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Sample records for nigeria incidence correlates

  1. Correlation between the time-series of air temperature and incident solar radiation at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjepong, S.K.; Okujagu, C.

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of an investigation of the correlation between the temporal variations of the time-series of ground air temperature and incident solar radiation recorded at Port Harcourt (lat. 4 deg. 51' N, long. 7 deg. 01' E), Nigeria, during a five-year period (1981 through 1985). Computed cross-correlation functions of the daily time-series reveal correlation at time lags which are approximate harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation cycle. The cross-correlation function of the mean monthly series shows correlation at a time lag of 12 months implying a dominant annual-cycle component in the variation of either series. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  2. Incidence Of Poverty In Nigeria: Causes And Consequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of 21st century, after nearly forty eight years of Independence, Nigeria is by all standard of measurement, a very poor country. Poverty is wide and deep in Nigeria. This paper therefore, examines the incidence of poverty in Nigeria, causes and consequences. Much of the problems which created poverty is ...

  3. Acute Appendicitis: Incidence and Management in Nigeria | Alatise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appendicitis is the leading cause of surgical emergency admission in most hospital in Nigeria. It accounts for about 15-40% of all emergency surgery done in most centers in the country. All age groups can develop the disease including the fetus in utero, but the incidence is higher in the second and third decade of life.

  4. Cancer incidence in south-east Nigeria: a report from Nnewi Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first population based cancer incidence report from a cancer registry in south-east Nigeria. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of some invasive cancers in southeast Nigeria. Methodology: We collected all new cases of invasive cancers between 1st January and 31st December, 2013.

  5. Incidence and correlates of delirium in a West African mental health clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ola, B.A.; Crabb, J.; Krishnadas, R.; Erinfolami, A.R.; Olagunju, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:\\ud \\ud \\ud To determine the incidence of delirium in those patients presenting to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria and to examine if any demographic or clinical variables were correlated with this diagnosis.\\ud \\ud \\ud Method \\ud \\ud \\ud A prospective survey design; 264 consecutive new referrals to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria were assessed for the presence of delirium using a standardised diagnostic scale. Data was analysed for normality and appropriate statistical test employed...

  6. Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde; Akodu Ashiyat; Oladokun Bayonle; Akinbo Sunday Rufus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls...

  7. incidence of ectopic pregnancy in calabar, nigeria: two halves of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Reports of a rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in the country and beyond prompted ... O. Udofia, Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria .... on reproductive performance among EP patients.

  8. Incidence of Herdsmen Militancy in Southern Nigeria: A Threat-Import Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Simeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the threat implication of the incidence of Fulani herdsmen militancy in Southern Nigeria. Though engaged in nomadic cattle grazing, the militant group in Nigeria otherwise referred to as Fulani Herdsmen were known to be operating predominantly within the Middle Belt region of Northern Nigeria where they have been at daggers drawn with the native settled farmers. In recent times however, these nomadic pastoralists have aggressively expanded the frontiers of their operation to Southern Nigeria, unleashing mayhem against the host communities. Drawing from qualitative analysis of data collected through primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that the unbridled escalation of herders’ belligerence against the communities of Southern Nigeria would not only endanger state security but threaten the corporate existence of Nigeria. It therefore recommends that government at all levels should promulgate legislations outlawing open grazing of cattle while urging herders to establish ranches for their cattle.

  9. Incidence of Bacterial Septicaemia in Ile-Ife Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komolafe, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of septicaemia was conducted in Ile-Ife metropolis with a view to determine its incidence and changes in the predominant aetiological agents. Six hundred and fifty (650 subjects, aged from one day to seventy years and above were examined. They all had clinical features suggestive of septicaemia and were on admission at the Obafemi Awolowo University hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their blood specimens were seeded into thioglycolate and glucose broths and incubated at 37 °C for 7 days. Subcultures were performed after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days respectively. Growth (positivity in the broths was assessed using conventional diagnostic methods namely macroscopy (visualization, Gram filming (microscopy and culture. The bacterial isolates harvested were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disc diffusion method. Etiology was established in 204 out of 650 subjects indicating an incidence of 31.4%. This difference in prevalence among different age groups was statistically significant (P 0.01. Monomicrobial septicaemia had a higher prevalence (92.2% than polymicrobial septicaemia (7.8%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli constituted 43.8%. Most of the offensive microbes were facultative anaerobes (91.7% while very few were strict aerobes (6.8% and strict anaerobes (1.5%. The isolated anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus sp. (0.5% and Bacteroides fragilis (1%. The in vitro susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to antibiotics indicated 76.4-95.6% sensitivity to vancomycin, zinnat, peflacin and fortum. However, they were 60 – 90% resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and septrin. This study confirmed the diverse nature of bacterial etiologies of septicaemia in the area; the need for the use of thioglycolate broths, first subcultures on or before 24 h instead of starting off for after 48 h of incubation, complementary application of macroscopy, Gram filming and culture including

  10. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  11. Incidence of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. in Zea mays L. in the rainforest zone of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloba, C

    1979-01-01

    45 seed samples from 7 states of the rainforest zone of Nigeria (Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Bendel, Anambra, Imo, and Cross River) were screened for phytopathogen incidence. Whereas Drechslera maydis was found in 30 and Cephalosporium maydis in 79% of the samples were infected by Fusarium moniliforme, with 70% of the samples showing heavy infection. In view of the widespread nature of this economically important fungus on maize in the main cultivation area of Nigeria, the necessity for routine laboratory seed health tests is clearly indicated.

  12. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If moving from a location of low colorectal cancer incidence to one of high colorectal cancer incidence predisposes one to develop the disease, could not the converse apply and those with a predisposition to developing the disease experience some protection when they live or interact with those with negligible ...

  13. The Incidence and Management of Conflicts in Secular and Non-Secular Tertiary Institutions in South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele, Joseph Babatola; Adewumi, Joseph Olukayode

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The sample of this study was made of sixty staff, and two hundred and forty students randomly selected each from two secular and two non-secular tertiary institutions in south western Nigeria. A validated questionnaire was…

  14. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  15. Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls; with age range 15 – 18 years who participated in the 2010 National Finals of the Nigeria Nestlé Milo Basketball Competition. Basketball-related injury data were collected by an assessor during the competition using a standardized basketball injury report form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 32 injuries were recorded with an incidence of 22.7 injuries per 100 participants same for boys and girls. This is equivalent to 1.1 injury per match for boys and 0.9 injuries per match for girls. Jumping/landing was the most common cause of injury (28.1%, N = 9. Most of the injuries were at the lower extremities (75%, N = 24; with majority at the knee joint (40.6%, N = 13. Ligament sprain was the most common types of injury. The pattern of injuries among boys did not significantly differ from that of girls (P > 0.05. Most injuries (N = 13, 41% occurred in the offensive half of the court and cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion The overall incidence of match injury among adolescent amateur basketball players during a national competition in Nigeria was 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match. The pattern of injuries was similar in both genders and consistent with what has been previously reported in literature for adolescent basketball players. Exercise-based injury prevention programmes aimed at improving core strength and

  16. Incidence and cost estimate of treating pediatric adverse drug reactions in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs may cause prolonged hospital admissions with high treatment costs. The burden of ADRs in children has never been evaluated in Nigeria. The incidence of pediatric ADRs and the estimated cost of treatment over an 18-month period were determined in this study. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study on children admitted to the pediatric wards of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH in Nigeria, between July 2006 and December 2007. METHODS: Each patient was assessed for ADRs throughout admission. Medical and non-medical costs to the hospital and patient were estimated for each ADR by reviewing the medical and pharmacy bills, medical charts and diagnostic request forms and by interviewing the parents. Cost estimates were performed in 2007 naira (Nigeria currency from the perspectives of the hospital (government, service users (patients and society (bearers of the total costs attributable to treating ADRs. The total estimated cost was expressed in 2007 United States dollars (USD. RESULTS: Two thousand and four children were admitted during the study; 12 (0.6% were admitted because of ADRs and 23 (1.2% developed ADR(s during admission. Forty ADRs were suspected in these 35 patients and involved 53 medicines. Antibiotics (50% were the most suspected medicines. Approximately 1.83 million naira (USD 15,466.60 was expended to manage all the patients admitted due to ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: Treating pediatric ADRs was very expensive. Pediatric drug use policies in Nigeria need to be reviewed so as to discourage self-medication, polypharmacy prescription and sales of prescription medicines without prescription.

  17. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, southern Nigeria, and some ... The ecological distribution of the log (BCF) values was, for all the heavy metals, ..... Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.

  18. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    been recognized as one of the most serious threats to the estuarine ... rainforest belt of South-Eastern Nigeria is also the ..... The Cross River Basin: Soil characteristics, Geology, Climate, Hydrology ... intertidal fauna of South Atlantic coastline,.

  19. Incidence of Hydronephrosis in Cervical Cancer Patients in A Tertiary Hospital Lagog, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, A C; Ajekigbe, A T; Alabi, A O; Popoola, A O; Fatiregun, O A; Akinyanju, A M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is still a global health challenge that affects women of reproductive age group and consequently causes a drawback on the social and economic stability of nations. Developing countries suffer a greater burden of the disease because of several factors such as poverty, multiple sexual partners, unbalanced diet, poor knowledge and attitude to prevention of diseases and late-presentation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria for the period of 3 years (2010-2012). This study is a cross sectional study carried out among cervical cancer patients seeking treatment in the Radiotherapy department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), between the year 2010 and 2012, to find out the incidence of hydronephrosis using abdominopelvic ultrasonography. The incidence of hydronephrosis during the 3years period studied was 43.7%. A rise in the incidence of hydronephrosis of 5.4% in 2011 and 13.3% in 2012 was noted. The mean age of the patients was 55.5 years. 122 (56.7%) were grand multiparous and 123 (57.2%) had multiple sexual partners. An increase of 8.3% in 2011 and 9.3% in 2012 was noted in the incidence of cervical cancer cases studied. 107 (49.8%) presented at stages III and IV. Late presentation of patients is still a major challenge affecting treatment outcomes. The presence of hydronephrosis was noticed at staging, during or after treatment, resulting in the need to separate this population from current Stage IIIB classification. The presence of hydronephrosis may or may not be related to the disease and so adequate staging is important.

  20. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    Geoelectric study of the groundwater potential of Ilara-Mokin in Ondo State Southwestern Nigeria was carried out using electrical resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding) method with the view to providing adequate information on the different sub-surface geoelectric layers, structural configuration of the concealed basement ...

  1. Information-Pooling Bias in Collaborative Security Incident Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajivan, Prashanth; Cooke, Nancy J

    2018-03-01

    Incident correlation is a vital step in the cybersecurity threat detection process. This article presents research on the effect of group-level information-pooling bias on collaborative incident correlation analysis in a synthetic task environment. Past research has shown that uneven information distribution biases people to share information that is known to most team members and prevents them from sharing any unique information available with them. The effect of such biases on security team collaborations are largely unknown. Thirty 3-person teams performed two threat detection missions involving information sharing and correlating security incidents. Incidents were predistributed to each person in the team based on the hidden profile paradigm. Participant teams, randomly assigned to three experimental groups, used different collaboration aids during Mission 2. Communication analysis revealed that participant teams were 3 times more likely to discuss security incidents commonly known to the majority. Unaided team collaboration was inefficient in finding associations between security incidents uniquely available to each member of the team. Visualizations that augment perceptual processing and recognition memory were found to mitigate the bias. The data suggest that (a) security analyst teams, when conducting collaborative correlation analysis, could be inefficient in pooling unique information from their peers; (b) employing off-the-shelf collaboration tools in cybersecurity defense environments is inadequate; and (c) collaborative security visualization tools developed considering the human cognitive limitations of security analysts is necessary. Potential applications of this research include development of team training procedures and collaboration tool development for security analysts.

  2. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  3. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  4. Correlates of Examination Malpractice among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animasahun, R. A.; Ogunniran, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlates of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was tagged Predisposing Factors towards Examination Malpractice Questionnaire (PFTEMQ). The instrument was administered to 300 students randomly selected from 20 multi staged…

  5. Teachers' Continuing Professional Development as Correlates of Sustainable Universal Basic Education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyunade, Olufunmilayo T.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the correlates of teachers' continuing professional development on universal basic education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Using descriptive survey, a sample of 500 teachers was randomly selected from twenty (20) Basic Junior Secondary Schools and Primary Schools used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a…

  6. Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    northern Hausa- Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost...Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for President. A former...country’s development will be hindered until it can reverse its perceived “ culture of impunity for political and economic crimes.”64 Upon taking office

  7. Incident energy dependence of pt correlations at relativistic energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta, M R; Mazumdar; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2005-01-01

    We present results for two-particle transverse momentum correlations, , as a function of event centrality for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 20, 62, 130, and 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We observe correlations decreasing with centrality that are similar at all four incident energies. The correlations multiplied by the multiplicity density increase with incident energy and the centrality dependence may show evidence of processes such as thermalization, minijet production, or the saturation of transverse flow. The square root of the correlations divided by the event-wise average transverse momentum per event shows little or no beam energy dependence and generally agrees with previous measurements at the Super Proton Synchrotron.

  8. The pattern and correlates of intimate partner violence among women in Kano, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimu, Tanko S.; Yohanna, Stephen; Omeiza, Suleiman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been increasingly recognised as a major public health and human rights problem that cuts across all populations, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural groups. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, pattern and correlates of IPV among women attending the General Out Patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. It was also designed to determine the pattern of health complic...

  9. Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Pathmanathan

    Full Text Available Nigeria had the most AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2014 (170,000, and 46% were associated with tuberculosis (TB. Although treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART reduces TB-associated morbidity and mortality, incident TB can occur while on ART. We estimated incidence and characterized factors associated with TB after ART initiation in Nigeria.We analyzed retrospective cohort data from a nationally representative sample of adult patients on ART. Data were abstracted from 3,496 patient records, and analyses were weighted and controlled for a complex survey design. We performed domain analyses on patients without documented TB disease and used a Cox proportional hazard model to assess factors associated with TB incidence after ART.At ART initiation, 3,350 patients (95.8% were not receiving TB treatment. TB incidence after ART initiation was 0.57 per 100 person-years, and significantly higher for patients with CD4<50/μL (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-12.7 compared with CD4≥200/μL. Patients with suspected but untreated TB at ART initiation and those with a history of prior TB were more likely to develop incident TB (AHR: 12.2, 95% CI: 4.5-33.5 and AHR: 17.6, 95% CI: 3.5-87.9, respectively.Incidence of TB among PLHIV after ART initiation was low, and predicted by advanced HIV, prior TB, and suspected but untreated TB. Study results suggest a need for improved TB screening and diagnosis, particularly among high-risk PLHIV initiating ART, and reinforce the benefit of early ART and other TB prevention efforts.

  10. Inequities in incidence, morbidity and expenditures on prevention and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzochukwu Benjamin S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a great burden on households, but the extent to which this is tilted against the poor is unclear. However, the knowledge of the level of the burden of malaria amongst different population groups is vital for ensuring equitable control of malaria. This paper examined the inequities in occurrence, economic burden, prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The study was undertaken in four malaria endemic villages in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. An asset-based index was used to categorize the households into socio-economic status (SES quartiles: least poor; poor; very poor; and most poor. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the SES differences in incidence, length of illness, ownership of treated nets, expenditures on treatment and prevention. Results All the SES quartiles had equal exposure to malaria. The pattern of health seeking for all the SES groups was almost similar, but in one of the villages the most poor, very poor and poor significantly used the services of patent medicine vendors and the least poor visited hospitals. The cost of treating malaria was similar across the SES quartiles. The average expenditure to treat an episode of malaria ranged from as low as 131 Naira ($1.09 to as high as 348 Naira ($2.9, while the transportation expenditure to receive treatment ranged from 26 Naira to 46 Naira (both less than $1. The level of expenditure to prevent malaria was low in the four villages, with less than 5% owning untreated nets and 10.4% with insecticide treated nets. Conclusion Malaria constitutes a burden to all SES groups, though the poorer socio-economic groups were more affected, because a greater proportion of their financial resources compared to their income are spent on treating the disease. The expenditures to treat malaria by the poorest households could lead to catastrophic health

  11. Risk Factors Correlated with Incidence of Low Birth Weight Cases

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    Anjas Dwi Purwanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infant with Low Birth Weight (LBW was one of the risk factors that contributed to the high infant mortality, especially in the neonatal period. About 17% from 25 millions birth each year in the world are infant with LBW. LBW could be caused by multifactor that were maternal factors (maternal age, birth interval, parity, anemia, social-economic and behaviour, fetus factor, placental factor, and environmental factor. The research aims was to analyze the risk factors correlated with incidence of LBW. This research was an observational  research with case-control design. The number of samples in this research were 120 mothers who delivered in working area of RSIA Kendangsari in 2014. The subjects were selected used systematic random method. The independent variabels in this research were maternal age, education level, employment status, birth interval, parity, age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension, and anemia, while the dependent variable in this research was LBW. Based on correlation analysis used Chi-square test showed there were not significant correlation (p>0,05 between birth interval and parity with LBW cases and there were significant correlations (p<0,05 between age pregnancy, hypertension during pregnancy and anemia with LBW cases. Odds Ratio (OR were 13,571 on age pregnancy, 2,224 on multiple pregnancy,2,753 on hypertension and 4,030 on anemia. The conlusion showed that the risk factors of LBW cases were age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension and anemia. While maternal age, education level, employment status, birth intervaland parity were not had any correlation with LBW cases. Keywords: LBW, risk factors, babies, maternal, pregnancy

  12. Are there geographic and socio-economic differences in incidence, burden and prevention of malaria? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Nkem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale It is not clearly evident whether malaria affects the poor more although it has been argued that the poor bear a very high burden of the disease. This study explored the socioeconomic and geographic differences in incidence and burden of malaria as well as ownership of mosquito nets. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1657 respondents from rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria on: incidence of malaria, number of days lost to malaria; actions to treat malaria and household ownership of insecticide treated and untreated mosquito nets. Data was compared across socio-economic status (SES quartiles and between urban and rural dwellers. Results There was statistically significant urban-rural difference in malaria occurrence with malaria occurring more amongst urban dwellers. There was more reported occurrence of malaria amongst children and other adult household members in better-off SES groups compared to worse-off SES groups, but not amongst respondents. The average number of days that people delayed before seeking treatment was two days, and both adults and children were ill with malaria for about six days. Better-off SES quartile and urban dwellers owned more mosquito nets (p Conclusion Malaria occurs more amongst better-off SES groups and urban dwellers in southeast Nigeria. Deployment of malaria control interventions should ensure universal access since targeting the poor and other supposedly vulnerable groups may exclude people that really require malaria control services.

  13. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiao-feng; Li, Lian-fang; Ou, Zhou-luo; Shen, Rong; Shao, Zhi-min

    2012-01-01

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  14. Sociodemographic Correlates of Choice of Health Care Services in Six Rural Communities in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemocho Audu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Household expenditure on health has increasingly remained a major source of health care financing in Nigeria despite the introduction of several social health scheme policies provided by the government for meeting the health care costs of patients. Recognizing these limitations, this study assessed the type of health care services people commonly use in various illnesses and the sociodemographic correlates of the preferred health care services by household heads in six rural communities of North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study design was used to study 154 household heads in the settlements using a multistage sampling method. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate independent predictors that had significant chi-square at P<0.05. The leading causes of illness experienced by respondents were medical conditions (42.0% and 41.7% of them sought treatment from patent medicine vendors. The dominant reasons for health-seeking preferences were financial access (53.7% and proximity (48.6%. Age had a higher impact (Beta = 0.892 on the health-seeking preferences of the respondents as compared to their occupation and religion (Beta = 0.368 and −0.746, resp.. Therefore, in order to meet the health care of patients, it is pertinent that the unmet needs of patients are properly addressed by appropriate agencies.

  15. Nursery School Headteacher Leadership Behaviour Correlates of Nursery School Teachers Job Satisfaction in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Okoroafor Nnenna

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on nursery school head teacher leadership behaviour as it correlates to nursery school teacher's job satisfaction. Data were collected through a scale and returned by sample of two hundred and fifty nursery school teacher's in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation…

  16. Factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women who had pre-term birth in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, over a 2 ½ year period were studied. The aim was to establish the factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar. Factors which significantly increase the incidence of pre-term delivery included: previous induced abortion ...

  17. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  18. Trends in incidence of low birth weight deliveries in a tertiary hospital, in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O Hassan; Z Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is an important determinant of both infant and neonatal mortality rates and is also an indicator of social and economic development. The World Health Organization described any baby with birth weight of less than 2.5kg as low birth weight baby. Objective: To determine the incidence of low birth weight deliveries in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Study design: A retrospective descriptive study. Results: The overall incidence of low birth weight delive...

  19. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Medical incidents in developing countries: A few case studies from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, F N

    2015-12-01

    The moral worth of a clinician's, action in patients' management depends exclusively on the moral acceptability of the rule of obligation to duty on which the clinician acts. Since every rational being thinks of him or herself as an end, all people must act in such a way that they treat humanity, whether in their own person or in the person of another, always as an end and never simply as a means. A duty of care is, therefore, paramount in the relationship between clinician and patient. While litigation in healthcare system is rapidly increasing globally, which affords individual explanation and compensation for perceived wrong diagnosis and treatment; it is still rudimentary in Nigeria. This default position has made most health care providers indifferent in the presence of gross clinical negligence and medical errors. Though most Nigerians may be aware of their rights to institute legal action in situations such as, negligence with serious harm or death, but, the socioeconomic factors, cultural, and religious notions among other reasons within the society often makes litigation impossible for an individual. Attributing every medical adverse event in the course of treatment as "God's Will" and the saying "It's God's Time" for every death among most African people has also become a great impediment to curbing clinical negligence in our environment. This paper presents a few case studies from author's experience and complaints from patients during clinical practice.

  1. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed,…

  2. Trends in incidence of low birth weight deliveries in a tertiary hospital, in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a steady decline in the incidence of low birth weight deliveries over the period of study. Most of the babies born with low birth weight were delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation and preterm labour was the most dorminant risk factor.

  3. Attitudes and perceived barriers influencing incident reporting by nurses and their correlation with reported incidents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wing Mei; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Chow, Yeow Leng

    Clinical incident reporting is an integral feature of risk management system in the healthcare sector. By reporting clinical incidents, nurses allow for learning from errors, identification of error patterns and development of error preventive strategies. The need to understand attitudes to reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting patterns by nurses are the core highlights of this review. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review considered descriptive quantitative studies that examined nurses' attitudes or perceived barriers towards incident reporting.The participants in this review were nurses working in acute care settings or step-down care settings. Studies that included non-nursing healthcare personnel were excluded.This review considered studies which examined nurses' attitudes towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting practices.The outcomes of interest were the attitudes that nurses have towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and the types of reported incidents in correlation with nurses' attitudes and barriers. A three-step search strategy was utilised in this review. An initial limited search of CINAHL and MEDLINE was undertaken. Search strategies were then developed using identified keywords and index terms. Lastly, the reference lists of all identified articles were examined. All searches were limited to studies published in English, between 1991 and 2010. The studies were independently assessed by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. The reviewers extracted data independently from included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute Data Extraction Form for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. Due to the descriptive nature of the study designs, statistical pooling was not possible. Therefore, the findings of this systematic review are presented in a narrative summary. Fifty-five papers were identified from the searches based on their titles and

  4. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  5. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  6. Correlates of willingness to engage in residential gardening: implications for health optimization in ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat

    2013-01-01

    Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op-timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar-dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (Pgardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (Pgardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population.

  7. Incidence and risk factors for caesarean wound infection in Lagos Nigeria

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    Gab-Okafor Chidinma V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post caesarean wound infection is not only a leading cause of prolonged hospital stay but a major cause of the widespread aversion to caesarean delivery in developing countries. In order to control and prevent post caesarean wound infection in our environment there is the need to access the relative contribution of each aetiologic factor. Though some studies in our environment have identified factors associated with post caesarean wound infection, none was specifically designed to address these issues prospectively or assess the relative contribution of each of the risk factors. Findings Prospective multicentre study over a period of 56 months in Lagos Nigeria. All consecutive and consenting women scheduled for caesarean section and meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Cases were all subjects with post caesarean wound infection. Those without wound infection served as controls. Data entry and analysis were performed using EPI-Info programme version 6 and SPSS for windows version 10.0. Eight hundred and seventeen women were enrolled into the study. Seventy six (9.3% of these cases were complicated with wound infection. The proportion of subjects with body mass index greater than 25 was significantly higher among the subjects with wound infection (51.3% than in the subjects without wound infection (33.9% p = 0.011. There were also significantly higher proportions of subjects with prolonged rupture of membrane (p = 0.02, prolonged operation time (p = 0.001, anaemia (p = 0.031 and multiple vaginal examinations during labour (0.021 among the women that had wound infection compared to the women that did not have wound infection. After adjustment for confounders only prolonged rupture of membrane (OR = 4.45, prolonged operation time (OR = 2.87 and body max index > 25 (2.34 retained their association with post caesarean wound infection. Conclusion Effort should be geared towards the prevention of prolonged

  8. Incidence and Correlates of Maternal Near Miss in Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study aimed to estimate the incidence and associated factors of severe maternal morbidity in southeast Iran. During a 9-month period in 2013, all women referring to eight hospitals for termination of pregnancy as well as women admitted during 42 days after the termination of pregnancy were enrolled into the study. Maternal near miss conditions were defined based on Say et al.’s recommendations. Five hundred and one cases of maternal near miss and 19,908 live births occurred in the study period, yielding a maternal near miss ratio of 25.2 per 1000 live births. This rate was 7.5 and 105 per 1000 in private and tertiary care settings, respectively. The rate of maternal death in near miss cases was 0.40% with a case:fatality ratio of 250 : 1. The most prevalent causes of near miss were severe preeclampsia (27.3%, ectopic pregnancy (18.4%, and abruptio placentae (16.2%. Higher age, higher education, and being primiparous were associated with a higher risk of near miss. Considering the high rate of maternal near miss in referral hospitals, maternal near miss surveillance system should be set up in these hospitals to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity as soon as possible.

  9. False alarms and incorrect rejections in an information security center: correlation with the frequency of incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thiers; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the actions taken by operators aimed at preventing and combating information security incidents at a banking organization. The work utilizes the theoretical framework of ergonomics and cognitive psychology. The method is workplace ergonomic analysis. Its focus is directed towards examining the cognitive dimension of the work environment with special attention to the occurrence of correlations between variability in incident frequency and the results of sign detection actions. It categorizes 45,142 operator decisions according to the theory of signal detection (Sternberg, 2000). It analyzes the correlation between incident proportions (indirectly associated with the cognitive efforts demanded from the operator) and operator decisions. The study demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation between incident proportions and false positive decisions (false alarms). However, this correlation could not be observed in relation to decisions of the false-negative type (incorrect rejection).

  10. Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kelsey; Akwataghibe, Ngozi; Fakunle, Babatunde; Wolmarans, Liezel

    2016-11-01

    A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services. We multiplied the two to produce a total cost per patient, then deducted annual out-of-pocket expenditures to estimate the total community-based health insurance scheme benefit per person. Benefits were multiplied by the total number of persons in each socioeconomic group to aggregate benefits. We used concentration curves and dominance tests to determine statistical significance at 5% and 10% levels of significance. Collectively, the poorest 20% of the population received 12% of benefits while the richest quintile received the largest share (23%). Inpatient and outpatient benefits are weakly regressive (pro-rich), statistically significant at a 10% level of significance. Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Caesarean delivery-related blood transfusion: correlates in a tertiary hospital in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlusi, Fatimat M; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Durojaiye, Idayat A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawaqualit A; Oshodi, Yusuf A

    2018-01-10

    Caesarean delivery carries a risk of major intra-operative blood loss and its performance is often delayed by non-availability of blood and blood products. Unnecessary cross-matching and reservation of blood lead to apparent scarcity in centres with limited supply. This study set out to identify the risk factors for blood transfusion in women who underwent caesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric unit with a view to ensuring efficient blood utilization. A prospective cohort analysis of 906 women who had caesarean deliveries at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January and December, 2011. A comparison was made between 188 women who underwent blood transfusion and 718 who did not. Data were obtained on a daily basis by investigators from patients, clinical notes and referral letters using structured pre-tested data collecting form. Socio-demographic characteristics; antenatal, perioperative and intraoperative details; blood loss; transfusion; and puerperal observations were recorded. EPI-Info statistical software version 3.5.3 was used for multivariable analysis to determine independent risk factors for blood transfusion. Of the 2134 deliveries during the study period, 906 (42.5%) had caesarean deliveries and of which 188 (20.8%) were transfused. The modal unit of blood transfused was 3 pints (41.3%). The most common indication for caesarean section was cephalo-pelvic disproportion (25.7%).The independent risk factors for blood transfusion at caesarean section were second stage Caesarean Section (aOR = 76.14, 95% CI = 1.25-4622.06, p = 0.04), placenta previa (aOR = 32.57, 95% CI = 2.22-476.26, p = 0.01), placental abruption (aOR = 25.35, 95% CI = 3.06-211.02, p blood transfusion (aOR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.09-0.61, p = 0.0024). The overall risk of blood transfusion in cesarean delivery is high. Paturients with the second stage Caesarean section, placenta previa, abruptio placentae and

  12. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL PATTERN AND FLOOD INCIDENCES IN WARRI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Olanrewaju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has led to changes in the known patterns of rainfall and other climatic variables as well as increase in the frequency and magnitude of natural disasters including floods in different parts of the world; and flood is indeed a global environmental issue that had destroyed lives and property amidst other untold hardships. The study examined rainfall characteristics in Warri metropolis for the past 30 years (1986-2015 vis-à-vis the flood situation in the metropolis; as well as the factors responsible and adaptation strategies to flood in the area. Dividing the study area into four zones after Sada (1977, the researchers collected rainfall data from the archives of Nigerian Meteorological Agency; 268 copies of questionnaire and oral interview were used. The result of the correlation analysis performed showed a negative relationship of -0.156 between rainfall and time (years, this implies that rainfall is decreasing over time. The trend line regression equation Y=243.75-0.4572X, confirms that rainfall in Warri Metropolis is decreasing at the rate of -0.45 per year. However, the p-value 0.412 is greater than 0.05, hence, the trend is not statistically significant at 95% level of confidence. It was discovered that rainfall, absence of drainage and poor urban planning practices (as factor 1 contributed 51.09% while overflowing of rivers, blocked/ poor drainage and untarred roads (as factor 2 contributed 44.10% variance to flood occurrence in the metropolis. Recommendations given included continual monitoring and study of rainfall characteristics and other climatic data and dissemination of such information for planning purposes; construction of integrated drainage system and river rechannelisation, legislation against dumping of refuse on roads and drainages; proper urban planning including implementation of the metropolitan urban drainage master plan. 

  13. Correlation between malaria incidence and prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Colombia: an ecologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Carlos Andrés; Fernández, Julián Alfredo; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; Duque, Sofía

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between the soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria incidence. However, published evidence is still insufficient and diverging. Since 1977, new ecologic studies have not been carried out to explore this association. Ecologic studies could explore this correlation on a population level, assessing its potential importance on public health. The aim of this evaluation is to explore the association between soil-transmitted helminths prevalence and malaria incidence, at an ecologic level in Colombia. Using data from the National Health Survey, which was carried out in 1980 in Colombia, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between the prevalence of: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the 1980 malaria incidence data of the same year provided from the Colombian Malaria National Eradication Service. A robust regression analysis with least trimmed squares was performed. Falciparum malaria incidence and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence had a low correlation (R²= 0.086) but this correlation was stronger into the clusters of towns with prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection above 30% were only included (R²= 0.916). This work showed an ecologic correlation in Colombia between malaria incidence and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence. This could suggest that either there is an association between these two groups of parasites, or could be explained by the presence of common structural determinants for both diseases.

  14. The pattern and correlates of intimate partner violence among women in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimu, Tanko S; Yohanna, Stephen; Omeiza, Suleiman Y

    2016-11-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been increasingly recognised as a major public health and human rights problem that cuts across all populations, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural groups. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, pattern and correlates of IPV among women attending the General Out Patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. It was also designed to determine the pattern of health complications associated with IPV as well as the perception of women on intimate partner violence. This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Three hundred and ninety-three women aged 15-49 years who were in or had ever been in an intimate relationship were recruited. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about their socio-demographic characteristics while information on IPV was obtained using the Composite Abuse Scale. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. The prevalence of IPV within the previous year was 42.0%. Of all the 393 participants recruited in the study, 46.6% had experienced emotional/psychological violence, harassment/controlling behaviour was present in 43.3%, physical violence was reported in 29.0%, sexual violence was present in 21.9% and 37.9% of the participants had experienced severe combined abuse. Being married (χ2 = 24.726, p = 0.000) and pregnancy reduced the risk of IPV (χ2= 6.690, p = 0.030), while polygamous family setting (χ2 = 9.734, p = 0.008) and an extended family type (χ2 = 9.593, p = 0.023) were associated with an increased risk of IPV. Alcohol consumption by the partner (p = 0.000, OR 2.335, CI 1.151-3.230) was found to be a positive correlate as well as a complication of IPV. Other patterns of health complications that were significantly associated with IPV were depression (p = 0.000, OR 3.517, CI 4.061-22.306), miscarriage (p = 0.004, OR 2.080, CI 1.591-2.269) and the presence

  15. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  16. Industrial Unionism and Its Bargaining Correlates in Nigeria Industrial Relations System

    OpenAIRE

    Francis C. Anyim; Joy Onyinyechi Ekwoaba; Adedoyinsola Olajumoke Shonuga

    2013-01-01

    Between 1960-1966, industrial relations system in Nigeria was based on Laissez-faire doctrine or voluntary ethic. The colonial trade union ordinance of 1938 allowed any five or more persons to form trade unions. The trend led to the proliferation of over 1000 mushroom unions which were not well organized and badly managed. Besides, all was not well with the organization, administration, finance, leadership and foreign relations of the unions. It was against this backdrop that government initi...

  17. Observations of copolar correlation coefficient through a bright band at vertical incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of polarimetric measurements at vertical incidence. In particular, the correlation coefficients between linear copolar components are examined, and measurements obtained with the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'s and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s polarimetric radars are presented. The data are from two well-defined bright bands. A sharp decrease of the correlation coefficient, confined to a height interval of a few hundred meters, marks the bottom of the bright band.

  18. Haemodynamic patterns in ST-elevation myocardial infarction : incidence and correlates of elevated filling pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A.; Svilaas, T.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Heuvel, A. F. M.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, F.

    Objectives. We sought to study the incidence and clinical correlates of elevated filling pressures in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, without physical signs of heart failure and treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Background. Haemodynamic data, as measured with a

  19. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  20. Incidence and Behavioral Correlates of Epileptiform Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with an increased incidence of epilepsy and of epileptiform discharges on electroencephalograms. It is unknown whether epileptiform discharges correlate with symptoms of ASD. We completed a retrospective chart review of 101 patients with ASD who had overnight electroencephalograms. We looked for a…

  1. Traditional eye medicine use by newly presenting ophthalmic patients to a teaching hospital in south-eastern Nigeria: socio-demographic and clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Judith

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study set out to determine the incidence, socio-demographic, and clinical correlates of Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM use in a population of newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients attending a tertiary eye care centre in south-eastern Nigeria. Methods In a comparative cross-sectional survey at the eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, between August 2004 - July 2006, all newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients were recruited. Participants' socio-demographic and clinical data and profile of TEM use were obtained from history and examination of each participant and entered into a pretested questionnaire and proforma. Participants were subsequently categorized into TEM- users and non-users; intra-group analysis yielded proportions, frequencies, and percentages while chi-square test was used for inter-group comparisons at P = 0.01, df = 1. Results Of the 2,542 (males, 48.1%; females, 51.9% participants, 149 (5.9% (males, 45%; females, 55% used TEM for their current eye disease. The TEMs used were chemical substances (57.7%, plant products (37.7%, and animal products (4.7%. They were more often prescribed by non-traditional (66.4% than traditional (36.9% medicine practitioners. TEMs were used on account of vision loss (58.5%, ocular itching (25.4% and eye discharge (3.8%. Reported efficacy from previous users (67.1% and belief in potency (28.2% were the main reasons for using TEM. Civil servants (20.1%, farmers (17.7%, and traders (14.1% were the leading users of TEM. TEM use was significantly associated with younger age (p Conclusion The incidence of TEM use among new ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH is low. The reasons for TEM use are amenable to positive change through enhanced delivery of promotive, preventive, and curative public eye care services. This has implications for eye care planners and implementers. To reverse the trend, we suggest strengthening of eye care programmes, even

  2. Incidence and 30-day case fatality rate of first-ever stroke in urban Nigeria: the prospective community based Epidemiology of Stroke in Lagos (EPISIL) phase II results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Mustapha A; Okubadejo, Njideka U; Ojini, Frank I; Ojo, Oluwadamilola O

    2013-08-15

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major contributor to global disease burden. Although epidemiologic information from a community perspective is important in determining the magnitude of the burden in specific regions, and directing equitable distribution of health resources, data on the incidence of stroke in developing countries in Africa are scarce. To determine the current incidence rate and short-term (30-day) case fatality rate (CFR) of stroke in urban Nigeria, and provide age-adjusted and gender-specific incidence rates to enable comparison with global populations. The study was a prospective community-based stroke registry enrolling hospitalized and non-hospitalized first-ever in a lifetime stroke cases presenting at all health facilities (hospitals, homeopathic caregivers, physiotherapy clinics) located in the designated community. Pre-hospitalization deaths due to stroke were not included in our study. The study was conducted between January 1st and December 31st 2007 in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, south western Nigeria, a mixed-income urban locality with a population of approximately 750,000 based on data from the National Population Commission. Stroke was defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria. Case fatality at 30-days post stroke was determined at follow-up on 160 hospitalized stroke cases. 189 first-ever strokes, comprised of 112 men and 77 women (mean±SD age 58.5±13.5 years) were documented, giving a crude incidence rate of 25.2 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 21.6- 28.8). The gender-specific rates were 28.3/100,000 and 21.3/100,000 for males and females respectively. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 54.08 per 100,000 per year (adjusted to the WHO New World Population). Hospitalization rate was 84.6%, while the CFR (hospitalized) was 16.2%. The stroke incidence in this urban sub-Saharan African community remains lower than that in emerging and developed economies

  3. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  4. Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

    2003-04-01

    The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84

  5. Mucocutaneous Manifestations of HIV and the Correlation with WHO Clinical Staging in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumayowa Abimbola Oninla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin diseases are indicators of HIV/AIDS which correlates with WHO clinical stages. In resource limited environment where CD4 count is not readily available, they can be used in assessing HIV patients. The study aims to determine the mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV positive patients and their correlation with WHO clinical stages. A prospective cross-sectional study of mucocutaneous conditions was done among 215 newly diagnosed HIV patients from June 2008 to May 2012 at adult ART clinic, Wesley Guild Hospital Unit, OAU Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria. There were 156 dermatoses with oral/oesophageal/vaginal candidiasis (41.1%, PPE (24.4%, dermatophytic infections (8.9%, and herpes zoster (3.8% as the most common dermatoses. The proportions of dermatoses were 4.5%, 21.8%, 53.2%, and 20.5% in stages 1–4, respectively. A significant relationship (using Pearson’s Chi square with P value <0.05 was obtained between dermatoses and WHO clinical stages. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between the number of dermatoses and the WHO clinical stages. Dermatoses can therefore serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in resource limited settings to initiate HAART in clinical stages 3 and 4.

  6. Correlation between weather and incidence of selected ophthalmological diagnoses: a database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Kern, Karsten Kortüm, Michael Müller, Florian Raabe, Wolfgang Johann Mayer, Siegfried Priglinger, Thomas Christian Kreutzer University Eye Hospital Munich, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany Purpose: Our aim was to correlate the overall patient volume and the incidence of several ophthalmological diseases in our emergency department with weather data. Patients and methods: For data analysis, we used our clinical data warehouse and weather data. We investigated the weekly overall patient volume and the average weekly incidence of all encoded diagnoses of “conjunctivitis”, “foreign body”, “acute iridocyclitis”, and “corneal abrasion”. A Spearman’s correlation was performed to link these data with the weekly average sunshine duration, temperature, and wind speed. Results: We noticed increased patient volume in correlation with increasing sunshine duration and higher temperature. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the weekly incidences of conjunctivitis and of foreign body and weather data. Conclusion: The results of this data analysis reveal the possible influence of external conditions on the health of a population and can be used for weather-dependent resource allocation. Keywords: corneal injury, trauma, uveitis, conjunctivitis, weather

  7. Correlation between incidences of self-inflicted burns and means of inbreeding coefficients, an ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Zendeh-Boodi, Zahra

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the study is to obtain more insight into the possible association between consanguinity and the incidence of deliberate self-burning. Data were obtained by analysis of medical records of patients hospitalized in two referral burn centers: Chormy Burn Center (Bushehr Province, south of Iran) from March 21, 1998, through March 20, 2004, and Shahid Sadoqi Center of Burns and Injuries (Yazd Province, center of Iran) from March 21, 2000, through March 20, 2004. The incidence of suicidal burns was 6.51 and 2.32/100,000 person-years for Bushehr and Yazd Provinces, respectively. The observed sex ratio of patients in both centers indicated there was a female predominance in patients with self-inflicted burns. Using patients' home addresses, patients were sorted into 16 cities. The incidence of suicide by self-burning ranged from 0.80 (for Tabas, located in Yazd Province) to 12.60/100,000 person-years (for Dilam, located in Bushehr Province). The coefficient of inbreeding defines the probability that an individual received both alleles of a pair from an identical ancestral source. There was a significant correlation between incidences of suicidal burns and mean coefficient of inbreeding (r = 0.782, df = 14, p < 0.001). In addition to other factors, consanguineous marriage may be a risk factor that influences the incidence of suicidal burns in a population.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an urban community in North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Ovosi, Beatrice Ohunene; Asuke, Sunday; Abdulrahman, Shehu Ozovehe; Ibrahim, Muhammed Sani; Ovosi, Joseph Ogirima; Ogunsina, Modupe Arinola; Anumah, Felicia Ohunene

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are major causes of morbidity and mortality. This study assesses the prevalence and correlates of hypertension and DM in an urban community in northwestern Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Adults aged 18 years and above, who attended a medical outreach program were interviewed and screened for hypertension and DM. Anthropometry, blood glucose and blood pressure were measured with standard instruments and methodology. Primary outcomes were hypertension and DM. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14 and presented as mean ± standard deviation and frequencies. Chi-square and Pearson's correlation co-efficient were used to identify the correlates of hypertension and DM, at 5% level of significance. The mean age of participants was 51.0 ± 14.0 years and 87.8% were females. Prevalence of hypertension and DM were 55.9% and 23.3% respectively. Age greater than 40 years and female gender were associated with risk of hypertension and DM respectively, p hypertension and age (r = 0.18, p = 0.02), diastolic hypertension and body mass index (r = 0.16, p = 0.03) and blood sugar and waist circumference (r = 0.19, p = 0.02). The high prevalence of hypertension and DM among the study population highlights the need for the development and implementation of a community-based public health interventions aimed at reducing their risk factors.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of influenza-A in piggery workers and pigs in two communities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosanya, Emmanuel Jolaoluwa; Ogundipe, Gabriel; Babalobi, Olutayo; Omilabu, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, three Influenza-A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) in swine are major public health issues. In Nigeria, the existence of these subtypes in pigs has not been well studied. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of Influenza-A viruses circulating in piggery workers and pigs in Oke-aro and Goshen communities in Lagos, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were taken from 197 consenting piggery workers and 281 randomly selected pigs to determine the prevalence of Influenza-A (H1, H3, H5) using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction test (gene M). An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on demography, Influenza-A related symptoms experienced, personal hygiene and management practices from the piggery workers. Descriptive statistics was used and chi square test performed at 5% significant level. All piggery workers and pigs' nasal swabs tested negative for Influenza-A viruses, hence, association could not be tested. Mean age of piggery workers was 41 ± 13.6 years and 60% were females. Forty two percent were farm attendants, 38.0% were pig farmers and the rest butchers. Nineteen percent had history of headache; 14.0% had catarrh and cough; 4.0% had sore-throat; 5.0% had diarrhea; while 48.0% had muscle pain at the time of data collection. The mean body temperature for the pig workers was 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. A significant difference (pInfluenza-A (H1, H3, H5) viruses. The current practices of the piggery workers should be encouraged.

  10. Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Emiasegen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease, aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7% had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5% had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2% had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05 included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.

  11. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  12. Correlation analysis of cocoa consumption data with worldwide incidence rates of testicular cancer and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio

    2009-02-01

    The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965-80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  13. Correlations Between Physical Activity, Smoking Habit And Attitude In Elderly With Incidence of Osteoporosis

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    Kiki Familia Dimyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis was one of degenerative disease that is common in the elderly. There was a several of risk factors of osteoporosis. Two of them were physical activity and smoking habits. Attitude was one part of a person’s behavior that may affect the prevention of disease. This study aimed to analyze the affect of physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude of the elderly to incidence of osteoporosis. This study is an observational study with case control design. The number of samples in this study was 66 elderly who visited Osteoporosis Clinic Husada Utama Hospital in Surabaya. Respondent selection taken with systematic random sampling. The independent variables of this study were physical activity, smoking habit, and attitude, while the dependent variable was incidence of osteoporosis. Based on correlation analysis with logistic regression test showed there was a significant correlation (p<0,05 between physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude. Odds Ratio (OR in this study for physical activity was 14,764 ,smoking habit was 9,646 and attitude was 5,623. The conclusion of this study, there was physical activity as a dominant affect after controlled smoking habits and attitude to incidence of osteoporosis. The suggestion is to do physical activity three times a week, consume healthy food and beverage, take an enough sleep,reduce stress factors and stop smoking also.   Keywords: Physical activity, smoking habits, elderly

  14. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  15. HIV Task Sharing Between Nurses and Physicians in Nigeria: Examining the Correlates of Nurse Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, Emilia Ngozi; Holzemer, William L

    A global shortfall of 12.9 million health care workers has been predicted to occur in the next two decades. Task sharing between physicians and nurses, a method used to help compensate for provider shortages, was shown to improve access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, but led to nurses performing beyond their scopes of practice. We surveyed 508 nurses in task-shifted roles in Nigeria. Respondents (n = 399) provided information on age, years in practice, gender, registration status, employment site, and access to task-sharing training and mentoring. Years in practice negatively influenced task-sharing self-efficacy. Positive correlates of job satisfaction were years in practice, older age, male gender, single licensure, employment at a tertiary hospital, mentoring, and duration of training. System challenges and employment in faith-based and nontertiary hospitals increased likelihood of job dissatisfaction. Supportive practice and policy interventions are needed to minimize negative effects of disparities in job satisfaction across facilities. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The incidence of anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Siddiqui, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the incidence of anxiety in radiotherapy cancer patients in relation to their age, gender, education, marital status, performance status and type of disease. Design: Data regarding socio-demographic variables and disease type was recorded on a data capture form. The presence of anxiety was measured by administering taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Whereas patients, performance status was measured by administering Kernosky Performance Status Scale. Setting: Patients coming to the Department of Radiation Oncology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and research center for their treatment were included in this study. Subjects and methods: A consecutive sample of 113 patients was taken and followed up to study the incidence of anxiety. Data over various parameters like age, gender, education, marital status, disease type and performance status was recorded. Results: Fifty percent of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy were found to be suffering from anxiety. Among 89% of patients, anxiety lowered after the therapy, in 3% it increased and remained static in 8% Patients with low education and low performance status presented with high anxiety. Among all the patients, no significant relationship between anxiety and gender, age, marital status and site of the disease was observed. Conclusion: Correlates other than radiotherapy procedure can also cause anxiety in patients by further research is required to establish those correlates of anxiety. It is recommended that all radiotherapy patients should be provided education and procedural information designed to familiarize them with the forthcoming experience in order to reduce their anxiety. (author)

  17. Seroprevalence and correlates of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type 1 antibodies among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoye AE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ejike Okoye,1 Obike Godswill Ibegbulam,2 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,3 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,3 Ngozi I Ugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,3 Chukwudi Simon Anigbo,2 Charles E Nonyelu21Department of Haematology and Immunology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 2Department of Haematology and Immunology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Ituku-Ozalla, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, NigeriaBackground: Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus transmitted vertically from mother to child parenterally and sexually by infected lymphocytes.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies and associated risk factors for HTLV-1 infection among pregnant women in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeast Nigeria.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2010. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited consecutively from the antenatal clinic. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each of the participants into a plain sterile bottle and allowed to clot. The serum obtained was stored at -20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants' demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17.Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.94 years (standard deviation 4.17. The age-group with the highest representation was those between the ages of 26 and 30 years. Thirty-six percent of the population was above 30 years old. The result of the tests showed that only one respondent, a 31-year-old pregnant woman tested positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Therefore, the

  18. Correlation Between Near-Vision Acuity and the Incidence of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shigeki; Sakurada, Tsutomu; Koitabashi, Kenichiro; Kojima, Kaori; Watanabe, Shiika; Uchida, Daisuke; Kaneshiro, Nagayuki; Konno, Yusuke; Shibagaki, Yugo

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections (PDIs) such as peritonitis, exit-site infection, and tunnel infection are serious complications affecting patients on PD. Because patients with diabetes (DM) and of older age have increased in number in Japan, the number of patients with visual impairment is estimated also to have increased. Near vision is necessary for performing proper PD daily care. However, no studies have reported whether visual impairment is likely to increase the risk of PDIs.Our study included 31 PD patients (16 men, 15 women; mean age: 61.5 ± 11.8 years; mean PD duration: 27.3 ± 20.3 months; 38.7% with DM; 54.8% wearing glasses) who performed their own PD care. At our facility and related facilities, we used a standard near-vision test chart, which classifies vision into 12 grades, from 0.1 (poor) to 1.5 (clear), to assess near-vision binocular visual acuity in those patients between March 2015 and September 2015. In addition, we retrospectively examined the medical records of the patients to determine their history of PDIs. We then evaluated the correlation between near-vision acuity and the incidence of PDIs.Mean measured near-vision acuity was 0.61 ± 0.29, and we observed no significant difference in the visual acuity of patients with and without DM (0.55 ± 0.31 vs. 0.63 ± 0.26 respectively, p = 0.477). In addition, we observed no significant difference in the incidence of PDIs between patients with and without DM (1.298 ± 1.609 per year vs. 1.164 ± 0.908 per year respectively, p = 0.804). We did not find a correlation between near-vision acuity and the incidence of PDIs (r = -0.071, p = 0.795).

  19. Seroprevalence and correlates of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type 1 antibodies among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Ugwu, Ngozi I; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a retrovirus transmitted vertically from mother to child parenterally and sexually by infected lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies and associated risk factors for HTLV-1 infection among pregnant women in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2010. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited consecutively from the antenatal clinic. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each of the participants into a plain sterile bottle and allowed to clot. The serum obtained was stored at -20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants' demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. The average age of the pregnant women was 28.94 years (standard deviation 4.17). The age-group with the highest representation was those between the ages of 26 and 30 years. Thirty-six percent of the population was above 30 years old. The result of the tests showed that only one respondent, a 31-year-old pregnant woman tested positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Therefore, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital was 0.5%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0%-2.8%. Some of the sociodemographic risk factors of HTLV-1 infection found to be applicable to the 31-year-old woman who tested positive included positive history of previous sexually transmitted diseases, high parity, low socioeconomic status, female sex, and age above 30 years. The pregnant women that participated in this study were exposed to risk

  20. Incidence and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebai, B; Ejimadu, C S; Komolafe, R D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study is to determine the incidence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and identify the risk factors in RVO in patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Rivers State. The medical records of consecutive patients with RVO who presented to the retina clinic of the eye Department of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5 year period were retrieved. Information extracted from the data included the demographic data of patients, presenting visual acuity, history of systemic and ocular disease, blood pressure and intraocular pressure. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. (IBM Corporation and its licensors 1989,2011). Out of the 364 patients seen at the retina clinic during this period, 27 (7.4%) had RVO. Seven patients had bilateral disease. The incidence of RVO in the retinal clinic was 7.4%. Systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and glaucoma were the main risk factors recorded in our patients. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) 20 (74%) was more predominant than branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) 7 (26%). 21 eyes of patients with CRVO had visual acuities of risk factors and treating these could help reduce the incidence of RVO.

  1. Population structure from NOS genes correlates with geographical differences in coronary incidence across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Ferran, Albert; Zanetti, Daniela; Esteban, Esther; Varesi, Laurent; Pojskic, Naris; Coia, Valentina; Chaabani, Hassen; Via, Marc; Moral, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The population analysis of cardiovascular risk and non-risk genetic variation can help to identify adaptive or random demographic processes that shaped coronary incidence variation across geography. In this study, 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 tandem repeat polymorphisms from Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS) regions were analyzed in 1686 individuals from 35 populations from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. NOS genes encode for key enzymes on nitric oxide availability, which is involved in several cardiovascular processes. These genetic variations were used to test for selection and to infer the population structure of NOS regions. Moreover, we tested whether the variation in the incidence of coronary events and in the levels of classical risk factors in 11 of these European populations could be explained by the population structure estimates. Our results supported, first, the absence of clear signs of selection for NOS genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, and second, the presence of a continuous genetic pattern of variation across European and North African populations without a Mediterranean barrier for gene flow. Finally, population structure estimates from NOS regions are closely correlated with coronary event rates and classical risk parameters (explaining 39-98%) among European populations. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that genetic bases of cardiovascular diseases and associated complex phenotypes could be geographically shaped by random demographic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Distressed financing of household out-of-pocket health care payments in India: incidence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-07-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) health care payments financed through borrowings or sale of household assets are referred to as distressed health care financing. This article expands this concept (to include contributions from friends or relatives) and examines the incidence and correlates of distressed health care financing in India. The analysis finds a decisive influence of distressed financing in India as over 60 and 40% of hospitalization cases from rural and urban areas, respectively, report use of such coping strategies. Altogether, sources such as borrowings, sale of household assets and contributions from friends and relatives account for 58 and 42% share in total OOP payments for inpatient care in rural and urban India, respectively. Further, the results show significant socioeconomic gradient in the distribution of distressed financing with huge disadvantages for marginalized sections, particularly females, elderly and backward social groups. Multivariate logistic regression informs that households are at an elevated risk of indebtedness while seeking treatment for non-communicable diseases, particularly cancer. Evidence based on intersectional framework reveals that, despite similar socioeconomic background, males are more likely to use borrowings for health care financing than females. In conclusion, the need for social protection policies and improved health care coverage is emphasized to curtail the incidence of distressed health care financing in India. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Patterns and correlates of serum magnesium levels in subsets of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde O Odusan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium (Mg is the 4th most common mineral and the 2nd most abundant intracellular cation in the body. It plays major roles in various physiological activities and has been implicated in many disease states. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the patterns and correlates of serum Mg in cohorts of type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients comprising 63 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM alone and 62 with diabetes and hypertension (HT were compared with fifty controls matched for sex and age. Basic data, HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose (FBG were obtained while serum Mg was measured by colorimeter. Relationship between serum Mg and glucose control was considered while serum Mg < 1.6 mg/dl was considered as hypomagnesemia. Results: The mean serum Mg of all patients was 2.06 ± 0.49 mg/dl, not statistically different from controls at 2.22 ± 0.48 mg/dl. About ¼ (23.2% of the patients had hypomagnesemia which was significantly more than 12% of controls. Although the patients with diabetes and HT were older and more of females than those with DM alone, the mean serum Mg was comparable (2.03 ± 0.49 vs. 2.09 + 0.50 mg/dl. Twenty-seven percent (27% of patients who had DM alone was more than 19.3% with HT and diabetes combined. Whereas the FBG was comparable in patients with hypomagnesemia and normal serum Mg, HbA1c was significantly higher in the hypomagnesemia group (8.39 ± 0.98 vs. 6.75 ± 1.22%, P = 0.021. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is common in T2DM outpatients occurring approximately one in four patients. It is associated with poor long-term control.

  4. The Correlation Between Indoor Air Pollution with the Incident of Toddler’s Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Dayu Mahalastri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pneumonia is a serious health problem in the world, including in Indonesia. Based on the results of Riskesdas 2007, pneumonia was the second ranking cause of death in the proportion of children aged 1–4 years and is under the diarrhea which ranks first. Environmental factors or conditions of the house, especially the air quality in the house is said to be one of the factors that can trigger pneumonia in infants. This study was conducted to determine the correlation of indoor air quality factors with the incidence of toddler’s pneumonia. Type of this study is observational analytic and use case control design. The population of case group was all toddlers who become visitors Mojo Health Center in January 2014 until March 2014 and was diagnosed with pneumonia. While population of control group was all toddlers who become visitors Mojo Health Center in January 2014 until March 2014 and was diagnosed with diseases other than pneumonia. The number of respondents in this study were 60 respondents. The selection of the sample with simple random sampling method. The variables studied were cigarette smoke exposure in the house, size of ventilation and residential density. The results of the analysis using Epi Info StatCalc indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke in the house (OR = 4.00, size of ventilation (OR = 4.03, and residential density (OR = 4.38 has an correlation with incidence of toddler’s pneumonia. It is expected that the public can avoid air pollution in the house in order to prevent toddlers from pneumonia. Keywords: cigarette smoke, size of ventilation, residential density, air quality,                 toddler’s Pneumonia

  5. Infant carrying methods: Correlates and associated musculoskeletal disorders among nursing mothers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Chidiebele Petronilla; Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Anekwu, Emelie Morris; Chukwu, Sylvester Caesar; Fab-Agbo, Chukwubuikem

    2017-10-01

    Infant carrying is an integral part of the mothering occupation. Paucity of data exists on its correlates and associated musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying were investigated in 227 nursing mothers, using a structured questionnaire. 77.1% utilised the back infant carrying methods (ICM). Maternal comfort was the major factor influencing participants' (37.4%) choices of ICMs. Infant's age (p = .000) and transportation means (p = .045) were significantly associated with ICMs. Low back pain (82.8%) and upper back pain (74.9%) were the most reported musculoskeletal discomforts associated with ICMs, especially among women who utilised back ICM. Back ICM is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Impact statement Infant carrying has been associated with increased energy cost and biomechanical changes. Currently, there is a paucity of data on infant carrying-related musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, investigating factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying, the results showed that back infant carrying method is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Age of the infant and mothers' means of transportation were determinant factors of infant carrying methods. Among the several reported infant carrying-related musculoskeletal disorders, low back and upper back pain were the most prevalent, especially among women who utilised the back infant carrying method. There is need for women's health specialists to introduce appropriate ergonomic training and interventions on infant carrying tasks in order to improve maternal musculoskeletal health during the childbearing years and beyond. Further experimental studies on the effects of various infant carrying methods on the musculoskeletal system are recommended.

  6. Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Zhong, P

    2012-10-11

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence of radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation: Dose-volume correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Miller, Robert C.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Foote, Tyler; Garces, Yolanda I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric parameters correlated with the risk of clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of consecutive patients treated with definitive thoracic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of RP of Grade 2 or greater by the Common Toxicity Criteria. Dose-volume histograms using total lung volume (TL) and TL minus gross tumor volume (TL-G) were created with and without heterogeneity corrections. Mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung volume (V eff ), and percentage of TL or TL-G receiving greater than or equal to 10, 13, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (V10-V30, respectively) were analyzed by logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate RP predictive values. Results: Twelve cases of RP were identified in 92 eligible patients. Mean lung dose, V10, V13, V15, V20, and V eff were significantly correlated to RP. Combinations of MLD, V eff , V20, and V30 lost significance using TL-G and heterogeneity corrections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined V10 and V13 as the best predictors of RP risk, with a decrease in predictive value above those volumes. Conclusions: Intrathoracic radiotherapy should be planned with caution when using radiotherapy techniques delivering doses of 10 to 15 Gy to large lung volumes

  8. Correlates of injecting in an HIV incidence hotspot among substance users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Nana; Roth, Alexis M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2014-05-01

    Substance use and HIV are growing problems in the Mexico-U.S. border city of Tijuana, a sex tourism destination situated on a northbound drug trafficking route. In a previous longitudinal study of injection drug users (IDUs), we found that >90% of incident HIV cases occurred within an 'HIV incidence hotspot,' consisting of 2.5-blocks. This study examines behavioral, social, and environmental correlates associated with injecting in this HIV hotspot. From 4/06 to 6/07, IDUs aged ≥18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants underwent antibody testing for HIV and syphilis and interviewer-administered surveys eliciting information on demographics, drug use, sexual behaviors, and socio-environmental influences. Participants were defined as injecting in the hotspot if they most frequently injected within a 3 standard deviational ellipse of the cohort's incident HIV cases. Logistic regression was used to identify individual and structural factors associated with the HIV 'hotspot'. Of 1031 IDUs, the median age was 36 years; 85% were male; HIV prevalence was 4%. As bivariate analysis indicated different correlates for males and females, models were stratified by sex. Factors independently associated with injecting in the HIV hotspot for male IDUs included homelessness (AOR 1.72; 95%CI 1.14-2.6), greater intra-urban mobility (AOR 3.26; 95%CI 1.67-6.38), deportation (AOR 1.58; 95%CI 1.18-2.12), active syphilis (AOR 3.03; 95%CI 1.63-5.62), needle sharing (AOR 0.57; 95%CI 0.42-0.78), various police interactions, perceived HIV infection risk (AOR 1.52; 95%CI 1.13-2.03), and health insurance status (AOR 0.53; 95%CI 0.33-0.87). For female IDUs, significant factors included sex work (AOR 8.2; 95%CI 2.2-30.59), lifetime syphilis exposure (AOR 2.73; 95%CI 1.08-6.93), injecting inside (AOR 5.26; 95%CI 1.54-17.92), arrests for sterile syringe possession (AOR 4.87; 95%I 1.56-15.15), prior HIV testing (AOR 2.45; 95%CI 1.04-5.81), and health insurance status

  9. Correlation Analysis of PM10 and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Nanchang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Lianshui; Hu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10) is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI). Air pollution has a greater impact on urban inhabitants as compared to rural inhabitants. When gender differences are considered, women are more likely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution. Smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. These results provide a reference for the government to formulate policies to reduce air pollutant emissions and strengthen anti-smoking measures. PMID:29048397

  10. Incidence, clinical correlates and treatment effect of rage in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Salloum, Alison; De Nadai, Alessandro S; McBride, Nicole; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

    2015-09-30

    Episodic rage represents an important and underappreciated clinical feature in pediatric anxiety. This study examined the incidence and clinical correlates of rage in children with anxiety disorders. Change in rage during treatment for anxiety was also examined. Participants consisted of 107 children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parents. Participants completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaire measures to assess rage, anxiety, functional impairment, family accommodation and caregiver strain, as well as the quality of the child's relationship with family and peers. Rage was a common feature amongst children with anxiety disorders. Rage was associated with a more severe clinical profile, including increased anxiety severity, functional impairment, family accommodation and caregiver strain, as well as poorer relationships with parents, siblings, extended family and peers. Rage was more common in children with separation anxiety, comorbid anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral disorders, but not depressive symptoms. Rage predicted higher levels of functional impairment, beyond the effect of anxiety severity. Rage severity reduced over treatment in line with changes in anxiety symptoms. Findings suggest that rage is a marker of greater psychopathology in anxious youth. Standard cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety appears to reduce rage without adjunctive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation Analysis of PM10 and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10 is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI. Air pollution has a greater impact on urban inhabitants as compared to rural inhabitants. When gender differences are considered, women are more likely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution. Smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. These results provide a reference for the government to formulate policies to reduce air pollutant emissions and strengthen anti-smoking measures.

  12. Correlation Analysis of PM10 and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Lianshui; Hu, Lei

    2017-10-19

    Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM 10 ) is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO₂, NO₂, PM 10 , annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI). Air pollution has a greater impact on urban inhabitants as compared to rural inhabitants. When gender differences are considered, women are more likely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution. Smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. These results provide a reference for the government to formulate policies to reduce air pollutant emissions and strengthen anti-smoking measures.

  13. OS033. Correlates of maternal health outcomes associated with a low-costintervention in secondary facilities across Kano state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, J; Ahonsi, B; Salisu, I; Oginni, A B; Okereke, E

    2012-07-01

    Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Eclampsia is a major contributor to the deaths especially in Northern Nigeria where the culture of teenage marriage is common. Kano is the state with the highest population in Nigeria. Despite its effectiveness, magnesium sulphate was been used to treat eclampsia and severe preclampsia in only one of 35 general hospitals inthe state as at 2007. In 2008, magnesium sulphate was introduced in 10 General Hospitals in Kano state of Northern Nigeria in a Population Council project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The aim of the study was to determine if the maternal outcomes improved. Doctors and midwives from the 10 hospitals were trained on the use of magnesium sulphate. The trained health workers later conducted step down trainings at their health facilities. Magnesium sulphate, treatment protocol, patella hammer and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analysed using SPSS. Within a year of the project, 1045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9% (95% CI 18.7-23.2) recorded before the project to 2.3% (95%CI 1.5-3.5) after the project. The perinatal mortality rate in those that received magnesium sulphate was 12.3% (CI 10.4-14.5) while the 5min APGAR score for 72.9% of the babies was 7 or more. Training of health workers on updated evidence based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are key components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Correlation of cancer incidence with diet, smoking and socio- economic position across 22 districts of Tehran in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani-Rasaf, Marzieh; Abdollahi, Morteza; Jazayeri, Shima; Kalantari, Naser; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Variation in cancer incidence in geographical locations is due to different lifestyles and risk factors. Diet and socio-economic position (SEP) have been identified as important for the etiology of cancer but patterns are changing and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations of the incidence of common cancers with food groups, total energy, smoking, and SEP. In an ecological study, disaggregated cancer data through the National Cancer Registry in Iran (2008) and dietary intake, smoking habits and SEP obtained through a population based survey within the Urban Health Equity Assessment (Urban-HEART) project were correlated across 22 districts of Tehran. Consumption of fruit, meat and dairy products adjusted for energy were positively correlated with bladder, colorectal, prostate and breast and total cancers in men and women, while these cancers were adversely correlated with bread and fat intake. Also prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder and ovarian cancers had a positive correlation with SEP; there was no correlation between SEP and skin cancer in both genders and stomach cancer in men. The incidence of cancer was higher in some regions of Tehran which appeared to be mainly determined by SEP rather than dietary intake. Further individual data are required to investigate reasons of cancer clustering.

  15. Rising incidence of Enterococcus species in microbiological specimens from orthopedic patients correlates to increased use of cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siesing, Peter Christian; Alva-Jørgensen, Jens Peter; Brodersen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are emerging causes of severe infections, including wound and bone infections in orthopedic patients. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the incidence of enterococci in tissue samples (biopsies) from orthopedic patients and consumpt...

  16. Correlation between hospital-level antibiotic consumption and incident health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Page E; Rhodes, Nathaniel J; O'Donnell, J Nicholas; Miglis, Cristina; Gilbert, Elise M; Zembower, Teresa R; Qi, Chao; Silkaitis, Christina; Sutton, Sarah H; Scheetz, Marc H

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this single-center, ecologic study is to characterize the relationship between facility-wide (FacWide) antibiotic consumption and incident health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI). FacWide antibiotic consumption and incident HO-CDI were tallied on a monthly basis and standardized, from January 2013 through April 2015. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using matched-months analysis and a 1-month delay. Regression analyses were performed, with P < .05 considered statistically significant. FacWide analysis identified a matched-months correlation between ceftriaxone and HO-CDI (ρ = 0.44, P = .018). A unit of stem cell transplant recipients did not have significant correlation between carbapenems and HO-CDI in matched months (ρ = 0.37, P = .098), but a significant correlation was observed when a 1-month lag was applied (ρ = 0.54, P = .014). Three statistically significant lag associations were observed between FacWide/unit-level antibiotic consumption and HO-CDI, and 1 statistically significant nonlagged association was observed FacWide. Antibiotic consumption may convey extended ward-level risk for incident CDI. Consumption of antibiotic agents may have immediate and prolonged influence on incident CDI. Additional studies are needed to investigate the immediate and delayed associations between antibiotic consumption and C difficile colonization, infection, and transmission at the hospital level. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal ranges of temperature of Colombo district, Sri Lanka 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. B. Ehelepola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal temperatures, ranging around different mean temperatures, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective: We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design: We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained daily maximum and minimum temperatures from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and 7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions: Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this.

  18. Decreasing fertility rate correlates with the chronological increase and geographical variation in incidence of Kawasaki disease in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD is a common cause of acquired paediatric heart disease in developed countries. KD was first identified in the 1960s in Japan, and has been steadily increasing since it was first reported. The aetiology of KD has not been defined, but is assumed to be infection-related. The present study sought to identify the factor(s that mediate the geographical variation and chronological increase of KD in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based upon data reported between 1979 and 2010 from all 47 prefectures in Japan, the incidence and mean patient age at the onset of KD were estimated. Using spatial and time-series analyses, incidence and mean age were regressed against climatic/socioeconomic variables. Both incidence and mean age of KD were inversely correlated with the total fertility rate (TFR; i.e., the number of children that would be born to one woman. The extrapolation of a time-series regressive model suggested that KD emerged in the 1960s because of a dramatic decrease in TFR in the 1940s through the 1950s. CONCLUSIONS: Mean patient age is an inverse surrogate for the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between mean patient age and TFR suggests that a higher TFR is associated with KD transmission. This relationship may be because a higher TFR facilitates sibling-to-sibling transmission. Additionally, the observed inverse correlation between incidence and TFR implies a paradoxical "negative" correlation between the incidence and the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. It was hypothesized that a decreasing TFR resulted in a reduced hazard of contracting the agent for KD, thereby increasing KD incidence.

  19. Lessons and correlative actions determined after the Bugey 5 incident, on the 14 april 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandit, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    On the 14 April 1984 a damage in the electrical alimentation of one way of the control system conduced to a loss of the external electric power. This type of incident, without consequences, have not been provided by the safety organisms. This communication presents the lessons extracted of this incident and gives the modifications of the electrical equipment for French nuclear power stations [fr

  20. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  1. Pharyngeal and cervical cancer incidences significantly correlate with personal UV doses among whites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Dianne E; Tang, Rong; Merrill, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Because we found UV-exposed oral tissue cells have reduced DNA repair and apoptotic cell death compared with skin tissue cells, we asked if a correlation existed between personal UV dose and the incidences of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the United States. We analyzed the International Agency for Research on Cancer's incidence data for oral and pharyngeal cancers by race (white and black) and sex using each state's average annual personal UV dose. We refer to our data as 'white' rather than 'Caucasian,' which is a specific subgroup of whites, and 'black' rather than African-American because blacks from other countries around the world reside in the U.S. Most oropharyngeal carcinomas harboured human papilloma virus (HPV), so we included cervical cancer as a control for direct UV activation. We found significant correlations between increasing UV dose and pharyngeal cancer in white males (p=0.000808) and females (p=0.0031) but not in blacks. Shockingly, we also found cervical cancer in whites to significantly correlate with increasing UV dose (p=0.0154). Thus, because pharyngeal and cervical cancer correlate significantly with increasing personal UV dose in only the white population, both direct (DNA damage) and indirect (soluble factors) effects may increase the risk of HPV-associated cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Africa's Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin Schaafsma

    Full Text Available The aetiology of Africa's easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies.Across Africa we assessed associations between a country's oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, iodine (I, magnesium (Mg, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn. We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI. Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR cut-point approach.Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29-0.82; Mg 0.58 (0.31-1.08; Se 0.40 (0.18-0.90; and Zn 0.29 (0.11-0.74. There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries.Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are needed to elucidate their causal role in this

  3. Early detection of the incidence of malignancy in mammograms using digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espitia, J.; Jacome, J.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    The digital image correlation has proved an effective way for Pattern Recognition, this research to identify the using Findings digitally extracted from a mammographic image, which is the means used by more specialists to determine if a person is a candidate or not, a Suffer Breast Cancer. This shown that early detection of symptom logy 'carcinogenic' is the key . (Author)

  4. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined ASMR ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  5. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  6. The Correlation Of Knowledge And Education Level Of The Patients With The Gastritis Incident At Sindangbarang Public Health Center Cianjur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drs. Oktoruddin Harun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis is usually regarded as a thing paltry but gastritis was the beginning of a a disease that can be big problem for us. Based on the previous research at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District were found scene gastritis from 10 patients 7 had less knowledgeable 1 respondents had knowledge cased and 2 respondents had good of knowledge. It is suspected that the incidence of gastritis has to do with knowledge and education level of the patients. The purpose of this research is to identify corelation betwen knowledge and education level of the patients outpatient with the gastritis at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District. Research methodology used survey analytic correlative with design cross sectional .Data analyzed by univariat and bivariat with statistics chi square test. Population in this research were out patients Public Health Center sindangbarag. The sample 120 respondents with total of sampling. The results of the study were corelation knowledge of to gastritis incident based on the analysis of bivariat by using test chi-square computerized the results of statistical corel tests obtained p value 0.013 0.05 so H0 rejected. While relations education level with the gastritis incident based on the results of the analysis bivariat test chi-square use computerized obtained the results of statistical tests obtained p value 0.0001 0.05 so H0 rejected it could be concluded a significant between knowledge and the level of education with the gastritis incident corelation at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District it is advised that need to effort to promotional and preventive especially with regard to knowledge of gastritis as information about gastritis and counseling on a preventive manner gastritis that can reduce or prevent disease gastritis.

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  8. Correlation between the season, temperature and atmospheric pressure with incidence and pathogenesis of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolić, Aleksandar; Karanikolić, Vesna; Djordjević, Lidija; Pešić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    There is very little literature data on the correlation between the seasons, temperature and atmospheric pressure, and pathogenesis of acute appendicitis (AA). The aim of this research is to investigate the association between the seasons, changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure, and patients’ age and severity of the clinical form of AA in the city of Niš This study included 395 patients diagnosed with AA, who, during the two-year period, from July 1st 2011 to June 30th 2013, were hospitalized and operated on at the Department of General Surgery, Clinical Center in Niš, Serbia. The increased average daily values of barometric pressure by 1 millibar on the day when the event took place was associated (p atmospheric temperature and pressure.

  9. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.

  11. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

  12. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  13. Prevalence, correlates and under-diagnosis of clinical depression among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy in a Tertiary Health Institution in northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Wakawa Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression is a highly debilitating illness, which is often under-diagnosed and negatively impacts on the quality of life of its sufferers. When it co-exists with other medical conditions, its effect is even more incapacitating. Undiagnosed depression in the context of HIV infection leads to accelerated decline in CD4+ cell counts with concomitant increase in the viral load and poor adherence to the antiretroviral medications which lead to viral mutation and the evolution of resistant strains. This study examined the prevalence of depression, its correlates and the frequency of the diagnosis of the condition among HIV+ subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART by the internists and general physicians at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty representative samples of HIV+ adults on HAART were drawn from the Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic of the Institution. Diagnosis of depression was made using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria based on Composite International Diagnostic Interview generated data. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were also analyzed for their correlation with depression in the subjects. About 20% of the respondents were diagnosed with clinical depression and no diagnosis of the condition was hitherto entertained in all the respondents. The independent determinants of depression in the participants were: female gender [odds ratio (OR=3.87 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.089-7.183], past history of psychiatric illness [OR=43.81 (95% CI: 9.731-197.30] and family history of psychiatric illness in first-degree relatives of the subjects [OR=14.364 (95% CI=5.327- 38.729]. Depression is a relatively common psychiatric condition among adults on HAART, there is therefore the need for routine screening of this condition among HIV+ subjects in order to optimize patient care and improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Sonographic correlation of foetal neck circumference and area with gestational age among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abonyi, Obinna Everistus; Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Onwuzu, Sobechukwu W I

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a reference range nomogram of foetal neck circumference (FNC) and foetal neck area (FNA) in a Nigerian population using polynomial regression models. This cross-sectional study involved 723 pregnant women between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation. Axial measurements of the FNC and FNA were obtained in three measurements and the mean taken as the final value and the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each foetal gestational age (FGA) were calculated. FNC and FNA correlated strongly with FGA, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, head circumference, and femoral length. Cubic models fitted the FNC vs FGA, and FNA vs. FGA values, and the mathematical relationships are given as: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Nomograms of FNC and FNA are thus generated. Impact statement The foetal neck circumference (FNC) and foetal neck area (FNA) can serve as predictors of foetal gestational age (FGA) since they correlate strongly and positively with FGA and known biometric parameters. The measurements obtained vary with the population studied. This study provides a nomogram of the FNA and FNC for an African population. The values correlate with that of the Caucasian population up to 32 weeks FGA. Interestingly, FNA and FNC measurements demonstrate high correlation but poor agreement in measurements between sonographers. Even though FNA and FNC could be used as predictors of foetal gestational age, the measurements vary significantly between sonographers. This is attributable to the difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory axial view of foetal neck, which is dependent on foetal presentation.

  15. Privatization and Economic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...

  16. Critical shoulder angle in an East Asian population: correlation to the incidence of rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun; Shiota, Yuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-05-03

    Focus has recently been on the critical shoulder angle (CSA) as a factor related to rotator cuff tear and osteoarthritis (OA) in the European population. However, whether this relationship is observed in the Asian population is unclear. The correlation between the CSAs measured on anteroposterior radiographs and the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears or OA changes was assessed in 295 patients. Rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. OA findings were classified using the Samilson-Prieto classification. The CSAs among the patients with rotator cuff tears, OA changes, and those without pathologies were compared. Multivariable analyses were used to clarify the potential risks for these pathologies. The mean CSA with rotator cuff tear (33.9° ± 4.1°) was significantly greater than that without a rotator cuff tear (32.3° ± 4.5°; P = .002). Multivariable analysis also showed that a greater CSA had a significantly increased risk of rotator cuff tears, with the odds ratio of 1.08 per degree. OA findings showed no significant correlation to the CSAs. Our study demonstrates that the CSA is greater in those with a rotator cuff tear than in those without a tear or OA changes, which may be an independent risk factor for the incidence of rotator cuff tears in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual partner characteristics and incident rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a prospective cohort in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, Habib O; Liu, Hongjie; Nowak, Rebecca G; Crowell, Trevor A; Ndomb, Teclaire; Gaydos, Charlotte; Peel, Sheila; Ndembi, Nicaise; Baral, Stefan D; Ake, Julie; Charurat, Man E

    2017-08-01

    STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) potentiate HIV acquisition and transmission especially among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the influence of sexual network composition on incident rectal NG and/or CT infections among Nigerian MSM. TRUST/RV368 is a cohort of MSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. MSM respondents (egos) provided STI risk factors and demographic information for up to five of their most recent sexual partners (alters) within their sexual networks. Egos were tested for HIV, NG and CT every 3 months. Log-binomial regression was used to assess associations between alter characteristics and incident NG and/or CT. Between March 2013 and October 2015, 492 MSM were longitudinally screened for STIs, of which 28.0% (n=138) were positive for incident rectal STI (61 NG only, 42 CT only and 35 NG and CT). Among egos, condom use was associated with STIs (half of the time vs never (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8), always/almost always vs never (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0)). Incident STIs were associated with having a younger alter ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0), HIV infection (aRR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.4 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) among regular alters and age ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), HIV infection (aRR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.2 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) among casual alters. Given the centrality of sexual partner characteristics as risks for incident STIs among Nigerian MSM, there is a need to move beyond individual interventions and syndromic surveillance and get 'out there' in the STI management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic Achievement in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Thus, it is study investigated the integrated factors determining academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

  19. Uyo, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA), Uyo, Nigeria;. 2Public Works Department ... youth HIV/AIDS risk behavior was confirmed {X2 (4) = 39.91, p < 0.05}. Results also .... versities and colleges being primary victims. (Abiodun, 1991 ... psychological, physiological or physical dis- tress when he ...

  20. Correlates of facility delivery for rural HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in the MoMent Nigeria prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Isah, Christopher; Fan-Osuala, Chinenye; Erekaha, Salome; Ramadhani, Habib O; Anaba, Udochisom; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Manji-Obadiah, Grace; Lee, Daniel; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Charurat, Manhattan

    2017-07-14

    Low rates of maternal healthcare service utilization, including facility delivery, may impede progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and in reducing maternal and infant mortality. The MoMent (Mother Mentor) study investigated the impact of structured peer support on early infant diagnosis presentation and postpartum maternal retention in PMTCT care in rural Nigeria. This paper describes baseline characteristics and correlates of facility delivery among MoMent study participants. HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited at 20 rural Primary Healthcare Centers matched by antenatal care clinic volume, client HIV prevalence, and PMTCT service staffing. Baseline and delivery data were collected by participant interviews and medical record abstraction. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equation analysis was used to evaluate for correlates of facility delivery including exposure to structured (closely supervised Mentor Mother, intervention) vs unstructured (routine, control) peer support. Of 497 women enrolled, 352 (71%) were between 21 and 30 years old, 319 (64%) were Christian, 245 (49%) had received secondary or higher education, 402 (81%) were multigravidae and 299 (60%) newly HIV-diagnosed. Delivery data was available for 445 (90%) participants, and 276 (62%) of these women delivered at a health facility. Facility delivery did not differ by type of peer support; however, it was positively associated with secondary or greater education (aOR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.2) and Christian affiliation (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.0) and negatively associated with primigravidity (OR 0.5; 0.3-0.9) and new HIV diagnosis (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Primary-level or lesser-educated HIV-infected pregnant women and those newly-diagnosed and primigravid should be prioritized for interventions to improve facility delivery rates and ultimately, healthy outcomes. Incremental gains in facility delivery from structured peer support appear limited

  1. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Yong Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  2. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Choi, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  3. Correlating blood levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine to hOGG1 genotypes and the incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We measured the serum levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and investigated whether these levels correlate with incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, and whether these levels correlate with underlying oxidative stress in patients with ICM. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of the Ser/Cys polymorphism in the human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1 gene. We analyzed the samples from 246 ICM cases (the ICM group and another 246 age- and sex-matched volunteers with normal coronary artery function (the control group. Levels of 8-OHdG in participants' blood samples were 6.7 ± 1.7 and 3.0 ± 0.8 in the ICM and control groups, respectively (p < 0.05. Although there were no differences in allele frequency (p = 0.140, significant differences were present in the genotype distributions (p = 0.002. The Cys/Cys genotype correlated strongly with the risk of developing ICM (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–3.3. Treating the Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys genotypes as members of the same group increased the predicted ICM risk for patients carrying the Cys/Cys genotype (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–2.9. The serum level of 8-OHdG in the ICM group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05 and significantly increased in those carrying the Cys/Cys genotype (8.7 ± 1.7 for the Cys/Cys group, and 4.5 ± 0.8 for the Ser/Ser+Ser/Cys group; p < 0.05. Patients carrying the Cys/Cys genotype had a significantly increased risk of developing ICM. Serum levels of 8-OHdG were significantly increased in patients with ICM.

  4. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  5. Changing Trend in Coronary Heart Disease in Nigeria | Nwaneli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the greatest cause of death in Western countries but reported to be rare in sub-Saharan Africa. There are suggestions that the incidence of coronary heart disease is rising in Nigeria as a result of many factors. This review looks at the burden of CHD in Nigeria and its risk ...

  6. Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on ...

  7. Pattern at Presentation of Extremity Gunshot Injuries in Warri, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    In recent years, the incidence of civilian gunshot injuries has ... In the United States of. America, it is the commonest cause of death in ... agitations in different parts of Africa including. Nigeria that has ... violence crimes in Nigeria, there is need for ... Gt by the police and .... Eighty five cases of gunshot injuries were recorded in ...

  8. Obstetric outcome of twin pregnancies in Jos, Nigeria | Mutihir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric outcome of twin pregnancies in Jos, Nigeria. JT Mutihir, VC Pam. Abstract. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, maternal and foetal outcome of twin delivery in Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: All consecutive twin deliveries between August 2003 and November 2004 were studied.

  9. Comparative analysis of anthropometric indices of obesity as correlates and potential predictors of risk for hypertension and prehypertension in a population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononamadu, Chimaobi James; Ezekwesili, Chinwe Nonyelum; Onyeukwu, Onyemaechi Faith; Umeoguaju, Uchenna Francis; Ezeigwe, Obiajulu Christian; Ihegboro, Godwin Okwudiri

    Obesity is a well-established independent risk factor for hypertension and other cardiometabolic disorders. However, the best anthropometric index of obesity that predicts or associates strongly with hypertension and related conditions remains controversial and inconclusive. This study compared the performance of eight anthropometric indices of obesity: body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI) and conicity index (CI) as correlates and potential predictors of risk of hypertension and prehypertension in a Nigerian population, and also the possible effect of combining two or more indices in that regard. This church-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Anambra state, south-eastern Nigeria from 2012 to 2013. A total of 912 persons (436 male and 476 female) drawn randomly from three major cities (Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi) in the state participated in the study. Information on demography, medical history and lifestyle were obtained using a well-structured and validated questionnaire. The systolic/diastolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken by well-trained personnel. The resulting data were analysed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression, Poisson regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The mean values of all the anthropometric indices studied increased from normotension, through prehypertension to hypertension in both genders. BMI, WC, HC and CI were significantly higher (p blood pressure. BMI, WHtR, WC and PI (with higher correlation coefficients for blood pressure) showed the best potential to predict hypertension and prehypertension in the study: BMI (cut-off = 24.49, AUC = 0.698; cut-off = 23.62, AUC = 0.659), WHtR (cut-off = 0.55, AUC = 0.682; cut-off = 0.5, AUC = 0.636), WC (cut-off = 91.44, AUC = 0.692; cut-off = 82.55, AUC = 0.645), PI (cut-off = 14.45, AUC = 0.670; cut

  10. geo-spatial analysis of crime in kaduna metropolis, nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool can be used by relevant agencies such as ... enforcement, information about the location of a crime incident, suspect, or victim is ..... Development Report in Nigeria. Available at:.

  11. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in Nnewi, Nigeria: A 10-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in Nnewi, Nigeria: A 10-year review. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... were 6,137 deliveries and 38 cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomies, giving an incidence of 6.2 per 1000 deliveries.

  12. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... use of antibiotics in animal farming and insecticides accounts for high incidences of food poisoning and deaths of unsuspecting consumers ...

  13. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    ... a significant degree of national pride and belief in Nigeria as a state. After 16 years of military rule, Nigeria made a transition to civilian governance in 1999, when Olusegun Obasanjo, a former general, was elected president...

  14. IDRC in Nigeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    including Nigeria, have access to essen - tial medical ... Nigerian Institute of Social and. Economic ... firm specializing in digital technologies ... the University of Southern Maine, US. Nigeria has ... the authorities, the media, and the population.

  15. Body mass index is closely correlated to incident diabetes in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle; Andersson, Charlotte; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction (MI) increases morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the impact of obesity on the risk of developing diabetes in these populations. Design: A cohort of patients consecutively hospitalized with heart failure (n......¿=¿3472) or MI (n¿=¿5723) was followed in the period 1995-2006. Methods: Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate the risk of developing diabetes according to the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) classification. Normal weight patients (BMI 18.5-24.9¿kg/m(2)) were....... Incident diabetes was associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks with adjusted HRs of greater magnitude than in prevalent diabetes. Conclusion: BMI was an independent predictor of incident diabetes in patients with either heart failure or MI. More than half of the patients...

  16. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Stewart, L.; Hale, G.M.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  17. Exponentially increasing incidences of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Europe correlate with low personal annual UV doses and suggests 2 major risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J; Ashrafi, Samira; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2015-01-01

    For several decades the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) steadily increased in fair-skinned, indoor-working people around the world. Scientists think poor tanning ability resulting in sunburns initiate CMM, but they do not understand why the incidence continues to increase despite the increased use of sunscreens and formulations offering more protection. This paradox, along with lower incidences of CMM in outdoor workers, although they have significantly higher annual UV doses than indoor workers have, perplexes scientists. We found a temporal exponential increase in the CMM incidence indicating second-order reaction kinetics revealing the existence of 2 major risk factors. From epidemiology studies, we know one major risk factor for getting CMM is poor tanning ability and we now propose the other major risk factor may be the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) because clinicians find β HPVs in over half the biopsies. Moreover, we uncovered yet another paradox; the increasing CMM incidences significantly correlate with decreasing personal annual UV dose, a proxy for low vitamin D3 levels. We also discovered the incidence of CMM significantly increased with decreasing personal annual UV dose from 1960, when it was almost insignificant, to 2000. UV and other DNA-damaging agents can activate viruses, and UV-induced cytokines can hide HPV from immune surveillance, which may explain why CMM also occurs in anatomical locations where the sun does not shine. Thus, we propose the 2 major risk factors for getting CMM are intermittent UV exposures that result in low cutaneous levels of vitamin D3 and possibly viral infection.

  18. Pregnancy incidence and correlates during the HVTN 503 Phambili HIV vaccine trial conducted among South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Latka

    Full Text Available HIV prevention trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Women at risk for HIV are also at risk of pregnancy. To maximize safety, women agree to avoid pregnancy during trials, yet pregnancies occur. Using data from the HVTN 503/"Phambili" vaccine trial, we report pregnancy incidence during and after the vaccination period and identify factors, measured at screening, associated with incident pregnancy.To enrol in the trial, women agreed and were supported to avoid pregnancy until 1 month after their third and final vaccination ("vaccination period", corresponding to the first 7 months of follow-up. Unsterilized women, pooled across study arms, were analyzed. Poisson regression compared pregnancy rates during and after the vaccination period. Cox proportional hazards regression identified associations with first pregnancy.Among 352 women (median age 23 yrs; median follow-up 1.5 yrs, pregnancy incidence was 9.6/100 women-years overall and 6.8/100 w-yrs and 11.3/100 w-yrs during and after the vaccination period, respectively [Rate Ratio = 0.60 (0.32-1.14, p = 0.10]. In multivariable analysis, pregnancy was reduced among women who: enrolled at sites providing contraception on-site [HR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.22-0.86]; entered the trial as injectable contraceptive users [HR = 0.37 (0.21-0.67] or as consistent condom users (trend [HR = 0.54 (0.28-1.04]. Compared with women with a single partner of HIV-unknown status, pregnancy rates were increased among women with: a single partner whose status was HIV-negative [HR = 2.34(1.16-4.73] and; 2 partners both of HIV-unknown status [HR = 4.42(1.59-12.29]. Women with 2 more of these risk factors: marijuana use, heavy drinking, or use of either during sex, had increased pregnancy incidence [HR = 2.66 (1.24-5.72].It is possible to screen South African women for pregnancy risk at trial entry. Providing injectable contraception for free on-site and supporting consistent condom use may reduce

  19. Pregnancy Incidence and Correlates during the HVTN 503 Phambili HIV Vaccine Trial Conducted among South African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Mary H.; Fielding, Katherine; Gray, Glenda E.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Mlisana, Koleka; Nielson, Tanya; Roux, Surita; Mkhize, Baningi; Mathebula, Matsontso; Naicker, Nivashnee; de Bruyn, Guy; Kublin, James; Churchyard, Gavin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV prevention trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Women at risk for HIV are also at risk of pregnancy. To maximize safety, women agree to avoid pregnancy during trials, yet pregnancies occur. Using data from the HVTN 503/“Phambili” vaccine trial, we report pregnancy incidence during and after the vaccination period and identify factors, measured at screening, associated with incident pregnancy. Methods To enrol in the trial, women agreed and were supported to avoid pregnancy until 1 month after their third and final vaccination (“vaccination period”), corresponding to the first 7 months of follow-up. Unsterilized women, pooled across study arms, were analyzed. Poisson regression compared pregnancy rates during and after the vaccination period. Cox proportional hazards regression identified associations with first pregnancy. Results Among 352 women (median age 23 yrs; median follow-up 1.5 yrs), pregnancy incidence was 9.6/100 women-years overall and 6.8/100 w-yrs and 11.3/100 w-yrs during and after the vaccination period, respectively [Rate Ratio = 0.60 (0.32–1.14), p = 0.10]. In multivariable analysis, pregnancy was reduced among women who: enrolled at sites providing contraception on-site [HR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.22–0.86)]; entered the trial as injectable contraceptive users [HR = 0.37 (0.21–0.67)] or as consistent condom users (trend) [HR = 0.54 (0.28–1.04)]. Compared with women with a single partner of HIV-unknown status, pregnancy rates were increased among women with: a single partner whose status was HIV-negative [HR = 2.34(1.16–4.73)] and; 2 partners both of HIV-unknown status [HR = 4.42(1.59–12.29)]. Women with 2 more of these risk factors: marijuana use, heavy drinking, or use of either during sex, had increased pregnancy incidence [HR = 2.66 (1.24–5.72)]. Conclusions It is possible to screen South African women for pregnancy risk at trial entry. Providing injectable

  20. Incidence, prevalence and clinical correlates of antidepressant-emergent mania in bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Anastasia, Annalisa; Novello, Stefano; Fusco, Andrea; Solmi, Marco; Monaco, Francesco; Veronese, Nicola; De Berardis, Domenico; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Treatment-emergent mania (TEM) represents a common phenomenon inconsistently reported across primary studies, warranting further assessment. A systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were conducted. Major electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2017 to assess the incidence and prevalence rates and clinical features associated with manic switch among bipolar depressed patients receiving antidepressants, using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Overall, 10 098 depressed patients with bipolar disorder (BD) across 51 studies/arms were included in the quantitative analysis. The cumulative incidence of cases (TEM + ) among 4767 patients with BD over 15 retrospective studies was 30.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6-45.0%, I 2  = 97.9%). The cumulative incidence of TEM + among 1929 patients with BD over 12 prospective open studies was 14.4% (95% CI 7.4-26.1%, I 2  = 93.7%). The cumulative incidence of TEM + among 1316 patients with BD over 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was 11.8% (95% CI 8.4-16.34%, I 2  = 73.46%). The pooled prevalence of TEM + among 2086 patients with BD over four cross-sectional studies was 30.9% (95% CI 18.1-47.4%, I 2  = 95.6%). Overall, concurrent lithium therapy predicted the lowest TEM rates. Inconsistent operational definitions of TEM were recorded, and the lack of information about age, sex, co-occurring anxiety, and other clinically relevant moderators precluded further stratification of the results. Rates of TEM vary primarily depending on study setting, which is concordant with the high degree of heterogeneity of the included records. Forthcoming RCT studies should adopt consistent operational definitions of TEM and broaden the number of moderators, in order to contribute most effectively to the identification of clear-cut sub-phenotypes of

  1. The Correlation between Duration of Employment, Body Posture and Smoking Habit on Low Back Pain Incidence An Analytic Observational Study Among Taxi Driver in Semarang Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syifa Dian Firmanita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain ((LBP ranks as number two of neurological disease’s highest prevalence after cephalgia and migraine in Indonesia. Objective: This study aim to determine the relationship between duration of employment, body posture and smoking habit on the incidence of low back pain on taxi driver. Method: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional design. Seventyfour taxi drivers in Semarang municipality was screened with Beck’s Depression Inventory Scale to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respondents were then given Risk Factor of LBP questionnaire. Data were analyzed with a bivariate correlation test contingency coefficient to see the relationship between duration of employment, body posture, smoking habit and low back pain.Result: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years were moderate smokers and having astenis body posture. The analysis of correlation coefficients contingency test showed a significance relationship between duration of employment (p = 0,000, body posture (p = 0,000, and moderate smokers (p=0.010 with the incidence of LBP. Conclusion: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years with astenis body posture, and moderate smokers were posstively correlated with LBP.

  2. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy's Classes- A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Vidhya; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy's Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II.

  3. Correlation between Mental Health and Incidence of Sudden Hearing Loss in Referred Patients to Otolaryngology Services of Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Farahani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years mental health attracts attention of many researchers, and severe emotional stress that can interfere in creation of different organic diseases is one of the most prominent of this aspects. Sudden hearing loss (S.H.L. is one of these disorders that could followed after stress and eventually may heal completely, relatively or lead to permanent deafness. S.H.L. could influence on interpersonal relationships and in this way could change quality of life negatively, so enough and appropriate attention is necessary. In this research by determination of level of stress we intended to study relationship between mental health and incidence of S.H.L.Materials & Methods: In this case – control study 65 patients that referred to otolaryngology services of Hamadan during 2005-2006 with S.H.L. (case group compared to 89 healthy subjects (control group. Control group were free from any systemic diseases and were matched from sex and age aspects to the case group. In case group after complete audiometric evaluation and confirmation of S.H.L, stress level was assessed using GHQ-28 questionnaire. This questionnaire contained 28 questions in 4 different fields: somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social problems and depression. Linkert scoring method was used for scoring of questionnaires and all data were analyzed using T-Test and chi-square test.Results: During 4 months incidence of S.H.L. in referred patients were 5.1%, significant statistical relationships between S.H.L. and level of stress (P<0.001 and severity of hearing loss and level of stress (P<0.05, r =0.34 were found. The most common audiometric pattern was downward slopping pattern (56.92%. Evaluation of level of stress between two sex groups did not show any significant difference (P<0.05.Conclusion: Stress can be known as one of the predisposing factors of S.H.L. and may be possible to control by paying more attention to the role of self-awareness and

  4. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: 2008 prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease and correlation with socioeconomic indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Ana M; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria C; Marinovich, Sergio; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Hernandez-Fonseca, Fabio; Almaguer, Miguel; Rodriguez-Manzano, Sandra; Freire, Nelly; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Bochicchio, Tommaso; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Pereda, Carlos; Carlini, Raul

    2013-05-01

    In 2008, 563,294,000 people were living in Latin America (LA), of which 6.6% were older than 65. The region is going through a fast demographic and epidemiologic transition process, in the context of an improvement in socio-economic indices. The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry has collected data since 1991, through an annual survey completed by 20 affiliated National Societies. Renal replacement treatment (RRT) prevalence and incidence showed an increase year by year. The prevalence rate (in all modalities) correlated with the World Bank country classification by income and the epidemiologic transition stage the countries were experiencing. RRT prevalence and kidney transplantation rates correlated significantly with gross national income (GNI), health expenditure in constant dollars (HeExp), % older than 65, life expectancy at birth, and % of the population living in urban settings. Kidney transplantation increased also, year by year, with more than 50% of transplants performed using kidneys from deceased donors. Double transplants were performed in six countries. RRT prevalence and incidence increased in LA, and are associated with indexes reflecting higher and more evenly distributed national wealth (GNI and HeExp), and the stage of demographic and epidemiological transition.

  5. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as correlates of help-seeking behaviour and the duration of untreated psychosis in south-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chigozie Odinka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP has been widely recognised in recent years as a potentially important predictor of illness outcome, and the manifestations of schizophrenia have been known to influence its early recognition as a mental illness.  Objective. To assess the association between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, help-seeking and DUP.  Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 360 patients with schizophrenia, who had had no previous contact with Western mental health services. The Sociodemographic Questionnaire, World Health Organization Pathway Encounter Form and a questionnaire to establish DUP were used. The positive and negative syndrome scale and Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used for the assessment of mental disorders and to diagnose. Results. Respondents who had predominant positive symptoms and who had a median DUP of 8 weeks or 24 weeks, tended to use psychiatric hospitals and other Western medical facilities, respectively, as their first treatment options. However, those who had predominant negative symptoms and who had a median DUP of 144 weeks or 310 weeks, tended to use faith healers and traditional healers, respectively, as first treatment options. Conclusion. The predominance of negative symptoms could militate against early presentation among people with schizophrenia, probably because negative symptoms are poorly recognised as indicating mental illness in Nigeria, as they could be interpreted as deviant behaviour or spiritual problems that would require spiritual solutions.

  6. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and 10-year incidence (2002-2012) of diabetes: correlations with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in the ATTICA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloverou, E; Panagiotakos, D B; Pitsavos, C; Chrysohoou, C; Georgousopoulou, E N; Grekas, A; Christou, A; Chatzigeorgiou, M; Skoumas, I; Tousoulis, D; Stefanadis, C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the links between oxidative stress, inflammation and coagulation and their effect on Mediterranean diet-diabetes relationship. In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study, where Athens is the major metropolis. A validated questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle and dietary factors. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was recorded using MedDietScore. Among others, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were recorded. During 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Diabetes incidence was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. A total of 191 incident cases of diabetes were documented, yielding an incidence of 12.9% (13.4% in men and 12.4% in women). Medium and high adherence was found to decrease diabetes risk by 49% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.88) and 62% (95% CI: 0.16, 0.88), respectively, compared with low adherence. A logarithmic trend between Mediterranean diet and diabetes incidence was also revealed (p for trend = 0.042). Individuals with abnormal waist circumference (>94 for men, >80 for women) were benefited the most. Wholegrain cereals, fruits and legumes had the greatest predictive ability. The anti-diabetic effect of Mediterranean diet correlated with measurements of tumour necrosis factor-α, homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity. The reported results support the role of Mediterranean diet as a promising dietary tool for the primary prevention of diabetes, by attenuating inflammation and fostering total antioxidant capacity. This dietary pattern may have therapeutic potential for many cardiometabolic disorders associated with inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Preliminary study of family accommodation in youth with autism spectrum disorders and anxiety: Incidence, clinical correlates, and behavioral treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Zavrou, Sophia; Collier, Amanda B; Ung, Danielle; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety symptoms are common in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and directly associated with symptom severity and functional impairment. Family accommodation occurs frequently among individuals with obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders; to date, no data exist on the nature and correlates of family accommodation in youth with ASD and anxiety, as well as its relationship to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome. Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder participated. Clinicians administered measures of ASD and anxiety disorder caseness, anxiety symptom severity, and family accommodation; parents completed questionnaires assessing social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. A subsample of youth (n = 24) completed a course of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Family accommodation was common and positively correlated with anxiety symptom severity, but not functional impairment, general internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, or social responsiveness. Family accommodation decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy with decreases in family accommodation being associated with decreases in anxiety levels. Treatment responders reported lower family accommodation frequency and lower parent impact relative to non-responders. Clinical implications of this study in assessing and psychotherapeutically treating youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. An Assessment of Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Adem ANYEBE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.

  10. Differential expression of IGFBPs in Laron syndrome-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines: Potential correlation with reduced cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somri, Lina; Sarfstein, Rive; Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Nagaraj, Karthik; Laron, Zvi; Bach, Leon A; Werner, Haim

    2018-04-01

    Laron syndrome (LS), or primary growth hormone (GH) insensitivity, is a growth disorder that results from mutation of the GH-receptor (GHR) gene leading to congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that LS patients are protected from cancer development. Genome-wide profiling identified genes and signaling pathways that are differentially represented in LS patients, and that may contribute to cancer protection. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hypothesis that IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are differentially expressed in LS, most probably as a result of low circulating levels of IGF-1. Furthermore, we postulated that IGFBPs might be differentially regulated by oxidative stress in this condition and, therefore, may contribute to cancer evasion. Our results show that IGFBP-3, which is predominantly protective, was highly expressed in LS-derived lymphoblastoid cells in comparison to control cells from the same ethnic group. On the other hand, levels of IGFBP-2, -4, -5, and -6 were diminished in LS patients, as demonstrated by RQ-PCR, Western immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence. In addition, our data provide evidence for a pattern of IGFBP response to H 2 O 2 treatment that might be associated with distinct expression of apoptosis markers (BCL2, pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-3) in LS. In summary, differential expression of specific IGFBPs in LS might be correlated with cellular mechanisms underlying cancer protection and, probably, additional phenotypes due to congenital IGF-1 deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  12. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  13. Management Of Boy Child School Drop Out In South-East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    out in the south eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria and used available statistics to show that there is high incidence of male child drop out in the south eastern states of Nigeria. Furthermore, it examined the causes of male-child drop out to ...

  14. Rising cases of rape offences in Nigeria: new measures to the rescue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before now the offence of rape in Nigeria was an isolated incident. It occurred once in a while and when it did it was greeted with incredulity and surprise. However, despite the fact that the offence carries a life term imprisonment, it has now become a daily occurrence Nigeria. It seems that the law as it is, is incapable of ...

  15. Arrow injuries in North Eastern Nigeria | Na'Aya | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Arrow injuries are common presentation at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Nguru, North East Nigeria. The injuries are mostly unreported and there is neither a policy nor an action plan to curb their incidence. Aim: To establish an accurate data base for this clinical entity in this part of Nigeria and suggest ...

  16. Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Cryptosporidium Zoonosis in Nigeria. Ayinmode, A. B. and Fagbemi B. O. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium is a coocidian parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including man.

  17. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 221 ... The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical interest. ... of the Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) ... and related disciplines in Nigeria, Africa and internationally. ... perforation after surgical intervention in a tertiary health institution ...

  18. (SMEs) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Nigeria, project financing can be secured in Central bank of Nigeria, state ... governments also finance projects for different sectors of the economy ... International Monetary Fund (I.M.F) is a similar body of World Bank that is.

  19. Electron impact excitation of helium: A ploarization correlation study of the 31P state at 40 eV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, C.L.; Dorio, L.A.; Neill, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently the Convergent Close-Coupling calculations, (CCC), of Fursa and Bray have been very successful predicting the behavior of the electron impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron impact excitation of helium. In the present experimental study the linear Stokes parameters P 1 and P 2 have been measured for He(3 1 P) excitation using the polarization correlation technique. Data will be presented for electron impact energies of 40eV and 50eV. At present no other experimental data is available at 40eV. At 50eV angular correlation data measured using the VUV 3 1 P-1 1 S photons are available only out to a maximum electron scattering angle of 85 degrees. Due to the disadvantageous differential cross section and 40:1 branching ratio in favor of the VUV decay, the uncertainties in the present data are large. However, at selected electron scattering angles they are sufficient to distinguish the lack of convergence of the CCC predictions for the 69 state calculations (CCC69) in comparison with the 75 state model (CCC75). In particular at 50 eV incident electron energy and 120 degrees scattering angle the charge cloud alignment angles predicted by the two calculations differ by 90 degrees

  20. Incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis and correlation of conventional diagnostic methods with nested PCR and real-time PCR assay using BAL fluid in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Khodadadi, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Although the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in the intensive care unit (ICU) is scarce, it has emerged as major problems in critically ill patients. In this study, the incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) in ICU patients has evaluated and direct microscopy and culture has compared with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of the patients. Thirty BAL samples obtained from ICU patients during a 16-month period were subjected to direct examinations on 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on two culture media. Nested PCR targeting internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA and TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting β-tubulin gene were used for the detection of A. fumigatus and A. flavus. Of 30 patients, 60% were men and 40% were women. The diagnosis of invasive PA was probable in 1 (3%), possible in 11 (37%), and not IPA in 18 (60%). Nine samples were positive in nested PCR including seven samples by A. flavus and two by A. fumigatus specific primers. The lowest amount of DNA that TaqMan real-time PCR could detect was ≥40 copy numbers. Only one of the samples had a positive result of A. flavus real-time PCR with Ct value of 37.5. Although a significant number of specimens were positive in nested PCR, results of this study showed that establishment of a correlation between the conventional methods with nested PCR and real-time PCR needs more data confirmed by a prospective study with a larger sample group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An analysis of the spatial distribution of Plasmodium sporozoites and effects of climatic correlates on malaria infection in Anyigba town, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifatimehin, Olarewaju Oluseyi; Falola, O O; Odogbo, E V

    2013-10-27

    The infectivity of sporozoites on both mosquitoes and human is the major cause of malaria infection on its host, Man. Malaria infection had continued to blossom despite measures to curb it. Clinically diagnosed malaria data for 3 years, capture of mosquitoes for laboratory analysis to determining the infectivity of sporozoites, responses from the population on the number of episode of malaria in the last 60 days were all collected and generated, and also subjected to various analysis using methods accepted tools and methods. A fifteen weeks climatic data was also collected. It was discovered that malaria incidence of 467.2853/1000 persons is very high. This high rate is possible as out of every 10 mosquitoes in Anyigba, 4 are infected by sporozoites and can possibly transmit these sporozoites during blood feeding on the population. This is affirmed by the prevalence of malaria by 54.75% among Anyigba's population. At p>001 (0.829), climatic variables and sporozoites rate showed a strong affinity with the prevalence of malaria. The risk map showed that the university community and the surrounding students' lodges are areas of very high risk. Therefore, the populace is strongly advised to employed practicable measures such as regular environmental sanitation and the use of Insecticidal Treated Nets (ITN) in order to drastically address this epidemic.

  2. Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive "renal biopsy". The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure. Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005. A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000. The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.

  3. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  4. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... India, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo ... but knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) was poor in both areas. ... proportions of rural women utilized nutritional counseling (p=0.005) and treatment of ...

  5. practice in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Musa

    current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients." This paper ... Services, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Following this .... isolated and powerless if they fail to integrate .... services and safe guarding high.

  6. Correlations between psychopathology and self-reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle; Abiri, Gbonjubola; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well-being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self-rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. One hundred and sixty-five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15-16). There was strong negative correlation (r = -0.51, p psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Anaemia is typical of pregnancies: capturing community perception and management of anaemia in pregnancy in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G.; Igweonu, Obianuju U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples’ understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study expl...

  8. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Ruptured uterus is an obstetric emergency and results in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The objective of the review is to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in cases of ruptured uterus. Methods:- A 4-year retrospective review of ...

  9. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  10. Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

  11. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  12. Religious Violence in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences | Iwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Responsible manipulation of religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence has become a yearly ...

  13. Audit of medication errors by anesthetists in North Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... errors do occur in the everyday practice of anesthetists in Nigeria as in other countries and can lead to morbidity and mortality in our patients. Routine audit and reporting of critical incidents including errors in drug administration should be encouraged. Reduction of medication errors is an important aspect of patient safety, ...

  14. Ethnicity and Prostate Cancer in Southern Nigeria: A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tract symptoms of diseases, findings on general and systemic physical examination ... KEYWORDS: Ethnicity, prostate cancer, Southern Nigeria. Access this article ... culture and sensitivity, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography of the prostate ..... Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung ...

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy in Nnewi, Nigeria | Nwosu | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to determine the incidence and pattern of diabetic retinopathy in a clinic population of diabetics in Nnewi. All consecutive new patients seen at the Diabetic Eye Clinic, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, between March 1997 and September 1998 were examined.

  16. Human rabies: Still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria | Eke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives: Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies ...

  17. Age-related macular degeneration in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, pattern and ocular morbidity associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case files of all new patients aged 50 years and above seen between January 1997 and December 2004 were reviewed.

  18. Climate Shocks and Conflict: Evidence from colonial Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climatic shocks on the incidence of conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912–1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to construct an index of socio-political conflict using principal component

  19. Climate Shocks and Conflict: Evidence from colonial Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climatic shocks on the incidence of conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912–1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to construct an index of socio-political conflict using principal component

  20. Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Objectives: To determine the incidence and pattern of ametropia among school children. Materials and ... The cooperation of parents and teachers is vital in identifying and treating this modifiable cause of poor academic performance and learning difficulties.

  1. Study of interface correlation in W/C multilayer structure by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A., E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Maidul Haque, S.; Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, VIZAG Centre, Visakhapatnam 530012 (India); Rai, S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Raman Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-10-28

    W/C/W tri-layer thin film samples have been deposited on c-Si substrates in a home-built Ion Beam Sputtering system at 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Torr Ar working pressure and 10 mA grid current. The tri-layer samples have been deposited at different Ar{sup +} ion energies between 0.6 and 1.2 keV for W layer deposition and the samples have been characterized by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements. By analyzing the GIXR spectra, various interface parameters have been obtained for both W-on-C and C-on-W interfaces and optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy for obtaining interfaces with low imperfections has been found. Subsequently, multilayer W/C samples with 5-layer, 7-layer, 9-layer, and 13-layer have been deposited at this optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy. By fitting the specular and diffused GIXR data of the multilayer samples with the parameters of each interface as fitting variables, different interface parameters, viz., interface width, in-plane correlation length, interface roughness, and interface diffusion have been estimated for each interface and their variation across the depth of the multilayers have been obtained. The information would be useful in realizing W/C multilayers for soft X-ray mirror application in the <100 Å wavelength regime. The applicability of the “restart of the growth at the interface” model in the case of these ion beam sputter deposited W/C multilayers has also been investigated in the course of this study.

  2. Uranium development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karniliyus, J.; Egieya, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria uranium exploration started in 1973. Uranium was found in seven states of the country; Cross River, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, Bauchi, Kogi and Kano. Three government agencies were involved. At the end of the various exploration campaigns in 2001, the uranium reserve was estimated at about 200 t U. The Grade ranges from 0.63% - 0-9% at a vertical depth between 130 – 200 m. Currently, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission activated in 2006 is charged with the responsibility among others to prospect for and mine radioactive minerals. The main aim of this poster presentation is to review the development of uranium in Nigeria with a view to encourage local and international investors to develop and exploit these deposits. Nigeria is located on latitude 100 N and longitude 80 E surrounded in the north by Niger and Chad, in the east by Cameroun and in the west by the Benin Republic. Available data indicated the viability of mineral investment in the Nigerian uranium resources. With the current economic reforms and investment incentives in Nigeria, interested investors are highly welcome to take advantage of developing these mineral resources. (author)

  3. Credit Risk Management and Interest Income of Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapetu, Oladapo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of credit risk on the interest income of banks in Nigeria between the period of 2000 and 2014. Unbalanced panel data analysis was used to estimate the model with unit root test, Breusch Pagan test, trend analysis, descriptive statistics, Perasan CD Test, heteroskedasticity test, heterogeneity test, serial correlation test, Jarquebera, F-statistics, random effect, fixed effect, time effect, Prob value, Hausman test and rho as the estimation parameters. The study discovered that NPL, LLP and LA are statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria, while LA/TD is not statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria. Based on this, the study recommends that regular update of credit policy and adequate measures to monitor loans should be put in place by banks in Nigeria, as these measures will reduce bad loans and ultimately cause a reduction in loan loss provisions.

  4. Changes in meteorological parameters in Nigeria by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual mean solar indices of MgII core to core wing ratio, solar flux 10.7 cm and sunspot number over an eleven (11) year period, 2000 – 2010, were correlated with the annual mean rainfall, maximum temperature, relati-ve humidity, cloud cover and wind speed of 8 meteorological stations in Nigeria. Correlation ...

  5. Incidence, diagnosis and management of eye affections in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of ocular affections in dogs was conducted at some selected clinics and hospitals in Southwest Nigeria between 2003 and, 2013 to determine the incidence, pattern of distribution, methods of diagnosis and treatment modalities using descriptive statistical tool. Overall incidence of eye affection in dogs ...

  6. An Assessment of the Incidence of Poverty Among Rural Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty among rural active population in Mangu Local Government of Plateau State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the respondents; the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty ...

  7. Twin Delivery: Comparison of Incidence and Foetal Outcome in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of twin delivery in Nigeria may have changed, in view of the worldwide increase in the rates of twinning attributed to increasing maternal age and use of fertility therapies. Objective: To determine the current incidence of twin delivery in Benin City and document the foetal outcome in twins.

  8. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  9. Transabdominal Chorionic Villous Sampling in Nigeria: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: transabdominal chorionic villous sampling is generally preferred to the transvaginal approach. The procedure may, however, be associated with complcations due to a number of factors. OBJECTIVES: to review the relationship between the number of cases and other variables in transabdominal chorionic ...

  10. What is wrong in Nigeria?; Security Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodland, Arild

    2009-07-01

    Despite massive government efforts at putting an end to crime and militancy targeting its petroleum industry, Nigeria's oil production is still falling. Daily crude output now hovers around the 1.7 million barrels per day mark, perhaps even lower, as MEND - a network of militant groups saying they are fighting for the rights of the Niger Delta's people - has picked up hatchet. Again. The government's declared ambition of pumping 4 million barrels by next year is not only a distant dream, it is a delirious illusion. (Author)

  11. Incidence of Pest and Diseases of Acha at Badeggi in the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of Pest and Diseases of Acha at Badeggi in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Studies were carried out on nine accessions of Acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf and Digitaria Iburua Stapf to evaluate them for their susceptibility to insect pests, fungi, weeds, birds and rodents.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    2017-05-01

    than those in urban areas, while the fathers in rural areas experienced 33.5% increase in childhood mortality than the urban areas. The risk of childhood mortality was significantly lower in middle, richer and richest (11.1%, 37.5 and 49% economic quintiles respectively when compared to the risk of childhood mortality with female spouse who are poorest. Similar results were obtained for the fathers, with reduction in the incidence-rate ratio of 3.3%, 20.2 and 28.7% for middle, richer and richest economic quintiles respectively, compared to the poorest status. Furthermore, region and religion were found to be significant factors associated with childhood mortality in Nigeria. Conclusion The findings suggested that age, region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of fathers and mothers are key determinants associated with childhood mortality. The correlation between childhood mortality and fathers’ and mothers’ ages were found to increase the incidence of the outcome for every unit increase in age. The converse was however, true for age at first birth which was also statistically significant. The implication of this study is that policy makers and stakeholders in health care should provide for improved living standards to achieve good life expectancy meeting SDG3.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Tudeme, Godson; Vaibhav, Shah; Bishwajit, Ghose; Kadio, Bernard

    2017-05-22

    rural areas experienced 33.5% increase in childhood mortality than the urban areas. The risk of childhood mortality was significantly lower in middle, richer and richest (11.1%, 37.5 and 49%) economic quintiles respectively when compared to the risk of childhood mortality with female spouse who are poorest. Similar results were obtained for the fathers, with reduction in the incidence-rate ratio of 3.3%, 20.2 and 28.7% for middle, richer and richest economic quintiles respectively, compared to the poorest status. Furthermore, region and religion were found to be significant factors associated with childhood mortality in Nigeria. The findings suggested that age, region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of fathers and mothers are key determinants associated with childhood mortality. The correlation between childhood mortality and fathers' and mothers' ages were found to increase the incidence of the outcome for every unit increase in age. The converse was however, true for age at first birth which was also statistically significant. The implication of this study is that policy makers and stakeholders in health care should provide for improved living standards to achieve good life expectancy meeting SDG3.

  14. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.

    2000-07-01

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  15. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  16. (UBE) in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    the effective management of Universal Basic Education in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The hypotheses formulated ... administrators' literacy in financial management has no effect on the effective management of UBE. ... through free basic education schemes was held in Paris (Obanya, 2001,. 2002). Also, in April, 2002 in ...

  17. Rectal bleeding after hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Correlation between clinical and dosimetric parameters and the incidence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Harashima, Koichi; Miyazawa, Yasushi; Yamada, Masami; Ito, Kazuto; Kurokawa, Kouhei; Yamanaka, Hidetoshi; Nakano, Takashi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and severity of rectal bleeding after high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer, and to explore the factors affecting the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. Methods and materials: The data of 52 patients who had been treated by external beam RT for localized prostate cancer between 1999 and 2002 were analyzed. All the patients had received hypofractionated external beam RT to a total dose of 69 Gy in 3-Gy fractions, three fractions weekly. The clinical and dosimetric factors affecting the incidence of Grade 2 or worse late rectal bleeding were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The effect of the percentage of the whole rectal volume receiving 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose (V 30 , V 50 , V 80 , and V 90 , respectively) on the incidence of rectal bleeding was evaluated. Results: Of the 52 patients, 13 (25%) developed Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. One patient who needed laser coagulation and blood transfusion for the treatment of rectal bleeding was classified as having Grade 3 rectal bleeding. The median time to the development of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding was 11 months. The results of the univariate analysis revealed that the presence of a history of diabetes mellitus (p 30 ≥ 60%, V 50 ≥ 40% (p 80 ≥ 25%, and V 90 ≥ 15% (p < 0.001) were statistically significant risk factors for the occurrence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. The results of the multivariate analysis revealed that a history of diabetes mellitus was the most statistically significant risk factor for the occurrence of rectal bleeding after hypofractionated RT for prostate cancer (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A history of diabetes mellitus was the most statistically significant risk factor for the occurrence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose hypofractionated RT, although dosimetric factors were also closely associated with the risk of rectal bleeding

  18. Increased incidence and clinical correlation of persistently abnormal technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams following acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicod, P.; Lewis, S.E.; Corbett, J.C.; Buja, L.M.; Henderson, G.; Raskin, P.; Rude, R.E.; Willerson, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Persistently abnormal /sup 99m/Tc stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams (PPi+) appear to be associated with a relatively poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To assess the incidence and implications of PPi+, we performed a retrospective analysis in 29 patients with and 25 patients without diabetes mellitus who had abnormal myocardial scintigrams within 4 days of AMI and who had follow-up scintigrams at least 3 months after hospital discharge. There were no significant differences between patients with and without diabetes as regards age, incidence of transmural or nontransmural AMI, or degree of left ventricular dysfunction after AMI. Persistently abnormal PPi+ occurred more commonly in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic patients (18 of 29, 62%, compared to 3 of 25, 12%; p less than 0.001). Patients with chronic PPi+ had more frequent cardiac complications following hospital discharge (p less than 0.005) including death, recurrent AMI, unstable angina, and intractable congestive heart failure. Postmortem analysis in two patients with diabetes and chronic PPi+ revealed marked myocytolysis. Thus, patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of post-AMI persistently abnormal technetium (PPi+) scintigrams and relatively poor prognosis following myocardial infarction

  19. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors in correlation with incidence, recurrence and death of peptic ulcer bleeding: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Sverdén, Emma; Ljung, Rickard; Söderlund, Claes; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are regarded as two types of drugs that respectively increase and decrease the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. However, their relation to occurrence, recurrence and death of bleeding in the population level is not clear. Study objective To clarify recent calendar-time correlations between sales of NSAIDs and PPIs and the occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding, re-bleeding and death. Design Ecological study. Results The time trend of peptic ulcer bleeding did not correlate with PPI sales but did correlate with NSAIDs in mem (Rmale=0.6571, Pmale=0.05). Sales of PPIs (inverse) and NSAIDs correlated with re-bleeding in women (Rmale=−0.8754, Pmale=0.002 and Rfemale=0.7161, Pfemale=0.03, respectively), but not in men. An inverse correlation between PPI sales and 30-day death after bleeding was found (Rmale=−0.9392, Pmale=0.0002 and Rfemale=−0.8561, Pfemale=0.003), and NSAID sales were found to correlate with increased death after bleeding ((Rmale=0.7278, Pmale=0.03, Rfemale=0.7858, Pfemale=0.01). Conclusions The sales of NSAIDs and PPIs correlate with recurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding in women and death after peptic ulcer bleeding in both genders in the population level. PMID:23293249

  20. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  1. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  2. Automation of micro finance institutions in Nigeria: Implication for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN 2005) has reported that over 60 percent of currency in circulation is outside the banks and that 70 percent of this are to be handled by the newly established Micro Finance Fanks (MFBs). Evidences from the literature confirm positive correlation between Information Technology (IT) and ...

  3. in kano state, nigeria 41

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    3Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria ... Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, the highest prevalence rate of 64.0% was observed in ... A GIS is a combination of hardware (computers ..... clear vision of the area that requires active and rapid ... Principles of Medicine in Africa 3rd. edition.

  4. Day case surgery in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice in Nigeria and how it conforms to ideal practice elsewhere. ... has been an established practice of the pediatric surgery unit of a teaching hospital in South Western Nigeria, for at least two .... and safe anesthetic conditions for surgical procedures, with ..... compete for time and ward space with more major elective.

  5. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  6. Typhoid intestinal perforation in North Central Nigeria | Ugwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'incidence était élevée en 67% entre novembre et mars - pendant la saison seche au Nigeria. Le rapport homme/femme était 1,9:1 avec un âge moyen de 19 ans et la période d'hospitalisation moyenne de 18 jours. Nous avons eu 167 perforations; quatre concernent l'intestin supérieur er appendice, et dans 72,2% des ...

  7. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikandiwa, Admire; Kelly, Helen; Sawadogo, Bernard; Ngou, Jean; Pisa, Pedro T; Gibson, Lorna; Didelot, Marie-Noelle; Meda, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Segondy, Michel; Mayaud, Philippe; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2018-01-01

    To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW. Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes. LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  8. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Chikandiwa

    Full Text Available To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV and anogenital warts (AGW among women living with HIV (WLHIV in Burkina Faso (BF and South Africa (SA, and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes.We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623 aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW.Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL. Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes.LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  9. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  10. Incidence and correlates of HIV and syphilis in a prospective cohort of men who have sex with men in Mianyang, China, over a 36-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Huailiang; Li, Liulin; Xu, Jie; Li, Zhijun; Zhang, Guanggui; Fan, Jing; Zhao, Xihe; Jia, Shuguang

    2015-11-01

    Background Estimates for the HIV/AIDS epidemic from the China Ministry of Health show that the epidemic is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM). Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was adapted in 2009 and snowball sampling was adapted to supplement the number of participants in 2010 and 2011. Interviewer-administered questionnaires and blood tests were conducted to confirm enrolment eligibility of participants. A total of 725 HIV-negative participants were included into the cohort study. The cohort had a HIV incidence density of 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9-7.3)/100 person-years (PY) and a syphilis incidence density of 5.6 (95% CI:3.7-7.6)/100 PY. Age ≤20 years (21-25 years, hazard ratio (HR)=0.32, 95%CI: 0.11-0.95/≥26 years, HR=0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.66), having not participated in peer education in the past year (HR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.19-7.35), seeking male sexual partners in a public washroom/park (HR=3.61, 95%CI: 1.03-12.47), being currently infected with syphilis (HR=3.21, 95%CI: 1.31-7.91), having sex partners aged ≥30 years (HR=3.40, 95%CI: 1.11-10.39) and having more than four male sexual partners within the past 6 months (HR=3.34, 95%CI: 1.24-9.04) were found to be risk factors for HIV seroconversion (each P<0.05). Being married (HR=2.38, 95%CI: 1.04-5.46), having not participated in peer education in the past year (HR=2.28, 95%CI: 1.08-4.82), having limited HIV/AIDS knowledge (HR=4.28, 95%CI: 1.94-9.43) and having a sexually transmitted disease infection in the past 6 months (HR=4.74, 95%CI: 1.83-12.30) were identified as factors for syphilis infection (each P<0.05). The incidence rates of HIV and syphilis in Mianyang City reamained high in the cohort of MSM for 36 months. Increased attention should be given to this serious epidemic, and appropriate interventions should be implemented to address MSM-specific issues in order to prevent HIV and syphilis infection in China.

  11. Correlation of Salivary pH, Incidence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Status in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethalakshmi, C; Reddy, R C Jagat; Asifa, Nisha; Prabhu, S

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many parts of the body. A number of oral diseases have been associated with diabetes mellitus with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary pH and incidence of dental caries and periodontal status in diabetes mellitus compared to that of the normal subjects. The study population consisted of 40 patients divided into 2 groups with group I comprising of 20 known diabetes mellitus patients and group II comprising of 20 non diabetic subjects as control group. The pH of the saliva was determined using a digital pH meter. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT and PDI indices respectively. There was a decrease in the mean salivary pH of 6.51 in the study group, compared to the normal mean salivary pH of 7.88 in the control group. The mean DMFT index was higher in the study group (8.10) when compared to that of control group (1.15). The mean PDI score was also higher in the study group (4.0) as compared to that of the control group (0.45). The results of the present study concluded that there was a significant relationship between the diabetes mellitus and increased incidence of dental caries and periodontitis and there was also a significant reduction in the salivary pH in diabetes mellitus patients, compared to that of non diabetic subjects.

  12. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  13. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  14. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  15. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  16. Cranial nerve vascular compression syndromes of the trigeminal, facial and vago-glossopharyngeal nerves: comparative anatomical study of the central myelin portion and transitional zone; correlations with incidences of corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Bulent; Sindou, Marc; Meyronet, David; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Simon, Emile; Mertens, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the central myelin portion and the central myelin-peripheral myelin transitional zone of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from fresh cadavers. The aim was also to investigate the relationship between the length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves with the incidences of the corresponding cranial dysfunctional syndromes caused by their compression to provide some more insights for a better understanding of mechanisms. The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves from six fresh cadavers were examined. The length of these nerves from the brainstem to the foramen that they exit were measured. Longitudinal sections were stained and photographed to make measurements. The diameters of the nerves where they exit/enter from/to brainstem, the diameters where the transitional zone begins, the distances to the most distal part of transitional zone from brainstem and depths of the transitional zones were measured. Most importantly, the volume of the central myelin portion of the nerves was calculated. Correlation between length and volume of the central myelin portion of these nerves and the incidences of the corresponding hyperactive dysfunctional syndromes as reported in the literature were studied. The distance of the most distal part of the transitional zone from the brainstem was 4.19  ±  0.81 mm for the trigeminal nerve, 2.86  ±  1.19 mm for the facial nerve, 1.51  ±  0.39 mm for the glossopharyngeal nerve, and 1.63  ±  1.15 mm for the vagus nerve. The volume of central myelin portion was 24.54  ±  9.82 mm(3) in trigeminal nerve; 4.43  ±  2.55 mm(3) in facial nerve; 1.55  ±  1.08 mm(3) in glossopharyngeal nerve; 2.56  ±  1.32 mm(3) in vagus nerve. Correlations (p  nerves and incidences of the corresponding diseases. At present it is rather well-established that primary trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vago

  17. The incidence of gastroenteritis diagnosis among sick dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital correlated with meteorological data : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of sick dogs diagnosed with and without gastroenteritis presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital situated north of Pretoria is reported from counts extracted from the records of the Outpatients clinic for 6 years, 1988 to 1993. The average percentage of sick dogs diagnosed with gastroenteritis was 11.51 % and the average percentage of sick dogs that were admitted to the parvovirus isolation hospital ward was 2.8 %. A strong correlation exists between the number of dogs admitted to the parvovirus ward and average monthly wind speed and inverse humidity values.

  18. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  19. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria cassava root rot causes serious yield losses in cassava tuber production every year. However, the influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype at harvest on consumers' acceptability of the gari produced from it has not been studied. A sensory evaluation was conducted on gari processed from the tuberous ...

  20. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  1. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. 4Department of Clinical .... teaching hospitals in Africa. However, the city is characterized by low level of environmental .... Table 4 shows the incidence of UTIs by occupational group. UTIs appear to ...

  2. An Evaluation of Banks' Liability in Robbery Incidents at Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spate of armed robbery attack on banks in the last decade has been alarming. It is hoped with the current Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) cashless policy there will be a drastic drop in such incidents. However, the issue of armed robbery attack at the bank premises brings to the fore two issues which are of paramount ...

  3. The incidence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... The incidence of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 was assessed in meat samples from slaughtered cattle in. Ibadan metropolis by culturing ... high quality farm to fork wholesome and safe meat for public consumption in Nigeria. Key words: EHEC .... Prevalence and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Trop. Vet. 26.

  4. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  5. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  6. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...

  7. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  8. The Incidence and Management of Typhoid Fever in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid or enteric fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. It is largely a disease of developing nations due to their poor standard of hygiene and ... Symptoms such as diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain and encephalopathy may occur. Complications like intestinal perforation and gastrointestinal haemorrhage may occur ...

  9. The Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy in Ekiti State, Nigeria | Odu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face and content validities of the instrument was determined by test experts and the ... The inferential statistical technique used for data analysis in this study was ... electronic media regulate and censor sex related programmes and movies.

  10. Tax evasion and the law in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enya Matthew Nwocha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has dealt with the incidence of tax evasion and how the law in Nigeria has tackled the problem. It came against the background of massive tax evasion in the country which has resulted in the loss of needed revenue for development. Most individuals eligible to pay tax are not usually amenable to doing so willingly thereby resulting in tax evasion and tax avoidance. Neglect or refusal to pay tax invariably attracts various ranges of punishment. All of these issues have been discussed in this paper under introduction, conceptual framework, grounds for imposition of tax, statutory provisions on tax evasion, reasons for and implications of tax evasion, recommendations and conclusion. The paper in discussing the subject has focused on the principal tax legislations in the country, namely, the Personal Income Tax Act, Companies Income Tax Act, and the Federal Inland Revenue Service Act.

  11. arinta waterfall, ekiti state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    waterfall still possesses some potential for conservation purposes. Logging ... The supervising ministry on tourism and forestry in Ekiti State, Nigeria in charge of this site should take ..... participate in the conservation education program so as to ...

  12. ETHNICITY AND NIGERIA'S UNDERDEVELOPMENT Cletus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol 9 2012. 217 prediction of CIA that ... by M. Pakaluk, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1991, p.86. 6 Roosens, E., “Interest .... unfriendly and unstable business environment. Nigeria has a.

  13. Sahel, North-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    impact depending on location, adaptation capacity and other socioeconomic factors. The Sudano-Sahel Nigeria is one of the vulnerable regions to climate ..... takes place, whereas, little or no cloud development or precipitation occur to the.

  14. Agricultural Engineering Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaba, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural engineering, an important new branch of engineering in Nigeria, is discussed in relation to available training programs, diploma and certificate courses, and evaluation of training programs. (Author/PG)

  15. Nigeria Journal of Business Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigeria Journal of Business Administration has as its principal goal the promotion ... Determinants of financial intermediation returns in Nigerian retail banks ... Impact of accounting on human behaviour: implications for organizations and ...

  16. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  17. Nigeria status on capabilities for response to nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambo, I.; Elegba, S.B.; Ogharandukun, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology has been widely employed and will continue to expand in use in Nigeria particularly in the health, industrial, mining, water resources, agriculture, manufacturing, education and research sectors. Incidents and emergencies cannot therefore be ruled out. Effective national response capabilities are essential to minimize the impacts from nuclear and radiological emergencies, and to build public trust in the safety and security of nuclear technology. The often discussed Nigeria's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) project cannot occur without enhanced national capabilities to respond to an incidence or emergency. Moreover, increased concern over the use of nuclear or radioactive materials malevolent acts increases the need to broaden response capabilities. This paper examines Nigeria's status on capabilities for response to a nuclear and radiological emergency vis-a-vis international requirements for effective response capabilities

  18. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing sola...

  19. LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gloria C. Njoku

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

  20. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  1. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  2. The challenges of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria and the way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a worldwidehealth problem with a great burden and high cost of care mostly in developing countries like Nigeria. Chronic kidney disease is increasingworldwide at an annual incidence of 8%1. Amid rapid urbanization and adoption of western lifestyles, increasing rates of ...

  3. Adolescent and adult cleft lip and palate, in Ile-Ife, Nigeria | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital cleft lip and palate (CLP) defects usually present in childhood, especially in places with available and affordable care. In Nigeria, their incidence is low but late presentation in Adult life have been reported. This article aims at reviewing adolescent and adult CLP patients in our center, with the advent ...

  4. Absolutism in Religion and Global Peace: Boko-Haram Factor in Nigeria and Its Educational Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaba, Muhammad Mann

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria, hitherto regarded as a relatively peaceful country at least in terms of terrorism, became a globally notable country with high incidence of religious violence and outright terrorism. This paper discussed Boko-haram as the Nigerian terrorist group that started from a small local group in Borno State of the country and grew into an…

  5. Success of the control of tuberculosis in Nigeria: a review | Erah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as the single leading cause of death from any single infectious agent and has continued to be a major public health problem all over the world. Of the over 14 million cases worldwide reported by World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2008, Nigeria ranked fifth in terms of incidence. Depending ...

  6. IS THE ART OF RENAL BIOPSY ON THE DECLINE IN NIGERIA?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rock for achieving definitive diagnoses and management of many kidney diseases worldwide1. The processes involved in obtaining reliable reports involve a multi- ... Nigeria and other African countries, despite reports on rising incidences of kidney diseases2-6, there seems to be steeply steady decline in kidney biopsies in ...

  7. Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria. ... that there is high incidence of corruption and more likelihood of social instability. ... of the State as the socio-political structure for organizing society and the nature of the ...

  8. Hepatitis B virus and Chronic Liver disease in Nigeria: a brief review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 300 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected with Hepatitis B virus. Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest incidence, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Across the country, the male to female predilection varies and children are not spared. Medical personnel, especially surgeons and dentists are at ...

  9. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria - Vol 11, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Transplanting Dates, Plant Spacing And Nitrogen Levels On The Incidence Of African Rice Gall Midge Harris And Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) In Southeastern Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EO Ogah, E-D Umeh, MC Mbah, 7-16.

  10. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... aimed at churches, mosques, banks and police stations. ..... exported to the United States, which makes Nigeria the fourth largest oil supplier to .... state structure of Nigeria and the provinces within the federal states.

  11. Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing domestic violence. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria to determine the ...

  12. Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwereji KO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi O Enwereji,1 Maduaburochukwu C Nwosu,1 Adesola Ogunniyi,2 Paul O Nwani,1 Azuoma L Asomugha,1 Ezinna E Enwereji3 1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine/Nursing Sciences, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria Background: The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods: We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results: We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00 per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33 per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28 per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19 per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33 per 1,000. Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. Keywords: Africa, developing country, prevalence

  13. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  14. The change from fossil fuel dependence to sustainable energy sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.; Ajedegba, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants. Although the country is highly dependent on fossil fuel resources, Nigeria has a range of unexploited biomass and hydro power resources, as well as extensive solar energy potential. This paper presented a current energy balance of Nigeria and examined ways of reaching an environmentally sustainable energy balance through the use of a mix of renewable resources. Supply and consumption details of domestic, industrial and transportation sectors as well as electricity production statistics were presented. Total hydropower potential based on the country's river system was estimated to be 10,000 MW. It was estimated that Nigeria has an average of 1.804 x 10 15 of incident solar energy annually, which is 27 times the nation's total conventional energy resources in energy units. It was noted that Nigeria also possesses a significant amount of biomass resources from several large forests that may be used to supply domestic cooking and heating needs as well as for ethanol production. It was noted that wind energy may not be a viable alternative for large scale electricity production in Nigeria. Recommendations to promote the use of renewable resources in the national energy mix included encouraging the decentralization of energy supplies; discouraging the use of wood as fuel; promoting efficient methods in the use of biomass energy resources; private sector participation; and global partnerships. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Food insecurity and family structure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi S. Owoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother’s status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child’s health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households. At the household level, polygynous households are found to have better food security outcomes than monogamous households with differences in household composition and agricultural livelihood as potential explanatory mechanisms. At the individual level, however, children of polygynous mothers have worse nutrition outcomes than children of monogamous mothers in the long run. Within polygynous households, children of junior wives appear to have better nutritional outcomes in the long run, compared to children of more senior wives. Keywords: Polygyny, Food security, Child health, Nutrition, Nigeria

  16. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  17. Traumatic brain injuries in children: A hospital-based study in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Udoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our previous studies showed a high frequency of motor vehicle accidents among neurosurgical patients. However, there is a dearth of data on head injuries in children in Nigeria. Aims: To determine the epidemiology of paediatric traumatic brain injuries. Setting and Design: This is a prospective analysis of paediatric head trauma at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, a major referral centre for all traumatic brain injuries in Nigeria between October 2006 and September 2011. Materials and Methods: We studied the demographic, clinical and radiological data and treatment outcomes. Data was analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 16.0. Results: We managed 127 cases of paediatric head injuries, 65 boys and 62 girls representing 13% of all head injuries managed over the 5-year period. They were aged 3 months to 17 years. The mean age was 7.4 years (median 7 years with peak incidence occurring at 6-8 years i.e. 31 (24.4% cases. Motor vehicle accidents resulted in 67.7%, falls 14% and violence 7%. The most frequent computed tomography finding was intracerebral haemorrhage. Mean duration of hospitalization was 18 days (median 11 days. Eleven patients died, mortality correlating well with severity and the presence of intracerebral haematoma. Conclusion: Head injuries in children are due to motor vehicle and motor vehicle-related accidents. Hence, rational priorities for prevention of head injuries in children should include prevention of vehicular, especially pedestrian, accidents in developing countries.

  18. Health-Seeking Behavior and Barriers to Care in Patients With Rectal Bleeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun I. Alatise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC incidence rates are steadily increasing in Nigeria. Organized screening is still largely unused because of financial and logistical barriers; most CRCs are detected by symptoms. One symptom of CRC is rectal bleeding. This study sought to determine health-seeking behavior and barriers to care in patients with rectal bleeding in Nigeria. This study also surveyed physicians to determine major breakdowns in access to care. Methods: The recruitment process for this study involved patients referred for colonoscopy because of rectal bleeding as well as response to a media advertisement for a free colonoscopy. Physicians were recruited at the African Research Group for Oncology meeting. Patient responses were scored on the basis of knowledge of rectal bleeding. The physician questionnaire was supporting information and mainly descriptive in nature. Results: A total of 82 patients and 45 physicians participated in this study. Less than 40% of patients knew that rectal bleeding could be caused by cancer. Major barriers to care were resolution of the symptom (42%, no consideration of the bleeding as problematic (40%, and financial constraint (22%. Education was strongly correlated with knowledge of rectal bleeding and health-seeking behavior. Although physicians regularly saw patients with rectal bleeding, most of them provided a differential diagnosis of hemorrhoids and few referred patients for colonoscopy. Conclusion: General awareness about the signs of colorectal cancer is lacking. This demonstrates the strong need for patient education programs about this issue. Physicians should also receive additional training on differentiation of a potential cancer diagnosis from something more benign, such as hemorrhoids.

  19. Health-Seeking Behavior and Barriers to Care in Patients With Rectal Bleeding in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Fischer, Sara E; Ayandipo, Omobolaji O; Omisore, Akinlolu G; Olatoke, Samuel A; Kingham, T Peter

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates are steadily increasing in Nigeria. Organized screening is still largely unused because of financial and logistical barriers; most CRCs are detected by symptoms. One symptom of CRC is rectal bleeding. This study sought to determine health-seeking behavior and barriers to care in patients with rectal bleeding in Nigeria. This study also surveyed physicians to determine major breakdowns in access to care. Methods The recruitment process for this study involved patients referred for colonoscopy because of rectal bleeding as well as response to a media advertisement for a free colonoscopy. Physicians were recruited at the African Research Group for Oncology meeting. Patient responses were scored on the basis of knowledge of rectal bleeding. The physician questionnaire was supporting information and mainly descriptive in nature. Results A total of 82 patients and 45 physicians participated in this study. Less than 40% of patients knew that rectal bleeding could be caused by cancer. Major barriers to care were resolution of the symptom (42%), no consideration of the bleeding as problematic (40%), and financial constraint (22%). Education was strongly correlated with knowledge of rectal bleeding and health-seeking behavior. Although physicians regularly saw patients with rectal bleeding, most of them provided a differential diagnosis of hemorrhoids and few referred patients for colonoscopy. Conclusion General awareness about the signs of colorectal cancer is lacking. This demonstrates the strong need for patient education programs about this issue. Physicians should also receive additional training on differentiation of a potential cancer diagnosis from something more benign, such as hemorrhoids.

  20. Evaluating Nigeria Cashless Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kket Eko Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced cashless policy initiative to accomplish two main macro-socio-economic policy objectives of increased convenience and greater financial inclusion in Nigeria. This study evaluates Nigeria cashless policy implementation using a four point Likert scale questionnaire administered to six hundred respondents. The results of the study show that the twin policy objectives investigated were partially achieved. Also the study reveals that social infrastructures in power and telecommunications need improvement and expansion and the need to create more awareness to encourage the unbanked to embrace banking culture. This study recommends vigorous investments on cyber security, strengthening of internet protocol and controls in the banks and enactment of relevant legislative laws to curb cybercrimes.

  1. Petro-rentierism, petroleum pipeline vandalism and energy security in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chukwuma Okoli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the nexus between petro-rentierism, petroleum pipeline vandalism and energy security in Nigeria. By means of qualitative discourse, predicated on secondary data and systematized by the structural theory of the state, the paper posits that the incidence of petroleum pipeline vandalism in Nigeria is symptomatic of petro-rentier pathology whose impact has negated the prospect of sustainable energy security. The paper submits that petroleum pipeline vandalism is structural, both in essence and in effect; hence, any meaningful effort to mitigate the problem must recognize and address the gamut of socio-structural and material conditions that underpin and predispose it.

  2. 393 The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... of Adolescent Students' Cigarette Smoking In Cross River. State, Nigeria ... concept and smoker-parents significantly impacted on the adolescent ... suggest remedies to reduce the incidence for a better academic environment.

  3. Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olaniyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

  4. Key issues in the persistence of poliomyelitis in Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Mwanza, Michael; Gasasira, Alex; Abanida, Emmanuel; Pate, Muhammed A; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32.1%, 95% CI 26.1-38.1) and bivalent OPV (29.5%, 20.1-38.4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19.4%, 16.1-22.8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43.2% (23.1-61.1) and 23.8% (5.3-44.9) compared with 18.0% (14.1-22.1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0.05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21

  5. Work Stress among Professionals in Building Construction Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify key stress factors among professionals in building construction industry in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that to date, very little is known about work stress among professionals in building construction industry in this country. The study involved the administration of questionnaire to 107 professionals including architects, builders, civil/structural engineers and quantity surveyors randomly selected from 60 ongoing building projects in Anambra, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and findings show that the principal sources of stress were high volume of work, uncomfortable site office environment, lack of feedback on previous and ongoing building projects, and variations in the scope of work in ongoing building projects. The paper suggests that taking responsibility for work which one has adequate capacity to handle, establishing realistic budgets and time frame for project delivery, provision of spatially adequate, visually and thermally comfortable site offices, adoption of appropriate job design practice and education of professionals on stress management strategies will reduce the incidence of stress among professionals in building industry in Nigeria.

  6. Work Stress among Professionals in Building Construction Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify key stress factors among professionals in building construction industry in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that to date, very little is known about work stress among professionals in building construction industry in this country. The study involved the administration of questionnaire to 107 professionals including architects, builders, civil/structural engineers and quantity surveyors randomly selected from 60 ongoing building projects in Anambra, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and findings show that the principal sources of stress were high volume of work, uncomfortable site office environment, lack of feedback on previous and ongoing building projects, and variations in the scope of work in ongoing building projects. The paper suggests that taking responsibility for work which one has adequate capacity to handle, establishing realistic budgets and time frame for project delivery, provision of spatially adequate, visually and thermally comfortable site offices, adoption of appropriate job design practice and education of professionals on stress management strategies will reduce the incidence of stress among professionals in building industry in Nigeria

  7. Correlation Matrix Of Farmers Perceived Objectives In Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the correlation matrix of farmers perceived objectives in crop production in Emohua and Etche local government areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. ... It was found that small holder farmers have multiple objectives which were ...

  8. Hope and violence in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

  9. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  10. Example from Ilorin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Abstract. Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in ... any city growth and development. ... The study area ... road network resulting in the city enveloping many of the smaller settlements .... Emerging Communities: A case of a Local Government Area of ... Regional Planning.

  11. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  12. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  13. Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects. ... Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national ... must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith, trust, ...

  14. 解脲支原体及阴道毛滴虫感染与宫颈糜烂相关性调查%Analysis of the correlation between infection of ureaplasma urealyticum, trichomonas vaginalis and incidence of cervical erosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储德莉; 唐媛媛

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖市部分事业单位妇女中宫颈糜烂的发病情况及解脲支原体、阴道毛滴虫与宫颈糜烂的相关性,为宫颈糜烂的有效治疗提供依据.方法 用阴道窥阴器检查宫颈糜烂情况.收集阴道及宫颈分泌物,用悬滴法及荧光定量PCR法分别检测阴道毛滴虫及解脲支原体.结果 宫颈糜烂的发病率为66.667%;解腺支原体的阳性率为61.167%;阴道毛滴虫的感染率为8.333%.解脲支原体阳性组中,宫颈糜烂的发病率为88.828%、阴道毛滴虫的感染率为10.899%(与解脲支原体阴性组的发病率及感染率相比,均P<0.05).在解脲支原体阳性伴阴道毛滴虫感染的人群中,宫颈糜烂发病率为97.500%(与解脲支原体阴性伴阴道毛滴虫感染人群的发病率相比,P<0.05).结论 在解脲支原体阳性的妇女中,阴道毛滴虫感染可能是宫颈糜烂的重要原因之一.治疗宫颈糜烂时必须同时对解脲支原体及阴道毛滴虫进行联合、足量治疗.%Objective To understand the incidence of cervical erosion and the correlation between infection of ureaplasma urealyticum, trichomonas vaginalis and cervical erosion in women from some public institution of Wuhu city. Methods To evaluate the degree of cervical erosion using vaginal speculum, then detect tnchomoms vaginalis and ureaplasma urealyticum by the methods of hanging drop and flurescence quantitative PCR, respectively on the secretions from vagina or cervix. Results The incidence of Cervical erosion was 66.667%, the positive rate of ureaplasma urealyticum was 61.167%, and the infection rate of trichomonas vaginalis was 8.333%. In ureaplasma urealyticum positive group, the incidence of cervical erosion was 88.828%, the infection rate of trichomonas vaginalis was 10.899% (P<0.05, compared with the negative group). In the women with ureaplasma urealyticum positive and trichomonas vaginalis infection, the incidence of cervical erosion was 97.500% ( P

  15. Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian food crisis is a product of colonial disorientation that has led to neglect of the peasant agriculture and food ...

  16. Analysis of Local Government Performance and Leadership in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Uche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the quality of local government leaderships in Nigeria. It explores how local governments’ inefficiency and poor leadership have been a major challenge facing the development process in Nigeria. The paper has two objectives. The first is to identify the professionalism of a sample of Nigerian local government chairpersons. The second is to examine whether there are systematic correlations between local government chairpersons’ professionalism, political partisanship, local characteristics, and performance. The paper argues that the quality of local government chairpersons has significant policy implications because of their vital role in policy making and implementation. The concluding section provides some policy recommendations on how local government leaders could improve performance.

  17. Strategic Planning And Performance Of Commercial Banks In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Ngozi Nzewi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explored the relationship between strategic planning and performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Specifically it determined the nature of relationship that existed between total assets and profit after tax of the selected banks. Exploratory research design was employed.Secondary data were sourced from the Nigerian Exchange Fact Book 2011 to 2013. Linear regression and Pearson bivariate correlation analytical techniques were used. Findings revealed that there is a weak positive relationship between the total assets and profit after tax of the selected commercial banks. The policy implication is that any meaningful profitability of the commercial banks in Nigeria must ensure proper institution and comprehensive execution of the strategic planning processes by the various managers of the selected commercial banks.

  18. The frequency and pattern of female genital tract malignancies at the university of Nigeria teaching hospital, enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Onah, N; Ikeako, Lc; Ezenyeaku, Cct

    2013-07-01

    Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means to control female genital tract cancers in our low resource setting. The objective was to determine the frequency and patterns of female genital tract malignancy at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. A 6-year retrospective study of female genital tract malignancies was conducted at the UNTH, Enugu. The case notes of patients admitted for female genital tract malignancy between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008 were retrieved from the medical records and cancer registry of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and relevant data were extracted. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. One hundred and sixty six (166) cases of genital malignancies were recorded during the 6-year review. Majority of the patients were in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Cancer of the cervix accounted for 66.3% (110/166) followed by ovarian cancer 21.1% (35/166). The other tumors seen during the period were tumors involving corpus uteri 9% (15/166) and vulva 3.6% (6/166). Tumors of fallopian tube and vagina were not seen during the study period. Despite the preventable nature of cancer of cervix, it remained the most common female genital tract malignancy in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. In our low resource setting in the developing countries, education and public enlightenment on the importance of routine screening and treatment of premalignant lesions of the cervix are necessary tools to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer.

  19. exergetic analysis of breakfast cereal production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    NIGERIA. 2 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT., FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA ... Thermodynamic analysis of food production industries ..... 7th International Conference on Fluid and.

  20. Civil Society in Nigeria: Reasons for Ineffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    commodities such as oil and gas left Nigeria in financial ruin after the 1970s’ oil collapse. With the withdrawal of Soviet funds, the World Banks...standards across Nigeria .65 The new and more efficient “adjusted” economy that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) projected...comparative advantage for Nigeria and had the potential to industrialize and expand the agricultural industry. Instead, the sector was neglected

  1. Cancers Attributable to Alcohol Consumption in Nigeria: 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kolawole Odutola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for many cancers but less attention has been paid to the fraction of those cancers that are attributable to alcohol consumption. In this study, we evaluated the incidence and population attributable fraction (PAF of cancers associated with alcohol consumption in Nigeria.MethodsWe obtained data on incidence of cancers from two population-based cancer registries (PBCRs in Nigeria and identified cancer sites for which there is strong evidence of an association with alcohol consumption based on the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 100E. We computed the PAF for each cancer site by age and sex, using prevalence and relative risk estimates from previous studies.ResultsBetween 2012 and 2014 study period, the PBCRs reported 4,336 cancer cases of which 1,627 occurred in males, and 2,709 occurred in females. Of these, a total of 1,808 cancer cases, 339 in males and 1,469 in females, were associated with alcohol intake. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR of alcohol associated cancers was 77.3 per 100,000. Only 4.3% (186/4,336 of all cancer cases or 10.3% (186/1,808 of alcohol associated cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption. Some 42.5% (79/186 of these cancers occurred in males while 57.5% (107/186 occurred in females. The ASR of cancers attributable to alcohol in this population was 7.2 per 100,000. The commonest cancers attributable to alcohol consumption were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in men and cancer of the breast in women.ConclusionOur study shows that 4.3% of incident cancers in Nigeria can be prevented by avoiding alcohol consumption. While the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol intake is high, the proportion attributable to alcohol consumption is much lower suggesting that the number of cancers that may be prevented by eliminating alcohol intake in this population is relatively low.

  2. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFubara KG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalada G McFubara,1 Elizabeth R Edoni,2 Rose E Ezonbodor-Akwagbe21Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Community Health Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, NigeriaBackground: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower.Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted.Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital.Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.Keywords: health manpower, development, health care education

  3. Measles Morbidity and Mortality Trend in Nigeria: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Study in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This hospital-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken with a view to determine the epidemiological trend of measles in Lagos State, Nigeria Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed measles patients from nine referral public hospitals in Lagos State between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved, transcribed and reviewed. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results: A total of 35,500 clinically confirmed cases and 835 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.35%/10 years were recorded. The mean incidence was estimated at 19 cases per 100,000 population/year. A consistent seasonality pattern of measles was observed for the study period. The under-fives accounted for the highest reported cases (76.30% while, the under-1 year recorded highest mortality (53.8%. Notable shift of measles vulnerability from under-1year to under-fives was observed. Although there was significant difference between cases and deaths among the age groups (p0.05. Conclusion: This study recorded high incidence and case fatality of measles, which poses serious public health threat. Poor demographic data collection and storage were revealed thus, computerization of medical records for collection, storage and retrieval of data is imperative for adequate planning and control of measles imperil in Nigeria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1:12-18

  4. Nigeria; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Nigeria discusses the macroeconomic performance and structure of the financial system. Although Nigerian economy experienced both domestic and external shocks in recent years, the economy continued to grow rapidly, achieving more than 7 percent growth each year since 2009. The performance of financial institutions has begun to improve, though some of the emergency anti-crisis measures continue to be in place. However, the regulatory and supervisor...

  5. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolu Lawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  6. Institutional shareholder activism in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uche, C.; Adegbite, E.; Jones, M.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate institutional shareholder activism in Nigeria. It addresses the paucity of empirical research on institutional shareholder activism in sub-Saharan Africa. Design/Methodology-This study employs agency theory to understand the institutional shareholder approach to shareholde...

  7. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post

  8. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  9. Reliability of clinical monitoring for the diagnosis of babesiosis in dogs in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo OO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Olufunke Omowunmi Adebayo,1 Rasheed Adetola Ajadi,2 Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale,3 Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse,4 Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu,5 Helen Oyebukola Nottidge,3 Ebenezer Babatunde Otesile2 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 4Department of Veterinary Pathology, 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Reproduction, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria Abstract: Babesiosis accounts for a high percentage of hospital cases in canines in Africa, with about 40% mortality in the cases presented. In Nigeria, records show an estimated 30% annual morbidity when diagnosis is largely based on clinical and laboratory findings. This study monitored clinical indices associated with canine babesiosis. One hundred and three babesiosis-suspected dogs were selected on the basis of clinical signs of anorexia, fever, presence of ticks, and enlarged lymph nodes or spleen when clinical parameters were recorded at the time of presentation. Parasite detection was done using thin blood smears; that is, the presence of Babesia merozoites was compared between capillary and cephalic blood. Blood was also assayed for hematology and blood chemistry using automated blood analyzers. The babesiosis-infected dogs’ outcome was monitored. Data obtained were analyzed using chi-square test, analysis of variance, and Pearson’s correlation. Results based on thin blood smears showed that 61.1% of the dogs were positive for Babesia species. Breed disposition, sex, and age did not significantly influence the incidence of Babesia canis, while mean rectal temperatures did not differ significantly between the cases (P>0.05. Heart rate and pulse rates of Babesia-positive dogs were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those that were negative. The packed

  10. Parenting Styles as Predicators of Anxiety and Depression of In-School Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adubale, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates parenting styles as predictors of anxiety and depression in secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design. Two hundred and forty students constituted the sample for the study. Parenting Style Scale questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Linear regression was used to…

  11. Family Relationship and Bullying Behaviour among Students with Disabilities in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Lateef Omotosho; Okesina, Falilat Anike; Jacob, Olumayowa Ayorinde

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined family relationship and bullying behaviour among secondary school students with disabilities in Ogbomoso South, Oyo State, Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was descriptive method of the correlational survey type. The population for this study comprises all secondary school students with disabilities in…

  12. Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

  13. Perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...

  14. Relationship between Balanced Scorecard and Professors' Job Characteristics at Ekiti State University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatile, Mopelola

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to understand the relationship between a balanced scorecard, professors' job characteristics, and the leadership styles of higher education leaders at Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti State, Nigeria, which was the site of the study. The problem statement addressed whether or not a…

  15. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  16. Prediction of Nasolabial Distance using Thumbprint Ridge Density among the Hausa Population of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan H. Adamu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The study concluded that the thumbprint correlates with facial distances of the nasolabial region. The proximal part of the thumbprint may respond to the same instruction in utero with the lower part of the face, hence leading to the prediction of nasolabial facial distances from the proximal ridge counts among the Hausa population of Nigeria.

  17. Crustal structure and Seismic Hazard studies in Nigeria from ambient noise and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, U. A.

    2016-12-01

    The crust, upper Mantle and seismic hazard studies have been carried out in Nigeria using noise and earthquake data. The data were acquired from stations in Nigeria and international Agencies. Firstly, known depths of sediments in the Lower Benue Trough (LBT) were collected from wells; Resonance frequency (Fo) and average shear-wave velocities (Vs) were then computed using Matlab. Secondly, average velocities were estimated from noise cross-correlation along seismic stations. Thirdly, the moho depths beneath Ife, Kaduna and Nsukka stations were estimated, as well as Vp/Vs ratio using 2009 earthquake with epicenter in Nigeria. Finally, Statistical and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were used to compute seismic hazard parameters in Nigeria and its surroundings. The results showed that, soils on the LBT with average shear wave velocity of about 5684m/s would experience more amplification in case of an earthquake, compared to the basement complex in Nigeria. The Vs beneath the seismic stations in Nigeria were also estimated as 288m/s, 1019m/s, 940.6m/s and 255.02m/s in Ife, Nsukka, Awka, and Abakaliki respectively. The average velocity along the station paths was 4.5km/secs, and the Vp, Vs for depths 100-500km profile in parts of South West Nigeria increased from about 5.83-6.42Km/sec and 3.48-6.31km/s respectively with Vp/Vs ratio decreasing from 1.68 to 1.02. Statistical analysis revealed a trend of increasing earthquake occurrence along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and tending to West African region. The analysis of PSHA shows the likelihood of earthquakes with different magnitudes occurring in Nigeria and other parts West Africa in future. This work is aimed at addressing critical issues regarding sites effect characterization, improved earthquake location and robust seismic hazards assessment for planning in the choice of sites for critical facilities in Nigeria. Keywords: Sediment thickness, Resonance Frequency, Average Velocity, Seismic Hazard, Nigeria

  18. Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper discusses the telecommunications reforms process, the role of the regulatory body (Nigeria Commission, the current state of the telecommunication sector and the marketing challenges in ...

  19. FROM ANDONI FLATS, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nigeria. 2African Regional Aquaculture Centre/Nigeria Institute for. Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M. B. 5122, Port .... dimension due to the increasing emphasis on aquaculture and greater awareness of the pollution of natural ..... Principles and procedure (3rd edn.) Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia. Chaudhuri, S. H. ...

  20. Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development | Akujuobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on theeconomic development of Nigeria, using multiple regression technique. Itwas found that cash reserve ratio was significant in impacting on theeconomic development of Nigeria at both 1% and 5% levels of significance,treasury bill at 5.6%, minimum ...

  1. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  2. Macroeconomy and Banks' Profitability in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Bank regulators in Nigeria increased the minimum share capital of banks more than five times between ... the beginning of a new era of banking industry consolidation in Nigeria. Prior to this ...... IMF Staff Papers, 51(1), 96–122. Demirgüç-Kunt ...

  3. Empirical Evidence from Kaduna State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Gender differentiation in Daily Farm Wage Rates in Abuja, Nigeria. Ajah Julius. Department of Agricultural Economics/Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Nigeria ... both men and women, that is, both genders provide labour in form of hired or ..... recognized as an approach to restore gender equity. Results ...

  4. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the evolution of sociology and social work in Nigeria and examines the current characteristics and areas of convergences and divergences in both fields. It was only in the 1960s that universities in Nigeria began to offer degree programmes in sociology with the. first sub-department and full department ...

  5. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the nation. ... Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19) ...

  6. Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria: Funding Mechanisms | Duze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to search for the appropriate fundingmechanisms that would be adopted in Nigeria for effective and efficientplanning, implementation, and sustainability of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria as perceived by stakeholders in education. Entrepreneurship education is capital intensive, and if ...

  7. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; a 15 Years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Morbid Anatomy and 2Hematology and Immunology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus,. Enugu/University of Nigeria ... of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One ..... Narasimhan P, Wood J, MacIntyre CR, Mathai D. Risk factors for tuberculosis.

  8. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  9. Exports and economic growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodly Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.

  10. Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under varying drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Correlation analysis revealed that days to 50% tasseling and silking under non-stress, ASI and leaf senescence under severe stress exhibited negative and significant correlations with grain yield.

  11. ICT Integration in Accounting Education: Evidence from Two Private Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebisi Mary Ogundana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of ICT integration in accounting education on the value adding capacity of accounting students in Nigeria. The study adopted the Survey research design involving the collection of data from accounting students in selected private universities in Nigeria. Copies of Questionnaire were administered to 147 respondents out of which 111 were gathered. Pearson Correlation and Linear Regression were employed in the analysis of the data collected with the use of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results revealed that integration of ICT (accounting software packages and IT knowledge and skills into accounting education (curriculum would help accounting graduates fulfill their responsibility of adding value to organizations. Consequently, it was recommended that the Nigeria Universities Commission (NUC and relevant educational bodies should compulsorily integrate (in all higher institution into accounting curriculum at all level a practical course on accounting packages and IT knowledge and skills.

  12. Correlação entre a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. e outras características agronômicas em cafeeiros Correlation among the Colletotrichum spp. incidence with some coffee agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Têm-se observado diferentes espécies de fungos do gênero Colletotrichum atacando cafeeiros no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de correlacionar a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. com outras características agronômicas em cafeeiros. Foram avaliadas progênies F2 dos cruzamentos envolvendo os genótipos 'IAPAR-59' x ("Icatu" x "Catuaí" e 'IAPAR-59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4', na estação experimental do IAPAR, em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil, no espaçamento 2,5 m x 0,5 m e o plantio foi efetuado em maio de 1997. O experimento foi instalado com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, 56 tratamentos, 2 repetições e parcelas de 10 plantas. As avaliações do vigor vegetativo, precocidade de maturação dos frutos e porte da planta foram realizadas em maio de 2000. A avaliação da ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. foi efetuada em dezembro de 2001. Essa avaliação foi feita por meio de notas subjetivas. As notas variaram de 1 a 5 para a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp., maturação e porte da planta, sendo 1, plantas sem lesões, maturação mais tardia e plantas de menor porte respectivamente. As notas de vigor vegetativo variaram de 1 a 10, sendo 10, a planta com maior vigor. As correlações genotípicas estimadas entre a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. e maturação, porte e vigor vegetativo foram, respectivamente, +0,80, +0,89, -0,92. Os resultados sugerem que a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. aumenta em cafeeiros com maturação precoce, maior porte e menor vigor vegetativo.Different fungi species of the Colletotrichum have been reported as causing disease in coffee crop in Brazil. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coeficient among Colletotrichum spp. incidence with some coffee agronomic traits. F2 progenies of 'IAPAR-59' x ("Icatu" x "Catuaí" and 'IAPAR-59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4' were evaluated at IAPAR´s experimental station at Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, in experiment installed in may 1997, by

  13. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, T C; Enwereji, J O; Adiri, C O; Onwuka, C I; Iferikigwe, E S

    2016-01-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of pregnancies and an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of morbidities associated with PPROM is fraught with controversy. However, women should be informed of these complications. This article aimed to review the morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM over a 10-year period. This was a retrospective review of morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. The morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM were expressed by regression analysis output for PPROM. Primigravidae had the highest occurrence of PPROM. Increasing parity does not significantly influence the incidence of PPROM. The concordance and predictors of PPROM are maternal age (P women should be informed of these complications.

  14. Effect of Customer Loyalty on Nigeria Mobile Telecom Operators: Case of MTN Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Taiwo A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Customer loyalty has been a subject of investigation for many years in the service industry in the more developed countries of the world and in the academic circles with its importance to business success being understood by managers. The purpose of this paper is to establish how customer satisfaction impacts loyalty amongst subscribers of telecommunications services in Nigeria specifically looking at one of the first Mobile communications companies in Nigeria (MTN Nigeria). F...

  15. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  16. Food insecurity and family structure in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoo, Nkechi S

    2018-04-01

    The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE) model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother's status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child's health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households. At the household level, polygynous households are found to have better food security outcomes than monogamous households with differences in household composition and agricultural livelihood as potential explanatory mechanisms. At the individual level, however, children of polygynous mothers have worse nutrition outcomes than children of monogamous mothers in the long run. Within polygynous households, children of junior wives appear to have better nutritional outcomes in the long run, compared to children of more senior wives.

  17. Mammography screening in Nigeria – A critical comparison to other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, O.; Murphy, F.J.; Hogg, P.; Irurhe, N.; Nightingale, J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women, and according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) there will be a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in developing countries such as Nigeria by 2030. However, mammography screening can significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of women as a result of breast cancer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to evaluate the mammography screening program in Nigeria, compare it with four developed countries and then draw inferences. The Nigerian screening program was evaluated using the following factors: - mode of invitation, frequency of screening, age of the participants, image projections, imaging staff, quality assurance program, and availability. Similarities exist between Nigeria and four developed countries (the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Canada), for instance trained Radiographers do the imaging and the image projections obtained are the same. However, important differences exist, these include mode of invitation, financial model, quality assurance program and availability. On comparison with the four developed countries, various issues have been identified within the Nigerian breast screening programmes. No one simple solution can be offered to address these as the challenges are multi-factorial. - Highlights: • The mammography screening program in Nigeria is compared to four structured screening programs. • There is poor participation of Nigerian women in the screening program. • The cost of mammogram is associated with poor attendance. • The Nigerian screening program lags behind with the age of women invited for screening and lack of quality assurance program.

  18. The epidemiology of end-stage renal disease in Nigeria: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odubanjo, M O; Oluwasola, A O; Kadiri, S

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of CKD (Chronic kidney disease) in Nigeria has been shown by various studies to range between 1.6 and 12.4%. We have shown that the burden of renal disease in Nigeria is probably significantly higher than any previous study on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has documented, as most studies are hospital-based and fail to include the many patients who do not have access to hospital care. The increased prevalence of ESRD among blacks in the United States and South Africa compared with other races also suggests that ESRD may be more prevalent in Africa than in the United States and other developed nations. Common causes of CKD in Nigerian adults are glomerulonephritis and hypertension, while common causes in children are glomerulonephritis and posterior urethral valves. In the United States, diabetes and hypertension are the commonest causes of CKD and glomerulonephritis plays a less important role. Access to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Nigeria is limited, and mortality rates are very high, ranging between 40 and 50%. Important steps towards improving the situation are the development of prevention programmes and increased funding to ensure increased availability of RRT. To achieve this, health policies concerning CKD must be formulated, and the lack of a renal registry makes it difficult for this to be done. There is need for the development of a functional organizational structure for the reporting of CKD in Nigeria, the Nigerian Renal Registry.

  19. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exist many locations in which street children are found: public spheres such as markets, bus stops, car parks, garages, street corners, and under the bridges .... attributes of space such as form, pattern and aspect and are descriptive in ...

  20. The correlates of premarital sexuality in Nigeria | Isiugo-Abanihe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1994) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  1. Land use correlates of street children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Clinical Correlates of Unexplained Infertility in Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: In the absence of any obvious aetiological factor, a couple is said to have unexplained infertility. It is desirable to identify factors associated with unexplained infertility in this environment and to ascertain if there is a causal relationship between infertility and uterine leiomyomata. Objective: The study is aimed at ...

  3. GUNSHOT INJURIES IN KANO, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this user

    the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of ... incidence is highest in lower income countries.2 This ... is scarcity of information in most developing .... inequalities and poverty have contributed to the rising ... conflict on a non violent basis, promoting gender.

  4. An Econometric Validation of Malthusian Theory: Evidence in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullahi Sakanko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising population is an asset, provided, the skills of the workforce are used to the maximum extent. If not appropriately channelized, it can be a liability for a nation. A skilled and hardworking population can emerge as a foundation for a country’s development. This study examines the validity of Malthusian Theory in Nigeria using time series data from 1960 to 2016, employs the ARDL bound test techniques. The result shows that in the long-run, population growth and food production move proportionately, while population growth poses a depleting effect on food production in the short-run, thus validating the incidence of Malthusian impact in Nigerian economy in the short-run. The researcher recommended the government should strategize plans, which will further intensify family planning and birth control measure, compulsory western education and revitalization of the agricultural sector.DOI: 10.150408/sjie.v7i1.6461

  5. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. ... 1 John G. Rau and David Wooten (eds), Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook (Mc- ..... Up to date efficient “cleaner production technologies” are expected to be.

  6. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  7. Educational Inequalities And Women's Disempowerment In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational Inequalities And Women's Disempowerment In Nigeria. ... while the entire work is situated on the postulates of 'Weberian Power Analysis'. In all, it is observed that educational equity and women's socio-economic empowerment ...

  8. ARMAMENT AND DISARMAMENT IN NIGERIA: JUXTAPOSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    scholarly publications and internet works, this study looks at armament and disarmament in .... chunk of Nigeria's yearly budget to security and armament. This implies the ..... Haram too. This is believed to be successful if among other things,.

  9. Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. ... include the practice of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC); which is ... promotions, events marketing, etc, in carrying out a promotional campaign.

  10. Nigeria Agricultural Journal - Vol 38 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plectranthus esculentus), Hausa potato (Selenosterum rotundifolius) and Tumeric (Curcuma longa) in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ON Eke-Okoro, AO Olojede, C Nwadili, 24-30.

  11. Some Physicochemical Charateristics of Badagry Creek, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Badagry Creek runs through Nigeria and Republic of Benin with access to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Colour, surface temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, phenol, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen ...

  12. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data ..... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  13. Sustaining quality teacher education in Nigeria | Bebebiafiai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... How is Boko Haram positioned within the Muslim community in. Nigeria? How does the group affect the relations between Muslims and Christians? ...... government and elite delinquency finally ripening into social chaos”.54 It ...

  15. STATISTICS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-02-11

    Feb 11, 2009 ... one of two ways: as units of domestic currency per unit of foreign currency; or ... the domestic currency and maintenance of healthy balance of payment. ..... Volatility and Nigeria's Agricultural Trade flows: A dynamic Analysis.

  16. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  17. The Forest Products Industry in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    1988, 1992, 1996 and 2010 respectively while particle board production has also been dwindling in .... manufactured and exported by a few large companies in Nigeria. Wooden .... and design procedures (Ogunwusi, 2011). Vol. 6 (4) Serial ...

  18. by men in Edo state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. (Eshiobo) Irekpita

    2017-05-03

    May 3, 2017 ... b Dept. of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria c Dept. of Medicine .... the hospital as the treatment facility, while, the others either did .... pros and cons of reporting and creating an appropriate environment.

  19. (ICTs) in Nigeria's agricultural extension service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's Agricultural Extension Service has had a long and checkered history of ... and Visit (T&V) System, to reach its diverse clients with their various needs. ... stakeholders, costs, and the country's poor ICT infrastructural development.

  20. critical assessment of nigeria criminal justice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 16, 2017: 17-25 ... designed by the researchers and used in gathering data for the study. Data .... in Nigeria's prison, and as such, a major source .... This sociological perspective recognizes.

  1. an evaluation of nigeria's participation in ecowas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    government in ECOWAS shows that Nigeria is bearing most of the burden of keeping the organization alive; in spite of .... social and political stability in the development process. Widespread political instability has also hindered progress in ...

  2. powering nigeria through renewable electricity investments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    and reliable information, which consumers, investors and the government can rely upon. ..... and Participation in a Private Sector Driven Electricity Industry in Nigeria: Recent .... Furthermore, renewable energy technologies are still very new to.

  3. Federalism and constitutional change in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okpanachi, Eyene; Garba, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with established democracies Nigeria is a highly populated and ethnic fragmented state. Therefore after colonial rule and independence a federal constitutional structure was supposed to bring the processes for conflict resolution between the ethnic groups. In 1960 Nigeria started as a highly decentralised state and went through important changes until 1999 towards greater centralisation which found its culmination in regular military governments and open conflicts. Until 1999 ea...

  4. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  5. Chino Décor Construction Nigeria Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Q: What are the core industries of the investment of your company in Africa? A: In 1989 when I visited Africa for the first time, I went to Nigeria. In the coming decade, I struggled in Africa. I used to run a hotel; following, I struggled in the sphere of investment. Up to now, we have established the market strategy in Africa which bases on Nigeria.

  6. Financial Shenanigans : A Case Study of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Nnenna Chidimma

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the identified cases of financial shenanigans in between 2001 and 2009 in Nigeria. The scope of this study includes the identification of the common attempts and approaches used by companies and the motivations for financial shenanigans. A cross country comparison of the characteristics of the corporate reporting environments between Nigeria and Malaysia was also carried out. This study finds that the most common attempt used by the sample companies are majorly revenue...

  7. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  8. The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic Product. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  10. Study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study habit is one of the major factors that could influence students' academic attainment. Thus, this study examined study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of undergraduates in Edo state, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design, using multistage sampling technique. Two hundred and forty eight ...

  11. An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection.

  12. Clinical profile and containment of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in two large West African cities, Nigeria, July–September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ohuabunwo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The EVD outbreak in Nigeria was characterized by the severe febrile gastroenteritis syndrome typical of the West African outbreak, better outcomes, rapid containment, and no infection among EVD care-providers. Early case detection, an effective incident management system, and prompt case management with on-site mobilization and training of local professionals were key to the outcome.

  13. Assessment of reading habits of national open university of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of reading habits of national open university of Nigeria students in Abuja. ... A general recommendation was made to the ministry of education in Nigeria to make reading a subject of its own which ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Social Sciences, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, P.M.B. 5363 Ekiti. State, Nigeria ... Nigeria, towards epilepsy and mental illness in terms of work opportunities .... have a negative impact in the management of epilepsy (Nbuko et al, 2003).

  15. spatio-temporal analysis of reproductive health indicators in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    attempts to analyze few indicators that directly and indirectly influence the state of reproductive health in ... health in Nigeria. Secondary data sources from Nigeria's Demographic and Health Survey ..... women and deny them their fundamental.

  16. Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study ... Aero-disaster in Nigeria is posing a serious problem to government, the public and relatives of victims, ..... which was recorded in one of our victim's relation, ... this communication.

  17. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, 1994–2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abdulkadir

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... Introduction: The Global significance of schistosomiasis started waning ... prevalence of schistosomiasis in Nigeria, and its six geo-political zones. ...... schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria: eosinophil-.

  18. Nigeria Local Government: A Discourse on the Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Department of Business Administration. Nnamdi Azikiwe ... frequently discussed issues in public administration studies. Accompanying .... William Machenzie,. Nigeria Local ..... economic and moral milieu of Nigeria where the preponderant ...

  19. Survey of computer systems usage in southeastern Nigeria | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shift from industrial age (17th Century) to information age (21st Century) has ... Systems Technology (CST), software engineering and telecommunications. ... System (CS) to every sector in Nigeria, Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) ...

  20. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    amended based on destination principle to impose VAT on imported services rendered ... It was the view of Popoola (2009) that Nigeria tax administration and practice be structured ..... have low VAT rates, e.g. Nigeria, India and Malaysia.

  1. 65 ETHNICITY AND SOCIAL STABILITY IN NIGERIA: THE PLACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Nigeria is a multi-ethnic nation with appreciable natural and .... Nigeria's under development and have been used by some political ... goods evident in the economic, social and political life of the people. .... disintegration. Hence ...

  2. Electronic Banking in Nigeria: Concepts, Challenges and Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic Banking in Nigeria: Concepts, Challenges and Prospects. ... examined its prospects for Nigerian banks and discussed associated risks. ... E banking, it also observed, holds enormous potentials for the banking industry in Nigeria.

  3. Educational reform in Nigeria: the case of Multicultural Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study conducted at the Nigerian Turkish International Colleges (NTICs) in Abuja, Nigeria. In this qualitative ... venteen NTIC schools in Nigeria adopted the Gülen approach and aim to empower ..... Here in NTICs, I have learnt a lot of change.

  4. Archives: Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  8. Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria. ... a trivariate dynamic Granger causality model with savings, economic growth and foreign ... It is recommended that in the short run, policies in Nigeria should be geared towards ...

  9. Improving Outcomes in the Nigeria Healthcare Sector through Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's healthcare sector over the years has continued to degenerate with health indicators ... in service delivery as well as increases access to quality healthcare. ... Key words: Nigeria, Healthcare Sector, Health Outcomes, Health Indicators, ...

  10. Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a ... The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding.

  11. Staff Indiscipline and Productivity in the Public Sector in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staff Indiscipline and Productivity in the Public Sector in Nigeria. ... acts of indiscipline which characterize contemporary public organizations in Nigeria. ... to regularize the payment of workers' salaries and wages to increase their productivity.

  12. global turbulence and nigeria's citizen diplomacy: 2007-2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategic diplomatic post as Nigeria's High ... envisaged to participate in the formulation and practice of 'citizen .... spread of epidemic diseases, financial instability, organized crime .... chapter of his book Nigeria's Citizen Diplomacy: ... Page 7 ...

  13. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  14. Analysis of dried fish marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. | Fadipe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of dried fish marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... This study was carried out to examine marketing of dried fish in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study used a combination of information ... Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria. ... problems in Nigeria are analysed in the context of a social dilemma. Game theoretic models based on the famous ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. ... relationship between investment in education, health and economic growth in Nigeria, ... in order to accelerate growth and liberate Nigerians from the vicious cycle of poverty, the ...

  18. Tax incentives and Made in Nigeria goods | Somorin | Economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Made in Nigeria” concept and Companies that engage in made in Nigeria goods. It will explore how tax incentives can accelerate the growth of companies engaged in manufacturing of such made in Nigeria goods. From this paper, written ...

  19. Oil Economy and the Revenue Allocation Debacle in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil Economy and the Revenue Allocation Debacle in Nigeria. ... This paper delves into one of the most controversial issues in the political economy of Nigeria. ... The paper conclude that, the drive for financial autonomy and sustainable ...

  20. Tax Incentives for Industry Synergy in Nigeria: A Pragmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... the impact of tax incentives on corporate financial performance in Nigeria. The specific ..... many contemporary researchers in the field of financial/taxation accounting. .... The Principle of Personal Income Taxation in Nigeria.

  1. Industrialization, Urbanization and Moral Decay in Nigeria | Essoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... focus on Nigeria by examining the issues of the causes and effects of urbanization, ... It is argued that these twin processes have greatly impacted upon the family ... and urbanization in Nigeria as a way of sustaining social development.

  2. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Archives: Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Archives: Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Journal Home > Archives: Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Acquisition: The low variety (L) is usually acquired naturally by the child in his home ... Standard English in Nigeria refers to the British English introduced in. Nigeria ... language variety for administration, governance, mass media, politics, and.

  7. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    outer hull, typically 8 % by weight of the bean, is rich in crude fibre (35 %). The sugar .... C. D. E. 1. 3. 16.977-. 17.938. 18.583-19.556. 21.660-22.341. 2. 6. 15.080-. 15.908. 14.411- ..... Products. John Wiley and Sons Publication, Pp. 200 – 202.

  8. Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION case of animals closely confined, often results in the development of pica. Allotrophagia or pica refers to the Chronic abdominal pain due to ingestion of materials other than normal peritonitis, gastritis and central nervous food and has been variously defined to system disturbances including rabies and.

  9. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    bit settings as non negative integers is the binary number system. In this system each bit position represents a power of 2. The right most bit position represents 20, which equals 1, the next position to the left represents 21, which equals 2; the next bit position represent 22, which equals 4 and so on. An integer is represented ...

  10. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    The natural soil studied exhibited attenuation properties. KEYWORDS: solid waste, ground water, vadose zone, conservative tracer, attenuation. INTRODUCTION. Leachate is a liquid that results from water contaminants as it trickles through waste, agricultural pesticides or fertilizers, (Federal Environmental. Protection ...

  11. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    Group 1 was the control, while groups 2 and 3 received daily treatment by inhalation ... prostaglandins, leading to increased erythrocytes synthesis and improved immune system. ... stainless cage with plastic bottom grid and a wire screen top.

  12. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    The serum electrolytes and blood pressures of apparently healthy Nigerians were studied. A total of 121 subjects ... shown to account for differences observed in serum potassium levels in ... seated for at least five minutes, and using left arm.

  13. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    SPSS statistical package was used to deseasolnalise the data and determine its trend. Both raw data and deseasonalised data were used to examine long term trends and both show some level of increase in rainfall of about 1.9mm and 300mm respectively. The results also show that rainfall has highly pronounced season.

  14. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    KEYWORDS: Confidence interval, random effects model, residual error variance, treatment variance, treatment mean square, error mean square. 1.0. INTRODUCTION. The random effects model is employed in an experimental situation in which levels of a factor are randomly selected from a large number of possible levels.

  15. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    This work focused on the modeling of malaria infection. ... stage-specific vaccines (Halloran, Struchiner & Spielman,1989). Now that malaria research and malaria control are beginning to gain attention again, we should focus more efforts and ... The total population Q(t) is divided into two groups; susceptible H(t) and ...

  16. nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rose

    extracts agglutinated human ABO, goat and chicken red blood cells, but did not agglutinate those of cow. It was also observed ... of plants and animals and microorganisms They interact with specific ... membrane-related events, including blood typing (Ray ... at 2000 Х g for 10 min. the plasma + suspended red blood cells ...

  17. An account of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: implications and lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaninyene Otu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease. This exploratory formative research describes the events of the Nigeria Ebola crisis in 2014. Methods This research was implemented through key informant in-depth interviews involving 15 stakeholders in the EVD outbreak in Nigeria by a team of two or three interviewers. Most of the interviews were conducted face-to-face at the various offices of the respondents and others were via the telephone. The interviews which lasted an hour on average were conducted in English, digitally recorded and notes were also taken. Results This study elucidated the public health response to the Ebola outbreak led by Lagos State Government in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Health. The principal strategy was an incident management approach which saw them identify and successfully follow up 894 contacts. The infected EVD cases were quarantined and treated. The Nigerian private sector and international organizations made significant contributions to the control efforts. Public health enlightenment programmes using multimodal communication strategies were rapidly deployed. Water and sanitary facilities were provided in many public schools in Lagos. Conclusions The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Nigeria was effectively controlled using the incident management approach with massive support provided by the private sector and international community. Eight of the confirmed cases of EVD in Nigeria eventually died (case fatality rate of 42.1% and twelve were nursed

  18. An account of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: implications and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otu, Akaninyene; Ameh, Soter; Osifo-Dawodu, Egbe; Alade, Enoma; Ekuri, Susan; Idris, Jide

    2017-07-10

    The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease. This exploratory formative research describes the events of the Nigeria Ebola crisis in 2014. This research was implemented through key informant in-depth interviews involving 15 stakeholders in the EVD outbreak in Nigeria by a team of two or three interviewers. Most of the interviews were conducted face-to-face at the various offices of the respondents and others were via the telephone. The interviews which lasted an hour on average were conducted in English, digitally recorded and notes were also taken. This study elucidated the public health response to the Ebola outbreak led by Lagos State Government in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Health. The principal strategy was an incident management approach which saw them identify and successfully follow up 894 contacts. The infected EVD cases were quarantined and treated. The Nigerian private sector and international organizations made significant contributions to the control efforts. Public health enlightenment programmes using multimodal communication strategies were rapidly deployed. Water and sanitary facilities were provided in many public schools in Lagos. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Nigeria was effectively controlled using the incident management approach with massive support provided by the private sector and international community. Eight of the confirmed cases of EVD in Nigeria eventually died (case fatality rate of 42.1%) and twelve were nursed back to good health. On October 20 2014 Nigeria was declared fee of

  19. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions at 1. 4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1984-07-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles is observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission is seen, which probably is due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission is seen, indicating some two-body decay, where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like.

  20. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles is observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission is seen, which probably is due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission is seen, indicating some two-body decay, where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like. (Auth.)

  1. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions of 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1983-12-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum were studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles was observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission was seen, probably due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission was seen, indicating some two-body decay where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like. The rates and forward collimations suggest that the same physical process causes the different multiplicities

  2. Blaney-Morin-Nigeria (BMN) Evapotranspiration Model (A Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duru [1] presented a modified form of the Blaney-Morin potential evapotranspiration equation christened Blaney-Morin- Nigeria (BMN) Evapotranspiration (ET) model for use in Nigeria. In this work, Duru recognize the very wide variability of relative humidity in Nigeria and consequently the very important role this parameter ...

  3. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Christians and Muslims. 12 The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani in theNorth, the Ibo in the Southeast, and the Yoruba in the Southwest. 13 Nigeria...0). AllAfrica.com. "Nigeria: The Fading Culture of Party System in Nigeria." http://allafrica.com/stories/200803190577.htm I (accessed February 9

  4. Challenges of Nigeria's foreign policy | Enuka | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's foreign policy like those of every other elsewhere, is hoped to achieve for the benefit of Nigeria and Nigerians, the aspired goals and articulated interests of the Nigerian state. This expectation, by the judgment of many informed Nigerians, is yet to be fully realized. Nigeria's foreign policy inter alia, has failed to work ...

  5. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Democracy and Political Life in Nigeria | Wilson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review of Victor Dike's book - \\"Democracy and Political Life in Nigeria\\", Inam Wilson underscores the author's attempts to draw a connection between Nigeria's chequered political history and her present economic trajectory to explain why Nigeria is today facing numerous sociopolitical and economic challenges, ...

  7. Ethnicity: A threat to Nigeria's security and development | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative implications of ethnicity to national security and development are enormous. This paper interrogates ethnicity as the major hindrance to Nigeria.s security and development. The paper unveils the role of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in strengthening ethnicity and calls for a constitutional ...

  8. The concept of gender justice and women's rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid ascendancy of human rights in Nigeria, coupled with Nigeria's prominent role as a signatory to virtually all the core international human right treaties and instruments raised expectations that women in Nigeria may begin to enjoy some measure of protection from archaic and anachronistic practices that subject ...

  9. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu KI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available KI Ndu,1,* U Ekwochi,1,* DC Osuorah,2,* OC Ifediora,3 FO Amadi,1 IN Asinobi,1 OW Okenwa,1 JC Orjioke,1 FN Ogbuka,1 TO Ulasi4 1Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Engu, Nigeria; 2Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Fajara, Gambia; 3Griffiths University Medical School, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310. Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001 and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005 maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%; restraints not being important, 53 (26%, and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%. Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%, inadequate number of CCRs (22%, and the child being sick (18

  10. Antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedara Omotayo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen causing a wide range of infections in the hospital and community setting. In order to have adequate information for treatment of S. aureus infections, it is crucial to understand the trends in the antibiotic-resistance patterns. In addition, the occurrence and changes in types of S. aureus, clonal identities, and their geographic spread is essential for the establishment of adequate infection control programmes. In this study, 68 S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical and non-clinical sources in Nigeria between January and April 2009 were characterized using phenotypic and molecular methods. Results All the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, vancomycin, phosphomycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, daptomycin, mupirocin, linezolid and tigecycline. Sixteen percent of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin, while 55% and 72% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole, respectively (Table 1. There was excellent correlation between the broth microdilution assay and detection of antibiotic resistance genes by the multiplex PCR, in the determination of S. aureus resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin and tetracycline. A total of 28 spa types were identified in the study, and the predominant spa type among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA isolates was t084 (13 isolates. The t037-ST241-SCCmecIII type was the only clone identified in Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria while in South-West Nigeria, diversity among the MRSA isolates (t451-ST8-SCCmecV; t008-ST94-SCCmecIV; t002-ST5-SCCmecV; t064-ST8-SCCmecV was observed. The toxin genes seh and etd were detected in isolates affiliated with clonal complexes CC1, CC80 and sequence type ST25, respectively. The proportion of PVL-positive isolates among MSSA was high (40%. Most of the PVL-positive MSSA isolates were obtained from wound infections and associated

  11. Principals' Personal Variables and Information and Communication Technology Utilization in Federal Capital Territory Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunshola, Roseline Folashade; Adeniyi, Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated principals' personal variables and information and communication technology utilization in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) senior secondary schools, Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted the correlational research design. The study used a sample of 94 senior secondary schools (including public and private) in FCT. Stratified…

  12. Cognitive Distortion as Predictor of In-School Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Performance in South-South, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usen, Stella Anietie; Eneh, Grace Akaniyene; Udom, Inwang Etim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how cognitive distortion could predict in-school adolescents' depressive symptoms and academic performance in the South-South Nigeria. The study adopted a correlation design with a sample of in-school adolescents who showed evidence of cognitive distortion (N = 798). In-School Adolescents' Cognitive…

  13. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  14. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  15. Electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adedeji Tajudeen

    A modern and efficient infrastructure is a basic necessity for economic development and integration into the global economy. The specific problem was the inadequate and unreliable supply of electricity to manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to examine if there was a correlation between electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The population of the current correlational research study involved 28 out of 34 manufacturing corporations from various industrial sectors in Lagos, Nigeria, that are listed and traded on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Spearman rho correlations were used to assess the relationships between independent variables of electricity supply efficiency levels and the dependent variables of organizational growth and profitability. The result of the correlational analysis of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Gross Income (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.57; p = 0.002. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation was found between the Average Balance Sheet Size (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.54; p = 0.003. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Profit After Tax (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.60; p = 0.001, was found. No statistically significant correlation between the Average Return on Investment (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.19; p = 0.33, was discovered.

  16. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, K I; Ekwochi, U; Osuorah, D C; Ifediora, O C; Amadi, F O; Asinobi, I N; Okenwa, O W; Orjioke, J C; Ogbuka, F N; Ulasi, T O

    2016-01-01

    Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs) among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated ( r =-0.121, P =0.310). Only respondent's use of seat belt during driving ( P =0.001) and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs ( P =0.005) maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%); restraints not being important, 53 (26%), and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%). Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%), inadequate number of CCRs (22%), and the child being sick (18%). There is a need for a strategy change to enforce the use of CCRs in Nigeria.

  17. STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF STATUTORY AUDITORS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiu Babatunde Adeyemi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of the nineteenth century, there were celebrated cases of corporate frauds andfinancial misappropriation in corporate giants. The series of frauds have left a sense of doubt aboutthe “unbiasedness” of external auditors to render an attest function on the credibility of publishedfinancial statements. In this light, this research sought to empirically investigate into the perceptionof auditor independence in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the opinions ofrandomly selected lecturers of auditing, practising auditors, stockbrokers, shareholders andmanagers. Primary data was extensively relied upon. In addition to the primary data, secondary datafrom annual reports were also used. The data collected were used to answer research questions andtest hypotheses. Test of hypotheses was performed using Pearson Correlation and Kendall’s measureof concordance at a 0.05 level of significance. The outcome of the tests showed that the selectedrespondents perceived size of audit fee as the most influencing factor, capable of deterring auditorindependence in Nigeria. It was also observed that existing laws were obsolete and need to beupdated to make them relevant.

  18. An Examination of the Causes and Effects of Building Collapse in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke Ayodeji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the causes and consequence of building collapse in Nigeria using historical data from 1974 to 2006 and also proffers appropriate solutions. Relevant books, seminar papers, workshop papers, articles, etc. were reviewed so as to examine the general view of individuals that have worked on similar study. Data for the study were obtained through historical data of past building collapse in Nigeria. The data were presented and analysed using tables, bar graphs, Pearson moment correlation coefficient (r and linear regression analysis to generate a model. Sixty (60 buildings that collapsed in the country were gathered, upon which the analysis was carried out. The study revealed that poor maintenance culture, design error, poor quality of materials and workmanship, natural phenomenon and excessive loading contributed to about 7%, 15%, 52%, 7% and 20% respectively of building collapse in Nigeria with most of them being private residential buildings executed by indigenous contractors. The study finally recommended that Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON should increase their effort in sanitizing building materials in the market. More so, construction professionals should ensure proper supervision of workmen and efficient checking of materials before incorporation into building works.

  19. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Crime Pattern and its Implication for Abuja Municipal Area Council, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiye Oluwafemi Adewuyi; Patrick Ali Eneji; Anthonia Silas Baduku; Emmanuel Ajayi Olofin

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the spatio-temporal analysis of urban crime pattern and its implication for Abuja Municipal Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria; it has the aim of using Geographical Information System to improve criminal justice system. The aim was achieved by establishing crime incident spots, types of crime committed, the time it occurred and factors responsible for prevailing crime. The methods for data collection involved Geoinformatics through the use of remote s...

  1. Characterization of tinnitus in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize tinnitus in middle aged and elderly out-patients attending a specialized clinic in a developing country. A cross sectional study of patients attending the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, OOUTH Sagamu, Nigeria. Data was collected with the use of a structured questionnaire. Data collected included socio demographics, medical history including experience of tinnitus, PTAs, BMI and BP. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. 79 patients had complaints of tinnitus thus making a crude prevalence of 14.5%, the prevalence increased steadily along the age groups. 51.9% of patients experienced tinnitus for a short period. 53.2% of the patients had symptoms referable to only one ear, while 54.4% had discrete as opposed to multiple types of tinnitus. Occurrence of intermittent symptoms was experienced by 75.9% of the patients and 70.9% were non-pulsatile in nature. Tinnitus was significantly associated with abnormal audiographic pattern, global increased hearing thresholds, high tone hearing loss, vertigo, hypertension and obesity. Tinnitus character was majorly short term, unilateral, discrete, intermittent, and non-pulsatile in nature, and it is associated with otological, audiological, anthropometric and cardiovascular anomalies. The characteristics of tinnitus in Nigerian patients were similar to those described in developed countries, but the major risk factors for tinnitus except hearing impairment, may be different from the latter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Local Decentralisation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammed Adetola Adefeso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global drive towards devolution of financial resources and responsibilities has been increasingly justified on the basis that greater transfers of these financial resources and responsibilities to sub-central governments are theoretically expected to deliver greater economic efficiency in the provision of public goods and services and hence greater economic growth. There is a mixed result on these theoretical expectations across earlier empirical literatures. Using the instrumental variables (IV technique of analysis with the recent data from Nigeria for the period 1970-2013, this study found no robust significant effect of the decentralisation of spending or revenue on growth of real GDP per capital in Nigeria. The implication of this to the policy makers is that when it comes to the determinants of improved economic activities, decentralisation either fiscal expenditure or revenue side would not be instrumental to economic growth possibly because of existence of endemic corruption among politicians in Nigeria.

  3. Human rabies: still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, C B; Omotowo, I B; Ukoha, O M; Ibe, B C

    2015-01-01

    Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies infections among patients presenting to University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. This was a 10-year (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013) observational retrospective study. Case definition of rabies was based on ICD 10 criteria, while relevant clinical data were retrieved from individual folders of registered victims using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 while the level of statistical significance was set at P cases of dog bites were reported during the period under review, of which 6 (4.0%) had confirmed rabies. Ninety-six (64.4%) cases presented more than 24 h after the bites. Majority of the offending dogs were stray dogs 86 (57.7%), which attacked their victims unprovoked, in 54.6% of cases. Furthermore, most of the bites were from dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccination 72 (52.3%), while the case fatality rate was 100%. All the cases of rabies reported were as a result of bites from stray dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccinations, and the outcome was 100% fatality in all cases. Efforts should be made to create and strengthen awareness campaigns on control of rabies infections through responsible dog ownership including their regular vaccinations as well as provision and use of prompt postexposure prophylaxis in human cases of dog bites at all levels of health care.

  4. FEMALE GENITAL TRACT CANCERS IN SAGAMU, SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, P O; Adefuye, B O; Oluwole, A A

    2014-11-01

    To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. OOUTH is a tertiary health institution of the State's university and it takes referrals from within and outside the State. Case records of all female genital tract cancers managed between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrieved and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. There were 2059 women treated forvarious gynaecologic conditions, 179 (8.7%) were cases of female genital tract cancers and 161 records were available for analysis. Cervical cancer constituted the commonest (51.6%), followed by ovarian (35.4%), endometrial (9.9%), and choriocarcinoma (1.9%). There were no cases of vaginal and fallopian tube cancers. The lowest mean age was found in choriocarcinoma (36.60 ± 4.50 years) and highest in vulvar cancer (70.00 ± 2.82 years). The mean ages for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers were (51.98 ± 12.39), (65.38 ± 7.24), and (54.42 ± 10.51) years respectively. Similarly the least mean parity was found in choriocarcinoma (2.33 ± 1.52), and the highest in vulvar cancer (6.00 ± 1.44). The mean parity for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian were (4.10 ± 1.49),(3.06 ± 1.48), and (3.72 ± 1.68) respectively. These differences are statistically significant, age; F = 7.61, p < 0.0001, and parity; F = 3.27, p= 0.013. Incidence of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers remain high and presentations are at late stages. There is a need to improve on cervical cancer screening, and for the attending physicians to improve on their indices of suspicions as regards endometrial and ovarian cancers.

  5. Religion, culture and political corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhikru A. Yagboyaju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.

  6. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

  7. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O V [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented.

  8. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  9. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  10. Climate Change Dynamics and Imperatives for Food Security in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide D. Onafeso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Decadal variability in African rainfall is projected from General Circulation Models (GCMs to continue under elevated greenhouse gas scenarios. Effects on rain intensity, spatio-temporal variability of growing seasons, flooding, drought, and land-use change impose feedbacks at regional-local scales. Yet, empirical knowledge of associated impacts on crop yield is limited; thus, we examined the imperatives for food security in Nigeria. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression suggests impending drought in the northern region where livestock farming is predominant. Relative contributions of climate independent variables in determining crop yield by backward selection procedures with stepwise approach indexed the impacts of annual climate variability by a parameter computed as annual yield minus mean annual yield divided by the standard deviation. Results show Z-distribution approximately 5 to + 5, when 3 indicate impacts significant at 95% confidence levels. In conclusion, we established the interwoven relationship between climatic change and food security.

  11. Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chimaobi Valentine Okolo; Chizoba Obidigbo

    2015-01-01

    As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revea...

  12. Lead and cadmium in public health in Nigeria: physicians neglect and pitfall in patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2014-02-01

    Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management.

  13. Profile of neurological admissions at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenze, O S; Onwuekwe, I O; Ezeala Adikaibe, B A

    2010-01-01

    The burden of Neurological diseases may be on the increase especially in developing countries. Improved outcome in these settings may require appreciation of the spectrum of Neurological diseases and the impediments to their management. We aim to determine the profile of neurological admissions and the challenges of managing these diseases at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu South East Nigeria. Analysis of Neurological admissions into the medical wards of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu from January 2003 to December 2007. Neurological admissions comprise about 14.8% of medical admissions. There were 640 (51%) males and 609 (49%) females. The spectrum of neurological diseases were stroke 64.9%, central nervous system infections (21.8% ), HIV related neurological diseases 3.5%, hypertensive encephalopathy (3.4%), dementia (3%), subarachnoid haemorrhage (2.2%), Guillian Barre syndrome (1.2%), Parkinson's disease (1.1%), myasthenia gravis (1.0%), motor neurone disease and peripheral neuropathy and accounted for 0.8% and 0.6% respectively. Overall, noninfectious disease accounted for 78.2% of neurological admissions while infectious diseases accounted for 11.8%. A wide spectrum of neurological diseases occurs in our setting. The high incidence of CNS infections indicates that efforts should be geared towards preventive measures. A major challenge to be addressed in the management of neurological diseases in our setting is the lack of specialized facilities.

  14. Communicable disease-related sudden death in the 21st century in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi4 1Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: Some cases of sudden death (SD have been attributed to communicable diseases (CD in middle- and low-income countries of the world even in this 21st century. CDs produce clinical symptoms and signs over several days before culminating in death. They are also amenable to treatment with antimicrobials if affected persons present early. We sought to find out the incidence of CD-related SD at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria – a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria – and the prevailing associated factors. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of CD-related SD in adult patients aged 18 years and older that occurred from January 2003 to December 2011. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for analysis of the generated data. Percentages and frequencies were calculated. Results: There were 17 (39.6% CD-related SDs out of the 48 cases of SD studied. CD-related SD also accounted for 2.4% of all adult medical admissions. The mean age of the patients was 37.6 ± 11.6 years, age range of 25–62 years, mode of 25 years, and median 34 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Typhoid sepsis was responsible for SD in 47.1% of patients, pulmonary tuberculosis in 17.7% of patients, and lobar pneumonia in 17.7% of patients. The most affected age group was the 20–29-year-old group

  15. Dentoalveolar abscess among children attending a dental clinic in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Chukwumah, N M; Ezeja, E B

    2012-09-01

    To determine the incidence and causes of dentoalveolar abscess among children attending an outpatient dental clinic in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of paediatric dental patients treated in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from October 2010 to September 2011. The incidence of dentoalveolar abscess was 6.4% (53/824). However only 42 cases had their case notes retrieved for final research analysis. It occurred mostly in the lower right quadrant of the mouth. The affected children were majorly males and first or second child of monogamous family. A total 17 (40.5%) of the affected children were in the 6-11 years age group. This was the first dentist consultation among 35 (83.3%) of the children. The presenting complaint was toothache among two-thirds of the children. History of asthma, tonsillitis, peptic ulcer disease and previous surgery were medical history elicited from 6 (14.3) of the patients. The most implicated tooth was deciduous first molar. The causes of abscess include untreated dental caries 35 (83.3%), trauma 5 (11.9%), failed restoration 1 (2.4%) and periodontal diseases 1 (2.4%). Periapical radioluscency was predominant radiological finding among affected children. Tooth extraction was commonest treatment done. The incidence of dentoalveolar abscess among children was significant. The high frequency of untreated dental caries as the cause of dentoalveolar abscess indicates the need for school and community-based preventive strategies like encouraging infant oral health and preventive dentistry programs and early treatment intervention and dental health education.

  16. The Correlation between Individual and Environmental Hygiene and Pioderma Incidence An Analytical Observational Study in Pyoderma Patient in Islamic Sultan Agung Hospital during the Period August to December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Aisyah Sutisna

    2011-06-01

    Design and Methods: The study type was analytic observational with case control design. The sample consisted of 30 respondents RSI patients Sultan Agung for case group and 30 persons as control group is the neighbors of patients who have similar characteristics and are not suffering pyoderma. The data used are secondary data from medical records and primary data from questionnaires filled out by respondents, then the data were analyzed with chi-square and to determine the correlation power there was used a contingency coefficient test. Results: It was found that the good and the bad individual hygene for the case group were 3.3% and 66.7% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad individual hygene were 80.0% and 20.0% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,000 with contingency coefisien of 0.426. It was found that the good and the bad environmental hygene for the case group were 56.7% and 43.3% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad environmental hygene were 83.3% and 16.3% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,024 with contingency coefisien of 0.27. Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between the personal and environmental hygiene and poderma insicence at the RSI Sultan Agung with a moderate relationship between individual hygiene and weak relationship between environmental hygene (Sains Medika, 3(1:24-30.

  17. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  18. Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    production industries in Nigeria will have positive effects on socio-economic development ... Keywords: bio-energy; climatic conditions; fossil fuel; microalgae; production economics ... of affordable land and labour (Sielhorst et al., ..... by clouds. Closed photobioreactors are scarcely influenced by rainfall pattern; however, ...

  19. in River Oluwa, Ondo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The natural foods of Ctenopoma pethereci from River Oluwa in Ondo State, South-west Nigeria, were ... constituted 0.83% of the body weight while food in the intestine formed 1.54%, thus, giving ... South East Asian countries, where the group.

  20. Pioneering Laparoscopic General Surgery in Nigeria | Misauno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic Surgery has revolutionized surgical operations due to its unique advantages of a shorter hospital stay, minimal surgical trauma and a better cosmetic outcome. There are a few reports from Nigeria reporting laparoscopic surgery in gynaecology. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no ...

  1. Improved Industrial Development In Nigeria Through Proper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper noted that most industrial development strategies in Nigeria did not give attention to technology education. And that technology education as recognized by few of the strategies were not only properly articulated for the tertiary institutions, but also poorly implemented. Therefore, to put technology and thus ...

  2. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  3. Urethroplasty Practices among Reconstructive Urologists in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is one of the oldest pathologies known in urology.[1,2] The dynamics of the disease has continued to change across geographical zones. In the past few decades, the etiology in developing countries like Nigeria was mainly inflammatory and most commonly from gonococcal urethritis.[3] More recently, traumatic strictures.

  4. Implications for Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore examines the role of psychological empowerment in development of entrepreneurship among women. It is acknowledged that one major problem of underdevelopment in Nigeria is the issue of unemployment, especially among willing and employable Nigerians. Women have also been seen as very ...

  5. PALEOEVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA'S AJALI SANDSTONES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ajali Sandstone is a major clastic formation of Campanian-Maastrichtian age occuring within the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. ... The result is in line with earlier conclusions of fluvial or fluviodeltaic depositional environment based on analysis of faceis, sedimentary rock which are suitable for morphometrical ...

  6. REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... a view to effectively implement the concept within the study area. ... REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF NGOZIKA HOUSING .... could mean greater acceptance of new development by the public and .... human/environment relations based on the Cartesian separation of ...

  7. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  8. is planning in Nigeria becoming evidence based?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related Millennium Development Goals high on the policy agendas of many developing nations, the costs and as well as benefits of these health interventions are extremely vital in resource poor settings such as Nigeria. Despite the body of evidence ...

  9. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  10. Nigeria | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do · Regions and countries · Sub-Saharan Africa ... This service allows professionals to offer an improved level of service to their patients. We also fund effective and influential economic research in Nigeria. ... revitalize the health care system to deliver effective, efficient, and equitable primary health care in ...

  11. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  12. Recording technology in contemporary Nigeria: connecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recording technology in contemporary Nigeria: connecting the Nigerian ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... for themselves in the nation's music recording industry and its performance ...

  13. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  14. Nigeria Agricultural Journal - Vol 36 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of a stockastic frontier production function to the measurement of technical efficiency in food crop production in Imo State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CE Onyenweaku, JC Nwaru, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/naj.v36i1.3202 ...

  15. Scaling Off Grid Power In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    storage, digital revolution and especially, the current job deficit in Nigeria led by ... or is self-employed. .... (RESIP), so from that perspective the legal ... and solar home systems or stand-alone grids ... REAN is also driving self-regulatory.

  16. Receivables and Collection Management in Nigeria | Okonedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on credit practices in Nigeria carried out in 1998 by Ogbonna Ike and Enase Okenedo of the Lagos Business school. Twenty companies were involved in the study to determine the factors that influence credit policy, how credit policy is implemented and the role of sales, marketing ...

  17. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  18. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  19. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report oi' an involtigatlon into an outbreak of meningitis in three communities oi' Baruten Local. Government Area (Min) of Kwara Btate, Nigeria. is total of 41 cases of eerebroapinal meningitis (6838) were reported. There wee a preponderance of males (78%). Thirty-'eight (92.7%) did not receive CS!' vaccine while ...

  20. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    University of Kwazulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South ... Key Words: Nigeria Immigration Service, Illegal Routes, Security Policing, Border,. State .... transported weapons across borders to sell them in exchange for food or other commodities. ... The study's respondents were of the opinion that illegal routes exist around the ...

  1. STATUS OF INSECT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    With a rapid surge in human population, there has been concomitant increase in anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, especially for ecologically-important groups such as insects. With the loss of about 79% of its forest cover, Nigeria ranked as the nation with the highest rate of forest loss in 2005. How these and other.

  2. Heliozoa from Nigeria | Wujek | Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of seven scaled protistans were observed from four freshwater sites in Nigeria. They include the holiozoan genera Acanthocystis, Polyplacocystis, Pterocystis, and Raphidiophrys. All are new records for Africa. KEY WORDS: Heliozoa, Protozoa, Acanthocystis, Polyplacocystis, Pterocystis, Raphidiophrys Tropical ...

  3. analytical overview of agricultural conditions in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    2015-01-01

    Jan 1, 2015 ... Nigeria (fig.1) is bounded in the south by the Atlantic ... Guinea (Bights of Benin and Biafra); the inland frontiers .... Guinea savanna starts in the middle belt, or southern part ... The concept of land has been defined as the area.

  4. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  5. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Security Department, University of Benin, ... major determinant and provider of security in a society. ... economic constraint experienced by the British official between 1840 and .... The force is the principal law enforcement agency in Nigeria with a staff .... law and order, A Book of Readings, Lagos: NISS Publications, p 111.

  6. Infrastructure and Agricultural Growth in Nigeria | Ighodaro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of infrastructure in Nigeria, particularly physical infrastructure is characterized by the predominance of public enterprises except for telecommunications sector in recent time. The empirical part of the study revealed different relative response rates of the different component of infrastructure used in the study to ...

  7. Foreign Exchange and Library Collections in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiagwu, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the difficulties involved in acquiring materials for academic libraries in Nigeria uses statistics at one university to demonstrate the drop in foreign exchange based orders. Alternatives to overseas purchasing, including local purchasing, gifts and exchanges, and resource sharing programs, are also discussed. (CLB)

  8. Teacher Education in Nigeria: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and briefly examined the development of teacher in Nigeria. The. (NCE) National Certificate in Education is seen as an important and basic requirement for teachers to practice. The objectives of teacher education and the role of Commission for Colleges of. Education as well as the Curriculum of the NCE were examined by.

  9. chemistry syllabus of the nigeria science curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The senior secondary two chemistry course content of the Nigerian science curriculum was assessed ... of the students. In Nigeria, the need to re-examine both what to teach in science and how to teach it led ..... primary school. Our industries ...

  10. Obesity in Pregnancy in Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGOLUM

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Cephalhematoma Causing Severe Anemia in the. Newborn: Report ... commonest mechanical birth injury in Nigeria.[3] ... periosteum is a slow process. ... He weighed 3.55kg and the head circumference and ... to traumatic Cephalhematoma / edema in the ... control was at 14 weeks and he sat unaided at 7.

  11. Counseling View of Abortion in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwokhademhe, M. C.; Sowho, Paulina O.

    2015-01-01

    Guidance and counseling are twin words that help people adjust to their psychological, emotional, social and psychosocial problems which tend to occur in human life. Abortion, which is a prevalent problem in Nigeria mostly among the teenage girls, has drawn the attentions of the counselors, teachers, guardians, administrators, researchers and the…

  12. Fraud and Fraudulent Practices in Nigeria Banking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Owolabi, S. A. - Accounting Department, Babcock University, Nigeria. E-mail: ... Abstract. The paper reviews the various forms of fraudulent practice their impact and ... legislations targeted at reducing fraud and introducing some forms of control .... money market and treasury, risk assets, information technology, financial.

  13. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  14. Reinventing Nigeria's Diplomatic Machinery: The Challenge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies ... Since this idea was mooted in 2007 by the then Minister of Foreign Affairs, Chief Ojo Maduekwe, there does not seem to be any structure on the ground for its logical pursuit, depicting the Achilles heel of Nigeria's foreign policy-making – lack of continuity and extreme ...

  15. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria focuses on the following areas: Agriculture, Food Science, Technology/Engineering, Science and Applied Science, Vocational/Technical Education. Vol 17, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  16. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.

  17. Gender Stereotyping and Empowerment in Nigeria Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender inequality is one of the contemporary issues which have featured prominently in both national and international debates for quite some time now in both developed and developing countries of the world. This has obviously thwarted women status in curriculum implementation in Nigeria education. This observation ...

  18. among health workers in south western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To appraise the level of awareness about prenatal diagnosis among health workers in southwestern Nigeria and its utilization. Methodology: ... awareness about it, and upon which the right attitude of referral is developed. In our ... information on religion, location of practice, field of practice and years in practice.

  19. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun A Fatumo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  20. Sustainable Rural Development in Nigeria through Microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Nigeria like many nations in the developing world, extreme poverty remains widespread. ..... change to many of the current relationships of gender and class. ... operations and safety of deposits. Thirdly, funding of real sector activities, especially agricultural and manufacturing production, need to be promoted by MFIs as ...

  1. FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In Nigeria presently, the crisis of federalism has gone beyond the case of bickering among ethnic groups .... Internal affairs, Finance and Health are considered very important. So these juicy portfolios need to be fairly ..... President Shehu Shagari in 1980 but it submitted its report in 1981. It was headed by Dr. Pius Okigbo, ...

  2. limits of copyright protection in contemporary nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... modes of protection of intellectual property, and has left the law completely in a .... “Nigerian Computer Software Protection in Nigeria" [www ...... H. Ryder & Smith, “Public key Encryptocraph Standards: R.S.A. Data Security”,.

  3. SEASONAL PREDICTION OF PRECIPITATION OVER NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    nificant difference between the means of predicted and observed seasonal rainfall amount for all ... and the Gulf of Guinea in the north, east, west ... from the northern part to the southern part of ... and Savanna regions of Nigeria than the other.

  4. ACHIEVING POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    The paper concludes that the mortgage market in the country could be ... 720,000 housing units annually in the next 20 years to meet its housing needs (FMBN, ... progress in mortgage financing in Nigeria in the past five and a half decades?

  5. (ICTs) for Book Marketing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the extent to which Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are being used in book marketing. It also determined the constraints to ICTs use in book marketing in Nigeria. It made use of 210 marketing staff of book publishers in Ibadan and Lagos metropolis. Their educational qualifications ...

  6. Psychogeriatrics and Psychogeriatric Services in Nigeria | Baiyewu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychogeriatrics services began in Nigeria in the 1960's with the work of Adeoye Lambo. Today, some limited progress has been made in services and a little more in research. A number of geriatric psychiatric clinics are available in some tertiary hospitals in the country, but there are significant unmet needs in clinical care.

  7. Piloting laboratory quality system management in six health facilities in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mbah

    Full Text Available Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria.Laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline, follow up and exit using the WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA checklist. From the total percentage score obtained, the quality status of laboratories were classified using a zero to five star rating, based on the WHO/AFRO quality improvement stepwise approach. Major interventions include advocacy, capacity building, mentorship and quality improvement projects.At baseline audit, two of the laboratories attained 1- star while the remaining four were at 0- star. At follow up audit one lab was at 1- star, two at 3-star and three at 4-star. At exit audit, four labs were at 4- star, one at 3-star and one at 2-star rating. One laboratory dropped a 'star' at exit audit, while others consistently improved. The two weakest elements at baseline; internal audit (4% and occurrence/incidence management (15% improved significantly, with an exit score of 76% and 81% respectively. The elements facility and safety was the major strength across board throughout the audit exercise.This effort resulted in measurable and positive impact on the laboratories. We recommend further improvement towards a formal international accreditation status and scale up of WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA implementation in Nigeria.

  8. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  9. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  10. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  11. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  12. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  13. A Study on Sources of Health Financing in Nigeria: Implications for Health care Marketers and Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing difficulties in providing qualitative health care services to the public in Nigeria. The development has called for the need to examine ways through which government and other stakeholders resolve these crises in the health sector. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of Government spending to total Health expenditures in Nigeria. This study basically employs secondary data for analysis. The secondary data are provided from the World Bank Development indicators and Internet. The data was analyzed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Statistical technique. The result revealed a strong positive Correlation (r = 0.634 between Government Health Spending and Total Health Spending. This indicates that Government Health Spending constitutes a significant proportion of the Total Health Expenditures in Nigeria; despite complains about inadequate health financing. In conclusion, the Nigerian Health sector would become more vibrant, if the Government and the Private sector are ready to give the necessary commitments required to achieve the laudable objective of qualitative health for all. The study recommends for more Government Health funding towards tackling the prevalence of some chronic diseases such as HIV, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Meningitis and Paralysis, etc.

  14. Future demand for electricity in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitoye, F.I.; Adenikinju, A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability and reliability of electricity supplies have always been vexed issue in Nigeria. With an estimated population of 130 million people in AD 2005, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and belongs to the group of countries with the lowest electricity consumption per capita in the continent. Nigeria is also ranked among the poorest countries in the world. This paper examines the likely trend in the demand for electricity over the next 25 years under the assumptions that (i) there is a rapid economic development such that Nigeria transforms from low- to middle-income economy during this period, (ii) Nigeria meets the millennium development goals (MDG) in AD 2015, and (iii) the country achieves the status of an industrializing nation. For these to happen, this paper projects that electric-power generation will have to rise from the current capacity of 6500 MW to over 160 GW in AD 2030. This level of supply will be significant enough to increase the per capita electricity consumption to about 5000 kWh per capita by the year 2030. Even then, this just compares with the AD 2003 per capital consumption of some industrializing countries. Analysis of the level of investment required to meet the projected power demand indicates that annual investment cost will rise from US3.8 billion in AD 2006 to a peak of US21 billion in AD 2028. The total investment stream over the 25 year period comes to US262 billion or roughly US10 billion per annum. (author)

  15. EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF MICROFINANCE BANKS IN NIGERIA USING EFQM EXCELLENCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the performance of microfinance banks ensure that the banks create value for their various stakeholders. Achieving and sustaining superior business performance is important for organisations. The goal of this study is to assess microfinance banks in Nigeria using EFQM Excellence Model. The study adapts the EFQM self- assessment questionnaire for collecting data from 53 senior staff of selected Microfinance banks in Nigeria. In analyzing our data, Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result shows that a significant positive association exists between the enablers (leadership, strategy, people, partnerships and resources, processes, products, and services and results (customer, people, society, and business criterion. More important, all the 4 hypotheses are supported. The authors suggest that a robust performance management system that integrates leadership, strategy, people, resources, processes, products, and services are important to achieve and sustain excellent results for various stakeholders.

  16. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  17. Correlates of Disadvantaged Children and Literacy Achievements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the correlates of disadvantaged children and literacy achievement in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to carry out the study, 3 determinant factors of disadvantaged children which relate to children literacy achievement were identified. These factors include, group identity, family expectation and ...

  18. Teacher quality and quantity as correlates of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the twin variables of quality and quantity of teachers as correlates of secondary school academic performance in Ogun State of Nigeria between 1997/98 and 2000/2001 academic sessions. The study was conducted ex-post facto under a descriptive survey research design using the proportional to ...

  19. School climate as correlate of bullying behaviour among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools. The current study examined the relationship between school climate and bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Yagba West, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research method of the correlational ...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C seropositivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B and C infections from patients in the course of providing care to them. The study is thus aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C amongst health care workers of a secondary health care facility in northcentral Nigeria as a ...