome-wide study reveals rare CNVs exclusive to extreme phenotypes of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Legallic, Solenn; Wallon, David; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Martinaud, Olivier; Bombois, Stéphanie; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Michon, Agnès; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Puel, Michèle; Paquet, Claire; Croisile, Bernard; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Vercelletto, Martine; Lévy, Richard; Frébourg, Thierry; Hannequin, Didier; Campion, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Studying rare extreme forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) may prove to be a useful strategy in identifying new genes involved in monogenic determinism of AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations account for only 85% of autosomal dominant early-onset AD (ADEOAD) families. We hypothesised that rare copy number variants (CNVs) could be involved in ADEOAD families without mutations in known genes, as well as in rare sporadic young-onset AD cases. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation, we assessed the presence of rare CNVs in 21 unrelated ADEOAD cases, having no alteration on known genes, and 12 sporadic AD cases, with an age of onset younger than 55 years. The analysis revealed the presence of 7 singleton CNVs (4 in ADEOAD and 3 in sporadic cases) absent in 1078 controls and 912 late-onset AD cases. Strikingly, 4 out of 7 rearrangements target genes (KLK6, SLC30A3, MEOX2, and FPR2) encoding proteins that are tightly related to amyloid-β peptide metabolism or signalling. Although these variants are individually rare and restricted to particular subgroups of patients, these findings support the causal role, in human pathology, of a set of genes coding for molecules suspected for a long time to modify Aβ metabolism or signalling, and for which animal or cellular models have already been developed.

  4. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan, Yunyun, E-mail: xiaoyun81.love@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); He, Yong, E-mail: yong.h.he@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yu, Chunshui, E-mail: csyuster@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: jun_wang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Jing, E-mail: sainthj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Ye, Jing, E-mail: jingye.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Parizel, Paul M., E-mail: paul.parizel@ua.ac.be [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, 8 Belgium (Belgium); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni, E-mail: nshu55@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS.

  5. Structural Studies Reveal the Functional Modularity of the Scc2-Scc4 Cohesin Loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C.H. Chao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable accuracy of eukaryotic cell division is partly maintained by the cohesin complex acting as a molecular glue to prevent premature sister chromatid separation. The loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is catalyzed by the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex. Here, we report the crystal structure of Scc4 bound to the N terminus of Scc2 and show that Scc4 is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR superhelix. The Scc2 N terminus adopts an extended conformation and is entrapped by the core of the Scc4 superhelix. Electron microscopy (EM analysis reveals that the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex comprises three domains: a head, body, and hook. Deletion studies unambiguously assign the Scc2N-Scc4 as the globular head domain, whereas in vitro cohesin loading assays show that the central body and the hook domains are sufficient to catalyze cohesin loading onto circular DNA, but not chromatinized DNA in vivo, suggesting a possible role for Scc4 as a chromatin adaptor.

  6. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Ye, Jing; Parizel, Paul M.; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS

  7. Revealing structures in narratives: A mixed-methods approach to studying interdisciplinary handoff in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamykina, Lena; Jiang, Silis; Collins, Sarah A; Twohig, Bridget; Hirsh, Jamie; Hripcsak, George; Stanley Hum, R; Kaufman, David R

    2016-08-01

    To examine a novel mixed-methods approach for studying patterns of clinical communication that could inform future informatics solutions, with a specific focus on handoff within interdisciplinary teams. Researchers observed, recorded, and transcribed verbal handoff discussions of different members of critical care teams. The transcripts were coded qualitatively, and then analyzed quantitatively for emerging structural patterns using categorical cluster analysis, and for degree of shared mental models (SMM) using the modified Pyramid method. An empirical study using the proposed mixed-methods approach suggested emerging patterns of communication among clinicians. For example, the temporal focus of handoff was often determined by the role of the clinician giving the handoff; the clinical content of handoff was consistent between clinicians, but varied between patients. The SMM index ranged from 0.065 (with the maximum possible overlap score of 1) to 0.007 with a median of 0.026; the overlap was higher in statements concerned with patient presentation (23.6% of these had overlap) and referring to the past (24% overlapped). This calculated SMM index was correlated with the assessment of coherence within the participating teams by independent physicians (r=0.63, p=0.038). The proposed novel mixed-methods approach helped to reveal emerging patterns in content and structure of handoff communication and highlight differences due to the clinical context, and to the different priorities of clinicians on interdisciplinary patient care teams. The approach for calculating SMM is more ecologically sensitive as it relies on naturally occurring discourse and less intrusive than traditional ways of assessing SMM, and takes initial steps toward establishing empirical foundation for the design of electronic tools to support handoff in interdisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Boo [Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyung Jin, E-mail: jhj@andong.ac.kr [Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} 2M4VP activated the expression of p21 and p15 protein, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-phosphorylation of Rb protein. {yields} 2M4VP induced cell cycle arrest from G1 to S. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-proliferation of the cells in BaP-treated cells. {yields} 2M4VP induces growth arrest of BaP-treated cells by blocking hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. -- Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environment carcinogen that can enhance cell proliferation by disturbing the signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effects of 2M4VP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of 2M4VP as anti-proliferative agents. 2M4VP exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth correlated with a G1 arrest. Analysis of G1 cell cycle regulators expression revealed 2M4VP increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and inhibited kinase activities of CDK4 and CDK2. However, 2M4VP did not affect the expression of CDK4 and CDK2. Also, 2M4VP inhibited the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb induced by BaP. Our results suggest that 2M4VP induce growth arrest of BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins.

  9. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Jeong, Hyung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 2M4VP activated the expression of p21 and p15 protein, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. → 2M4VP inhibited hyper-phosphorylation of Rb protein. → 2M4VP induced cell cycle arrest from G1 to S. → 2M4VP inhibited hyper-proliferation of the cells in BaP-treated cells. → 2M4VP induces growth arrest of BaP-treated cells by blocking hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. -- Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environment carcinogen that can enhance cell proliferation by disturbing the signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effects of 2M4VP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of 2M4VP as anti-proliferative agents. 2M4VP exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth correlated with a G1 arrest. Analysis of G1 cell cycle regulators expression revealed 2M4VP increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and inhibited kinase activities of CDK4 and CDK2. However, 2M4VP did not affect the expression of CDK4 and CDK2. Also, 2M4VP inhibited the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb induced by BaP. Our results suggest that 2M4VP induce growth arrest of BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins.

  10. Comparative study of human mitochondrial proteome reveals extensive protein subcellular relocalization after gene duplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene and genome duplication is the principle creative force in evolution. Recently, protein subcellular relocalization, or neolocalization was proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for the retention of duplicated genes. This hypothesis received support from the analysis of yeast genomes, but has not been tested thoroughly on animal genomes. In order to evaluate the importance of subcellular relocalizations for retention of duplicated genes in animal genomes, we systematically analyzed nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins in the human genome by reconstructing phylogenies of mitochondrial multigene families. Results The 456 human mitochondrial proteins selected for this study were clustered into 305 gene families including 92 multigene families. Among the multigene families, 59 (64% consisted of both mitochondrial and cytosolic (non-mitochondrial proteins (mt-cy families while the remaining 33 (36% were composed of mitochondrial proteins (mt-mt families. Phylogenetic analyses of mt-cy families revealed three different scenarios of their neolocalization following gene duplication: 1 relocalization from mitochondria to cytosol, 2 from cytosol to mitochondria and 3 multiple subcellular relocalizations. The neolocalizations were most commonly enabled by the gain or loss of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals. The majority of detected subcellular relocalization events occurred early in animal evolution, preceding the evolution of tetrapods. Mt-mt protein families showed a somewhat different pattern, where gene duplication occurred more evenly in time. However, for both types of protein families, most duplication events appear to roughly coincide with two rounds of genome duplications early in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we evaluated the effects of inaccurate and incomplete annotation of mitochondrial proteins and found that our conclusion of the importance of subcellular relocalization after gene duplication on

  11. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  12. Numerous risk factors for Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance revealed by extended anamnesis: a Bulgarian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Davidkov, Lubomir; Spassova, Zoya; Kamburov, Victor; Katsarov, Nikolai; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for primary Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance by an extended anamnesis. In total, 519 H. pylori strains from untreated symptomatic adults who answered a questionnaire were evaluated. Strain susceptibility was assessed by a breakpoint susceptibility test. Primary resistance rates were 29.5 % for metronidazole, 17.9 % for clarithromycin, 7.3 % for metronidazole+clarithromycin, 4.0 % for tetracycline and 10.8 % for ciprofloxacin. On multivariate analysis, younger (≤65 years) age was an independent predictor for metronidazole resistance. To our knowledge, for the first time, being a member of the health-care profession was revealed as a risk factor for H. pylori resistance to metronidazole and both metronidazole and clarithromycin. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were independent predictors of clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin resistance, respectively. The presence of co-infections was an independent risk factor for clarithromycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin resistance. Surprisingly, female sex was the only predictor for tetracycline resistance. The antibiotic resistance rates were not associated with disease type, place of residence, birthplace, educational level, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or proton pump inhibitor use, smoking or dietary factors, such as consumption of coffee, yogurt, green tea, raw garlic, raw onion, honey or meat. There was a trend for higher metronidazole resistance in strains from diabetic patients. In conclusion, the extended anamnesis of H. pylori-positive patients should include data on patient age, sex, whether they are in the health-care profession, co-infections and possibly diabetes to improve the choice of empiric therapy. Tailored treatment based on the extended anamnesis is suggested, and susceptibility testing of the strains is recommended for patients at risk for antibiotic resistance, especially to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones or both metronidazole

  13. Spindlin1, a novel nuclear protein with a role in the transformation of NIH3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanhong; Yue Wen; Zhang Peng; Li Li; Xie Xiaoyan; Yuan Hongfeng; Chen Lin; Liu Daqing; Yan Fang; Pei Xuetao

    2005-01-01

    spindlin1, a novel human gene recently isolated by our laboratory, is highly homologous to mouse spindlin gene. In this study, we cloned cDNA full-length of this novel gene and send it to GenBank database as spindlin1 (Homo sapiens spindlin1) with Accession No. AF317228. In order to investigate the function of spindlin1, we studied further the subcellular localization of Spindlin1 protein and the effects of spindlin1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells. The results showed that the fusion protein pEGFP-N1-spindlin1 was located in the nucleus and the C-terminal is correlated with nuclear localization of Spindlin1 protein. NIH3T3 cells which could stably express spindlin1 as a result of RT-PCR analysis compared with the control cells displayed a complete morphological change; made cell growth faster; and increased the percentage of cells in G 2 /M and S phase. Furthermore, overexpressed spindlin1 cells formed colonies in soft agar in vitro and formed tumors in nude mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that spindlin1 gene may contribute to tumorigenesis

  14. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  15. Walk together children with no wasted steps: community-academic partnering for equal power in NIH proposal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Cooks, John Mark; May, Marlynn; Peranteau, Jane; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Hargraves, Martha A

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches equitably involve community members and researchers throughout the research process. A developing literature examines problems in CBPR partnerships, but less is written about community groups using CBPR to access university resources to address community-prioritized health concerns. We sought to examine issues in two stages of a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded CBPR partnership: (1) joint proposal preparation, and (2) grant administration. We used a case study approach to analyze data (partner dialogs, meeting notes, interviews, and press coverage) from a longstanding community-academic partnership. The partnership received NIH Partners in Research Program funding. During joint proposal preparation, issues included (1) learning to practice operating principles, such as "talking in ways that all people can understand," (2) streamlining proposal design to facilitate communication with community members, and (3) addressing inequities inherent in community-academic budget sharing. During the administration phase, issues included (1) community partner struggles with administrative requirements, (2) inequities in indirect cost (IDC) allocations, and (3) the impact of a natural disaster. Separately funded CBPR grants can contribute to community partner development, but make substantive demands on small, grassroots community organizations. Funders should consider taking more responsibility in developing community resources and infrastructure to ensure that grassroots community groups have the power to be equal partners. More accurate accounting of costs and benefits of CBPR to vulnerable communities should be in place to ensure communities receive adequate return on the time they invest in partnering with universities.

  16. Genomewide association study reveals a risk locus for equine metabolic syndrome in the Arabian horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S L; Holl, H M; Streeter, C; Posbergh, C; Schanbacher, B J; Place, N J; Mallicote, M F; Long, M T; Brooks, S A

    2017-03-01

    Equine obesity can cause life-threatening secondary chronic conditions, similar to those in humans and other animal species. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), primarily characterized by hyperinsulinemia, is often present in obese horses and ponies. Due to clinical similarities to conditions such as pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (formerly equine Cushing's disease), conclusive diagnosis of EMS often proves challenging. Aside from changes in diet and exercise, few targeted treatments are available for EMS, emphasizing the need for early identification of at-risk individuals to enable implementation of preventative measures. A genomewide association study (GWAS) using Arabian horses with a history of severe laminitis secondary to EMS revealed significant genetic markers near a single candidate gene () that may play a role in cholesterol homeostasis. The best marker, BIEC2-263524 (chr14:69276814 T > C), was correlated with elevated insulin values and increased frequency of laminitis ( = 0.0024 and = 9.663 × 10, respectively). In a second population of Arabian horses, the BIEC2-263524 marker maintained its associations with higher modified insulin-to-glucose ratio (MIRG) values ( = 0.0056) and BCS ( = 0.0063). Screening of the predicted coding regions by sequencing identified a polymorphic guanine homopolymer and 5 haplotypes in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). An 11 guanine (11-G) allele at was correlated with elevated insulin values in the GWAS population ( = 0.0008) and, in the second population, elevated MIRG and increased BCS > 6.5 ( = 0.0055 and = 0.0162, respectively). The BIEC2-263524-C and the 3' UTR -11(G) polymorphisms were correlated at a 98% frequency, indicating strong linkage disequilibrium across this 150-kb haplotype. Assays for these markers could diagnose horses with a genetic predisposition to develop obesity. Additionally, discovery of FAM174A function may improve our understanding of the etiology of this troubling illness in the horse and

  17. VARNOST BREZŽIČNIH OMREŽIJ PO STANDARDU IEEE 802.11

    OpenAIRE

    Štumberger, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Diplomska naloga se osredotoča na problem varovanja brezžičnih omrežij, zasnovanih po standardu IEEE 802.11. Opisano je združenje IEEE in njihova specifikacija standardov z oznako 802, prav tako pa so opisani tudi standardi, protokoli in tehnike varovanja in zaščite omrežij, ki delujejo po tej specifikaciji. Predstavljeno je tudi trenutno stanje varnosti brezžičnih omrežij na področju mesta Ptuj, opisani in prikazani pa so tudi različni pristopi za zlorabo brezžičnih omrežij, skupaj s program...

  18. PRIMERJAVA USPEŠNOSTI RAZLIČNIH METOD OBRAVNAVE GIBANJ SONCA, ZEMLJE IN LUNE V VRTCU

    OpenAIRE

    Tevč, Marjana

    2011-01-01

    V vzgojno-varstveni ustanovi Črna na Koroškem sem v starostnem obdobju otrok 3-4 ter 4-5 let opravila raziskavo primerjave uspešnosti različnih metod obravnave gibanj Sonca, Zemlje in Lune v vrtcu. Zanimale so me razlike v razumevanju in odnosu otrok do astronomske vsebine v izbranih didaktičnih metodah, ki vključujejo različne učne pripomočke ter kakšne so te razlike glede na starost. Osnovni namen raziskave je bil primerjati uspešnost izbranih didaktičnih metod, ki vključujejo različne učne...

  19. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  20. Xplor-NIH for molecular structure determination from NMR and other data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Charles D; Bermejo, Guillermo A; Clore, G Marius

    2018-01-01

    Xplor-NIH is a popular software package for biomolecular structure determination from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other data sources. Here, some of Xplor-NIH's most useful data-associated energy terms are reviewed, including newer alternative options for using residual dipolar coupling data in structure calculations. Further, we discuss new developments in the implementation of strict symmetry for the calculation of symmetric homo-oligomers, and in the representation of the system as an ensemble of structures to account for motional effects. Finally, the different available force fields are presented, among other Xplor-NIH capabilities. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Study of a twisted ATLAS SCT Barrel deformation as revealed by a photogrammetric survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, E; Heinemann, F; Karagoz-Unel, M

    2007-01-01

    A photogrammetry survey on the SCT barrels was performed as an engineering check on the structure of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) shortly after construction. Analysis of the data obtained revealed small scale elliptical deformation as well as a twist of the structure. The results of the survey are presented as well as interpolation of the measured targets to the module positions and a comparison with track based alignment measurements.

  2. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    system, all the antennas could provide data for us. In addition, we improved the level of detail by using the Pie Town, NM, antenna of the Very Long Baseline Array, as part of an expanded system," Lim said. The implementation and improvement of the 43 GHz receiving system was a collaborative program among the German Max Planck Institute, the Mexican National Autonomous University, and the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Two popular theoretical models for the formation of multiple-star systems are, first, that the two protostars and their surrounding dusty disks fragment from a larger parent disk, and, second, that the protostars form independently and then one captures the other into a mutual orbit. "Our new study shows that the disks of the two main protostars are aligned with each other, and also are aligned with the larger, surrounding disk. In addition, their orbital motion resembles the rotation of the larger disk. This is a 'smoking gun' supporting the fragmentation model," Lim said. However, the new study also revealed a third young star with a dust disk. "The disk of this one is misaligned with those of the other two, so it may be the result of either fragmentation or capture," Takakuwa said. The misalignment of the third disk could have come through gravitational interactions with the other two, larger, protostars, the scientists said. They plan further observations to try to resolve the question. "We have a very firm indication that two of these protostars and their dust disks formed from the same, larger disk-like cloud, then broke out from it in a fragmentation process. That strongly supports one theoretical model for how multiple-star systems are formed. The misalignment of the third protostar and its disk leaves open the possibility that it could have formed elsewhere and been captured, and we'll continue to work on reconstructing the history of this fascinating system," Lim summarized. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of

  3. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. "Something of an adventure": postwar NIH research ethos and the Guatemala STD experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Bagdady, Kayte; Lombardo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The STD experiments in Guatemala from 1946-1948 have earned a place of infamy in the history of medical ethics. But if the Guatemala STD experiments were so "ethically impossible," how did the U.S. government approve their funding? Although much of the literature has targeted the failings of Dr. John Cutler, we focus on the institutional context and research ethos that shaped the outcome of the research. After the end of WWII, Dr. Cassius Van Slyke reconstructed the federal research contracts process into a grant program. The inaugural NIH study section recommended approval of the Guatemala STD experiments at its first meeting. The funding and oversight process of the Guatemala research was marked with serious conflicts of interest and a lack of oversight, and it was this structure, as opposed to merely a maleficent individual, that allowed the Guatemala STD experiments to proceed. We conclude that while current research regulations are designed to prevent the abuses perpetrated on the subjects of the Guatemala STD experiments, it takes a comprehensive understanding of research ethics through professional education to achieve the longstanding ideal of the responsible investigator, and ensure ethical research under any regulatory scheme. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. DoD-NCCAM/NIH workshop on acupuncture for treatment of acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Emmeline; Belard, Jean Louis; Glowa, John; Khalsa, Partap; Weber, Wendy; Huntley, Kristen

    2013-03-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored a workshop that explored the possible benefits of acupuncture treatment for acute pain. One goal of the workshop was to establish a roadmap to building an evidence base on that would indicate whether acupuncture is helpful for treating active-duty military personnel experiencing acute pain. The workshop highlighted brief presentations on the most current research on acupuncture and acute pain mechanisms. The impact of various modifiers (stress, genetics, population, phenotypes, etc.) on acute pain pathways and response to acupuncture treatment was discussed. Additional presentations focused on common neural mechanisms, an overview of real-world experience with using acupuncture to treat traumatic acute pain, and best tools and methods specific for acupuncture studies. Three breakout groups addressed the gaps, opportunities, and barriers to acupuncture use for acute pain in military and trauma settings. Different models of effectiveness research and optimal research designs for conducting trials in acute traumatic pain were also discussed.

  6. DoD–NCCAM/NIH Workshop on Acupuncture for Treatment of Acute Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belard, Jean Louis; Glowa, John; Khalsa, Partap; Weber, Wendy; Huntley, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored a workshop that explored the possible benefits of acupuncture treatment for acute pain. One goal of the workshop was to establish a roadmap to building an evidence base on that would indicate whether acupuncture is helpful for treating active-duty military personnel experiencing acute pain. The workshop highlighted brief presentations on the most current research on acupuncture and acute pain mechanisms. The impact of various modifiers (stress, genetics, population, phenotypes, etc.) on acute pain pathways and response to acupuncture treatment was discussed. Additional presentations focused on common neural mechanisms, an overview of real-world experience with using acupuncture to treat traumatic acute pain, and best tools and methods specific for acupuncture studies. Three breakout groups addressed the gaps, opportunities, and barriers to acupuncture use for acute pain in military and trauma settings. Different models of effectiveness research and optimal research designs for conducting trials in acute traumatic pain were also discussed. PMID:23020611

  7. KARBOKSITERAPIJA – POTPORNA TERAPIJA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    SINOŽIĆ, TAMARA; KOVAČEVIĆ, JADRANKA

    2014-01-01

    Karboksiterapija je potporna metoda liječenja kroničnih rana koja se provodi kutanim ili supkutanim ubrizgavanjem medicinskog ugljičnog dioksida (Co2). osnovni princip djelovanja ubrizganog plina Co2 je korekcija tkivne hipoksije temeljem bohrovog efekta. Djelujući na endotelne faktore rasta potiče neoangiogenezu te stimulirajući fibroblaste na sintezu kolagena što sve zajedno dovodi do boljeg zacjeljivanja rana. brojna su područja primjene karboksiterapije - od liječenja kroničnih rana, bole...

  8. VPLIV RAZLIČNIH VIROV IN ODMERKOV SLADIL NA SENZORIČNO OCENO MALINOVIH MARMELAD

    OpenAIRE

    Kotnik, Nena

    2016-01-01

    V zastavljenem poskusu smo pri kuhanju marmelad iz malin ugotavljali, kako različne vrste naravnih sladil, uporabljene v različnih odmerkih, vplivajo na senzorično kakovost malinovih marmelad in njihovo sprejetost pri potencialnih potrošnikih. V okviru poskusa smo na Fakulteti za kmetijstvo in biosistemske vede pripravili malinovo marmelado, ki smo ji dodali različna naravna sladila (saharozo, fruktozo, kokosov sladkor in stevio) v odmerkih, ki sta v končnih produktih predstavljala 20 oz. 40 ...

  9. Protein Structure Elucidation from NMR Data with the Program Xplor-NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Guillermo A; Schwieters, Charles D

    2018-01-01

    Xplor-NIH is a popular software package for biomolecular structure determination from NMR (and other) experimental data. This chapter illustrates its use with the de novo structure determination of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1), based on distances from nuclear Overhauser effects, torsion angles from scalar couplings, and bond-vector orientations from residual dipolar couplings. Including Xplor-NIH's latest developments, a complete structure calculation script is discussed in detail, and is intended to serve as a basis for other applications.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09 mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76 mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07 mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65 mg/mL), TGI (280.54 mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59 mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3.

  11. Necl-5/PVR enhances PDGF-induced attraction of growing microtubules to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Waseda, Masazumi; Kajita, Mihoko; Miyata, Muneaki; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules (MTs) search for and grow toward the leading edge of moving cells, followed by their stabilization at a specific structure at the rear site of the leading edge. This dynamic re-orientation of MTs is critical to directional cell movement. We previously showed that Necl-5/poliovirus receptor (PVR) interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and integrin α(v) β(3) at the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells, resulting in an enhancement of their directional movement. We studied here the role of Necl-5 in the PDGF-induced attraction of growing MTs to the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells. Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced growth of MTs and attracted them near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells in an integrin α(v) β(3) -dependent manner. Furthermore, Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced attraction of the plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), including EB1, CLIP170, an intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, and p150(Glued) , a subunit of dynactin, near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge. Thus, Necl-5 plays a role in the attraction of growing MTs to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving cells. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 76 FR 55690 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration To Improve the Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration To Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of... Collection: Title: The SSA-NIH Collaboration to Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT tools. Type of Information Collection Request: NEW. Need and Use of Information Collection...

  13. 75 FR 3243 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... time from diagnosis to death with Alzheimer's ranges from as little as 3 years to 10 or more, depending... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's... the ``NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline'' to...

  14. Colleagues Pay Tribute to Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Retiring After Three Decades of NLM Leadership | NIH MedlinePlus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NLM Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg. Photo courtesy of Ernie Branson, NIH On March 30, 2015, ... Don's influence and inspiration. Dr. Vivian Pinn Photo courtesy of Ernie Branson, NIH Peter Reinecke Photo courtesy ...

  15. Living Well with COPD, Q&A: Grace Anne Koppel | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a patient who already suffers from fear, low self-esteem, and the knowledge of an incurable condition is, quite simply, cruel and unhelpful. The NIH's COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Campaign Network is now in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. What has been ...

  16. "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Bionic Man Meet the Bionic Man Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents The ... medical imaging, visit www.nibib.nih.gov "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research The National Institute of Biomedical ...

  17. Cancer Survivor Eric Dishman Is On a Precision Medicine Mission | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19. That was the power of precision medicine.” PMI Cohort Program The PMI Cohort Program seeks to extend precision medicine to ... Thought Leader In naming Dishman director of the PMI Cohort Program, NIH Director Collins noted Dishman’s unique ...

  18. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities is updating Appendix D of the NIH Guidelines to include additional lines of... obtained from the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive...

  19. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... the breeding of a transgenic rodent and a non-transgenic rodent). The NIH Office of Biotechnology... Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, MSC...

  20. 75 FR 69687 - Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA). The data to be considered for certifying a new... same e-mail address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or sent by U.S. mail to the Office of Biotechnology...

  1. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... recommendations of the RAC, the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) concluded that more specific guidance... address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or by mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  2. NIH Scientists Map Genetic Changes That Drive Tumors in a Common Pediatric Soft-Tissue Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Release NIH scientists map genetic changes that drive tumors in a common pediatric soft-tissue cancer ... of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp ...

  3. 75 FR 28811 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Yersinia pestis has been submitted to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) by the Institutional... while working with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis highlights that attenuated strains may be.../oba/index.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Yersinia pestis is the causative organism for plague and...

  4. 75 FR 61763 - Submission of OMB Review; Comment Request; Drug Accountability Record (Form NIH 2564) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...; Comment Request; Drug Accountability Record (Form NIH 2564) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the..., 2011, unless it displays a valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Drug Accountability... accountability. In order to fulfill these requirements, a standard Investigational Drug Accountability Report...

  5. 75 FR 46945 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; the Drug Accountability Record (Form NIH 2564) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Request; the Drug Accountability Record (Form NIH 2564) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Drug Accountability... agent accountability. In order to fulfill these requirements, a standard Investigational Drug...

  6. 77 FR 59625 - NIH Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary; Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary; Syndrome Notice Notice is hereby given of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Evidence-based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, to be held December 3-5.... on December 4 and at 8:30 a.m. on December 5. The workshop will be open to the public. Polycystic...

  7. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges.…

  8. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bakker, W.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine,

  9. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Married...with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... married life together and a common problem—severe food allergies. NIH MedlinePlus magazine’s Naomi Miller caught up with ...

  10. Revealing a room temperature ferromagnetism in cadmium oxide nanoparticles: An experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Bououdina, Mohamed

    2015-03-26

    We obtain a single cadmium oxide phase from powder synthesized by a thermal decomposition method of cadmium acetate dehydrate. The yielded powder is annealed in air, vacuum, and H2 gas in order to create point defects. Magnetization-field curves reveal the appearance of diamagnetic behavior with a ferromagnetic component for all the powders. Powder annealing under vacuum and H2 atmosphere leads to a saturation magnetization 1.15 memu g-1 and 1.2 memu g-1 respectively with an increase by 45% and 16% compared to the one annealed in air. We show that annealing in vacuum produces mainly oxygen vacancies while annealing in H2 gas creates mainly Cd vacancy leading to room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) component together with known diamagnetic properties. Ab initio calculations performed on the CdO nanoparticles show that the magnetism is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Cd d and O p orbitals together with the vacancy. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  11. Simultaneous imaging and functional studies reveal a tight correlation between calcium and actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom, Carlisle S; Winship, Lawrence J; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2018-03-20

    Tip-growing cells elongate in a highly polarized manner via focused secretion of flexible cell-wall material. Calcium has been implicated as a vital factor in regulating the deposition of cell-wall material. However, deciphering the molecular and mechanistic calcium targets in vivo has remained challenging. Here, we investigated intracellular calcium dynamics in the moss Physcomitrella patens , which provides a system with an abundant source of genetically identical tip-growing cells, excellent cytology, and a large molecular genetic tool kit. To visualize calcium we used a genetically encoded cytosolic FRET probe, revealing a fluctuating tipward gradient with a complex oscillatory profile. Wavelet analysis coupled with a signal-sifting algorithm enabled the quantitative comparison of the calcium behavior in cells where growth was inhibited mechanically, pharmacologically, or genetically. We found that cells with suppressed growth have calcium oscillatory profiles with longer frequencies, suggesting that there is a feedback between the calcium gradient and growth. To investigate the mechanistic basis for this feedback we simultaneously imaged cytosolic calcium and actin, which has been shown to be essential for tip growth. We found that high cytosolic calcium promotes disassembly of a tip-focused actin spot, while low calcium promotes assembly. In support of this, abolishing the calcium gradient resulted in dramatic actin accumulation at the tip. Together these data demonstrate that tipward calcium is quantitatively linked to actin accumulation in vivo and that the moss P. patens provides a powerful system to uncover mechanistic links between calcium, actin, and growth.

  12. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  13. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  14. Primerjava dveh teoretičnih modelov in teorije zdravstvene nege preko konceptov metaparadigme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Babuder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Izbira primernega teoretičnega modela ali teorije zdravstvene nege je osnova za dobro prakso. V Sloveniji uporabljamo teoretični model Virginie Henderson, ki ga v članku primerjamo s teoretičnim modelom Imogene M. King in teorijo zdravstvene nege Hildegard E. Peplau. Metode: Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo dela s pregledom domače in tuje strokovne ter znanstvene literature. Uporabili smo metodo kritičnega branja javno dostopnih virov, navezujoč se na podatke iz doslej objavljenih knjig, člankov in ostale literature, ki se dotika izbrane teme. Spletno iskanje literature je bilo opravljeno preko vzajemne bibliografsko-kataložne baze podatkov (COBIB.SI ter tujih podatkovnih baz, kot so Jupsline, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL. Za primerjavo teoretičnih modelov in teorije je bil uporabljen okvir za vrednotenje teoretičnih modelov in teorij po Jacqueline Fawcett. Rezultati: Primerjani teoretična modela in teorija zdravstvene nege opišejo koncepte metaparadigme in odnose med njimi. Koncept zdravstvena nega je najpomembnejši v vseh teoretičnih modelih, cilj vseh pa je zdravje. Vse tri teoretičarke se manj poglabljajo v koncept okolje. Diskusija in zaključek: Na področju uporabe teoretičnih modelov in teorij zdravstvene nege v zadnjih letih je narejenega premalo, medtem ko razvoj zdravstvene nege na drugih področjih hitro napreduje. Medicinske sestre morajo nadaljevati z raziskovanjem in razvojem teoretičnih modelov in teorij.

  15. Species-level analysis of DNA sequence data from the NIH Human Microbiome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections emphasize the importance of surveillance of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Genomic sequencing of clinical microbiological specimens expands our capacity to study cultivable, fastidious and uncultivable members of the bacterial community. Herein, we compared the primary data collected by the NIH's Human Microbiome Project (HMP) with published epidemiological surveillance data of Staphylococcus aureus. The HMP's initial dataset contained microbial survey data from five body regions (skin, nares, oral cavity, gut and vagina) of 242 healthy volunteers. A significant component of the HMP dataset was deep sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, which contains variable regions enabling taxonomic classification. Since species-level identification is essential in clinical microbiology, we built a reference database and used phylogenetic placement followed by most recent common ancestor classification to look at the species distribution for Staphylococcus, Klebsiella and Enterococcus. We show that selecting the accurate region of the 16S rRNA gene to sequence is analogous to carefully selecting culture conditions to distinguish closely related bacterial species. Analysis of the HMP data showed that Staphylococcus aureus was present in the nares of 36% of healthy volunteers, consistent with culture-based epidemiological data. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis were found less frequently, but across many habitats. This work demonstrates that large 16S rRNA survey studies can be used to support epidemiological goals in the context of an increasing awareness that microbes flourish and compete within a larger bacterial community. This study demonstrates how genomic techniques and information could be critically important to trace microbial evolution and implement hospital infection control.

  16. Vesicle Encapsulation Studies Reveal that Single Molecule Ribozyme Heterogeneities Are Intrinsic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Burak; Wilson, Timothy J.; Lilley, David M. J.; Ha, Taekjip

    2004-01-01

    Single-molecule measurements have revealed that what were assumed to be identical molecules can differ significantly in their static and dynamic properties. One of the most striking examples is the hairpin ribozyme, which was shown to exhibit two to three orders of magnitude variation in folding kinetics between molecules. Although averaged behavior of single molecules matched the bulk solution data, it was not possible to exclude rigorously the possibility that the variations around the mean values arose from different ways of interacting with the surface environment. To test this, we minimized the molecules' interaction with the surface by encapsulating DNA or RNA molecules inside 100- to 200-nm diameter unilamellar vesicles, following the procedures described by Haran and coworkers. Vesicles were immobilized on a supported lipid bilayer via biotin-streptavidin linkages. We observed no direct binding of DNA or RNA on the supported bilayer even at concentrations exceeding 100 nM, indicating that these molecules do not bind stably on the membrane. Since the vesicle diameter is smaller than the resolution of optical microscopy, the lateral mobility of the molecules is severely constrained, allowing long observation periods. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, nuclease digestion, and external buffer exchange to show that the molecules were indeed encapsulated within the vesicles. When contained within vesicles, the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme exhibited 50-fold variation in both folding and unfolding rates in 0.5 mM Mg2+, which is identical to what was observed from the molecules tethered directly on the surface. This strongly indicates that the observed heterogeneity in dynamic properties does not arise as an artifact of surface attachment, but is intrinsic to the nature of the molecules. PMID:15454471

  17. The shady past of female boxers – what case studies in the USA reveal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Gems, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to rectify the invisibility of female boxers and to narrow a research gap by examining the careers of four prominent female champions who managed to excel in the sport despite the social, psychological and physical restrictions imposed by the gender order of American society...... in the nineteenth century. The little studied roles of female boxers present some historiographical issues detailed in the study, which examines and analyses the social construction of gender, and the rejection of prescribed roles by the female boxers, who used the vaudeville and theatrical stages to negotiate...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Associated with Primary Tooth Development during Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pillas, Demetris; Hoggart, Clive J.; Evans, David M.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Sipil?, Kirsi; L?hdesm?ki, Raija; Millwood, Iona Y.; Kaakinen, Marika; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David; Charoen, Pimphen; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Freimer, Nelson; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Author Summary Genome-wide association studies have been used to identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to diseases, intermediate phenotypes, and physiological traits such as height, hair color, and age at menarche. Here we analyze the NFBC1966 and ALSPAC birth cohorts to investigate the genetic determinants of a key developmental process: primary tooth development. The prospective nature of our studies allows us to exploit accurate measurements of age at first tooth eruption and...

  19. Assessing the challenges of multi-scope clinical research sites: an example from NIH HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Scott R; Cope, Marie T; Villa, Christie; Motevalli, Mahnaz; Utech, Jill; Schouten, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale, multi-network clinical trials are seen as a means for efficient and effective utilization of resources with greater responsiveness to new discoveries. Formal structures instituted within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials facilitate collaboration and coordination across networks and emphasize an integrated approach to HIV/AIDS vaccine, prevention and therapeutics clinical trials. This study examines the joint usage of clinical research sites as means of gaining efficiency, extending capacity, and adding scientific value to the networks. A semi-structured questionnaire covering eight clinical management domains was administered to 74 (62% of sites) clinical site coordinators at single- and multi-network sites to identify challenges and efficiencies related to clinical trials management activities and coordination with multi-network units. Overall, respondents at multi-network sites did not report more challenges than single-network sites, but did report unique challenges to overcome including in the areas of study prioritization, community engagement, staff education and training, and policies and procedures. The majority of multi-network sites reported that such affiliations do allow for the consolidation and cost-sharing of research functions. Suggestions for increasing the efficiency or performance of multi-network sites included streamlining standards and requirements, consolidating protocol activation methods, using a single cross-network coordinating centre, and creating common budget and payment mechanisms. The results of this assessment provide important information to consider in the design and management of multi-network configurations for the NIH HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks, as well as others contemplating and promoting the concept of multi-network settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Multi-study integration of brain cancer transcriptomes reveals organ-level molecular signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Sung

    Full Text Available We utilized abundant transcriptomic data for the primary classes of brain cancers to study the feasibility of separating all of these diseases simultaneously based on molecular data alone. These signatures were based on a new method reported herein--Identification of Structured Signatures and Classifiers (ISSAC--that resulted in a brain cancer marker panel of 44 unique genes. Many of these genes have established relevance to the brain cancers examined herein, with others having known roles in cancer biology. Analyses on large-scale data from multiple sources must deal with significant challenges associated with heterogeneity between different published studies, for it was observed that the variation among individual studies often had a larger effect on the transcriptome than did phenotype differences, as is typical. For this reason, we restricted ourselves to studying only cases where we had at least two independent studies performed for each phenotype, and also reprocessed all the raw data from the studies using a unified pre-processing pipeline. We found that learning signatures across multiple datasets greatly enhanced reproducibility and accuracy in predictive performance on truly independent validation sets, even when keeping the size of the training set the same. This was most likely due to the meta-signature encompassing more of the heterogeneity across different sources and conditions, while amplifying signal from the repeated global characteristics of the phenotype. When molecular signatures of brain cancers were constructed from all currently available microarray data, 90% phenotype prediction accuracy, or the accuracy of identifying a particular brain cancer from the background of all phenotypes, was found. Looking forward, we discuss our approach in the context of the eventual development of organ-specific molecular signatures from peripheral fluids such as the blood.

  1. Omic studies reveal the pathogenic lipid droplet proteins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD, the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13 may promote the development of NAFLD.

  2. POVEZANOST KOMPETENC VZGOJITELJEV ZA PODROČJE GIBANJA IN GIBALNE UČINKOVITOSTI OTROK ENOJEZIČNIH IN DVOJEZIČNIH VRTCEV V PREKMURJU

    OpenAIRE

    Gjergjek, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo se osredotočili na strokovne kompetence vzgojiteljev za področje gibanja in njihovo povezanost z gibalno učinkovitostjo otrok na dvojezičnem in enojezičnem področju Prekmurja. Teoretični del zajema kompetence vzgojiteljev, nekatere značilnosti otrokovega razvoja v predšolskem in zgodnjem šolskem obdobju, gibano učinkovitost otrok, gibalne sposobnosti otrok, dvojezičnost v vrtcih v Prekmurju in nekatere dosedanje raziskave specifičnih kompetenc vzgojiteljev za področje gi...

  3. 1,2-Dichloroethane impairs glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of NIH Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Dandan; Fan, Qiming; Rong, Weifeng; Zheng, Jiewei; Gao, Chen; Li, Guoliang; Zeng, Ni; Guo, Tao; Zeng, Lihai; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Chen; Cai, Li; Tang, Shangqing; Deng, Xinlei; Yin, Xiao; Huang, Manqi; Lu, Fengrong; Hu, Qiansheng; Chen, Wen; Huang, Zhenlie; Wang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Excessive exposure to 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), a chlorinated organic toxicant, can lead to liver dysfunction. To fully explore the mechanism of 1,2-DCE-induced hepatic abnormalities, 30 male National Institutes of Health (NIH) Swiss mice were exposed to 0, 350, or 700mg/m 3 of 1,2-DCE, via inhalation, 6h/day for 28days. Increased liver/body weight ratios, as well as serum AST and serum ALT activity were observed in the 350 and 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE exposure group mice, compared with the control group mice. In addition, decreased body weights were observed in mice exposed to 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE, compared with control mice. Exposure to 350 and 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE also led to significant accumulation of hepatic glycogen, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides, elevation of blood triglyceride and FFA levels, and decreases in blood glucose levels. Results from microarray analysis indicated that the decreases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) and liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) expression, mediated by the activation of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1), might be responsible for the hepatic glycogen accumulation and steatosis. Further in vitro study demonstrated that 2-chloroacetic acid (1,2-DCE metabolite), rather than 1,2-DCE, up-regulated Akt1 phosphorylation and suppressed G6PC and PYGL expression, resulting in hepatocellular glycogen accumulation. These results suggest that hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis are impaired by 1,2-DCE exposure via down-regulation of PYGL and G6PC expression, which may be primarily mediated by the 2-chloroacetic acid-activated Akt1 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Richards (Brent); D. Waterworth (Dawn); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J.R.B. Perry (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); R.K. Semple (Robert); N. Soranzo (Nicole); K. Song (Kijoung); N. Rocha (Nuno); E. Grundberg (Elin); J. Dupuis (Josée); J.C. Florez (Jose); C. Langenberg (Claudia); I. Prokopenko (Inga); R. Saxena (Richa); R. Sladek (Rob); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); D.M. Evans (David); G. Waeber (Gérard); M.S. Burnett; N. Sattar (Naveed); J. Devaney (Joseph); C. Willenborg (Christina); A. Hingorani (Aroon); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P. Vollenweider (Peter); B. Glaser (Beate); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); D. Melzer (David); K. Stark (Klaus); J. Deanfield (John); J. Winogradow (Janina); M. Grassl (Martina); A.S. Hall (Alistair); J.M. Egan (Josephine); J.R. Thompson (John); S.L. Ricketts (Sally); I.R. König (Inke); W. Reinhard (Wibke); S.M. Grundy (Scott); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); P. Barter (Phil); R. Mahley (Robert); Y.A. Kesaniemi (Antero); D.J. Rader (Daniel); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); H. Schunkert (Heribert); K.A. Burling (Keith); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T. Pastinen (Tomi); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); R. McPherson (Ruth); G.D. Smith; T.M. Frayling (Timothy); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.B. Meigs (James); V. Mooser (Vincent); T.D. Spector (Tim)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of

  5. How Can We Explain Poverty? Case Study of Dee Reveals the Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Many theories have been offered to explain why people are impoverished. This article by Karen Seccombe uses the case study of "Dee," a newly single mother, to explore four of the most common: individualism, social structuralism, the culture of poverty, and fatalism. She concludes that poverty is a highly complex phenomenon, and it is likely that…

  6. Cerebrovascular accident and abnormal focus of hyperactivity revealed by dynamic study in scintiangioencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, C.A.; Perez, R.; Lebourges, J.

    1980-01-01

    A 75-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for suspicion of a cerebrovascular accident. An important focus of hyperactivity was noted during a dynamic study by scintiangioencephalography, consistent with a highly vascular tumor, but corresponding in fact to a focal transitory hyperfusion with accompanying intense neuronal activity. (orig.)

  7. Four studies of economic behavior : integrating revealed and stated preferences data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis estimates equivalence scales for Indonesia, proposes a new type of test of the life-cycle model, shows how important economic and demographic characteristics of Dutch households evolve over age, cohorts and time, and studies the decision problem to when and how much to work, save and

  8. The neural substrates of script knowledge deficits as revealed by a PET study in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allain, P.; Gaura, V.; Fasotti, L.; Chauvire, V.; Prundean, A.; Sherer-Gagou, C.; Bonneau, D.; Bachoud-Levi, A.C.; Dubas, F.; Remy, P.; Verny, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous neuropsychological investigations have suggested that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia are involved in the management of script event knowledge required in planning behavior. Methods This study was designated to map, the correlations between resting-state brain

  9. The study of fkbp and ubiquitin reveals interesting aspects of Artemia stress history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-08-01

    Research on stress responses in animals has increased greatly during the last decades. Though most studies focus on the cellular and molecular bases of the stress response mechanisms, the ecological and evolutionary aspects of stress responses gain more and more interest. Here, we use species and parthenogenetic strains of the genus Artemia, an extremophile model organism, to study, for the first time, a protein well known for its chaperone activity and its involvement in stress responses. More specifically, transcription and protein accumulation of an FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) homologue were investigated under heat and salt stresses. Additionally, the mRNA levels of ubiquitin, a heat-inducible protein related to the proteasomal pathway, were quantitated under these conditions. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied FKBP orthologue is a typical representative of the family that clusters with other crustacean sequences. The expression was increased in both fkbp and ubiquitin genes after salt and heat stresses. However, our results in combination with the fact that Artemia species and parthenogenetic strains, selected for this study, exhibit different heat or salt tolerance provide useful hints about the evolutionary significance of FKBP and ubiquitin. Regarding FKBP, mRNA expression and protein accumulation seem to depend on the environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each Artemia population while ubiquitin has a clear and more conserved role under heat shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Qualitative Study Revealing the Relationship Between Cultural Indicators and Attitudes Toward the Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The companies, in International markets, are required to examine the attitudes and the behaviours to recognize the consumer to be able to make their products preferable under constantly growing competitive conditions. Therefore, it is of great importance to know cultural values of the customers in the country's where global brands compete and to shape ads which is one of the marketing communication tools in this direction. In this respect, knowing the cultural similarities or differences of the countries where the ads are used (such as that country's religion, language, norms and cultural values gains importance. The consumer attitudes towards the ads change in accordance with their cultural similarities or dissimilarities and this attitude change determines the tendency of shopping. According to Geert Hofstede, social anthropologist who analyzes the cultural levels and the relationships among them the basic elements of the culture consists of symbols, heroes, rituals and values underlying them. Thorough symbols, a number of cultural values are conveyed to ads. The problem of this study which was carried out in order to determine attitude change towards the ads including cultural differences is “Is there a difference in the attitudes towards the ads including different cultural symbols? How it is distributed according to gender differences?" In this study, a qualitative research method was applied and interviewed with 20 test subject. 20 students studying in one of the universities in Turkey were selected with formal sampling, they were asked questions, and it was tried to determine the difference between the ad of Doğuş Çay-a tea brand which uses the symbols and local accent of Black sea region in Turkey in its ads- and the ad of Lipton which is an international British tea brand. At the end of the study, it was found out that sample’s the attitude was positive towards ad of Doğuş Çay, not Lipton.

  11. Continuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, I

    2012-09-19

    The clupeid fish Sprattus sprattus was studied in a 150 m deep Norwegian fjord throughout an entire overwintering period during which the fjord froze over and a major water renewal occurred. A bottom-mounted (upward-facing) echosounder provided continuous high-resolution data and enabled studies of swimming speed and behavior of individual sprat in addition to population behavior. The continuous acoustic studies were supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. The sprat displayed different behavioral modes with changing environmental conditions. During the first part of the winter, the majority of the population occurred in deep waters during both day and night, yet exhibited a shallower night-time distribution. Individual sprat swam alternately up and down, a ‘rise and sink’ behavior likely a compensation for negative buoyancy because of swim bladder compression. Because feeding was negligible in deep waters, the swimming pattern was not inferred as prey search behavior. Another part of the population schooled at shallower depths during the day and carried out vertical migration to upper waters at night. However, individuals were observed as they switched between these behavioral groups. A sudden change in both swimming behavior and vertical distribution occurred as the fjord became ice covered. Near-bottom ‘rise and sink’ swimming was replaced by schooling in mid-water during the day, and the sprat aggregated in dense layers near the surface at night. We suggest that the ice made the sprat shift their antipredator strategy from hiding at depth to hiding in schools in the darker waters below the ice. This long-term acoustic study has shown that sprat have a flexible behavioral repertoire, displaying different overwintering strategies within a population, depending on environmental conditions.

  12. Attitude towards computer-based learning: determinants as revealed by a controlled interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Amina Katharina; Benndorf, Ralf; Frey, Peter; Herzig, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    Curriculum-wide implementation of computer-based learning (CBL) in undergraduate medical education remains elusive. Unlike many pilot tests of singular learning programmes, dropout rates are high and acceptance seems low in the long run. We studied the effect of a new CBL programme, suitable for curriculum-wide implementation, on Year 3 medical students' attitudes towards CBL. Students from 2 universities participating in a mandatory pharmacology course were given access to a CBL programme covering cardiovascular drug therapy in a controlled randomised study (n = 167). Learner properties and attitude towards CBL were measured using psychometric scales, and knowledge by multiple-choice questions (pre- and post-test). Attitude towards CBL worsened in the CBL group (n = 70). Individual learners' properties did not explain this effect. The perceived programme quality was rated only 'average', which may contribute to the lower post-test values of attitude towards CBL. Learning outcomes were similar between the control group (n = 97) and students using CBL (n = 44). Learning efforts were shifted from self-study towards CBL. The initial enthusiasm of students was not maintained when using a programme designed to complement or even replace traditional teaching. Curriculum-wide implementation of CBL might be hampered by the discouragement of users.

  13. Effective binding of perhalogenated closo-borates to serum albumins revealed by spectroscopic and ITC studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Marina V.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Bykov, Alexander Yu.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay T.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of boron cluster compounds closo-borates with biomolecules are widely studied due to their efficiency as agents for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. In present work the binding abilities of anionic halogen closo-borates [B10Hal10]2- (Hal = Cl, Br, I) and [B12Hal12]2- (Hal = Cl, I) towards bovine and human serum albumins were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods. The protein fluorescence quenching method and ITC studies confirmed the complex formation. The degree of protein fluorescence quenching increased from chlorine to iodine boron derivatives that is attributed to external heavy atom effect. The ITC data point on the existence in the protein structure of two types of binding sites: with higher and lower affinity to closo-borates. Albumin-closo-borate complex binding ratio, n (4-5 anions per protein molecule) is higher than for the parent hydrogen closo-borates (2 anions per protein molecule). Binding constants estimated by fluorescent and ITC methods indicate higher affinity of halogen closo-borates to albumins (K in the range of 104-106 M-1) comparing to that of the hydrogen closo-borate (K about 103 M-1). Due to their high affinity and high binding ratio to albumins halogen closo-borates are proposed for further studies as agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

  14. Preplet stanovanjskih politik in odzivi ljudi na stanovanjske probleme v postsocialističnih mestih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avtorica v članku preučuje glavne trende in vzorce sprememb v splošnem procesu gospodarske, socialne in politične preobrazbe, ki preoblikuje urbanistične izzive v vzhodnoevropskih mestih. Obravnava pomembna gonila sprememb, kot so prizadevanja za oblikovanje tržnega stanovanjskega sistema in konkurenčnih stanovanjskih trgov v postsocialističnem urbanem okolju. Raziskava usmerja prepotrebno pozornost na pomembna vprašanja urbanistične in stanovanjske politike, ki močno vplivajo na razumevanje procesa tranzicije na tem območju. Avtorica preučuje večplastne procese tržnih stanovanjskih reform (privatizacijo, deregulacijo in decentralizacijo in njihov vpliv na prostorsko preobrazbo urbanih stanovanjskih trgov v vzhodnoevropskih mestih. Njena glavna teza, podprta z empiričnimi dokazi iz številnih vzhodnoevropskih mest, je, da so ti najpomembnejši procesi urbanih sprememb ustvarili mozaik najrazličnejših urbanističnih izzivov. Preučevanje teh izzivov s stanovanjskega vidika omogoča boljše razumevanje urbanih družbenih gibanj v vzhodnoevropskih mestih in njihovi dinamični resničnosti. Avtorica meni, da lahko različne vloge urbanih družbenih gibanj razložimo z različnimi demokratičnimi tradicijami, praksami in značilnostmi politik vzhodnoevropskih mest ter z institucionalnimi strukturami in zmogljivostjo netržnih déležnikov. V nekaterih primerih tradicija močnih vlad in uprav po političnih spremembah leta 1990 nevladnim organizacijam omogoča, da »izrazijo« svoje skrbi in so sprejete kot legitimen partner v združenjih, ki se odzivajo na urbanistične izzive. V drugih primerih tovrstno institucionalno sodelovanje sploh ne obstaja, zaradi česar pride do izstopa iz formalnih sistemov in njihove opustitve. V prvem primeru so urbana družbena gibanja oživila razprave o gentrifikaciji in socialni segregaciji v stanovanjskih naseljih in soseskah, ki so bile prej izolirane od trga in so se borile za svojo »pravico do

  15. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  16. Comparative structural and enzymatic studies on Salmonella typhimurium diaminopropionate ammonia lyase reveal its unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, G; Bisht, S; Savithri, H S; Murthy, M R N

    2018-05-01

    Cellular metabolism of amino acids is controlled by a large number of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes. Diaminopropionate ammonia lyase (DAPAL), a fold type II PLP-dependent enzyme, degrades both the D and L forms of diaminopropionic acid (DAP) to pyruvate and ammonia. Earlier studies on the Escherichia coli DAPAL (EcDAPAL) had suggested that a disulfide bond located close to the active site may be crucial for maintaining the geometry of the substrate entry channel and the active site. In order to obtain further insights into the catalytic properties of DAPAL, structural and functional studies on Salmonella typhimurium DAPAL (StDAPAL) were initiated. The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of StDAPAL was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. As expected, the polypeptide fold and dimeric organization of StDAPAL is similar to those of EcDAPAL. A phosphate group was located in the active site of StDAPAL and expulsion of this phosphate is probably essential to bring Asp125 to a conformation suitable for proton abstraction from the substrate (D-DAP). The unique disulfide bond of EcDAPAL was absent in StDAPAL, although the enzyme displayed comparable catalytic activity. Site directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation in EcDAPAL followed by functional and biophysical studies further confirmed that the disulfide bond is not necessary either for substrate binding or for catalysis. The activity of StDAPAL but not EcDAPAL was enhanced by monovalent cations suggesting subtle differences in the active site geometries of these two closely related enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Traits Reveals Novel Gene-Metabolite-Disease Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Andrew W.; Salek, Reza M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Montoliu, Ivan; Da Silva, Laeticia; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Steinbeck, Christoph; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Le Coutre, Johannes; Mooser, Vincent; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on 1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10−8) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10−44) and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10−33), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers. PMID:24586186

  18. Genome-wide association study of metabolic traits reveals novel gene-metabolite-disease links.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Rueedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on (1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10(-8 and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10(-44 and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10(-33, respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers.

  19. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  20. Earthquake studies reveal the magmatic plumbing system of the Katmai volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Murphy, Rachel; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.; Bennington, Ninfa; Powell, Lee; Paskievitch, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The 1912 eruption of Novarupta was the largest of the 1900s (Fierstein and Hildreth 2001, Hildreth et al. 2003). A century later, fundamental questions remain regarding the source of the magma for that eruption. A previous seismic study of the Katmai area (Jolly et al. 2007) identified a single large area of anomalous structure in the subsurface centered beneath Katmai Pass (Figure 2), but the magma source for the 1912 eruption is thought to have been beneath Mt. Katmai (Hildreth et al. 2003). This mystery was a prime motivation for the research project described here.

  1. RNA-Seq study reveals genetic responses of diverse wild soybean accessions to increased ozone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Nathan; Burkey, Kent; Carter, Thomas; Dickey, David; Song, Qijian; Taliercio, Earl

    2017-06-29

    Ozone is an air pollutant widely known to cause a decrease in productivity in many plant species, including soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). While the response of cultivated soybean to ozone has been studied, very little information is available regarding the ozone response of its wild relatives. Ozone-resistant wild soybean accessions were identified by measuring the response of a genetically diverse group of 66 wild soybean (Glycine soja Zucc. and Sieb.) accessions to elevated ozone levels. RNA-Seq analyses were performed on leaves of different ages from selected ozone-sensitive and ozone-resistant accessions that were subjected to treatment with an environmentally relevant level of ozone. Many more genes responded to elevated ozone in the two ozone-sensitive accessions than in the ozone-resistant accessions. Analyses of the ozone response genes indicated that leaves of different ages responded differently to ozone. Older leaves displayed a consistent reduction in expression of genes involved in photosynthesis in response to ozone, while changes in expression of defense genes dominated younger leaf tissue in response to ozone. As expected, there is a substantial difference between the response of ozone-sensitive and ozone-resistant accessions. Genes associated with photosystem 2 were substantially reduced in expression in response to ozone in the ozone-resistant accessions. A decrease in peptidase inhibitors was one of several responses specific to one of the ozone resistant accessions. The decrease in expression in genes associated with photosynthesis confirms that the photosynthetic apparatus may be an early casualty in response to moderate levels of ozone. A compromise of photosynthesis would substantially impact plant growth and seed production. However, the resistant accessions may preserve their photosynthetic apparatus in response to the ozone levels used in this study. Older leaf tissue of the ozone-resistant accessions showed a unique down-regulation of

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Associated with Primary Tooth Development during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Millwood, Iona Y.; Kaakinen, Marika; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David; Charoen, Pimphen; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Freimer, Nelson; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Vaara, Sarianna; Glaser, Beate; Crawford, Peter; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan M.; Deng, Guohong; Zhang, Weihua; McCarthy, Mark I.; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Tooth development is a highly heritable process which relates to other growth and developmental processes, and which interacts with the development of the entire craniofacial complex. Abnormalities of tooth development are common, with tooth agenesis being the most common developmental anomaly in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study of time to first tooth eruption and number of teeth at one year in 4,564 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966) and 1,518 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We identified 5 loci at P<5×10−8, and 5 with suggestive association (P<5×10−6). The loci included several genes with links to tooth and other organ development (KCNJ2, EDA, HOXB2, RAD51L1, IGF2BP1, HMGA2, MSRB3). Genes at four of the identified loci are implicated in the development of cancer. A variant within the HOXB gene cluster associated with occlusion defects requiring orthodontic treatment by age 31 years. PMID:20195514

  3. A large study reveals no Association between APOE and Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, Monica; Jimenez-Rolando, Belen; Nalls, Michael A; Singleton, Andrew B

    2012-01-01

    Background Research focusing on the role of APOE in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been largely inconclusive, creating a broad discrepancy in association studies. Objective To elucidate the role of APOE alleles in PD risk by studying a large sample size and controlling for population substructure. Patients and Methods In total, 3465 case and control samples were genotyped, obtained from the NINDS Neurogenetics repository. Results No significant differences in ε4 dosages exist between PD cases and controls. The frequency of ε4 carriers differed slightly between cases and controls at 24% (580/2412) and 26% (270/1053), respectively. Likewise, mean dosages of APOE ε2 were not significantly different between cases and controls. APOE ε2 carriers were observed at a frequency of 13.6% (329/2412) among cases and 15% (158/1053) among controls. Logistic regression models evaluating PD as possibly associated with ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages yielded no significant results. The mean MMSE score among all PD cases was 28.35 (SD = 2.58) and memory loss was reported in only 11.9% (105/879) of cases. Linear regression models comparing MMSE scores as predicted by ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages were not significant. Conclusions There is no association between APOE epsilon alleles and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22349451

  4. A Case Control Study Reveals that Polyomaviruria Is Significantly Associated with Interstitial Cystitis and Vesical Ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Winter

    Full Text Available To investigate whether polyomaviruses contribute to interstitial cystitis pathogenesis.A prospective study was performed with 50 interstitial cystitis cases compared with 50 age-matched, disease-free controls for the frequency of polyomaviruria. Associations between polyomaviruria and disease characteristics were analysed in cases. Polyomavirus in urine and bladder tissue was detected with species (JC virus vs. BK virus specific, real-time PCR.Case patients were reflective of interstitial cystitis epidemiology with age range from 26-88 years (median 58 and female predominance (41/50 F. There was a significant increase in the frequency of polyomavirus shedding between cases and controls (p<0.02. Polyomavirus shedding, in particular BK viruria, was associated with vesical ulceration, a marker of disease severity, among interstitial cystitis cases after adjustment for age and sex (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.89-24.4. There was a significant association among cases between the presence of BK viruria and response to intravesical Clorpactin therapy (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.17-17.4.The presence of polyomaviruria was found to be associated with the ulcerative form of interstitial cystitis. Clorpactin, which has anti-DNA virus activity, was more likely to improve symptoms in the presence of BK viruria. These data from this pilot study suggest associations between polyomaviruria and interstitial cystitis warranting further investigation.

  5. A Case Control Study Reveals that Polyomaviruria Is Significantly Associated with Interstitial Cystitis and Vesical Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin J; O'Connell, Helen E; Bowden, Scott; Carey, Marcus; Eisen, Damon P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether polyomaviruses contribute to interstitial cystitis pathogenesis. A prospective study was performed with 50 interstitial cystitis cases compared with 50 age-matched, disease-free controls for the frequency of polyomaviruria. Associations between polyomaviruria and disease characteristics were analysed in cases. Polyomavirus in urine and bladder tissue was detected with species (JC virus vs. BK virus) specific, real-time PCR. Case patients were reflective of interstitial cystitis epidemiology with age range from 26-88 years (median 58) and female predominance (41/50 F). There was a significant increase in the frequency of polyomavirus shedding between cases and controls (pinterstitial cystitis cases after adjustment for age and sex (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.89-24.4). There was a significant association among cases between the presence of BK viruria and response to intravesical Clorpactin therapy (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.17-17.4). The presence of polyomaviruria was found to be associated with the ulcerative form of interstitial cystitis. Clorpactin, which has anti-DNA virus activity, was more likely to improve symptoms in the presence of BK viruria. These data from this pilot study suggest associations between polyomaviruria and interstitial cystitis warranting further investigation.

  6. Time-resolved toxicity study reveals the dynamic interactions between uncoated silver nanoparticles and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Mohd Zaidi, Nurul Fitriah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    It is still unclear whether the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be attributed solely to the release of Ag + or whether dissolved and nanoparticulate Ag act in parallel; this is due to the difficulty in distinguishing Ag + - from AgNP-effects. Also, AgNPs undergo changes during toxicity tests. This is the first study to investigate the influence of AgNP dissolution over time on viable counts at high time resolution and low cell density, avoiding the apparently reduced toxicity at higher cell densities identified in our study. Uncapped AgNPs were synthesized to avoid any interference from surface coatings. The transformations of AgNPs during storage were reduced. Lowering the concentration of AgNPs reduced their aggregation in Davis minimal medium (DMM). Also, AgNPs dissolved more slowly in DMM than in water. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Ag + and AgNPs increased with cell density according to a power law, suggesting that binding to cells decreased effective concentrations. However, AgNPs acted as a reservoir of Ag, releasing new Ag + to maintain the Ag stress. The toxicity of AgNPs was dominated by dissolved Ag. Combining controlled conditions, high time-resolution and low cell density, we could demonstrate different roles of ionic and nano Ag in bacterial death caused by AgNPs.

  7. Long-stay psychiatric patients: a prospective study revealing persistent antipsychotic-induced movement disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Roberto Bakker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of persistent drug-induced movement disorders namely, tardive dyskinesia (TD, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia in a representative sample of long-stay patients with chronic severe mental illness. METHOD: Naturalistic study of 209, mainly white, antipsychotic-treated patients, mostly diagnosed with psychotic disorder. Of this group, the same rater examined 194 patients at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. RESULTS: The frequencies of persistent movement disorders in the sample were 28.4% for TD, 56.2% for parkinsonism, 4.6% for akathisia and 5.7% for tardive dystonia. Two-thirds of the participants displayed at least one type of persistent movement disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent movement disorder continues to be the norm for long-stay patients with chronic mental illness and long-term antipsychotic treatment. Measures are required to remedy this situation.

  8. Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah

    2016-09-21

    The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

  9. Transcriptome and proteome studies reveal candidate attachment genes during the development of the barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Al-Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI and cyprid from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41‰. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1,387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development.

  10. [Changing to a career in general practice - a qualitative study reveals motives of specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwill, Simon; Magez, Julia; Jäger, Cornelia; von Meißner, Wolfgang Cg; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Flum, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the national German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published guidelines for a slim-lined training program in general practice (Quereinstieg) for qualified medical specialists in other fields (e. g., surgeons, internists or anesthesiologists). This step is part of a strategy to prevent further shortages of general practitioners in Germany. In the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, qualified medical specialists are allowed to complete their general practice training in approximately two years instead of five. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons of specialists for changing to a career in general practice. The postgraduate training program Verbundweiterbildung plus Baden-Württemberg had 597 trainees at the time of the study in December 2015. Previously qualified specialists in another medical discipline were identified and invited to participate in this study. Qualitative data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with content analysis of the interviews performed by three independent members of the research team. In total, 36 out of 597 trainees were identified as previously qualified specialists in another medical discipline. All 36 were invited to take part and 15 agreed to participate in this study. Overall, 15 interviews were performed, with a mean time of 24.19minutes. Participants with a median age of 40 years (33-59 years) - mainly anesthesiologists (n=7), surgeons (n=3) and internists (n=3) - presented with an average of 6.5 years of professional experience in their specialty. First, the participants' motivation to switch career arose from the wish to intensify the quality of patient contacts with a holistic approach including family and social background and from the infinite variety of general practice. Another reason given for a career change was self-employment opportunities. Finally, feelings of frustration over poor working conditions in hospitals resulted in a job search elsewhere in medicine, taking account of

  11. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  12. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brent Richards

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD. We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531 and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202. Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8. We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733. A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8, n = 14,733. This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6, n = 22,421 more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3, n = 10,128, and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.

  13. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  14. Pharmacoinformatic and molecular docking studies reveal potential novel antidepressants against neurodegenerative disorders by targeting HSPB8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal SA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh Arslan Sehgal,1–4 Shazia Mannan,1 Sannia Ali1 1Department of Bioscience, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan; 2State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract: Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT disease is an inherited peripheral neuromuscular disorder characterized by length-dependent and progressive degeneration of peripheral nerves, leading to muscular weakness. Research has shown that mutated HSPB8 may be responsible for depression, neurodegenerative disorders, and improper functioning of peripheral nerves, resulting in neuromuscular disorders like CMT. In the current work, a hybrid approach of virtual screening and molecular docking studies was followed by homology modeling and pharmacophore identification. Detailed screening analyses were carried out by 2-D similarity search against prescribed antidepressant drugs with physicochemical properties. LigandScout was employed to ascertain novel molecules and pharmacophore properties. In this study, we report three novel compounds that showed maximum binding affinity with HSPB8. Docking analysis elucidated that Met37, Ser57, Ser58, Trp60, Thr63, Thr114, Lys115, Asp116, Gly117, Val152, Val154, Leu186, Asp189, Ser190, Gln191, and Glu192 are critical residues for ligand–receptor interactions. Our analyses suggested paroxetine as a potent compound for targeting HSPB8. Selected compounds have more effective energy scores than the selected drug analogs. Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis could be significant for further analysis of the binding pocket. The novel findings based on an in silico approach may be momentous for potent drug design against depression and CMT. Keywords: bioinformatics, computer

  15. Identification of Pleiotropic Cancer Susceptibility Variants from Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveals Functional Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Graff, Rebecca E; Passarelli, Michael N; Hoffman, Joshua D; Ziv, Elad; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Witte, John S

    2018-01-01

    Background: There exists compelling evidence that some genetic variants are associated with the risk of multiple cancer sites (i.e., pleiotropy). However, the biological mechanisms through which the pleiotropic variants operate are unclear. Methods: We obtained all cancer risk associations from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute GWAS Catalog, and correlated cancer risk variants were clustered into groups. Pleiotropic variant groups and genes were functionally annotated. Associations of pleiotropic cancer risk variants with noncancer traits were also obtained. Results: We identified 1,431 associations between variants and cancer risk, comprised of 989 unique variants associated with 27 unique cancer sites. We found 20 pleiotropic variant groups (2.1%) composed of 33 variants (3.3%), including novel pleiotropic variants rs3777204 and rs56219066 located in the ELL2 gene. Relative to single-cancer risk variants, pleiotropic variants were more likely to be in genes (89.0% vs. 65.3%, P = 2.2 × 10 -16 ), and to have somewhat larger risk allele frequencies (median RAF = 0.49 versus 0.39, P = 0.046). The 27 genes to which the pleiotropic variants mapped were suggestive for enrichment in response to radiation and hypoxia, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, cell cycle, and extension of telomeres. In addition, we observed that 8 of 33 pleiotropic cancer risk variants were associated with 16 traits other than cancer. Conclusions: This study identified and functionally characterized genetic variants showing pleiotropy for cancer risk. Impact: Our findings suggest biological pathways common to different cancers and other diseases, and provide a basis for the study of genetic testing for multiple cancers and repurposing cancer treatments. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 75-85. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. An Epidemiological Study of Population Health Reveals Social Smoking as a Major Cardiovascular Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Kate Sustersic; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Tan, Alai

    2017-01-01

    To present nationally representative data on the prevalence of "social" smoking and its relationship to cardiovascular health. A population-based, cross-sectional survey on cardiovascular health and its risk factors across the United States. Million Hearts ® cardiovascular screenings that took place in community settings. De-identified data were collected on a convenient sample of 39, 555 participants. Reported smoking status, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The prevalence of current smoking, social smoking, and non-smoking were cross-tabulated and stratified by sample characteristics. The adjusted estimates were derived from multiple logistic regression models, adjusting for demographics and other biometric measures. Ten percent identified as social smokers. Social smokers were more likely to be aged between 21 and 40, male, and Hispanic. Social smokers had significantly higher risks of having hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.80-2.41) and elevated cholesterol (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.33-1.75) than non-smokers. There was no significant difference between social smokers and current smokers (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.14 for hypertension and OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.81-1.11 for elevated cholesterol). This is the first population health study to compare the blood pressure and cholesterol levels of people who self-identify as current verses social smokers. Although previous smoking behavior was not controlled for in the analysis, this study demonstrates there is no significant difference in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure or cholesterol among the 2 smoking groups.

  17. Estrogenic activity of commercial milk as revealed in immature hamster uterotrophic assay – pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Lidia; Minta, Maria; Stypuła-Trębas, Sylwia

    The risk for public health posed by endocrine disruptors present in food is relatively new issue. Our current understanding of human exposure is mainly based on the residue analysis of selected compounds. With such approach potential, effects of mixtures, including so-far unidentified compounds are not taken into consideration. Therefore, the knowledge of overall hormonal activity in food samples is of big importance. Milk and dairy products are a rich source of estrogens but very rarely undergo testing for estrogenic activity. For this reason the rodent uterotrophic bioassay is one of the most useful tool. This preliminary study was conducted in immature hamsters to assess commercially available milk. The endpoint measured was uterine weight increase. Fifteen-day old females received ad libitum throughout 7 days commercially available milk i.e. raw goat’s, raw cow’s, processed 3.2% UHT, and for comparison soy milk. The animals of negative control group received water but positive control group got 17β - estradiol (E2) at the concentration of 100 ng/ml. All samples of milk showed estrogenic activity as follow: goat’s >cow’s >soy >processed milk. Significant increase of uteri weights were recorded in goat’s (pmilk (pmilk experimental groups ranged from 0.112% to 0.153% and in positive control this value was 0.493%. The results suggest that commercially available milk has a weak uterotrophic activity. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are warranted to gain more insight into the estrogenic risk from milk and other dairy products.

  18. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  19. Morphological Study of the Encystment and Excystment of Vermamoeba vermiformis Revealed Original Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Emilie; Yefimova, Marina; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Quellard, Nathalie; Fernandez, Béatrice; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Thomas, Vincent; Humeau, Philippe; Héchard, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous protozoa commonly found in water. Among them, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba (formerly Hartmannella) are the most represented genera. In case of stress, such as nutrient deprivation or osmotic stress, these amoebae initiate a differentiation process, named encystment. It leads to the cyst form, which is a resistant form enabling amoebae to survive in harsh conditions and resist disinfection treatments. Encystment has been thoroughly described in Acanthamoeba but poorly in Vermamoeba. Our study was aimed to follow the encystment/excystment processes by microscopic observations. We show that encystment is quite rapid, as mature cysts were obtained in 9 h, and that cyst wall is composed of two layers. A video shows that a locomotive form is likely involved in clustering cysts together during encystment. As for Acanthamoeba, autophagy is likely active during this process. Specific vesicles, possibly involved in ribophagy, were observed within the cytoplasm. Remarkably, mitochondria rearranged around the nucleus within the cyst, suggesting high needs in energy. Unlike Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, no ostioles were observed in the cyst wall suggesting that excystment is original. During excystment, large vesicles, likely filled with hydrolases, were found in close proximity to cyst wall and digest it. Trophozoite moves inside its cyst wall before exiting during excystment. In conclusion, Vermamoeba encystment/excystment displays original trends as compare to Acanthamoeba. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  20. Revealing transboundary and local air pollutant sources affecting Metro Manila through receptor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Santos, Flora L.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5) levels at the Metro Manila air sampling stations of the Philippine Nuclear Research Research Institute were found to be above the WHO guideline value of 10 μg m 3 indicating, in general, very poor air quality in the area. The elemental components of the fine particulate matter were obtained using the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Positive matrix factorization, a receptor modelling tool, was used to identify and apportion air pollution sources. Location of probable transboundary air pollutants were evaluated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) while location of probable local air pollutant sources were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF). Air pollutant sources can either be natural or anthropogenic. This study has shown natural air pollutant sources such as volcanic eruptions from Bulusan volcano in 2006 and from Anatahan volcano in 2005 to have impacted on the region. Fine soils was shown to have originated from China's Mu US Desert some time in 2004. Smoke in the fine fraction in 2006 show indications of coming from forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo. Fine particulate Pb in Valenzuela was shown to be coming from the surrounding area. Many more significant air pollution impacts can be evaluated with the identification of probable air pollutant sources with the use of elemental fingerprints and locating these sources with the use of HYSPLIT and CPF. (author)

  1. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  2. Epizoanthus spp. associations revealed using DNA markers: a case study from Kochi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James Davis; Hirose, Mamiko; Nishisaka, Taiki; Sinniger, Frederic; Itani, Gyo

    2010-09-01

    Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) of the genus Epizoanthus are often found in association with other marine invertebrates, including gastropods and hermit crabs. However, little information exists on the specificity and nature of these associations due to a lack of investigation into Epizoanthus species diversity, and the taxonomy of Epizoanthus is therefore confused. In this study, analyses of morphological data (tentacle number, polyp size, etc) and molecular data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, 16S ribosomal DNA = 16S rDNA) were used to examine Epizoanthus specimens from Tosa Bay, Kochi, Japan. The Epizoanthus specimens were found on both live gastropods (Gemmula unedo) and hermit crabs (Paguristes palythophilus) inhabiting G. unedo and G. cosmoi shells. While morphological analyses did not show clear differences between examined specimens, both COI and mt 16S rDNA clearly divided the specimens into two groups, one associated only with hermit crabs (= Epizoanthus sp. C), and another associated only with living gastropods (= Epizoanthus sp. S). Unexpectedly, DNA sequences from both groups did not match with two previously reported Epizoanthus species from Japan (E. indicus, E. ramosus), indicating they both may be undescribed species. These results highlight the utility of DNA "barcoding" of unknown zoanthids, and will provide a foundation for re-examinations of Epizoanthus species diversity and specificity, which will be critical in understanding the evolution of these unique marine invertebrates.

  3. [Salmonella typhi vaccination response study reveals defective antibody production selective IgA deficiency patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelo, Daniel E; Gianelli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent immunodeficiency worldwide, progressing to common variable immunodeficiency only in few reported cases. We report the case of a Spanish female aged 22 and diagnosed of selective IgA deficiency, a long history of bronchitis, several episodes of pneumonia, bilateral bronchiectasis, normal IgG, IgM, IgG subclasses, and detectable pre-vaccination IgG antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. She was evaluated in our clinic in order to rule out common variable immunodeficiency. We observed good antibody response to tetanus toxoid, absence of circulating switched memory B cells, decreased response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and a lack of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine. Most SIgAD patients presents with upper respiratory tract infections or mild diarrhea. Those with lower tract infections, pneumonia or untreatable diarrhea should follow B-cell subpopulations' study and antibody response to vaccines. Absence of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine allowed us to expose the defective antibody production.

  4. Drawings of Blood Cells Reveal People's Perception of Their Blood Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ramondt

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD and thalassemia are rare but chronic blood disorders. Recent literature showed impaired quality of life (QOL in people with these blood disorders. Assessing one of the determinants of QOL (i.e. illness perceptions therefore, is an important next research area.We aimed to explore illness perceptions of people with a blood disorder with drawings in addition to the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. Drawings are a novel method to assess illness perceptions and the free-range answers drawings offer can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 17 participants with a blood disorder. Participants' illness perceptions were assessed by the Brief IPQ and drawings. Brief IPQ scores were compared with reference groups from the literature (i.e. people with asthma or lupus erythematosus.Participants with SCD or thalassemia perceived their blood disorder as being more chronic and reported more severe symptoms than people with either asthma or lupus erythematosus. In the drawings of these participants with a blood disorder, a greater number of blood cells drawn was negatively correlated with perceived personal control (P<0.05, indicating that a greater quantity in the drawing is associated with more negative or distressing beliefs.Participants with a blood disorder perceive their disease as fairly threatening compared with people with other chronic illnesses. Drawings can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness by offering free-range answers.

  5. Genome-wide Association Study of Dermatomyositis Reveals Genetic Overlap with other Autoimmune Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W.; Cooper, Robert G.; Vencovsky, Jiri; Rider, Lisa G.; Danko, Katalin; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Pachman, Lauren M.; Reed, Ann M.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Padyukov, Leonid; Selva-O’Callaghan, Albert; Radstake, Timothy; Isenberg, David A.; Chinoy, Hector; Ollier, William E. R.; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Peng, Bo; Lee, Annette; Lamb, Janine A.; Chen, Wei; Amos, Christopher I.; Gregersen, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify new genetic associations with juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (DM). Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adult and juvenile DM patients of European ancestry (n = 1178) and controls (n = 4724). To assess genetic overlap with other autoimmune disorders, we examined whether 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, and previously associated with autoimmune diseases, predispose to DM. Results Compared to controls, patients with DM had a strong signal in the MHC region consisting of GWAS-level significance (P < 5x10−8) at 80 genotyped SNPs. An analysis of 141 non-MHC SNPs previously associated with autoimmune diseases showed that three SNPs linked with three genes were associated with DM, with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. These genes were phospholipase C like 1 (PLCL1, rs6738825, FDR=0.00089), B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK, rs2736340, FDR=0.00031), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21, rs951005, FDR=0.0076). None of these genes was previously reported to be associated with DM. Conclusion Our findings confirm the MHC as the major genetic region associated with DM and indicate that DM shares non-MHC genetic features with other autoimmune diseases, suggesting the presence of additional novel risk loci. This first identification of autoimmune disease genetic predispositions shared with DM may lead to enhanced understanding of pathogenesis and novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:23983088

  6. Mutational studies of the Aux/IAA proteins in Physcomitrella reveal novel insights into their function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sibo; Estelle, Mark

    2018-02-20

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin signaling involves hormone perception by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE/AUXIN F-BOX (TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor system, and the subsequent degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. This leads to the activation of downstream gene expression and diverse physiological responses. Here, we investigate how the structural elements in the Aux/IAAs determine their function in Auxin perception and transcriptional repression. We took advantage of the facile genetics of the moss Physcomitrella patens to determine the activity of wild-type and mutant PpIAA1a proteins in a Δaux/iaa null background. In this way, Aux/IAA function was characterized at the molecular and physiological levels without the interference of genetic redundancy. We identified and characterized degron variants in Aux/IAAs that affect their stability and Auxin response. We also demonstrated that neither the Aux/IAA EAR motif nor Aux/IAA oligomerization is essential for the repressive function of Aux/IAA. Our study demonstrates how key elements within the Aux/IAA proteins fine tune stability and repressor activity, as well as the long-term developmental outcome. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome association study through nonlinear mixed models revealed new candidate genes for pig growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genome association analyses have been successful in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs for pig body weights measured at a single age. However, when considering the whole weight trajectories over time in the context of genome association analyses, it is important to look at the markers that affect growth curve parameters. The easiest way to consider them is via the two-step method, in which the growth curve parameters and marker effects are estimated separately, thereby resulting in a reduction of the statistical power and the precision of estimates. One efficient solution is to adopt nonlinear mixed models (NMM, which enables a joint modeling of the individual growth curves and marker effects. Our aim was to propose a genome association analysis for growth curves in pigs based on NMM as well as to compare it with the traditional two-step method. In addition, we also aimed to identify the nearest candidate genes related to significant SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The NMM presented a higher number of significant SNPs for adult weight (A and maturity rate (K, and provided a direct way to test SNP significance simultaneously for both the A and K parameters. Furthermore, all significant SNPs from the two-step method were also reported in the NMM analysis. The ontology of the three candidate genes (SH3BGRL2, MAPK14, and MYL9 derived from significant SNPs (simultaneously affecting A and K allows us to make inferences with regards to their contribution to the pig growth process in the population studied.

  9. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  10. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  11. Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Esslinger

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component. We performed an exome-wide array-based association study (EWAS to assess the contribution of missense variants to sporadic DCM.116,855 single nucleotide variants (SNVs were analyzed in 2796 DCM patients and 6877 control subjects from 6 populations of European ancestry. We confirmed two previously identified associations with SNVs in BAG3 and ZBTB17 and discovered six novel DCM-associated loci (Q-value<0.01. The lead-SNVs at novel loci are common and located in TTN, SLC39A8, MLIP, FLNC, ALPK3 and FHOD3. In silico fine mapping identified HSPB7 as the most likely candidate at the ZBTB17 locus. Rare variant analysis (MAF<0.01 demonstrated significant association for TTN variants only (P = 0.0085. All candidate genes but one (SLC39A8 exhibit preferential expression in striated muscle tissues and mutations in TTN, BAG3, FLNC and FHOD3 are known to cause familial cardiomyopathy. We also investigated a panel of 48 known cardiomyopathy genes. Collectively, rare (n = 228, P = 0.0033 or common (n = 36, P = 0.019 variants with elevated in silico severity scores were associated with DCM, indicating that the spectrum of genes contributing to sporadic DCM extends beyond those identified here.We identified eight loci independently associated with sporadic DCM. The functions of the best candidate genes at these loci suggest that proteostasis regulation might play a role in DCM pathophysiology.

  12. Microarray studies on lager brewer's yeasts reveal cell status in the process of autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we performed DNA microarray studies on lager brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus to investigate changes in gene expression in the process of autolysis. The two strains we used were Qing2 and 5-2. Strain 5-2 is a mutant of Qing2 and autolyzes much more slowly than its parent strain. Four samples of these two strains during different autolysis stages (0% and 15%) were tested using DNA microarray containing > 10,000 yeast's genes. Analysis of genes with the same transcription pattern (up- or down-regulated in both strains) showed that the same 99 genes were up-regulated (transcription levels were increased), and the same 97 genes were down-regulated (transcription levels were decreased) by fivefold or more during autolysis. Genes involved in energy production/utilization, protein anabolism, and stress response were down-regulated. Genes related to cell wall organization and biogenesis, starvation response and DNA damage response were up-regulated. Analysis of genes with opposite transcription patterns (up-regulated in one strain and down-regulated in the other one) showed that 246 genes were up-regulated in 5-2 (autolyzes slowly) and down-regulated in Qing2 (autolyzes rapidly). Another 18 genes had opposite transcription levels, indicating that the strain which autolyzes slowly had better cell vitality despite the same autolysis stage. These findings might further promote the global understanding of autolysis in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Shaffer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3. We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8 for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis.

  14. A comparative phylogeographic study reveals discordant evolutionary histories of alpine ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with three major mountain ranges, provides an ideal topography to study mountain-island effect on organisms that would be diversified in the isolation areas. Glaciations, however, might drive these organisms to lower elevations, causing gene flow among previously isolated populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to depict the possible refugia for alpine organisms during glaciations. Nunatak hypothesis suggests that alpine species might have stayed in situ in high mountain areas during glaciations. Massif de refuge, on the other hand, proposes that alpine species might have migrated to lower ice-free areas. By sampling five sympatric carabid species of Nebria and Leistus, and using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes, we evaluated the mountain-island effect on alpine carabids and tested the two proposed hypotheses with comparative phylogeographic method. Results from the phylogenetic relationships, network analysis, lineage calibration, and genetic structure indicate that the deep divergence among populations in all L. smetanai, N. formosana, and N. niitakana was subjected to long-term isolation, a phenomenon in agreement with the nunatak hypothesis. However, genetic admixture among populations of N. uenoiana and some populations of L. nokoensis complex suggests that gene flow occurred during glaciations, as a massif de refuge depicts. The speciation event in N. niitakana is estimated to have occurred before 1.89 million years ago (Mya), while differentiation among isolated populations in N. niitakana, N. formosana, L. smetanai, and L. nokoensis complex might have taken place during 0.65-1.65 Mya. While each of the alpine carabids arriving in Taiwan during different glaciation events acquired its evolutionary history, all of them had confronted the existing mountain ranges.

  15. Genomic markers reveal introgressive hybridization in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems is difficult to assess, at least partly due to lack of genetic verification of morphology-based documentation of species. Natural hybridization, on the one hand, plays an important role in evolution as a source of novel gene combinations and a mechanism of speciation. However, on the other hand, recurrent introgression allows gene flow between species and could reverse the process of genetic differentiation among populations required for speciation. To understand the dynamic evolutionary consequences of hybridization, this study examines genomic structure of hybrids and parental species at the population level. In the Indo-West Pacific, Bruguiera is one of the dominant mangrove genera and species ranges overlap extensively with one another. Morphological intermediates between sympatric Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula have been reported as a variety of B. sexangula or a new hybrid species, B. × rhynchopetala. However, the direction of hybridization and extent of introgression are unclear. A large number of species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were found in B. gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula, and the additive ISSR profiling of B. × rhynchopetala ascertained its hybrid status and identified its parental origin. The varying degree of scatterness among hybrid individuals in Principal Coordinate Analysis and results from NewHybrids analysis indicate that B. × rhynchopetala comprises different generations of introgressants in addition to F(1s. High genetic relatedness between B. × rhynchopetala and B. gymnorrhiza based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences suggests preferential hybrid backcrosses to B. gymnorrhiza. We conclude that B. × rhynchopetala has not evolved into an incipient hybrid species, and its persistence can be explained by recurrent hybridization and introgression. Genomic data provide insights into the hybridization dynamics of mangrove plants. Such information

  16. Cervical cancer: summary of the NIH consensus El cáncer de cuello uterino: resumen de la declaración de consenso de los NIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de examinar algunos aspectos aún no definidos del tratamiento del cáncer de cuello uterino y de la calidad de la vida de los pacientes, el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (EUA y la Oficina de Aplicaciones Médicas de la Investigación, pertenecientes a los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH, convocaron una Conferencia para el Desarrollo de Consenso sobre el Cáncer de Cuello de Útero. El panel de expertos, que se compuso de 13 miembros, se concentró en los siguientes interrogantes: 1 ¿Cómo se pueden fortalecer las iniciativas para prevenir el cáncer cervico-uterino? 2 ¿Cuál es el tratamiento apropiado del cáncer de cuello de útero en estadio temprano? 3 ¿Cuál es el tratamiento adecuado del cáncer cervicouterino recurrente o en estadio avanzado? 4 ¿Qué nuevos rumbos seguirán las investigaciones sobre el cáncer de cuello de útero? En este informe se resumen las conclusiones a las que se llegó en la Conferencia sobre estas cuestiones. La declaración de consenso se puede pedir gratuitamente a los NIH.

  17. The NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities Site Visit Program: Observations About Institutional Oversight of Recombinant and Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecule Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, Ryan; Harris, Kathryn L.; Shipp, Allan C.; Corrigan-Curay, Jacqueline; Wolinetz, Carrie D.

    2015-01-01

    Institutions that receive National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for research involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules are required, as a term and condition of their funding, to comply with the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) (NIH, 2013). Under the NIH Guidelines, institutions must establish and register an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) with the NIH. The IBC is then responsible for reviewing and approving research projects subject to the NIH Guidelines. The IBC review of projects involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules is critical to ensuring that such research is conducted in a safe and responsible manner. In 2006, staff from NIH began conducting educational site visits to institutions that had an IBC registered with NIH. The purpose of these site visits is to assist IBCs with their institutional programs of oversight for recombinant or synthetic nucleic molecules. Based on our findings, the site visit program has been beneficial to institutional biosafety programs. The information gathered during the site visits has allowed NIH to tailor its educational materials to help institutions address their oversight challenges. Additionally, since NIH’s visits are primarily educational in nature, we have been able to foster a positive environment in which IBC members and staff feel comfortable reaching out to NIH for advice and assistance. PMID:26161045

  18. Neospora caninum tachyzoite immunome study reveals differences among three biologically different isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; García-Lunar, Paula; Pastor-Fernández, Iván; Álvarez-García, Gema; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2015-09-15

    Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis is determined by different host- and parasite-dependent factors, including isolate virulence. A previous study identified that several Neospora caninum tachyzoite proteins were more abundant in virulent isolates, Nc-Liv and Nc-Spain7, compared with the low-virulent isolate Nc-Spain1H. Herein, we explored differences in the immunomes of these three isolates. Protein extracts from the Nc-Liv, Nc-Spain1H and Nc-Spain7 isolates were analysed in a 3×3 design by 2-DE immunoblot using sera from experimentally infected mice with these same three isolates. All isolates displayed a highly similar antigenic pattern when they were assessed using the same serum. Most of the reactive spots were located in the acidic region (pH 3-7) and grouped in 3 antigenic areas (250-70, 45-37 and 35-15 KDa). Differences found in the immunome depended on the sera used, regardless of the extract employed. In this sense, sera from Nc-Liv and Nc-Spain7 infected mice recognized the highest number of antigens, followed by Nc-Spain1H infected mice sera. In fact, 4 proteins identified by MS were not consistently detected in each isolate extract by sera from low-virulent Nc-Spain1H-infected mice: serine-threonine phosphatase 2C and superoxide dismutase (related to metabolism), gliding associated protein GAP45 (related to tachyzoites invasion), and NcGRA1 (located on dense granules). Similarly, 4 non-identified spots and another 2 spots chains located in 45-37 kDa area were not detected by this pooled sera. Variations between virulent Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Liv were limited to the absence of recognition by sera from Nc-Spain7-infected mice of GAP45 and the spot chains located in the 45-37 kDa area. These results suggest that variations in the immunome profiles rely on the immune response induced by each isolate and that these differentially recognized antigens could be investigated as putative virulence markers of neosporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Volume-sensitive NADPH oxidase activity and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Vorum, Katrine Gribel; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in NIH3T3 fibroblasts during hypotonic stress, and H(2)O(2) potentiates the concomitant release of the organic osmolyte taurine (Lambert IH. J Membr Biol 192: 19-32, 2003). The increase in ROS production [5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein......M) but is unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indicating that the volume-sensitive ROS production is NADPH oxidase dependent. NIH3T3 cells express the NADPH oxidase components: p22 phox, a NOX4 isotype; p47 phox; and p67 phox (real-time PCR). Exposure to the Ca2...

  20. Using small angle solution scattering data in Xplor-NIH structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Charles D; Clore, G Marius

    2014-07-01

    This contribution describes the use of small and wide angle X-ray and small angle neutron scattering for biomolecular structure calculation using the program Xplor-NIH, both with and without NMR data. The current algorithms used for calculating scattering curves are described, and the use of scattering data as a structural restraint is given concrete form as a fragment of an Xplor-NIH structure calculation script. We review five examples of the use of scattering data in structure calculation, including the treatment of single domain proteins, nucleic acids, structure determination of large proteins, and the use of ensemble representations to characterize small and large amplitude motions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. DoD–NCCAM/NIH Workshop on Acupuncture for Treatment of Acute Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Emmeline; Belard, Jean Louis; Glowa, John; Khalsa, Partap; Weber, Wendy; Huntley, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored a workshop that explored the possible benefits of acupuncture treatment for acute pain. One goal of the workshop was to establish a roadmap to building an evidence base on that would indicate whether acupuncture is helpful for treating active-duty military personnel experiencing acute pain.

  2. Powering Small Satellites with Advanced NiH2 Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Dwight; Fox, Chris; Miller, Lee

    1996-01-01

    The Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI), as a spacecraft battery for both large and small, military and commercial satellites. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy, energy density and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV technology flight heritage and database. This advanced design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduc...

  3. NIH-IEEE 2015 Strategic Conference on Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies for Prec

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE/EMBS) hosted the third iteration of the Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference last week.

  4. Is a Widely Available Cure for Sickle Cell Disease on the Horizon? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us Is a Widely Available Cure for Sickle Cell Disease on the Horizon? NIH working to improve treatment ... Photo: Courtesy Kirti Dasu When the pain from sickle cell disease became too much, Kirti Dasu often went to ...

  5. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and ... me to imagine a world without the National Library of Medicine." Photo courtesy of NIH NLM Director ...

  6. Welcome from Library Director Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Welcome to the NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Donald ... about their efforts to cure disease. Lastly, the magazine's lively graphics, fun quizzes and practical tips have ...

  7. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Safely Managing Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study of Pain describes it as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience.” There are two basic types ... operations, he reportedly still has residual pain and memory loss because of the injury. Melanie Griffith —A ...

  9. Migraine Headache Treatment & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of drugs for these treatment methods. Headache drug use should be monitored by a physician, ... new treatments or perhaps ways to block debilitating headache pain. Studies by other investigators are adding insight ...

  10. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get glaucoma, but people at higher risk include African Americans age 40 and older, everyone over 60, especially Hispanic Americans, and those with a family history of the disease. "Studies show that at least half of all persons ...

  11. WE-G-BRB-00: NIH-Funded Research: Instrumental in the Pursuit of Clinical Trials and Technological Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the NIH has funded individual grants, program projects grants, and clinical trials which have been instrumental in advancing patient care. The ways that each grant mechanism lends itself to the different phases of translating research into clinical practice will be described. Major technological innovations, such as IMRT and proton therapy, have been advanced with R01-type and P01-type funding and will be discussed. Similarly, the role of program project grants in identifying and addressing key hypotheses on the potential of 3D conformal therapy, normal tissue-guided dose escalation and motion management will be described. An overview will be provided regarding how these technological innovations have been applied to multi-institutional NIH-sponsored trials. Finally, the panel will discuss regarding which research questions should be funded by the NIH to inspire the next advances in radiation therapy. Learning Objectives: Understand the different funding mechanisms of the NIH Learn about research advances that have led to innovation in delivery Review achievements due to NIH-funded program project grants in radiotherapy over the past 20 years Understand example advances achieved with multi-institutional clinical trials NIH

  12. Ex-vivo diffusion MRI reveals microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions: A chronic mild stress recovery study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and causes significant microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions. However, the potential recovery of these microstructural alterations has not previously been investigated, which we, therefore, set out to do using diffusion...... MRI (d-MRI) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. This study reveals significant microstructural alterations after 8 weeks of recovery, in the opposite direction to change induced by stress in the acute phase of the experiment. Such findings may be useful in the prognosis...... of depression or for monitoring treatment response....

  13. Effects of osmotic stress on the activity of MAPKs and PDGFR-beta-mediated signal transduction in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M-B; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Hoffmann, E K

    2008-01-01

    Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. In this study, we used NIH-3T3 fibroblasts...... in a serum- and nutrient-free inorganic medium (300 mosM) to analyze the effects of osmotic stress on MAPK activity and PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta-mediated signal transduction. We found that hypoosmolarity (cell swelling at 211 mosM) induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, most...

  14. Ultrasound-mediated structural changes in cells revealed by FTIR spectroscopy: A contribution to the optimization of gene and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Paola; Di Giambattista, Lucia; Giordani, Serena; Udroiu, Ion; Pozzi, Deleana; Gaudenzi, Silvia; Bedini, Angelico; Giliberti, Claudia; Palomba, Raffaele; Congiu Castellano, Agostina

    2011-12-01

    Ultrasound effects on biological samples are gaining a growing interest concerning in particular, the intracellular delivery of drugs and genes in a safe and in a efficient way. Future progress in this field will require a better understanding of how ultrasound and acoustic cavitation affect the biological system properties. The morphological changes of cells due to ultrasound (US) exposure have been extensively studied, while little attention has been given to the cells structural changes. We have exposed two different cell lines to 1 MHz frequency ultrasound currently used in therapy, Jurkat T-lymphocytes and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, both employed as models respectively in the apoptosis and in the gene therapy studies. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used as probe to reveal the structural changes in particular molecular groups belonging to the main biological systems. The genotoxic damage of cells exposed to ultrasound was ascertained by the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The FTIR spectroscopy results, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, regarding all cellular components (lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) of the two cell lines, show that Jurkat cells are more sensitive to therapeutic ultrasound in the lipid and protein regions, whereas the NIH-3T3 cells are more sensitive in the nucleic acids region; a meaningful genotoxic effect is present in both cell lines only for long sonication times while in the Jurkat cells also a significant cytotoxic effect is revealed for long times of exposure to ultrasound.

  15. Molecular shape and binding force of Mycoplasma mobile's leg protein Gli349 revealed by an AFM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoil, Charles; Nonaka, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Osada, Toshiya; Miyata, Makoto; Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the gliding bacteria Mycoplasma mobile have identified a family of proteins called the Gli family which was considered to be involved in this novel and yet fairly unknown motility system. The 349 kDa protein called Gli349 was successfully isolated and purified from the bacteria, and electron microscopy imaging and antibody experiments led to the hypothesis that it acts as the 'leg' of M. mobile, responsible for attachment to the substrate as well as for gliding motility. However, more precise evidence of the molecular shape and function of this protein was required to asses this theory any further. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used both as an imaging and a force measurement device to provide new information about Gli349 and its role in gliding motility. AFM images of the protein were obtained revealing a complex structure with both rigid and flexible parts, consistent with previous electron micrographs of the protein. Single-molecular force spectroscopy experiments were also performed, revealing that Gli349 is able to specifically bind to sialyllactose molecules and withstand unbinding forces around 70 pN. These findings strongly support the idea that Gli349 is the 'leg' protein of M. mobile, responsible for binding and also most probably force generation during gliding motility.

  16. Moving toward true inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in federally funded studies. A key step for achieving respiratory health equality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Esteban G; Oh, Sam S; Foreman, Marilyn G; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds.

  17. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  18. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Perez, N. M.; García-Merino, M.; Padron, E.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Canary Islands, owing to their recent volcanism, are the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources. The final goal of geothermal exploration in a specific area is to locate and define the size, shape, structure of hidden geothermal resources, and determine their characteristics (fluid type, temperature, chemical composition an ability to produce energy). At those areas where there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system) the geochemical methods for geothermal exploration must include soil gas surveys. This is the case of five mining licenses for geothermal exploration in the Canay Islands, four in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria Island. We report herein the results of diffuse CO2 emission studies in the five mining licenses during 2011-2014. The primary objective of the study was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. The criterion used to sort the different areas was the contribution of volcano-hydrothermal CO2 in the degassing at each study area. Several hundreds of measurements of diffuse CO2 emission, soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition were performed at each study area. Based in three different endmembers (biogenic, atmospheric and deep-seated CO2) with different CO2 concentrations (100, 0.04 and 100% respectively) and isotopic compositions (-20, -8 and -3 per mil vs. VPDB respectively) a mass balance to distinguish the different contribution of each endmember in the soil CO2 at each sampling site was made. The percentage of the volcano-hydrothermal contribution in the current diffuse CO2 degassing was in the range 2-19%.The Abeque mining license, that comprises part of the north-west volcanic rift of Tenerife, seemed to show the highest geothermal

  19. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  20. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jochums

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs. Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549 and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and propidium iodide (PI. We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul Friedrich; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Hermann; Lusuardi, Lukas; Riedl, Claus R

    2015-04-01

    This study prospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a possible association of these conditions with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV. The study included 139 consecutive patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and transvesical enucleation of the prostate (n = 82) or radical prostatectomy (n = 57). To characterize inflammatory changes the criteria proposed by Irani et al. [J Urol 1997;157:1301-3] were used. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was studied by a standard immunohistochemical method. Results were correlated with tumour, node, metastasis stage, Gleason scores, total prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score and body mass index. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in neoplastic prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue of prostate cancer patients (p Prostate cancer patients with prostatitis showed significantly higher IL-2R expression than those without inflammation (p prostatitis than in those without (p prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV showed significantly greater activity.

  2. Fungal diversity of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese during the ripening process as revealed by a metagenomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard; Coucheney, Françoise; Jacques, Philippe; Delcenserie, Véronique; Daube, Georges; Drider, Djamel

    2017-10-03

    Tomme d'Orchies is an artisanal pressed and uncooked cheese produced and marketed in the north of France. This study aimed at showing the fungal microbiota evolution of this cheese using a metagenetic based Illumina technology targeting the ITS2 domain of 5.8S fungal rDNAs. To this end, samples were taken from the rind and the core of different cheeses, after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21days of ripening. The data underpinned the prevalence of Yarrowia lipolytica and Galactomyces geotrichum for both microbiotas. Unusual species including Clavispora lusitaniae, Kazachstania unispora and Cladosporium cladosporioides were also detected, but their origins remain to be ascertained. The metagenomic revealed also the presence of Kluyveromyces and Debaryomyces species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An integrated study reveals diverse methanogens, Thaumarchaeota, and yet-uncultivated archaeal lineages in Armenian hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Cole, Jessica K; Panosyan, Hovik H

    2013-07-01

    Culture-independent and enrichment techniques, with an emphasis on members of the Archaea, were used to determine the composition and structure of microbial communities inhabiting microbial mats in the source pools of two geothermal springs near the towns of Arzakan and Jermuk in Armenia. Amplification of small-subunit rRNA genes using "universal" primers followed by pyrosequencing (pyrotags) revealed highly diverse microbial communities in both springs, with >99 % of pyrosequences corresponding to members of the domain Bacteria. The spring in Arzakan was colonized by a photosynthetic mat dominated by Cyanobacteria, in addition to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Spirochaeta and a diversity of other Bacteria. The spring in Jermuk was colonized by phylotypes related to sulfur, iron, and hydrogen chemolithotrophs in the Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, along with a diversity of other Bacteria. Analysis of near full-length small subunit rRNA genes amplified using Archaea-specific primers showed that both springs are inhabited by a diversity of methanogens, including Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales and relatives of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (AOA) "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis", and the yet-uncultivated Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group and Deep Hydrothermal Vent Crenarchaeota group 1. Methanogenic enrichments confirmed the predicted physiological diversity, revealing methylotrophic, acetoclastic, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 45 and 55 °C, but not 65 °C. This is one of only a few studies combining cultivation-independent and -dependent approaches to study archaea in moderate-temperature (37-73 °C) terrestrial geothermal environments and suggests important roles for methanogenic archaea and AOA in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in these environments.

  4. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Ni/H2 and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, John W.; White, Ralph E.; Dougal, Roger A.

    2001-01-01

    The modelling effort outlined in this viewgraph presentation encompasses the following topics: 1) Electrochemical Deposition of Nickel Hydroxide; 2) Deposition rates of thin films; 3) Impregnation of porous electrodes; 4) Experimental Characterization of Nickel Hydroxide; 5) Diffusion coefficients of protons; 6) Self-discharge rates (i.e., oxygen-evolution kinetics); 7) Hysteresis between charge and discharge; 8) Capacity loss on cycling; 9) Experimental Verification of the Ni/H2 Battery Model; 10) Mathematical Modeling Li-Ion Batteries; 11) Experimental Verification of the Li-Ion Battery Model; 11) Integrated Power System Models for Satellites; and 12) Experimental Verification of Integrated-Systems Model.

  6. Vpliv različnih postopkov bistrenja grozdnega soka sorte malvazija na kakovost mladega vina

    OpenAIRE

    Sepič, Neja

    2017-01-01

    V okviru magistrskega dela smo primerjali vpliv različnih postopkov bistrenja grozdnega soka sorte malvazija na končno kakovost mladega vina. Uporabljeni so bili trije različni bistrilni postopki: flotacija, vakuumska filtracija in hladno samobistrenje. Namen je bil ugotoviti, kateri postopek je najustreznejši za dosego čim boljše kakovosti mladega vina. V vse vzorce bistrenega mošta smo dodali enake kvasovke in enako hrano. Povsod smo dozirali enako količino kvasovk in hrane za kvasovke. V m...

  7. Vpliv logistične infrastrukture na uporabo električnih vozil v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Jus, Rok

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo se osredotočili na logistično infrastrukturo in pomembnosti le te na izvajanje logistične storitve. V okviru logistične infrastrukture smo se omejili na polnilne postaje za električna vozila, ki predstavljajo enega izmed osnovnih objektov, ki omogočajo množičnost uporabe električnih vozil. Podobno bi lahko rekli za bencinske črpalke za fosilna goriva, ki so ključnega pomena za množično odvijanje prometa z vozili na fosilna goriva. V teoretičnem delu naloge smo predstavi...

  8. Research highlights from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: Black cohosh from the field to the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Mahady, Gail B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy at the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois (UIC) at Chicago was funded to establish a Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Center from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The emphasis of the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research (CBDSR) is botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for women's health. Center’s research has focused on BDS that may improve women's health and quality of life, specifically in the areas of menopause, premenstrual syndrome, and persistent urinary tract infections. Center investigators have overcome many challenges associated with botanical dietary supplements research, including acquiring and identifying plant species for investigation, isolating and identifying active constituents, elucidating the mechanisms of action of these botanicals, and conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae)] has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking a botanical dietary supplement from the field, all the way to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. The Center has used an innovative multidisciplinary approach to this type of research, and thus has been very successful in fulfilling its specific aims. PMID:20161501

  9. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  10. Cross-study and cross-omics comparisons of three nephrotoxic compounds reveal mechanistic insights and new candidate biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.

  11. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  12. Soluble Forms of the Notch Ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 Promote in Vivo Tumorigenicity in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts with Distinct Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Roudabush, Alice; O'Neill, Christine F.; Pinz, Ilka; Prudovsky, Igor; Kacer, Doreen; Tang, Yuefang; Liaw, Lucy; Small, Deena

    2008-01-01

    We previously found that soluble forms of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta1 induced fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. However, the phenotypes of these lines differed, indicating distinct functional differences among these Notch ligands. In the present study, we used allografts to test the hypothesis that NIH3T3 fibroblasts that express soluble forms of Delta1 and Jagged1 accelerate tumorigenicity in vivo. With the exception of the full-length Jagged1 transfectant, all other cell lines, including the control, generated tumors when injected subcutaneously in athymic mice. Suppression of Notch signaling by the soluble ligands significantly increased tumor onset and growth, whereas full-length Jagged1 completely suppressed tumor development. In addition, there were striking differences in tumor pathology with respect to growth kinetics, vascularization, collagen content, size and number of necrotic foci, and invasiveness into the underlying tissue. Further, the production of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, also differed among the tumor types. Lastly, both Jagged1- and Delta1-derived tumors contained phenotypically distinct populations of lipid-filled cells that corresponded with increased expression of adipocyte markers. The divergence of tumor phenotype may be attributed to ligand-specific alterations in Notch receptor responses in exogenous and endogenous cell populations within the allographs. Our findings demonstrate distinct functional properties for these Notch ligands in the promotion of tumorigenicity in vivo. PMID:18688026

  13. Context-dependent differences in grooming behavior among the NIH heterogeneous stock and the Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislau, C; Díaz-Morán, S; Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2013-12-01

    Grooming occurs during/after stress and seems to accompany dearousal. Here, grooming was investigated under testing situations involving different levels of aversiveness, taking advantage of differences among three rat strains in fearfulness/anxiety. Inbred Roman High Avoidance (RHA-I) rats are less anxious/fearful than inbred Roman Low Avoidance (RLA-I). The outbred genetically heterogeneous stock of rats (NIH-HS), which resembles the RLA-I in many behavioral traits, was also studied. Adult male rats (RLA-I: n=9, RHA-I: n=10, NIH-HS: n=12) were observed for 30min in: a novel open-field, a novel hole-board and in the home-cage. They were also observed during two-way active avoidance training. Differences in grooming depended on test situation: (a) No differences were found in the home-cage. (b) While tested in a novel environment, RHA-I showed less grooming activity than the other rats. (c) After avoidance responses appeared, differences among the strains were opposite to the observed in novelty tests. Furthermore, results suggest that (i) grooming is mostly suppressed when assured aversive experience is under way; (ii) rostral grooming prevails when experience with aversive stimuli is unpredictable (novelty) or potential (avoidance training); (iii) body grooming increases for a period in novel environments. In general, our results support that grooming takes place during dearousal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic Synthesis and Binding Study of HIV V3 Glycopeptides Reveal the Fine Epitopes of Several Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwenyo, Jared; Cai, Hui; Giddens, John; Amin, Mohammed N; Toonstra, Christian; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2017-06-16

    A class of new glycan-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies represented by PGT121, 10-1074, and PGT128 has recently been discovered that targets specific N-glycans and the peptide region around the V3 domain. However, the glycan specificity and fine epitopes of these bNAbs remain to be further defined. We report here a systematic chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous V3 glycopeptides derived from the HIV-1 JR-FL strain carrying defined N-glycans at N332, N301, and N295 sites. Antibody binding studies revealed that both the nature and site of glycosylation in the context of the V3 domain were critical for high-affinity binding. It was found that antibody PGT128 exhibited specificity for high-mannose N-glycan with glycosylation site promiscuity, PGT121 showed binding specificity for glycopeptide carrying a sialylated N-glycan at N301 site, and 10-1074 was specific for glycopeptide carrying a high-mannose N-glycan at N332 site. The synthesis and binding studies permit a detailed assessment of the glycan specificity and the requirement of peptide in the context of antibody-antigen recognition. The identified glycopeptides can be used as potential templates for HIV vaccine design.

  15. Predlogi za uvedbo arheologije v pouk klasičnih jezikov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Batagelj

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Razbiranje in prevajanje preteklih dogodkov, zapisanih v zemlji, na kamnu, na pergamentu ali na kateremkoli materialu, ki se je ohranil do danes, je zares uspešno, ko se združi znanje ljudi različnih strok. Učenje jezika niso samo slovnična pravila in besedišče, ampak tudi spoznavanje kulturnih in civilizacijskih dosežkov in historičnega okvira, v katerem je jezik živel. Pri učenju klasičnih jezikov ponuja arheologija poleg časovno umeščenih zgodovinskih podatkov oprijemljivo in predstavljivo materialno oporo za spoznavanje (antične kulture. Svojo metodo in področje delaje razširila tudi na mlajša zgodovinska obdobja, torej ni več omejena samo na izkopavanja iz obdobij, za katera pisni viri ne obstajajo ali pa so pomanjkljivi. Z uporabo nedestruktivnih metod raziskovanja (aerofotografija, geofizikalne meritve, topografija ipd. postaja vse bolj interdisciplinarna.

  16. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 m......Osm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced...... and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53...

  17. A genome-wide association study on androstenone levels in pigs reveals a cluster of candidate genes on chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenen Martien AM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, male piglets are castrated shortly after birth because a proportion of un-castrated male pigs produce meat with an unpleasant flavour and odour. Main compounds of boar taint are androstenone and skatole. The aim of this high-density genome-wide association study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with androstenone levels in a commercial sire line of pigs. The identification of major genetic effects causing boar taint would accelerate the reduction of boar taint through breeding to finally eliminate the need for castration. Results The Illumina Porcine 60K+SNP Beadchip was genotyped on 987 pigs divergent for androstenone concentration from a commercial Duroc-based sire line. The association analysis with 47,897 SNPs revealed that androstenone levels in fat tissue were significantly affected by 37 SNPs on pig chromosomes SSC1 and SSC6. Among them, the 5 most significant SNPs explained together 13.7% of the genetic variance in androstenone. On SSC6, a larger region of 10 Mb was shown to be associated with androstenone covering several candidate genes potentially involved in the synthesis and metabolism of androgens. Besides known candidate genes, such as cytochrome P450 A19 (CYP2A19, sulfotransferases SULT2A1, and SULT2B1, also new members of the cytochrome P450 CYP2 gene subfamilies and of the hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases (HSD17B14 were found. In addition, the gene encoding the ß-chain of the luteinizing hormone (LHB which induces steroid synthesis in the Leydig cells of the testis at onset of puberty maps to this area on SSC6. Interestingly, the gene encoding the α-chain of LH is also located in one of the highly significant areas on SSC1. Conclusions This study reveals several areas of the genome at high resolution responsible for variation of androstenone levels in intact boars. Major genetic factors on SSC1 and SSC6 showing moderate to large effects on androstenone

  18. NIH Roundtable on Opportunities to Advance Research on Neurologic and Psychiatric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Gail; Jauch, Edward; Jagoda, Andrew; Allen, Michael H; Anglin, Deirdre; Barsan, William G; Berger, Rachel P; Bobrow, Bentley J; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Bushnell, Cheryl; Chan, Yu-Feng; Currier, Glenn; Eggly, Susan; Ichord, Rebecca; Larkin, Gregory L; Laskowitz, Daniel; Neumar, Robert W; Newman-Toker, David E; Quinn, James; Shear, Katherine; Todd, Knox H; Zatzick, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    The Institute of Medicine Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System (2003) identified a need to enhance the research base for emergency care. As a result, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research in Emergency Medicine was formed to enhance NIH support for emergency care research. Members of the NIH Task Force and academic leaders in emergency care participated in 3 Roundtable discussions to prioritize current opportunities for enhancing and conducting emergency care research. We identify key research questions essential to advancing the science of emergency care and discuss the barriers and strategies to advance research by exploring the collaboration between NIH and the emergency care community. Experts from emergency medicine, neurology, psychiatry, and public health assembled to review critical areas in need of investigation, current gaps in knowledge, barriers, and opportunities. Neurologic emergencies included cerebral resuscitation, pain, stroke, syncope, traumatic brain injury, and pregnancy. Mental health topics included suicide, agitation and delirium, substances, posttraumatic stress, violence, and bereavement. Presentations and group discussion firmly established the need for translational research to bring basic science concepts into the clinical arena. A coordinated continuum of the health care system that ensures rapid identification and stabilization and extends through discharge is necessary to maximize overall patient outcomes. There is a paucity of well-designed, focused research on diagnostic testing, clinical decisionmaking, and treatments in the emergency setting. Barriers include the limited number of experienced researchers in emergency medicine, limited dedicated research funding, and difficulties of conducting research in chaotic emergency environments stressed by crowding and limited resources. Several themes emerged during the course of the roundtable discussion, including the need

  19. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product.

  20. A Small Molecule Swertisin from Enicostemma littorale Differentiates NIH3T3 Cells into Islet-Like Clusters and Restores Normoglycemia upon Transplantation in Diabetic Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidheesh Dadheech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Stem cell therapy is one of the upcoming therapies for the treatment of diabetes. Discovery of potent differentiating agents is a prerequisite for increasing islet mass. The present study is an attempt to screen the potential of novel small biomolecules for their differentiating property into pancreatic islet cells using NIH3T3, as representative of extra pancreatic stem cells/progenitors. Methods. To identify new agents that stimulate islet differentiation, we screened various compounds isolated from Enicostemma littorale using NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes were observed. Characterization was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Q-PCR, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and insulin secretion assay for functional response in newly generated islet-like cell clusters (ILCC. Reversal of hyperglycemia was monitored after transplanting ILCC in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results. Among various compounds tested, swertisin, an isolated flavonoid, was the most effective in differentiating NIH3T3 into endocrine cells. Swertisin efficiently changed the morphology of NIH3T3 cells from fibroblastic to round aggregate cell cluster in huge numbers. Dithizone (DTZ stain primarily confirmed differentiation and gene expression studies signified rapid onset of differentiation signaling cascade in swertisin-induced ILCC. Molecular imaging and immunoblotting further confirmed presence of islet specific proteins. Moreover, glucose induced insulin release (in vitro and decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG (in vivo in transplanted diabetic BALB/c mice depicted functional maturity of ILCC. Insulin and glucagon expression in excised islet grafts illustrated survival and functional integrity. Conclusions. Rapid induction for islet differentiation by swertisin, a novel herbal biomolecule, provides low cost and readily available differentiating agent that can be translated as a therapeutic tool for effective treatment in diabetes.

  1. Genetic analysis of Apuleia leiocarpa as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers: prospects for population genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencina, K H; Konzen, E R; Tsai, S M; Bisognin, D A

    2016-12-19

    Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. MacBride is a hardwood species native to South America, which is at serious risk of extinction. Therefore, it is of prime importance to examine the genetic diversity of this species, information required for developing conservation, sustainable management, and breeding strategies. Although scarcely used in recent years, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers are useful resources for the analysis of genetic diversity and structure of tree species. This study represents the first genetic analysis based on DNA markers in A. leiocarpa that aimed to investigate the levels of polymorphism and to select markers for the precise characterization of its genetic structure. We adapted the original DNA extraction protocol based on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, and describe a simple procedure that can be used to obtain high-quality samples from leaf tissues of this tree. Eighteen primers were selected, revealing 92 bands, from which 75 were polymorphic and 61 were sufficient to represent the overall genetic structure of the population without compromising the precision of the analysis. Some fragments were conserved among individuals, which can be sequenced and used to analyze nucleotide diversity parameters through a wider set of A. leiocarpa individuals and populations. The individuals were separated into 11 distinct groups with variable levels of genetic diversity, which is important for selecting desirable genotypes and for the development of a conservation and sustainable management program. Our results are of prime importance for further investigations concerning the genetic characterization of this important, but vulnerable species.

  2. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  4. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  5. Study of fluid dynamics reveals direct communications between lymphatic vessels and venous blood vessels at lymph nodes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazu; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2017-06-01

    Cancer cells metastasize to lymph nodes, with distant metastasis resulting in poor prognosis. The role of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in the spread of cancer to distant organs remain incompletely characterized. The visualization of flow dynamics in the lymphatic and blood vessels of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice, which develop systemic swelling of lymph nodes up to 10mm in diameter, has revealed that lymph nodes have the potential to be a direct source of systemic metastasis. However, it is not known whether these fluid dynamics characteristics are universal phenomena present in other strains of laboratory mice. Here we show that the fluid dynamics observed in MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice are the same as those observed in C57BL/6J, BALB/cAJcl and NOD/ShiJic-scidJcl mice. Furthermore, when fluorescent solution was injected into a tumor-bearing lymph node, the flow dynamics observed in the efferent lymphatic vessels and thoracoepigastric vein depended on the type of tumor cell. Our results indicate that fluid dynamics in the lymphatic and blood vessels of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice are generalized phenomena seen in conventional laboratory mice. We anticipate our results can facilitate studies of the progression of lymphatic metastasis to hematogenous metastasis via lymph nodes and the early diagnosis and treatment of LNM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  7. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arias, Francy L; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Núñez Zarantes, Victor M

    2018-01-01

    Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII), fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO), and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST), in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP) > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF) cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS). We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM) and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana .

  8. The geography of demography: long-term demographic studies and species distribution models reveal a species border limited by adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhart, V M; Geber, M A; Morris, W F; Fabio, E S; Tiffin, P; Moeller, D A

    2011-10-01

    Potential causes of species' geographic distribution limits fall into two broad classes: (1) limited adaptation across spatially variable environments and (2) limited opportunities to colonize unoccupied areas. Combining demographic studies, analyses of demographic responses to environmental variation, and species distribution models, we investigated the causes of range limits in a model system, the eastern border of the California annual plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. Vital rates of 20 populations varied with growing season temperature and precipitation: fruit number and overwinter survival of 1-year-old seeds declined steeply, while current-year seed germination increased modestly along west-to-east gradients in decreasing temperature, decreasing mean precipitation, and increasing variation in precipitation. Long-term stochastic finite rate of increase, λ(s), exhibited a fourfold range and varied among geologic surface materials as well as with temperature and precipitation. Growth rate declined significantly toward the eastern border, falling below 1 in three of the five easternmost populations. Distribution models employing demographically important environmental variables predicted low habitat favorability beyond the eastern border. Models that filtered or weighted population presences by λ(s) predicted steeper eastward declines in favorability and assigned greater roles in setting the distribution to among-year variation in precipitation and to geologic surface material. These analyses reveal a species border likely set by limited adaptation to declining environmental quality.

  9. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  10. Možnosti doseganja konkurenčnih prednosti logističnega podjetja x na evropskem trgu

    OpenAIRE

    Knuplež, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    Logistična podjetja za svoj obstoj in konkurenčno prednost v času globalizacije trga in nenehnih sprememb na trgu, svoje delovanje usmerjajo na nivo, kjer kupcu glede na zahtevane storitve v najširšem možnem spektru ugodijo. Ideja za proučevanje problema izboljšanja možnih konkurenčnih prednosti na primeru logističnega podjetja X je bila izpeljanka iz osnovne predstavitve in delovanja logističnega podjetja. V današnjem času je katerakoli konkurenčna prednost logističnega podjetja nit c...

  11. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  12. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  13. Shifts in river-floodplain relationship reveal the impacts of river regulation: A case study of Dongting Lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cai; Jia, Yifei; Jing, Lei; Zeng, Qing; Lei, Jialin; Zhang, Shuanghu; Lei, Guangchun; Wen, Li

    2018-04-01

    Better understanding of the dynamics of hydrological connectivity between river and floodplain is essential for the ecological integrity of river systems. In this study, we proposed a regime-switch modelling (RSM) framework, which integrates change point analysis with dynamic linear regression, to detect and date change points in linear regression, and to quantify the relative importance of natural variations and anthropogenic disturbances. The approach was applied to the long-term hydrological time series to investigate the evolution of river-floodplain relation in Dongting Lake in the last five decades, during which the Yangtze River system experienced unprecedented anthropogenic manipulations. Our results suggested that 1) there were five distinct regimes during which the influence of inflows and local climate on lake water level changed significantly. The detected change points were well corresponding to the major events occurred upon the Yangtze; 2) although the importance of inflows from the Yangtze was greater than that of the tributaries flows over the five regimes, the relative contribution gradually decreased from regime 1 to regime 5. The weakening of hydrological forcing from the Yangtze was mainly attributed to the reduction in channel capacity resulting from sedimentation in the outfalls and water level dropping caused by river bed scour in the mainstream; 3) the effects of local climate was much smaller than these of inflows; and 4) since the operation of The Three Gorges Dam in 2006, the river-floodplain relationship entered a new equilibrium in that all investigated variables changed synchronously in terms of direction and magnitude. The results from this study reveal the mechanisms underlying the alternated inundation regime in Dongting Lake. The identified change points, some of which have not been previously reported, will allow a reappraisal of the current dam and reservoir operation strategies not only for flood/drought risk management but

  14. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Grigoraki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE, but not target site resistance (altered AChE, with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain; these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs, cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic

  15. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey DeAmicis

    Full Text Available Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyeung Kim

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG to HDL cholesterol (HDLC, LDL cholesterol (LDLC to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC, LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Park, Ah Yeon; Baek, Younghwa; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC), LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio-associated variants, two LDLC

  18. Insights for Planetarium and Museum Educators Revealed by the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Tatge, C. B.; Ratcliff, M.; Slater, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Dedicated sky watchers through the centuries have long sought to find the best teaching methods to efficiently and effectively transfer vast amounts of accumulated star knowledge to the next generation of sky watchers. Although detailed maps specifying the names and locations of stars have been carefully displayed on spherical globes for thousands of years, it is the 1923 installation of a Zeiss-made, large, mechanical star projector in Munich that is often cited as the first modern projection planetarium for teaching astronomy. In the 1930's, impressive planetariums were installed Chicago, Los Angeles and New York, which then in turn served as a catalyst for additional planetarium construction. Planetarium construction increased rapidly in the United States due to federal funding to schools and museums through the 1958 US National Defense Education Act and the US went from one planetarium in 1930, to six in 1940, to about 100 in 1960, increasing to 200 in 1963, 450 by 1967—even before humans had landed on the Moon—and more than 1,000 by 1975. Today, nearly 3,000 permanent planetarium facilities are available to show the stars and heavenly motions to children and adults alike across the world, with perhaps another thousand portable planetariums adding to the available teaching venues. Simultaneous with their construction, discipline-based astronomy education have been trying to better understand, and ultimately improve, how people learn astronomy in the planetarium. A systematic analysis of planetarium education research articles, dissertations, and theses found in the recently constructed, community-wide, international Study of Astronomical Reasoning iSTAR database at istardatabase.org reveal that many of the systematic studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s using domes served by servo-mechanical star projects have been reproduced again in recent decades in theaters using digital video projection showing nearly the same results: student-passive, information

  19. Restauracije mliječnih zuba cirkonijskim krunicama kod djece s ranim karijesom

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Serhat; Ozbay, Gizem; Kargul, Betul

    2013-01-01

    Rani dječji karijes (ECC) razarajući je oblik truljenja zuba koji pogađa predškolsku djecu. Obično se pojavljuje na mliječnim maksilarnim sjekutićima dojenčadi i vrlo male djece. Ti su zubi vrlo važni za fizički izgled, pa ako nestane njihova struktura to ne utječe samo na estetiku nego kompromitira i žvakanje, a uzrokuje i teškoće u socijalnoj i psihološkoj prilagodbi djeteta. Estetska restauracija mliječnih sjekutića može se obaviti različitim materijalima, primjerice, gotovim cirkonijs...

  20. Destructive physical analysis results of Ni/H2 cells cycled in LEO regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong S.; Zelter, Gabriela R.; Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Six 48-Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni/H2 cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH electrolyte were life cycle tested in low earth orbit. All three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed (3729, 4165, and 11,355 cycles), while those with 26 percent KOH were cycled over 14,000 times in the continuing test. Destructive physical analysis (DPA) of the failed cells included visual inspections, measurements of electrode thickness, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and measurements of nickel electrode capacity in an electrolyte flooded cell. The cycling failure was due to a decrease of nickel electrode capacity. As possible causes of the capacity decrease, researchers observed electrode expansion, rupture, and corrosion of the nickel electrode substrate, active material redistribution, and accumulation of electrochemically undischargeable active material with cycling.

  1. Physical and chemical analysis of a Ni/H2 cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, H.; Earl, M. W.; Kirkendall, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A cycled aerospace nickel hydrogen (Ni/H2) cell was subjected to destructive physical analysis to determine the reason for a capacity loss after 5,967 cycles at 60 percent depth of discharge. The positive plates in the cell were analyzed in terms of chemical composition, active material utilization, charge efficiency, and thickness increase. The microstructure of a cross section of the positive plate was determined by backscattered electron image analysis. The results suggest that the capacity loss in the cell is caused by low charge acceptance and low active material utilization at the positive plate. The oxidized nickel species content of the positive plate increased due to corrosion of the nickel sintered skeleton. This appears to circumvent the orderly reaction of the active material. Microstructural analysis has indicated that a new phase of active material is formed with cycling.

  2. Povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah

    OpenAIRE

    Žitko, Urša

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene domače naloge: njihova zgodovina, namen in več klasifikacij vrst domačih nalog. Domače naloge so namenjene učencem, da z njimi usvojijo in utrdijo obravnavano snov. Domača naloga učencem omogoča učenje uporabe postopkov, ki jih že poznajo, in pridobivanje novih spretnosti za nadaljnje razumevanje snovi. Z rednim pisanjem domačih nalog se učenci naučijo vestnega in sam...

  3. Uloga kućnih ljubimaca u socioemocionalnom  razvoju djece školskog uzrasta

    OpenAIRE

    Smojver-Ažić, Sanja; Topalović, Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Rezultati istraživanja potvrđuju kako je odrastanje uz kućnoga ljubimca povezano sa socioemocionalnim razvojem djece. Cilj ovoga istraživanja bio je ispitati odnos u kojemu stoje privrženost majci, privrženost kućnomu ljubimcu i empatija, socijalna kompetencija i usamljenost. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 480 učenika četvrtoga, šestoga i osmoga razreda osnovnih škola u Istri (226 djevojčica i 254 dječaka) te njihovi roditelji. U ispitanom uzorku 63 % djece ima jednoga ili više kućnih ljubi...

  4. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  5. 78 FR 69426 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a... Evaluation Program, Operations and Informatics Branch, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850 or call... Collection: NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative (NCI), 0925-0625, Expiration Date 1...

  6. bFGF rescues imatinib/STI571-induced apoptosis of sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kappert, Kai; Micke, Patrick; Otsuka, Kichibee

    2009-04-03

    PDGF-B-transfected, sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts serve as a model system for examining the role of PDGF signaling in tumors. We have found that imatinib/STI571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting PDGF receptors, induces apoptosis of sis-NIH3T3 fibroblasts cultured under serum free conditions, which was rescued by the addition of 10% newborn calf serum (NCS). Therefore, growth factors included in serum were tested with regard to their ability to rescue imatinib-induced apoptosis. While PDGF-AB, EGF, and IGF-I failed to protect imatinib-induced sis-NIH3T3 cell apoptosis, bFGF rescued it. The effects of bFGF were confirmed by both cell viability assays and Bax/Bcl-2 gene expression ratio. An FGF receptor inhibitor, PD166866, invalidated the protective effect of bFGF. However, combination of imatinib and PD166866 failed to induce cell death of sis-NIH3T3 cells when cultured in 10% NCS. These results indicate that synergistic administration of some types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors need to be tested under in vivo-like conditions to establish novel strategies in anti-cancer therapy.

  7. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... licensed from the NIH and FDA intramural research programs. The value of such time savings to corporate R&D... bank-to-bank transfer system at Pay.gov has shortened the processing time for research tool and other... me about 5 minutes after reading the email/letter to process payment. Great service!'' and ``I just...

  8. 76 FR 77238 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration to Improve the Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Collaboration to Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of IRT-CAT tools. Type of Information...; Comment Request; The SSA-NIH Collaboration to Improve the Disability Determination Process: Validation of... in RMD will be collecting information through a contractor (Boston University- Health and Disability...

  9. 78 FR 18613 - Notice of the Implementation of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Electronic Vendor Invoice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Health (NIH) Electronic Vendor Invoice Program (eVIP) SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce the future implementation of the Electronic Vendor Invoice Program (eVIP) at the National Institutes... policies, procedures, and clauses for implementing prompt payment regulations. Electronic invoice...

  10. The 30th Anniversary of the First Reported Cases of AIDS | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than halves the risk of female-to-male sexual HIV transmission. Needle and syringe exchange programs can reduce HIV ... HIV-related health disparities, their role in disease transmission and ... gender, age, or sexual identity. NIH research also will continue to play ...

  11. 75 FR 39954 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of a Conference Call of the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of a Conference Call of the NIH Scientific Management Review Board Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a conference call meeting of...

  12. Mechanistic studies of anticancer aptamer AS1411 reveal a novel role for nucleolin in regulating Rac1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, E Merit; Šalipur, Francesca R; Shams, Mitra; Forsthoefel, Matthew K; Bates, Paula J

    2015-08-01

    AS1411 is a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide that binds specifically to nucleolin, a protein found on the surface and in the cytoplasm of most malignant cells but absent from the surface/cytoplasm of most normal cells. AS1411 has shown promising clinical activity and is being widely used as a tumor-targeting agent, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that AS1411 is taken up in cancer cells by macropinocytosis (fluid phase endocytosis) and subsequently stimulates further macropinocytosis by a nucleolin-dependent mechanism. In the current study, we have investigated the significance and molecular mechanisms of AS1411-induced macropinocytosis. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative activity of AS1411 in various cell lines correlated with its capacity to stimulate macropinocytosis. In DU145 prostate cancer cells, AS1411 induced activation of EGFR, Akt, p38, and Rac1. Activation of Akt and p38 were not critical for AS1411 activity because Akt activation was not observed in all AS1411-responsive cell lines and knockdown of p38 had no effect on AS1411's ability to inhibit proliferation. On the other hand, activation of EGFR and Rac1 appeared to play a role in AS1411 activity in all cancer cell lines examined (DU145, MDA-MB-468, A549, LNCaP) and their inhibition significantly reduced AS1411-mediated macropinocytosis and AS1411 antiproliferative activity. Interestingly, downregulation of nucleolin expression by siRNA also produced a substantial increase in activated Rac1, revealing a previously unknown role for nucleolin as a negative regulator of Rac1 activation. Our results are consistent with a model whereby AS1411 binding to nucleolin leads to sustained activation of Rac1 and causes methuosis, a novel type of nonapoptotic cell death characterized by hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis. We speculate that methuosis is a tumor/metastasis suppressor mechanism that opposes the malignant functions of Rac1 and that

  13. The Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS in High School Students in Rasht in 2009 According to NIH Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asgharnia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder inwomen associated with many reproductive, endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PCOS among high school students in Rasht.Materials and Methods: In a cross–sectional study, 1850 students were selected by a multi-stage clustersampling from all high schools in Rasht. The inclusion criteria were: age 17-18 years, menarche from10-16 years, normal prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH values, no history of anatomicalmalformation, no use of medication or hair-removal techniques, and a history of oligo- or amenorrhea.PCOS was diagnosed if both menstrual dysfunction and clinical hyperandrogenism were detected.Results: Mean age of subjects was 17.2 ± 0.7 years and the age of menarche was 12.8 ± 0.9 years. Ofall students, 378 (20.4% had oligomenorrhea and PCOS was diagnosed in 210 (11.34 % accordingto the National Institute of Health (NIH definition. PCOS subjects, mean body mass index (BMI,waist circumference, and waist/hip (W/H ratio were 21.1 ± 3.6, 73.4 ± 8.0 cm and 0.77 ± 0.05,respectively. A family history of diabetes mellitus type 2 was reported in 24.7% of subjects.Conclusion: The prevalence of PCOS in this study was similar to the international estimatesof 10-20% in Caucasians. A long-term follow-up is needed to compare the accuracy of clinicaldetermination of the disease versus diagnosis based on hormonal and/or sonographic assessments.

  14. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John's wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostanska, Katarina; Rostock, Matthias; Melzer, Joerg; Baumgartner, Stephan; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-07-18

    Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712-2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712-1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712-3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined "wound field". All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712-2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712-1) at 1:100 dilutions (p 0.05). Preparation (0712-2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712-1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712-2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  15. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hostanska Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2, its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1 and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3 on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2 exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9% vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1 at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05. Preparation (0712–2 at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p  Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2 exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  16. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  17. The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures NIH Program: System-Level Cataloging of Human Cells Response to Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Alexandra B; Jenkins, Sherry L; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Koplev, Simon; He, Edward; Torre, Denis; Wang, Zichen; Dohlman, Anders B; Silverstein, Moshe C; Lachmann, Alexander; Kuleshov, Maxim V; Ma'ayan, Avi; Stathias, Vasileios; Terryn, Raymond; Cooper, Daniel; Forlin, Michele; Koleti, Amar; Vidovic, Dusica; Chung, Caty; Schürer, Stephan C; Vasiliauskas, Jouzas; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Fazel, Mehdi; Ren, Yan; Niu, Wen; Clark, Nicholas A; White, Shana; Mahi, Naim; Zhang, Lixia; Kouril, Michal; Reichard, John F; Sivaganesan, Siva; Medvedovic, Mario; Meller, Jaroslaw; Koch, Rick J; Birtwistle, Marc R; Iyengar, Ravi; Sobie, Eric A; Azeloglu, Evren U; Kaye, Julia; Osterloh, Jeannette; Haston, Kelly; Kalra, Jaslin; Finkbiener, Steve; Li, Jonathan; Milani, Pamela; Adam, Miriam; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Sachs, Karen; Lenail, Alex; Ramamoorthy, Divya; Fraenkel, Ernest; Daigle, Gavin; Hussain, Uzma; Coye, Alyssa; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Banuelos, Maria; Mandefro, Berhan; Ho, Ritchie; Svendsen, Clive N; Lim, Ryan G; Stocksdale, Jennifer; Casale, Malcolm S; Thompson, Terri G; Wu, Jie; Thompson, Leslie M; Dardov, Victoria; Venkatraman, Vidya; Matlock, Andrea; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Jaffe, Jacob D; Papanastasiou, Malvina; Subramanian, Aravind; Golub, Todd R; Erickson, Sean D; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Hafner, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Lin, Jia-Ren; Mills, Caitlin E; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Niepel, Mario; Shamu, Caroline E; Williams, Elizabeth H; Wrobel, David; Sorger, Peter K; Heiser, Laura M; Gray, Joe W; Korkola, James E; Mills, Gordon B; LaBarge, Mark; Feiler, Heidi S; Dane, Mark A; Bucher, Elmar; Nederlof, Michel; Sudar, Damir; Gross, Sean; Kilburn, David F; Smith, Rebecca; Devlin, Kaylyn; Margolis, Ron; Derr, Leslie; Lee, Albert; Pillai, Ajay

    2018-01-24

    The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) is an NIH Common Fund program that catalogs how human cells globally respond to chemical, genetic, and disease perturbations. Resources generated by LINCS include experimental and computational methods, visualization tools, molecular and imaging data, and signatures. By assembling an integrated picture of the range of responses of human cells exposed to many perturbations, the LINCS program aims to better understand human disease and to advance the development of new therapies. Perturbations under study include drugs, genetic perturbations, tissue micro-environments, antibodies, and disease-causing mutations. Responses to perturbations are measured by transcript profiling, mass spectrometry, cell imaging, and biochemical methods, among other assays. The LINCS program focuses on cellular physiology shared among tissues and cell types relevant to an array of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. This Perspective describes LINCS technologies, datasets, tools, and approaches to data accessibility and reusability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Awareness of Federal Regulatory Mechanisms Relevant to Community-Engaged Research: Survey of Health Disparities-Oriented NIH-Funded Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Stephanie M; Anderson, Emily E; Cowan, Ketch; Malen, Rachel C; Brugge, Doug

    2015-02-01

    Few studies or investigators involved in community-engaged research or community-based participatory research have examined awareness and adoption of federal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted a survey of investigators affiliated with the 10 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities. A questionnaire designed to capture experience with the conduct and oversight of community-engaged research, and awareness of pertinent regulatory mechanisms, including Federalwide Assurances (FWAs), Individual Investigator Agreements (IIAs), and Institutional Review Board Authorization Agreements (IAAs), was completed by 101 respondents (68% response rate). Although most were aware of FWAs, only a minority of those surveyed reported knowledge of IAAs and IIAs and even fewer had used them in their research with community partners. Implications for future training and oversight are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Eastern Ionian Sea paleoceanographic conditions during the Plio - Pleistocene as revealed through the study of fish otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, K.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Girone, A.; Karakitsios, V.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    water column. This increase in the tropical group of surface and intermediate waters, along with a decrease accordingly of both subtropical and temperate taxa, can be attributed to a climatic optimum at this time. However notable is the strong presence also of cold species Nansenia groenlandica and Benthosema glaciale in deeper water layers (mostly below 500 meters). Considering this event, it seems that warmer Atlantic water inflow in the Mediterranean, as a result of higher mean temperatures at this time, could be responsible for the upper part of the water column temperature increase. In addition, the formation of deeper water with lower temperatures than before could be attributed to increased river run off in the Adriatic Sea, which then inflows to the study areas. The paleoceanographic conditions appear generally stable until the uppermost part of the Pliocene, with colder temperatures prevailing gradually with an increase in relative abundance of Maurolicus muelleri combined with a decrease of Electrona risso. In the uppermost Pliocene and lowermost Pleistocene (around 1.73 Ma) the relative abundance of Electrona risso increases again in both study areas. Finally, the conditions in the upper part of the stratigraphic sequences return to temperate, with notable the presence of Myctophum punctatum, typically associated with upwelling conditions (Whitehead et al., 1984). Fish otoliths, as indicators of the paleoceanographic conditions throughout the water column, play a most significant role in the reconstruction of the deep - sea conditions. The presented palaeoecologic analysis of the Teleost fauna reveals distinct phases in the evolution of climate and oceanography during the Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene interval. Notwithstanding the general deterioration of climate progressing into the Pleistocene era, it appears that the Mediterranean paleocirculation in conjunction with regional topography were modulated by the constantly changing global climatic

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to esophageal and gastric cancers in the NIH-AARP cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cook

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body mass index is known to be positively associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, yet there is there limited evidence on whether physical activity or sedentary behavior affects risk of histology- and site-specific upper gastrointestinal cancers. We used the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to assess these exposures in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA, and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were used to elicit physical activity and sedentary behavior exposures at various age periods. Cohort members were followed via linkage to the US Postal Service National Change of Address database, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS: During 4.8 million person years, there were a total of 215 incident ESCCs, 631 EAs, 453 GCAs, and 501 GNCAs for analysis. Strenuous physical activity in the last 12 months (HR(>5 times/week vs. never=0.58, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.88 and typical physical activity and sports during ages 15-18 years (p for trend=0.01 were each inversely associated with GNCA risk. Increased sedentary behavior was inversely associated with EA (HR(5-6 hrs/day vs. <1 hr=0.57, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.92. There was no evidence that BMI was a confounder or effect modifier of any relationship. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of these results were deemed to be statistically significant at p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We find evidence for an inverse association between physical activity and GNCA risk. Associations between body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus do not appear to be related to physical activity and sedentary behavior.

  1. Studies on the Virome of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Reveal Novel dsRNA Elements and Mild Hypervirulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioly Kotta-Loizou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a wide host range and is used as a biocontrol agent against arthropod pests. Mycoviruses have been described in phytopathogenic fungi while in entomopathogenic fungi their presence has been reported only rarely. Here we show that 21.3% of a collection of B. bassiana isolates sourced from worldwide locations, harbor dsRNA elements. Molecular characterization of these elements revealed the prevalence of mycoviruses belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, the smallest reported virus to date, belonging to the family Narnaviridae, and viruses unassigned to a family or genus. Of particular importance is the discovery of members of a newly proposed family Polymycoviridae in B. bassiana. Polymycoviruses, previously designated as tetramycoviruses, consist of four non-conventionally encapsidated capped dsRNAs. The presence of additional non-homologous genomic segments in B. bassiana polymycoviruses and other fungi illustrates the unprecedented dynamic nature of the viral genome. Finally, a comparison of virus-free and virus-infected isogenic lines derived from an exemplar B. bassiana isolate revealed a mild hypervirulent effect of mycoviruses on the growth of their host isolate and on its pathogenicity against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, highlighting for the first time the potential of mycoviruses as enhancers of biocontrol agents.

  2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Correlation of modified NIH risk stratification with diffusion-weighted MR imaging as an imaging biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Seong Hyun; Jang, Kyung Mi; Choi, Dongil; Ha, Sang Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Min Ji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Except size and necrosis, conventional MR findings of GISTs were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC values of GISTs were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC value can be helpful for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of risk grade of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) based on modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging. Methods: We included 22 patients with histopathologically proven GISTs in the stomach or small bowel who underwent pre-operative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and DW imaging. We retrospectively assessed correlations between morphologic findings, qualitative (signal intensity, consensus from two observers) and quantitative (degree of dynamic enhancement using signal intensity of tumour/muscle ratio and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) values, and the modified NIH criteria for risk stratification. Spearman partial correlation analysis was used to control for tumour size as a confounding factor. The optimal cut-off level of ADC values for intermediate or high risk GISTs was analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings, including the degree of dynamic enhancement, were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria (p > 0.05). Tumour ADC values were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria, before and after adjustment of tumour size (ρ = −0.754; p < 0.001 and ρ = −0.513; p = 0.017, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs was 1.279 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (100% sensitivity, 69.2% specificity, 81.8% accuracy). Conclusion: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings did not correlate with

  3. An NIH intramural percubator as a model of academic-industry partnerships: from the beginning of life through the valley of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmert-Buck Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2009 the NIH publicly announced five strategic goals for the institutes that included the critical need to translate research discoveries into public benefit at an accelerated pace, with a commitment to find novel ways to engage academic investigators in the process. The emphasis on moving scientific advancements from the laboratory to the clinic is an opportune time to discuss how the NIH intramural program in Bethesda, the largest biomedical research center in the world, can participate in this endeavor. Proposed here for consideration is a percolator-incubator program, a 'percubator' designed to enable NIH intramural investigators to develop new medical interventions as quickly and efficiently as possible.

  4. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ilse; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Marquine, Maria J; Umlauf, Anya; Moore, David J; Mungas, Dan; Gershon, Richard C; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB. T-scores (demographically-unadjusted) were developed based on the current sample and were used in analyses. Spanish-speaking Hispanics performed worse than English-speaking Hispanics and NH whites on demographically unadjusted NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite scores (ps cognitive flexibility or episodic memory. Test performances were associated with language/cultural backgrounds in the Hispanic-Spanish group: better vocabularies and reading were predicted by being born outside the U.S., having Spanish as a first language, attending school outside the U.S., and speaking more Spanish at home. However, many of these same background factors were associated with worse Fluid Composites within the Hispanic-Spanish group. On tests of Fluid cognition, the Hispanic-Spanish group performed the poorest of all groups. Socio-demographic and linguistic factors were associated with those differences. These findings highlight the importance of considering language/cultural backgrounds when interpreting neuropsychological test performances. Importantly, after applying previously published NIHTB-CB norms with demographic corrections, these language/ethnic group differences are eliminated.

  5. MO-C-BRB-06: Translating NIH / NIBIB funding to clinical reality in quantitative diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, E. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  6. MO-C-BRB-06: Translating NIH / NIBIB funding to clinical reality in quantitative diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  7. North Carolinians Volunteer for Knee Pain Study | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little more is even better, and now we know that long-term exercise and weight loss produce excellent results. They aren’t a magic pill, but they come close.” The clinical trials at Wake Forest last for 18 months or longer. About ...

  8. NIH Study Finds Regular Aspirin Use May Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily aspirin use include upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke. Therefore, a daily aspirin regimen should only be ... translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. ...

  9. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of Tau......T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3 cells......, i.e., inhibition of CK2 increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+) and hence Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake....

  10. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low...

  11. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modeliranje hidrodinamičnih, oceanografskih in okoljskih spremenljivk ter koncentracij živega srebra v morskem okolju

    OpenAIRE

    Sirnik, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Onesnaženost voda velja za enega ključnih ekoloških problemov današnjega časa. V Sloveniji in Sredozemlju je v rekah in morju poleg običajnih onesnaževal v visokih koncentracijah prisotno tudi živo srebro. Kot del reševanja problema onesnaženosti voda pri nas in v svetu razvijamo matematične modele, s katerimi je možno določiti obseg onesnaženja in možnosti sanacije. Model PCFLOW3D je 3D baroklini matematični model, ki ponuja možnost modeliranja hidrodinami čnih in nekaterih ok...

  13. Measuring Episodic Memory Across the Lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Gershon, Richard; Temkin, Nancy R.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory is one of the most important cognitive domains that involves acquiring, storing and recalling new information. In this article, we describe a new measure developed for the NIH Toolbox, called the Picture Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) that is the first to examine episodic memory across the age range from 3 to 85. We describe the development of the measure and present validation data for ages 20 to 85. The PSMT involves presentation of sequences of pictured objects and activities in a fixed order on a computer screen and simultaneously verbally described, that the participant must remember and then reproduce over three learning trials. The results indicate good test–retest reliability and construct validity. Performance is strongly related to well-established “gold standard” measures of episodic memory and, as expected, much less well correlated with those of a measure of vocabulary. It shows clear decline with aging in parallel with a gold standard summary measure and relates to several other demographic factors and to self-reported general health status. The PSMT appears to be a reliable and valid test of episodic memory for adults, a finding similar to those found for the same measure with children. PMID:24960230

  14. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

  15. Measuring episodic memory across the lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Sureyya S; Bauer, Patricia J; Weintraub, Sandra; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Gershon, Richard; Temkin, Nancy R; Heaton, Robert K

    2014-07-01

    Episodic memory is one of the most important cognitive domains that involves acquiring, storing and recalling new information. In this article, we describe a new measure developed for the NIH Toolbox, called the Picture Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) that is the first to examine episodic memory across the age range from 3 to 85. We describe the development of the measure and present validation data for ages 20 to 85. The PSMT involves presentation of sequences of pictured objects and activities in a fixed order on a computer screen and simultaneously verbally described, that the participant must remember and then reproduce over three learning trials. The results indicate good test-retest reliability and construct validity. Performance is strongly related to well-established "gold standard" measures of episodic memory and, as expected, much less well correlated with those of a measure of vocabulary. It shows clear decline with aging in parallel with a gold standard summary measure and relates to several other demographic factors and to self-reported general health status. The PSMT appears to be a reliable and valid test of episodic memory for adults, a finding similar to those found for the same measure with children.

  16. Failure Mechanisms of Ni-H2 and Li-Ion Batteries Under Hypervelocity Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Lyons, F.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries have yielded significant performance advantages for many industries, including the aerospace industry, and have been selected to replace nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries for the International Space Station (ISS) program to meet the energy storage demands. As the ISS uses its vast solar arrays to generate its power, the solar arrays meet their sunlit power demands and supply excess power to battery packs for power delivery on the sun obscured phase of the approximate 90 minute low Earth orbit. These large battery packs are located on the exterior of the ISS, and as such, the battery packs are exposed to external environment threats like naturally occurring meteoroids and artificial orbital debris (MMOD). While the risks from these solid particle environments has been known and addressed to an acceptable risk of failure through shield design, it is not possible to completely eliminate the risk of loss of these assets on orbit due to MMOD, and as such, failure consequences to the ISS have been considered.

  17. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne; Blaauboer, Bas; Bakker, Wieger; Hendriksen, Coenraad

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine, reduce or replace this test. Some are formally incorporated into regulatory requirements, but actual regulatory acceptance and use by industry lags behind, raising the question concerning which factors influence this process. This question is answered by a combination of literature review, interviews and a survey among 50 rabies vaccine experts. The findings are analyzed using the multilevel perspective on technology transition, which distinguishes 3 levels of factors influencing innovation acceptance. At the micro level (where 3R models are developed and validated) the dis-advantages of, and fractional experience with, 3R models, scarce data sharing and demanding validation processes exist. The meso level (existing regulatory regime) encloses the barriers of the 'gold standard', the lack of harmonization and the driving force of legislation stimulating 3Rs use. The macro level (the societal context) combines risk aversion and increased concern for animal welfare. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models requires dedicated stakeholder communication, cooperation and coordination at all three levels. Copyright © 2014 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  19. Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class of Pezizomycotina: Xylonomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, R; Miadlikowska, J; Lutzoni, F; Arnold, A E; Chaverri, P

    2012-10-01

    Through a culture-based survey of living sapwood and leaves of rubber trees (Hevea spp.) in remote forests of Peru, we discovered a new major lineage of Ascomycota, equivalent to a class rank. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal that this new lineage originated during the radiation of the 'Leotiomyceta', which resulted not only in the evolution of the Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Geoglossomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Lichinomycetes, and Sordariomycetes, but also of the majority of hyperdiverse foliar endophytes. Because its origin is nested within this major burst of fungal diversification, we could not recover strong support for its phylogenetic relationship within the 'Leotiomyceta'. Congruent with their long phylogenetic history and distinctive preference for growing in sapwood, this new lineage displays unique morphological, physiological, and ecological traits relative to known endophytes and currently described members of the 'Leotiomyceta'. In marked contrast to many foliar endophytes, the strains we isolated fail to degrade cellulose and lignin in vitro. Discovery of the new class, herein named Xylonomycetes and originally mis-identified by ITSrDNA sequencing alone, highlights the importance of inventorying tropical endophytes from unexplored regions, using multilocus data sets to infer the phylogenetic placement of unknown strains, and the need to sample diverse plant tissues using traditional methods to enhance efforts to discover the evolutionary, taxonomic, and functional diversity of symbiotrophic fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Saussac, Mathilde; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Budge, Giles E; Hendrikx, Pascal; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed.

  1. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Jacques

    Full Text Available Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed.

  2. Study results of picking high amplitude reflectors in turbidite channel to reveal detail of methane hydrate concentrated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, N.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Bottom simulating reflectors are found extensively in the eastern Nankai Trough. BSR is considered as a bottom of methane hydrate bearing sediments. High resolution three-dimensional seismic surveys were conducted in 2002 and a multi-well drilling campaign was executed in 2004. This paper discussed the resource potential of methane hydrate in this area. The paper discussed an evaluation of more than 10 methane hydrate concentrated zones in the Nankai Trough. Methane hydrated concentrated zones in this area are roughly classified into 2 types of turbidite sedimentary facies from the seismic geomorphological point of view known as lobe and channel. This paper attempted to interpret a detailed structure of a channel type methane hydrate concentrated zone. High amplitude reflector patches may indicate sand dominated bodies with high methane hydrate concentration. It was concluded that picked reflector patches demonstrated that the methane hydrate concentrated zone was biforked at a lower current area. Detailed observations also revealed that the methane hydrate concentrated zone was developed in a channel complex of which fluid migration was slowly shifted.

  3. Genome-wide study of an elite rice pedigree reveals a complex history of genetic architecture for breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; Lin, Zechuan; Zhou, Degui; Wang, Chongrong; Li, Hong; Yu, Renbo; Deng, Hanchao; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Shaochuan; Wang Deng, Xing; He, Hang

    2017-04-04

    Improving breeding has been widely utilized in crop breeding and contributed to yield and quality improvement, yet few researches have been done to analyze genetic architecture underlying breeding improvement comprehensively. Here, we collected genotype and phenotype data of 99 cultivars from the complete pedigree including Huanghuazhan, an elite, high-quality, conventional indica rice that has been grown over 4.5 million hectares in southern China and from which more than 20 excellent cultivars have been derived. We identified 1,313 selective sweeps (SSWs) revealing four stage-specific selection patterns corresponding to improvement preference during 65 years, and 1113 conserved Huanghuazhan traceable blocks (cHTBs) introduced from different donors and conserved in >3 breeding generations were the core genomic regions for superior performance of Huanghuazhan. Based on 151 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified for 13 improved traits in the pedigree, we reproduced their improvement process in silico, highlighting improving breeding works well for traits controlled by major/major + minor effect QTLs, but was inefficient for traits controlled by QTLs with complex interactions or explaining low levels of phenotypic variation. These results indicate long-term breeding improvement is efficient to construct superior genetic architecture for elite performance, yet molecular breeding with designed genotype of QTLs can facilitate complex traits improvement.

  4. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Swedish nursing homes - as revealed in the SHADES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L; Olofsson, M; Löfgren, S; Mölstad, S; Lindgren, P-E; Matussek, A

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of carriage and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus is crucial for infection risk assessment and to reveal transmission patterns of strains. We report the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in elderly people (n = 290) living in nursing homes in three cities in the south of Sweden. The overall carriage prevalence rate was 48% when results from nares (31%) and throat (34%) samples were combined. Common spa types were equally distributed but a frequent type, t160, was found only in one of the regions. Carriage of different spa types was detected in 23% of individuals and antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in S. aureus isolates from those carrying more than one spa type. Five of the 21 individuals who carried different spa types were colonized simultaneously with resistant and non-resistant strains. Seventeen per cent of the individuals carried S. aureus of the same spa type on all occasions. Methicillin resistance was not detected. In conclusion we found a high prevalence of S. aureus in this elderly population with a high rate of dual colonization with different spa types. We also found signs of institutional spread of one strain.

  5. Author Disambiguation in PubMed: Evidence on the Precision and Recall of Author-ity among NIH-Funded Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Lerchenmueller

    Full Text Available We examined the usefulness (precision and completeness (recall of the Author-ity author disambiguation for PubMed articles by associating articles with scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH. In doing so, we exploited established unique identifiers-Principal Investigator (PI IDs-that the NIH assigns to funded scientists. Analyzing a set of 36,987 NIH scientists who received their first R01 grant between 1985 and 2009, we identified 355,921 articles appearing in PubMed that would allow us to evaluate the precision and recall of the Author-ity disambiguation. We found that Author-ity identified the NIH scientists with 99.51% precision across the articles. It had a corresponding recall of 99.64%. Precision and recall, moreover, appeared stable across common and uncommon last names, across ethnic backgrounds, and across levels of scientist productivity.

  6. Author Disambiguation in PubMed: Evidence on the Precision and Recall of Author-ity among NIH-Funded Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchenmueller, Marc J; Sorenson, Olav

    2016-01-01

    We examined the usefulness (precision) and completeness (recall) of the Author-ity author disambiguation for PubMed articles by associating articles with scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In doing so, we exploited established unique identifiers-Principal Investigator (PI) IDs-that the NIH assigns to funded scientists. Analyzing a set of 36,987 NIH scientists who received their first R01 grant between 1985 and 2009, we identified 355,921 articles appearing in PubMed that would allow us to evaluate the precision and recall of the Author-ity disambiguation. We found that Author-ity identified the NIH scientists with 99.51% precision across the articles. It had a corresponding recall of 99.64%. Precision and recall, moreover, appeared stable across common and uncommon last names, across ethnic backgrounds, and across levels of scientist productivity.

  7. Are glutathione S transferases involved in DNA damage signalling? Interactions with DNA damage and repair revealed from molecular epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusinska, Maria; Staruchova, Marta; Horska, Alexandra; Smolkova, Bozena; Collins, Andrew; Bonassi, Stefano; Volkovova, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multigene family of isoenzymes that are important in the control of oxidative stress and in phase II metabolism. Acting non-enzymically, GSTs can modulate signalling pathways of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Using a molecular epidemiology approach, we have investigated a potential involvement of GSTs in DNA damage processing, specifically the modulation of DNA repair in a group of 388 healthy adult volunteers; 239 with at least 5 years of occupational exposure to asbestos, stone wool or glass fibre, and 149 reference subjects. We measured DNA damage in lymphocytes using the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis): strand breaks (SBs) and alkali-labile sites, oxidised pyrimidines with endonuclease III, and oxidised purines with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. We also measured GST activity in erythrocytes, and the capacity for base excision repair (BER) in a lymphocyte extract. Polymorphisms in genes encoding three GST isoenzymes were determined, namely deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and single nucleotide polymorphism Ile105Val in GSTP1. Consumption of vegetables and wine correlated negatively with DNA damage and modulated BER. GST activity correlated with oxidised bases and with BER capacity, and differed depending on polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM1. A significantly lower BER rate was associated with the homozygous GSTT1 deletion in all asbestos site subjects and in the corresponding reference group. Multifactorial analysis revealed effects of sex and exposure in GSTP1 Ile/Val heterozygotes but not in Ile/Ile homozygotes. These variants affected also SBs levels, mainly by interactions of GSTP1 genotype with exposure, with sex, and with smoking habit; and by an interaction between sex and smoking. Our results show that GST polymorphisms and GST activity can apparently influence DNA stability and repair of oxidised bases, suggesting a potential new role for these

  8. Observational study on the fine structure and dynamics of a solar jet. II. Energy release process revealed by spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahito; Tei, Akiko; Asai, Ayumi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    We report on a solar jet phenomenon associated with the C5.4 class flare on 2014 November 11. The data of the jet was provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. These plentiful data enabled us to present this series of papers to discuss all the processes of the observed phenomena, including energy storage, event trigger, and energy release. In this paper, we focus on the energy release process of the observed jet, and mainly describe our spectral analysis on the Hα data of DST to investigate the internal structure of the Hα jet and its temporal evolution. This analysis reveals that in the physical quantity distributions of the Hα jet, such as line-of-sight velocity and optical thickness, there is a significant gradient in the direction crossing the jet. We interpret this internal structure as the consequence of the migration of the energy release site, based on the idea of ubiquitous reconnection. Moreover, by measuring the horizontal flow of the fine structures in the jet, we succeeded in deriving the three-dimensional velocity field and the line-of-sight acceleration field of the Hα jet. The analysis result indicates that part of the ejecta in the Hα jet experienced additional acceleration after it had been ejected from the lower atmosphere. This secondary acceleration was found to occur in the vicinity of the intersection between the trajectories of the Hα jet and the X-ray jet observed by Hinode/XRT. We propose that a fundamental cause of this phenomenon is magnetic reconnection involving the plasmoid in the observed jet.

  9. Extensive genomic plasticity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed by identification and distribution studies of novel genes among clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kai; Sayeed, Sameera; Antalis, Patricia; Gladitz, John; Ahmed, Azad; Dice, Bethany; Janto, Benjamin; Dopico, Richard; Keefe, Randy; Hayes, Jay; Johnson, Sandra; Yu, Sujun; Ehrlich, Nathan; Jocz, Jennifer; Kropp, Laura; Wong, Ray; Wadowsky, Robert M; Slifkin, Malcolm; Preston, Robert A; Erdos, Geza; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z

    2006-09-01

    The distributed genome hypothesis (DGH) states that each strain within a bacterial species receives a unique distribution of genes from a population-based supragenome that is many times larger than the genome of any given strain. The observations that natural infecting populations are often polyclonal and that most chronic bacterial pathogens have highly developed mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer suggested the DGH and provided the means and the mechanisms to explain how chronic infections persist in the face of a mammalian host's adaptive defense mechanisms. Having previously established the validity of the DGH for obligate pathogens, we wished to evaluate its applicability to an opportunistic bacterial pathogen. This was accomplished by construction and analysis of a highly redundant pooled genomic library containing approximately 216,000 functional clones that was constructed from 12 low-passage clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 otorrheic isolates and 6 from other body sites. Sequence analysis of 3,214 randomly picked clones (mean insert size, approximately 1.4 kb) from this library demonstrated that 348 (10.8%) of the clones were unique with respect to all genomic sequences of the P. aeruginosa prototype strain, PAO1. Hypothetical translations of the open reading frames within these unique sequences demonstrated protein homologies to a number of bacterial virulence factors and other proteins not previously identified in P. aeruginosa. PCR and reverse transcription-PCR-based assays were performed to analyze the distribution and expression patterns of a 70-open reading frame subset of these sequences among 11 of the clinical strains. These sequences were unevenly distributed among the clinical isolates, with nearly half (34/70) of the novel sequences being present in only one or two of the individual strains. Expression profiling revealed that a vast majority of these sequences are expressed, strongly suggesting they encode functional proteins.

  10. Are glutathione S transferases involved in DNA damage signalling? Interactions with DNA damage and repair revealed from molecular epidemiology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusinska, Maria, E-mail: Maria.DUSINSKA@nilu.no [CEE-Health Effects Group, NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Staruchova, Marta; Horska, Alexandra [Department of Experimental and Applied Genetics, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Smolkova, Bozena [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Collins, Andrew [Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (Norway); Bonassi, Stefano [Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome (Italy); Volkovova, Katarina [Department of Experimental and Applied Genetics, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multigene family of isoenzymes that are important in the control of oxidative stress and in phase II metabolism. Acting non-enzymically, GSTs can modulate signalling pathways of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Using a molecular epidemiology approach, we have investigated a potential involvement of GSTs in DNA damage processing, specifically the modulation of DNA repair in a group of 388 healthy adult volunteers; 239 with at least 5 years of occupational exposure to asbestos, stone wool or glass fibre, and 149 reference subjects. We measured DNA damage in lymphocytes using the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis): strand breaks (SBs) and alkali-labile sites, oxidised pyrimidines with endonuclease III, and oxidised purines with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. We also measured GST activity in erythrocytes, and the capacity for base excision repair (BER) in a lymphocyte extract. Polymorphisms in genes encoding three GST isoenzymes were determined, namely deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and single nucleotide polymorphism Ile105Val in GSTP1. Consumption of vegetables and wine correlated negatively with DNA damage and modulated BER. GST activity correlated with oxidised bases and with BER capacity, and differed depending on polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM1. A significantly lower BER rate was associated with the homozygous GSTT1 deletion in all asbestos site subjects and in the corresponding reference group. Multifactorial analysis revealed effects of sex and exposure in GSTP1 Ile/Val heterozygotes but not in Ile/Ile homozygotes. These variants affected also SBs levels, mainly by interactions of GSTP1 genotype with exposure, with sex, and with smoking habit; and by an interaction between sex and smoking. Our results show that GST polymorphisms and GST activity can apparently influence DNA stability and repair of oxidised bases, suggesting a potential new role for these

  11. Proteomics reveals changes in hepatic proteins during chicken embryonic development: an alternative model to study human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Mengling; Li, Shengnan; He, Qianian; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2018-01-01

    Background Chicken embryos are widely used as a model for studies of obesity; however, no detailed information is available about the dynamic changes of proteins during the regulation of adipose biology and metabolism. Thus, the present study used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic approach to identify the changes in protein abundance at different stages of chicken embryonic development. Results In this study, the abundances of 293 hepatic proteins...

  12. Priming can affect naming colours using the study-test procedure. Revealing the role of task conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinkar

    2016-11-14

    The Stroop paradigm has been widely used to study attention whilst its use to explore implicit memory have been mixed. Using the non-colour word Stroop task we tested contrasting predictions from the proactive-control/task-conflict model (Kalanthroff, Avnit, Henik, Davelaar & Usher, 2015) that implicate response conflict and task conflict for the priming effects. Using the study-test procedure 60 native English speakers were tested to determine whether priming effects from words that had previously been studied would cause interference when presented in a colour naming task. The results replicate a finding by MacLeod (1996) who showed no differences between the response latencies to studied and unstudied words. However, this pattern was predominately in the first half of the study where it was also found that both studied and unstudied words in a mixed block were slower to respond to than a block of pure unstudied words. The second half of the study showed stronger priming interference effects as well as a sequential modulation effect in which studied words slowed down the responses of studied words on the next trial. We discuss the role of proactive and reactive control processes and conclude that task conflict best explains the pattern of priming effects reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Epidemiological study of paediatric germ cell tumours revealed the incidence and distribution that was expected, but a low mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Madeline; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Graem, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous tumour group derived from primordial germ cells, which can be benign or malignant and occur in the gonads or extragonadally. This study mapped the paediatric GCTs in Denmark from 1984 to 2013 to study the incidence and outcome. Methods: We id...

  14. An integrative genetic study of rice metabolism, growth and stochastic variation reveals potential C/N partitioning loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic...... on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we......Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused...

  15. Evaluation of a mid-career investigator career development award: Assessing the ability of OppNet K18 awardees to obtain NIH follow-on research funding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy A Pomeroy-Carter

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health (NIH K18 award mechanism provides funded opportunities for established investigators to gain knowledge in fields outside of their primary disciplines, but outcomes associated with these awards have not been evaluated to date. NIH's Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet is one of the few initiatives that has used this award mechanism. We explored how the unique features of K18 awards affect the ability of recipients to obtain follow-on NIH research funding. We compared outcomes (ability to obtain follow-on funding and interval between receipt of the primary award and receipt of the first follow-on award associated with OppNet K18 awards to findings from evaluations of other NIH career development (K awards, which usually target early-career investigators. We hypothesized that K18 award recipients might be (1 more successful than are other K award recipients in obtaining follow-on NIH research funding due to their career experience or (2 less successful due to the competing demands of other projects. By analyzing follow-on NIH research awards and interview data, we found that OppNet K18 award recipients were at least as successful as were other K award recipients in obtaining follow-on funding and may have been more successful by certain measures. K18 awards produce their outcomes with a lower investment per investigator than do other K awards, suggesting continued or enhanced use of the mechanism.

  16. Main and epistatic loci studies in soybean for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resistance reveal multiple modes of resistance in multi-environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moellers, Tara C.; Singh, Arti; Zhang, Jiaoping; Brungardt, Jae; Kabbage, Mehdi; Mueller, Daren S.; Grau, Craig R.; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L.; Chowda-Reddy, R. V.; Singh, Asheesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) and epistatic (GWES) studies along with expression studies in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were leveraged to dissect the genetics of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) [caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary], a significant fungal disease causing yield and quality losses. A large association panel of 466 diverse plant introduction accessions were phenotyped in multiple field and controlled environments to: (1) discover sources of resistance, (2) identify ...

  17. An Integrative Genetic Study of Rice Metabolism, Growth and Stochastic Variation Reveals Potential C/N Partitioning Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Huai, Dongxin; Zhou, Yongming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we show that in contrast to other rice studies, the heritability of primary metabolism is similar to Arabidopsis. The vast majority of metabolic QTLs had small to moderate effects with significant polygenic epistasis. Two metabolomics QTL hotspots had opposing effects on carbon and nitrogen rich metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic variation for metabolism than was found in Arabidopsis. Thus, it is possible that domestication has differentially impacted stochastic metabolite variation more than average metabolite variation.

  18. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white, and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness, and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. 322,846 participants (187,265 men; 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995–1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men, 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, BMI, self-reported diabetes, and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1 HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02–1.42, p-trend=0.03), red meat (HR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48, p-trend=0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00–1.45, p-trend=0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.03–1.50, p-trend=0.007), well/very well done meat (HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, p-trend = 0.005), and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1 HR=1.21, 95% CI 1.01–1.45, p-trend=0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26666579

  19. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  20. High Resolution MRI Reveals Detailed Layer Structures in Early Human Fetal Stages: In Vitro Study with Histologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpin; Dai, Guangping; Takahashi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of normal fetal brain development is essential in detecting the early onset of brain disorders. It is challenging to obtain high-quality images that show detailed local anatomy in the early fetal stages because the fetal brain is very small with rapidly-changing complex structures related to brain development, including neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and axonal elongation. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies detected three layers throughout the fetal cerebral wall that showed differences in MR contrasts at 10 gestational weeks (GW), which is one of the earliest ages studied using MRI. Contrary to the MRI studies, histological studies found more layers at this fetal age. The purpose of this work is to study the development of brain structures from an early fetal period to an early second trimester stage using ex vivo MRI and compare it to histology. Special attention was paid to laminar structures in the cerebral wall. T2-weighted imaging was performed on fetal brain specimens ranging from 10 GW to 18 GW on a 4.7 tesla MR scanner. We obtained standard grayscale as well as color-coded images using weighted red-green-blue scales, and compared them with the histological images. Our study confirmed laminar structure in the cerebral wall in all the fetal specimens studied. We found that MRI detected four layers within the cerebral wall as early as 10 GW during the early fetal period (10-13 GW). Early second trimester (15-18 GW) was characterized by the emergence of subplate structures and five layers within the cerebral wall. The color-coded images were more useful than the standard grayscale images in detecting the laminar structures. Scans with appropriate parameters from a high tesla MR scanner showed detailed laminar structures even through a very small and thin cerebral wall at 10 GW ex vivo. A combination of high-resolution structural imaging and color-coding processing with histological analysis may be a potential tool for