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Sample records for nif final optics

  1. Penetrating radiation impact on NIF final optic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.D.; Speth, J.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to achieve thermonuclear ignition in a laboratory environment in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This will enable NIF to service the DOE stockpile stewardship management program, inertial fusion energy goals, and advance scientific frontiers. All of these applications will make use of the extreme conditions that the facility will create in the target chamber. In the case of a prospected 20 MJ yield scenario, NIF will produce 10 19 neutrons with DT fusion 14 MeV energy per neutron. There will also be high-energy x rays as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous target debris produced either directly or indirectly by the inertial confinement fusion process. A critical design issue is the protection of the final optical components as well as sophisticated target diagnostics in such a harsh environment

  2. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  3. Automated optics inspection analysis for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegelmeyer, Laura M.; Clark, Raelyn; Leach, Richard R.; McGuigan, David; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Potter, Daniel; Salmon, J. Thad; Senecal, Joshua; Conder, Alan; Nostrand, Mike; Whitman, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.

  4. Behavioral Model of High Performance Camera for NIF Optics Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, B M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop software that will model the behavior of the high performance Spectral Instruments 1000 series Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera located in the Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system on the National Ignition Facility. NIF's target chamber will be mounted with 48 Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) to convert the laser light from infrared to ultraviolet and focus it precisely on the target. Following a NIF shot, the optical components of each FOA must be carefully inspected for damage by the FODI to ensure proper laser performance during subsequent experiments. Rapid image capture and complex image processing (to locate damage sites) will reduce shot turnaround time; thus increasing the total number of experiments NIF can conduct during its 30 year lifetime. Development of these rapid processes necessitates extensive offline software automation -- especially after the device has been deployed in the facility. Without access to the unique real device or an exact behavioral model, offline software testing is difficult. Furthermore, a software-based behavioral model allows for many instances to be running concurrently; this allows multiple developers to test their software at the same time. Thus it is beneficial to construct separate software that will exactly mimic the behavior and response of the real SI-1000 camera

  5. NIF laser bundle review. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    We performed additional bundle review effort subsequent to the completion of the preliminary report and are revising our original recommendations. We now recommend that the NIF baseline laser bundle size be changed to the 4x2 bundle configuration. There are several 4x2 bundle configurations that could be constructed at a cost similar to that of the baseline 4x12 (from $11M more to about $11M less than the baseline; unescalated, no contingency) and provide significant system improvements. We recommend that the building cost estimates (particularly for the in-line building options) be verified by an architect/engineer (A/E) firm knowledgeable about building design. If our cost estimates of the in-line building are accurate and therefore result in a change from the baseline U-shaped building layout, the acceptability of the in-line configuration must be reviewed from an operations viewpoint. We recommend that installation, operation, and maintenance of all laser components be reviewed to better determine the necessity of aisles, which add to the building cost significantly. The need for beam expansion must also be determined since it affects the type of bundle packing that can be used and increases the minimum laser bay width. The U-turn laser architecture (if proven viable) offers a reduction in building costs since this laser design is shorter than the baseline switched design and requires a shorter laser bay

  6. Precision Cleaning and Protection of Coated Optical Components for NIF Small Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The purpose of this procedure shall be to define the precision cleaning of finished, coated, small optical components for NIF at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The term “small optical components” includes coated optics that are set into simple mounts, as well as coated, un-mounted optics.

  7. Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies. Final report (May 1997), Subcontract No. B291847

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Jin, H.; Scott, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. Various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the final optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 Angstrom) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change- outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. In addition to the work described briefly above, we performed extensive analysis of the target-chamber thermal response to in- chamber CO 2 Cleaning and of work performed to model the behavior of silica vapor. The work completed this year has been published in several papers and a dissertation -6 This report provides a summary of the work completed this year, as well as copies of

  8. Upgrades to the VISAR-streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) system on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, A. M.; Millot, M.; Seppala, L. G.; Frieders, G.; Zeid, Z.; Christensen, K.; Celliers, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a critical diagnostic in Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density research as it has the ability to track shock fronts or interfaces moving 0.1-100 km/s with great accuracy. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the VISAR has recently been used successfully for implosion tuning and equation of state measurements. However, the initial design of the companion Streaked Optical Pyrometer (SOP) to measure spectral radiance - hence shock temperature - suffers from large background levels and poor spatial resolution. We report on an upgrade to improve the spatial resolution in the 560-640nm band by using custom lenses and replacing the Dove prism with a K-mirror and implementing a gating-circuit for the streak camera to reduce background signal. We envision that upgraded SOP will provide high quality data collection matching NIF VISAR's standards.

  9. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.

  10. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States

  11. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-19

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States.

  12. Ultraviolet Light Generation and Transport in the Final Optics Assembly of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hackel, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Feit, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozlowski, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitman, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) includes a Final Optics Assembly (FOA) subsystem for ultraviolet (UV) light generation and transport for each of the 192 beamlines. Analytical and experimental work has been done to help understand and predict the performance of FOA.

  13. Management Prestart Review Phase 1 for the NIF Optics Assembly Building (OAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoo, V

    2000-01-01

    A Management Prestart Review (MPR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Optics Assembly Building (OAB) was conducted from June, 2000, through October, 2000. This review was performed to determine readiness of the facility and management to transfer the facility from the construction to the commissioning and operations phase. This review process provides assurance that the appropriate line management is in place to effect the turnover. Completion and acceptance of this report constitutes a turnover of facility and equipment operational responsibility from the Beampath Infrastructure System Construction organization to the Assembly Installation and Refurbishment Operations (assembly equipment installation/activation and mechanical cleaning operations) and the Beampath Infrastructure System (BIS) Commissioning and Operations Organizations (conventional facility operations). The OAB MPR provides to the NIF Project Manager an independent, systematic assessment of: (1) Readiness of line management for the turnover to take place, (2) Completeness of the equipment and facility installation of the OAB, (3) Readiness of personnel to operate within the facility, and (4) Implementation and efficacy of key management control processes and procedures. The MPR process assures that the technical, cost, and schedule risk associated with the installation/activation of OAB special equipment, mechanical cleaning, and conventional facility operations within the OAB are evaluated and are acceptable. Specifically, the scope of the review addresses technical and operational attributes of the equipment and facility systems that have been determined to have significant project risk. This report implements the LLNL requirement that MPRs shall be conducted before all new facilities are brought into operation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) ES and H Manual (M-010), Section 2.2.5, Pre-Start Reviews. The MPR process is an essential part of the ISM work authorization and

  14. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  15. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  16. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert M.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2007-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator-friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities and shock breakout times of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. A third imaging system measures self-emission of the targets. These three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be systematically checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Floating apertures, placed before and after lens groups, display misalignment by showing the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beam splitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment is achieved before each shot.

  17. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  18. FANTM, the First Article NIF Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMON, JUD; HARJES, HENRY C.; MOORE, WILLIAM B.S.; SMITH, DAVID L.; WILSON, J. MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2.1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS), that will power the flashlamps of the main and power amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) lasers, is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. Maxwell Physics International has been a partner in this process. The NIF is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL). The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM, for the First Article NIF Test Module. It was built at SNL and operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final full NIF system will require at least 192 of them in four capacitor bays. This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20 %/cm with 24 capacitors

  19. Electro optical monitor final report

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, M

    2013-01-01

    In the CLIC two beam acceleration scheme the Main Beam must be precisely synchronized with respect to the RF power produced by the Drive Beam. Timing errors would have an impact on the collider performances. The Drive Beam phase errors should be controlled, by means of a feed forward system, within 0.1 ° (23 fs @ 12GHz) to avoid a luminosity reduction larger than 2%. A beam phase arrival monitor is an essential component of the system. As an alternative to a classical design using analogue electronic done in task 9.5.1., we pursue an approach using electro optical modulators. The advantage of this is its very high band width, it is measuring the arrival time of individual bunches with a potential resolution below 10 fs. The system was designed, manufactured and tested. As specified in the work package, the performance with beam was validated at the PSI injector.

  20. NIRSpec optics development: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyl, R.; Ruch, E.; Vayssade, H.; Leplan, H.; Rodolfo, J.

    2017-11-01

    As shown and discussed on a Sagem poster presented at the ICSO 2010 conference [1], scientific or commercial earth observation space instruments are more and more taking advantage of the remarkable properties of Silicon Carbide in term of hardness, stiffness and thermal stability combined with a reasonable density which are indeed of primary importance for all space applications. Sagem-REOSC High Performance Optics Unit works on the polishing, coating and integration technologies of SiC mirrors since more than ten year through various successful space programs for various customers: INSAT 3D scan mirror, ROCSAT II and SPIRALE main telescopes, GAIA large primary mirrors and Auto-collimation flats, …). This paper aims to provide to the international space community an exhaustive vision of the work performed by Sagem-REOSC on the polishing, coating and integration of the three Three Mirror Anastigmats of the NIRSpec spectrographic instrument which is the main ESA contribution to the JWST.

  1. Construction of the NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kato, Takeo; Nakamura, Osamu; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Kamimura, Tetsuo

    2000-10-01

    The advanced NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN, was designed and constructed as an informational infrastructure in 1996, 1997 and 1998 fiscal year. NIFS-LAN was composed of three autonomous clusters classified from research purpose; Research Information cluster, Large Helical Device Experiment cluster and Large-Scale Computer Simulation Research cluster. Many ATM(Asychronous Transfer Mode) switching systems and switching equipments were used for NIFS-LAN. Here, the outline of NIFS-LAN is described. (author)

  2. NIF unconverted light and its influence on DANTE measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Frederic; Suter, Larry; Landen, Otto; Munro, Dave; Regan, Sean; Kline, John

    2009-06-01

    NIF laser facility produces 1053 nm light and a fundamental requirement for NIF is to give up to 1.8 MJ of 351 nm light for target physics experiments. The 351 nm light is provided by frequency tripling the 1053 nm light in nonlinear crystals in the final optics assembly, just before the laser light enters the target chamber. Since this tripling process is not 100% efficient, unconverted light from the conversion process also enters the chamber. This unconverted light does not directly hit the target but it can strike target support structures at average intensities of few TW/cm2 where it can generate unwanted, background soft x-rays that are measured by the soft x-ray diagnostic DANTE installed on the NIF target chamber. This diagnostic quantifies the x-radiation intensity inside the hohlraum by measuring the x-ray flux coming from the target's laser entrance hole. Due to its centimeter wide field of view, it integrates x-ray emission from both the flux exiting a hohlraum laser entrance hole and from the target support structure irradiated by residual 1omega and 2omega unconverted light. This work gives quantitative evaluations of the unconverted light for the first time and the effects on DANTE measurements for the future NIF tuning experiment called "Shock timing." Emission spectra are significantly modified leading to an overestimation of radiative temperature during the foot of the laser pulse since background x-rays are predominant in first two DANTE channel measurements. Mitigations of these effects by coating silicon paddle with plastic, using a smaller collimator to reduce DANTE field of view or eliminating DANTE channels in the analysis have been investigated.

  3. Nuclear Physics using NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Caggiano, J A; Cerjan, C; Gostic, J; Hatarik, R; Hartouni, E; Hoffman, R D; Sayre, D; Schneider, D G; Shaughnessy, D; Stoeffl, W; Yeamans, C; Greife, U; Larson, R; Hudson, M; Herrmann, H; Kim, Y H; Young, C S; Mack, J; Wilson, D; Batha, S; Hoffman, N; Langenbrunner, J; Evans, S

    2011-09-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's premier inertial confinement fusion facility designed to achieve sustained thermonuclear burn (ignition) through the compression of hydrogen isotopic fuels to densities in excess of 10{sup 3} g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures in excess of 100 MK. These plasma conditions are very similar to those found in the cores of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars where the s-process takes place, but with a neutron fluence per year 10{sup 4} times greater than a star. These conditions make NIF an excellent laboratory to measure s-process (n,{gamma}) cross sections in a stellar-like plasma for the first time. Starting in Fall 2009, NIF has been operating regularly with 2-4 shots being performed weekly. These experiments have allowed the first in situ calibration of the detectors and diagnostics needed to measure neutron capture, including solid debris collection and prompt {gamma}-ray detection. In this paper I will describe the NIF facility and capsule environment and present two approaches for measuring s-process neutron capture cross sections using NIF.

  4. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  5. Studying Nuclear Astrophysics at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R; Bernstein, L; Brune, C

    2009-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility's primary goal is to generate fusion energy. But the starlike conditions that it creates will also enable NIF scientists to study astrophysically important nuclear reactions. When scientists at the stadium-sized National Ignition Facility attempt to initiate fusion next year, 192 powerful lasers will direct 1.2 MJ of light energy toward a two-mm-diameter pellet of deuterium ({sup 2}H, or D) and tritium ({sup 3}H, or T). Some of that material will be gaseous, but most will be in a frozen shell. The idea is to initiate 'inertial confinement fusion', in which the two hydrogen isotopes fuse to produce helium-4, a neutron, and 17.6 MeV of energy. The light energy will be delivered to the inside walls of a hohlraum, a heavy-metal, centimeter-sized cylinder that houses the pellet. The container's heated walls will produce x rays that impinge on the pellet and ablate its outer surface. The exiting particles push inward on the pellet and compresses the DT fuel. Ultimately a hot spot develops at the pellet's center, where fusion produces {sup 4}He nuclei that have sufficient energy to propagate outward, trigger successive reactions, and finally react the frozen shell. Ignition should last several tens of picoseconds and generate more than 10 MJ of energy and roughly 10{sup 19} neutrons. The temperature will exceed 10{sup 8} K and fuel will be compressed to a density of several hundred g/cm{sup 3}, both considerably greater than at the center of the Sun. The figure shows a cutaway view of NIF. The extreme conditions that will be produced there simulate those in nuclear weapons and inside stars. For that reason, the facility is an important part of the US stockpile stewardship program, designed to assess the nation's aging nuclear stockpile without doing nuclear tests. In this Quick Study we consider a third application of NIF - using the extraordinary conditions it will produce to perform experiments in basic

  6. FINAL REPORT "Extreme non-linear optics of plasmas" Pierre Michel (16-LW-022)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Pierre [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Large laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are typically limited in performance and physical scale (and thus cost) by optics damage. In this LDRD, we investigated a radically new way to manipulate light at extreme powers and energies, where “traditional” (crystal-based) optical elements are replaced by a medium that is already “broken” and thus does not suffer from optics damage: a plasma. Our method consisted in applying multiple lasers into plasmas to imprint refractive micro-structures with optical properties designed to be similar to those of crystals or dielectric structures used in optics. In particular, we focused our efforts on two elements used to manipulate the polarization of lasers (i.e. the orientation of the light’s electric field vector): i) a polarizer, which only lets a given polarization direction pass and blocks the others, and ii) a “Pockels cell”, which can “rotate” the polarization direction or convert it from linear to elliptical or circular. These two elements are essential building blocks in almost all laser systems – for example, they can be combined to design optical gates. Here, we introduced the new concepts of a “plasma polarizer” and a “plasma Pockels cell”. Both concepts were demonstrated in proof-of-principle laboratory experiments in this LDRD. We also demonstrated that such laser-plasma systems could be used to provide full control of the refractive index of plasmas as well as their dispersion (variation of the index vs. the light wavelength), which constituted the basis for a final experiment aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of “slow light” in plasmas, i.e. the capability to slow down a light pulse almost to a full stop.

  7. Oxygen control of nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae depends on NifL reduction at the cytoplasmic membrane by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Roman; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2003-04-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the flavoprotein, NifL regulates NifA mediated transcriptional activation of the N2-fixation (nif) genes in response to molecular O2 and ammonium. We investigated the influence of membrane-bound oxidoreductases on nif-regulation by biochemical analysis of purified NifL and by monitoring NifA-mediated expression of nifH'-'lacZ reporter fusions in different mutant backgrounds. NifL-bound FAD-cofactor was reduced by NADH only in the presence of a redox-mediator or inside-out vesicles derived from anaerobically grown K. pneumoniae cells, indicating that in vivo NifL is reduced by electrons derived from membrane-bound oxidoreductases of the anaerobic respiratory chain. This mechanism is further supported by three lines of evidence: First, K. pneumoniae strains carrying null mutations of fdnG or nuoCD showed significantly reduced nif-induction under derepressing conditions, indicating that NifL inhibition of NifA was not relieved in the absence of formate dehydrogenase-N or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The same effect was observed in a heterologous Escherichia coli system carrying a ndh null allele (coding for NADH dehydrogenaseII). Second, studying nif-induction in K. pneumoniae revealed that during anaerobic growth in glycerol, under nitrogen-limitation, the presence of the terminal electron acceptor nitrate resulted in a significant decrease of nif-induction. The final line of evidence is that reduced quinone derivatives, dimethylnaphthoquinol and menadiol, are able to transfer electrons to the FAD-moiety of purified NifL. On the basis of these data, we postulate that under anaerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions, NifL inhibition of NifA activity is relieved by reduction of the FAD-cofactor by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool, generated by anaerobic respiration, that favours membrane association of NifL. We further hypothesize that the quinol/quinone ratio is important for providing the signal to NifL.

  8. Characterization of nifB, nifS, and nifU genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: NifB is required for the vanadium-dependent nitrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, E M; Thiel, T

    1995-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium containing both a Mo-dependent nitrogenase encoded by the nif genes and V-dependent nitrogenase encoded by the vnf genes. The nifB, nifS, and nifU genes of A. variabilis were cloned, mapped, and partially sequenced. The fdxN gene was between nifB and nifS. Growth and acetylene reduction assays using wild-type and mutant strains indicated that the nifB product (NifB) was required for nitrogen fixation not only by...

  9. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  10. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  11. February 2017 - NIF Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-13

    February was a very productive month with only 20 shot days on the calendar. There were 41 target shots performed for the HED, ICF, and the Discovery Science (DS) program. The DS program had a week dedicated to their experiments that was extraordinarily fruitful: 14 target shots were performed for five independent teams, each of whom had a unique experimental platform to field. The teams and the facility worked extraordinarily well to pull off this feat! Additionally, the facility developed high-energy laser operations on a demonstration quad to investigate taking NIF to a new level of performance, and the ICF program demonstrated a 40% increase in the yield from a capsule that had a new, 5-μm-diameter fill tube that apparently mitigates some of the issues that have affected implosions to date. Details follow below.

  12. A comprehensive aligned nifH gene database: a multipurpose tool for studies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a nitrogenase gene sequence database that facilitates analysis of the evolution and ecology of nitrogen-fixing organisms. The database contains 32 954 aligned nitrogenase nifH sequences linked to phylogenetic trees and associated sequence metadata. The database includes 185 linked multigene entries including full-length nifH, nifD, nifK and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Evolutionary analyses enabled by the multigene entries support an ancient horizontal transfer of nitrogenase genes between Archaea and Bacteria and provide evidence that nifH has a different history of horizontal gene transfer from the nifDK enzyme core. Further analyses show that lineages in nitrogenase cluster I and cluster III have different rates of substitution within nifD, suggesting that nifD is under different selection pressure in these two lineages. Finally, we find that that the genetic divergence of nifH and 16S rRNA genes does not correlate well at sequence dissimilarity values used commonly to define microbial species, as stains having <3% sequence dissimilarity in their 16S rRNA genes can have up to 23% dissimilarity in nifH. The nifH database has a number of uses including phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, the design and assessment of primers/probes and the evaluation of nitrogenase sequence diversity. Database URL: http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/buckley/nifh.htm.

  13. Molecular evolution of the nif gene cluster carrying nifI1 and nifI2 genes in the Gram-positive phototrophic bacterium Heliobacterium chlorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkh-Amgalan, Jigjiddorj; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2006-01-01

    A major nif cluster was detected in the strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive phototrophic bacterium Heliobacterium chlorum. The cluster consisted of 11 genes arranged within a 10 kb region in the order nifI1, nifI2, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, fdx, nifB and nifV. The phylogenetic position of Hbt. chlorum was the same in the NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE and NifN trees; Hbt. chlorum formed a cluster with Desulfitobacterium hafniense, the closest neighbour of heliobacteria based on the 16S rRNA phylogeny, and two species of the genus Geobacter belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria. Two nifI genes, known to occur in the nif clusters of methanogenic archaea between nifH and nifD, were found upstream of the nifH gene of Hbt. chlorum. The organization of the nif operon and the phylogeny of individual and concatenated gene products showed that the Hbt. chlorum nif operon carrying nifI genes upstream of the nifH gene was an intermediate between the nif operon with nifI downstream of nifH (group II and III of the nitrogenase classification) and the nif operon lacking nifI (group I). Thus, the phylogenetic position of Hbt. chlorum nitrogenase may reflect an evolutionary stage of a divergence of the two nitrogenase groups, with group I consisting of the aerobic diazotrophs and group II consisting of strictly anaerobic prokaryotes.

  14. Optomechanical considerations for the VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Morris I.; Celeste, John R.; Frogget, Brent C.; Lee, Tony L.; GacGowan, Brian J.; Malone, Robert M.; Ng, Edmund W.; Tunnell, Tom W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2006-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The velocity interferometer for any reflector measures shock velocities at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Our team designed two systems, one for a polar port orientation, and the other to accommodate two equatorial ports. The polar-oriented design requires a 48-m optical relay to move the light from inside the target chamber to a separately housed measurement and laser illumination station. The currently operational equatorial design requires a much shorter relay of 21 m. Both designs posed significant optomechanical challenges due to the long optical path length, large quantity of optical elements, and stringent NIF requirements. System design had to tightly control the use of lubricants and materials, especially those inside the vacuum chamber; tolerate earthquakes and radiation; and consider numerous other tolerance, alignment, and steering adjustment issues. To ensure compliance with NIF performance requirements, we conducted a finite element analysis.

  15. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. NIF Maintenance Plan March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Ensuring the reliability of the NIF, including its support systems and utilities, is essential to ensuring the availability of the NIF in its support of laser operations. This document identifies the policies and procedures necessary to perform and support the maintenance of the NIF’s systems. These systems are all encompassing and include the facility, beampath, Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), Safety Interlock System (SIS), and diagnostics and utilities that create the environments within the beampath consisting of vacuum, argon, or clean dry air.

  17. Plasma Electrode Pockels Cells for the Beamlet and NIF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.A.; Woods, B.; DeYoreo, J.; Atherton, J.

    1994-05-01

    We describe Plasma Electrode Pockels Cells (PEPC) for the Beamlet laser and the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. These PEPCs, together with passive polarizers, function as large aperture (> 35 x 35 cm 2 ) optical switches enabling the design of high-energy (> 5 kJ), multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges form on both sides of a thin (1 cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP). These plasma discharges produce highly conductive and transparent electrodes that facilitate rapid (< 100 ns) and uniform charging of the KDP up to the half-wave voltage (17 kV) and back to zero volts. We discuss the operating principles, design, and optical performance of the Beamlet PEPC and briefly discuss our plans to extend PEPC technology for the NIF

  18. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  19. The optics of the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Brown, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Oide, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), currently under construction at the end of the SLAC Linac, is being built by an international collaboration as a test bed for ideas and methods required in the design and construction of final focus systems for next generation e + e - linear colliders. The FFTB lattice is based on the previously developed principle of using sextupole pairs in a dispersive region to compensate chromaticity. The linear lattice was optimized for length, and implementation of diagnostic procedures. The transformations between sextupole pairs (CCX and CCY) are exactly -I, the matrix for the intermediate transformer (BX) is exactly diagonal, and the dispersion function has zero slope at the sextupoles and is thus zero at the minimum of the β x function in the intermediate transformer. The introduction of sextupoles in final focus systems leads to the presence of additional optical aberrations, and synchrotron radiation in the dipoles also enlarges the final spot size. The important fourth-order optical aberrations which determine the main features of the design have been identified. Additional lower order aberrations arise in the implementation of these designs, since the real system is not the ideal design. We concentrate on these aberrations and describe strategies for their diagnosis and correction

  20. Performance of the NIF prototype beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Murray, J.R.; Speck, D.R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Beamlet is a full scale single beam prototype laser system, built to demonstrate the laser technology and performance of the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) fusion laser driver. Both laser systems apply multipass amplifier architectures. By passing the beam four times through the large aperture amplifier sections, the small signal gain during the first few passes is used efficiently to reduce expensive staged amplifier chains. The beamlet prototype laser integrates results of development programs for large aperture components: large aperture optical switch, polarizers, 2 x 2 multisegment amplifiers and new pulse generation and pre-amplification techniques. The authors report on performance test results of the recently completed 1 ω-laser section of Beamlet

  1. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  2. Status of the NIF Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2007-04-30

    Ground was broken for the National Ignition Facility, a stadium-sized complex, in 1997. When complete, the project will contain a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt laser system adjoining a 10-meter-diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF's beams will compress and heat small capsules containing a mixture of hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium. These targets will undergo nuclear fusion, producing more energy than the energy in the laser pulse and achieving scientific breakeven. NIF experiments will allow scientists to study physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million degrees Kelvin and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure--conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapon detonations.

  3. The genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27 provides insight into evolution, organization and functional elucidation of nif and nif-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Deng, Zhiping; Liu, Zhanzhi; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Tianshu; Xie, Jianbo; Lin, Min; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2014-08-27

    Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase. This enzyme is a complex which contains the MoFe protein encoded by nifDK and the Fe protein encoded by nifH. In addition to nifHDK, nifHDK-like genes were found in some Archaea and Firmicutes, but their function is unclear. We sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27. A total of 4,793 open reading frames were predicted from its 5.27 Mb genome. The genome of P. sabinae T27 contains fifteen nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, including three nifH, one nifD, one nifK, four nifB, two nifE, two nifN, one nifX and one nifV. Of the 15 nif genes, eight nif genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) and two non-nif genes (orf1 and hesA) form a complete nif gene cluster. In addition to the nif genes, there are nitrogenase-like genes, including two nifH-like genes and five pairs of nifDK-like genes. IS elements on the flanking regions of nif and nif-like genes imply that these genes might have been obtained by horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenies of the concatenated 8 nif gene (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) products suggest that P. sabinae T27 is closely related to Frankia. RT-PCR analysis showed that the complete nif gene cluster is organized as an operon. We demonstrated that the complete nif gene cluster under the control of σ70-dependent promoter enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Also, here for the first time we demonstrated that unlike nif genes, the transcriptions of nifHDK-like genes were not regulated by ammonium and oxygen, and nifH-like or nifD-like gene could not restore the nitrogenase activity of Klebsiella pneumonia nifH- and nifD- mutant strains, respectively, suggesting that nifHDK-like genes were not involved in nitrogen fixation. Our data and analysis reveal the contents and distribution of nif and nif-like genes and contribute to the study of evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus. For the first time we

  4. Facilitization of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for radiation sciences experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.F.

    1995-12-15

    This report will provide a summary report of work performed under Subcontract B324681 from November 1 through December 14, 1995 and covers work relevant to Subtasks 1-11. The work performed under this contract was presented and reviewed at the NIF Radiation Sciences Users Group meeting held on November 29-30. Present where senior representatives from the NIF Project, the DOE Office of the NIF, the DOE ICF program, and the Defense Nuclear Agency. This report is divided into seven sections, not including the Introduction to include; Potential Test Capability, Operational Scenarios, Facilitization Issues, Security Issues, Performance/Cost/Risk Considerations, a Summary of Requested Modifications to the NIF and finally, Conclusions. Within each section will be a short narrative and a copy of the view graph presentation.

  5. NIF Operations Management Plan, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    2014-01-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Stockpile Stewardship Program, whose purpose is to maintain the safety, reliability, and effectiveness of our nation’s nuclear stockpile without underground nuclear testing. The NIF is crucial to the Stockpile Stewardship Program because it is the only facility that can create the conditions of extreme temperature and pressure—conditions that exist only in stars or in exploding nuclear weapons—that are relevant to understanding how our modern nuclear weapons operate. As such, the NIF’s primary mission is to attain fusion ignition in the laboratory. Fusion ignition not only supports Stockpile Stewardship needs, but also provides the basis for future decisions about fusion’s potential as a long-term energy source. Additionally, NIF provides scientists with access to high-energy-density regimes that can yield new insight and understanding in the areas of astrophysics, hydrodynamics, material properties, plasma physics, and radiative properties. The use of the NIF to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program and the advancement of basic high-energy-density science understanding is planned and managed through program-level execution plans and NIF directorate-level management teams. An example of a plan is the National Ignition Campaign Execution Plan. The NIF Operations Management Plan provides an overview of the NIF Operations organization and describes how the NIF is supported by the LLNL infrastructure and how it is safely and responsibly managed and operated. Detailed information on NIF management of the organization is found in a series of supporting plans, policies, and procedures. A list of related acronyms can be found in Appendix A of this document. The purpose of this document is to provide a roadmap of how the NIF Operations organization functions. It provides a guide to understanding the

  6. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal. Volume 1 contains the dissertation of Ghosal which covers the characterization of fly ash and the measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  7. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  8. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  9. FANTM: The First Article NIF Test Module for the Laser Power Conditioning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2. 1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS) that powers the flashlamps for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL), is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM. It was built at SNL and has operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final till NIF system will require 192 of them (48 in each of four capacitor bays). This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20%/cm with 24 capacitors

  10. Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Herschel K.

    A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

  11. FABRICATION OF WINDOW SADDLES FOR NIF CRYOGENIC HOHLRAUMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GIRALDEZ, E; KAAE, J.L

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 A planar diagnostic viewing port attached to the cylindrical wall of the NIF cryogenic hohlraum requires a saddle-like transition piece. While the basic design of this window saddle is straightforward, its fabrication is not, given the scale and precision of the component. They solved the problem through the use of a two segment copper mandrel to electroform the gold window saddle. The segments were micro-machined using a combination of single-point diamond turning and single point diamond milling. These processes as well as the electroplating conditions, final machining and mandrel removal are described in this paper

  12. Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Q T; Wu, Q L; Ma, Z F; Shen, S C

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been demonstrated. Studies on the oxygen regulation of nifB-lacZ and nifH-lacZ fusions in the presence of the nifLA operon, which contains either an intact or a deleted nifL gene, indicate that possibly both the nifL promoter and the nifL product are responsible for nif repression by oxygen.

  13. Challenges to develop nitrogen-fixing cereals by direct nif-gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatti, Leonardo; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    Some regions of the developing world suffer low cereal production yields due to low fertilizer inputs, among other factors. Biological N2 fixation, catalyzed by the prokaryotic enzyme nitrogenase, is an alternative to the use of synthetic N fertilizers. The molybdenum nitrogenase is an O2-labile metalloenzyme composed of the NifDK and NifH proteins, which biosyntheses require a number of nif gene products. A challenging strategy to increase cereal crop productivity in a scenario of low N fertilization is the direct transfer of nif genes into cereals. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to O2 and the apparent complexity of nitrogenase biosynthesis are the main barriers identified so far. Expression of active NifH requires the products of nifM, nifH, and possibly nifU and nifS, whereas active NifDK requires the products of nifH, nifD, nifK, nifB, nifE, nifN, and possibly nifU, nifS, nifQ, nifV, nafY, nifW and nifZ. Plastids and mitochondria are potential subcellular locations for nitrogenase. Both could provide the ATP and electrons required for nitrogenase to function but they differ in their internal O2 levels and their ability to incorporate ammonium into amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NIF ICCS network design and loading analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G; Bryant, R

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is housed within a large facility about the size of two football fields. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is distributed throughout this facility and requires the integration of about 40,000 control points and over 500 video sources. This integration is provided by approximately 700 control computers distributed throughout the NIF facility and a network that provides the communication infrastructure. A main control room houses a set of seven computer consoles providing operator access and control of the various distributed front-end processors (FEPs). There are also remote workstations distributed within the facility that allow provide operator console functions while personnel are testing and troubleshooting throughout the facility. The operator workstations communicate with the FEPs which implement the localized control and monitoring functions. There are different types of FEPs for the various subsystems being controlled. This report describes the design of the NIF ICCS network and how it meets the traffic loads that will are expected and the requirements of the Sub-System Design Requirements (SSDR's). This document supersedes the earlier reports entitled Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Network, dated November 6, 1996 and The National Ignition Facility Digital Video and Control Network, dated July 9, 1996. For an overview of the ICCS, refer to the document NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description (NIF-3738)

  15. Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock ρR and strength in NIF implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G W; Dewald, E; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S; Hicks, D G; Landen, O L; London, R; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Richardson, M; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Zacharias, R; Moses, E; Kilkenny, J; Nikroo, A; Sangster, T C; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C; Olson, R; Leeper, R J; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Wilson, D

    2012-10-01

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-(3)He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and (3)He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total ρR through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  16. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.

    1995-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility

  17. Cotranscription of the electron transport protein genes nifJ and nifF in Enterobacter agglomerans 333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R; Dayananda, S; Klingmüller, W

    1991-05-01

    A nucleotide sequence showing extensive homology to the nifF gene, which codes for a flavodoxin involved in nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae, was localized on the plasmid pEA3 of Enterobacter agglomerans and determined. The analysis of transcriptional fusions, as well as transcript protection assays, indicated a novel nif gene organization, that is, the cotranscription of nifJ and nifF.

  18. Cotranscription of the electron transport protein genes nifJ and nifF in Enterobacter agglomerans 333.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, R; Dayananda, S; Klingmüller, W

    1991-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence showing extensive homology to the nifF gene, which codes for a flavodoxin involved in nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae, was localized on the plasmid pEA3 of Enterobacter agglomerans and determined. The analysis of transcriptional fusions, as well as transcript protection assays, indicated a novel nif gene organization, that is, the cotranscription of nifJ and nifF.

  19. Identification and characterization of the nifH and nifJ promoter regions located on the nif-plasmid pEA3 of Enterobacter agglomerans 333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R; Singh, M; Klingmüller, W

    1989-05-15

    Small restriction fragments of the plasmid-borne Enterobacter agglomerans 333 nif region were cloned into a promoter probe plasmid as transcriptional fusions with the lacZ gene. Identification of NifA-dependent promoters was accomplished by using a compatible plasmid which constitutively expresses the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifA gene. beta-Galactosidase assays showed strong activation of the cloned E. agglomerans promoters in Escherichia coli by the heterologous K. pneumoniae nifA gene product. The positions of the promoter fragments on the corresponding restriction map were determined by Southern hybridization. As confirmed by sequencing data, the nifH and nifJ promoters are situated at opposite end-points of the nif gene group and their -24 to -12 nucleotide sequences are similar to the consensus sequence of NtrA-dependent promoters. Also, typical NifA-binding motifs are present in both promoters. The agreement of the promoter proximal regions of nifH and nifJ with the corresponding K pneumoniae sequences is about 80%. Also the upstream regions of these genes are in agreement to some extent.

  20. Intragenic complementation by the nifJ-coded protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, G; Zhu, J; Shah, V K; Shen, S C; Brill, W J

    1982-01-01

    A single mutation, nifC1005 (Jin et al. Sci. Sin. 23:108-118, 1980), located between nifH and nifJ in the nif cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae, genetically complemented mutations in each of the 17 known nif genes. This suggested that the mutation is located in a new nif gene. We showed by complementation analyses that only 3 of 12 nifJ mutations tested were complemented by nifC1005. Nitrogenase activity in cell extracts of the mutant with nifC1005 as well as NifJ- mutants was stimulated by th...

  1. SBIR Final Report. Liquid Core Optical Scintillating Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P.; Steinbeck, J.; Buerstler, R.

    2000-05-16

    This Phase I SBIR project focused on developing flexible scintillating liquid core optical fibers, with potential uses in high-energy calorimetry, tracking, preradiators, active targets or other fast detectors. Progress on the six tasks of the project is summarized. The technical developments involve three technology components: (1) highly flexible capillaries or tubes of relatively low n (index of refraction) to serve as cladding and liquid core containment; (2) scintillator (and clear) fluids of relatively high n to serve as a core-- these fluids must have a high light transmission and, for some applications, radiation hardness; (3) optical end plugs, plug insertion, and plug-cladding tube sealing technology to contain the core fluids in the tubes, and to transmit the light.

  2. Characterizing and Understanding Aerosol Optical Properties: CARES - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, Christopher D [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Atkinson, Dean B [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-12-17

    The scientific focus of this study was to use ambient measurements to develop new insights into the understanding of the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol particles. The study used data collected by the PI’s and others as part of both the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), which took place in and around Sacramento, CA, and the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) study. We focus on measurements that were made of aerosol particle optical properties, namely the wavelength-dependent light absorption, scattering and extinction. Interpretation of these optical property measurements is facilitated through consideration of complementary measurements of the aerosol particle chemical composition and size distributions. With these measurements, we addressed the following general scientific questions: 1. How does light scattering and extinction by atmospheric aerosol particles depend on particle composition, water uptake, and size? 2. To what extent is light absorption by aerosol particles enhanced through the mixing of black carbon with other particulate components? 3. What relationships exist between intensive aerosol particle optical properties, and how do these depend on particle source and photochemical aging? 4. How well do spectral deconvolution methods, which are commonly used in remote sensing, retrieve information about particle size distributions?

  3. The optics of the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Brown, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Oide, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), currently under construction at the end of the SLAC Linac, is being built by an international collaboration as a test bed for ideas and methods required in the design and construction of final focus systems for next generation e + e - linear colliders. The FFTB lattice shown is based on the previously developed principle of using sextupole pairs in a dispersive region to compensate chromaticity. The linear lattice was optimized for length, and implementation of diagnostic procedures. The transformations between sextupole pairs (CCX and CCY) are exactly -I, the matrix for the intermediate transformer (BX) is exactly diagonal, and the dispersion function has zero slope at the sextupoles and is thus zero at the minimum of the β x function in the intermediate transformer

  4. The nif Gene Operon of the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Peter S.; Blank, Carrine; Leigh, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB), ORF121 (similar to glnB), nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, and nifX, was the same as that found in part in other diazotrophic methanogens and except for the presence of the glnB-like genes, also resembled the order found in many members of the Bacteria. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we determined that an 8-kb region required for nitrogen fixation corresponded to the nif gene cluster. Northern analysis revealed the presence of either a single 7.6-kb nif mRNA transcript or 10 smaller mRNA species containing portions of the large transcript. Polar effects of transposon insertions demonstrated that all of these mRNAs arose from a single promoter region, where transcription initiated 80 bp 5′ to nifH. Distinctive features of the nif gene cluster include the presence of the six primary nif genes in a single operon, the placement of the two glnB-like genes within the cluster, the apparent physical separation of the cluster from any other nif genes that might be in the genome, the fragmentation pattern of the mRNA, and the regulation of expression by a repression mechanism described previously. Our study and others with methanogenic archaea reporting multiple mRNAs arising from gene clusters with only a single putative promoter sequence suggest that mRNA processing following transcription may be a common occurrence in methanogens. PMID:9515920

  5. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-07-28

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan.

  6. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan

  7. Mutant Forms of the Azotobacter vinelandii Transcriptional Activator NifA Resistant to Inhibition by the NifL Regulatory Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Ramirez, Francisca; Little, Richard; Dixon, Ray

    2002-01-01

    The Azotobacter vinelandii σ54-dependent transcriptional activator protein NifA is regulated by the NifL protein in response to redox, carbon, and nitrogen status. Under conditions inappropriate for nitrogen fixation, NifL inhibits transcription activation by NifA through the formation of the NifL-NifA protein complex. NifL inhibits the ATPase activity of the central AAA+ domain of NifA required to drive open complex formation by σ54-RNA polymerase and may also inhibit the activator-polymeras...

  8. Final Report for Statistical Nonlinear Optics of High Energy Density Plasmas: The Physics of Multiple Crossing Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Hueller, Stefan; Montgomery, David S.; Hammer, James H.; Meezan, Nathan B.; Heebner, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The various implementations of the STUD pulse program (spike trains of uneven duration and delay) for LPI (laser-plasma instability) control were studied in depth, and novel regimes were found. How to generate STUD pulses with large time-bandwidth products, how to measure their optical scattering signatures, and how to experimentally demonstrate their usefulness were explored. Theoretical and numerical studies were conducted on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and Crossed Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) including statistical models. We established how LPI can be tamed and gain democratized in space and time. Implementing STUD pulses on NIF was also studied. Future high rep rate lasers and fast diagnostics will aid in the adoption of the whole STUD pulse program for LPI control in High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP).

  9. Final Report for Statistical Nonlinear Optics of High Energy Density Plasmas: The Physics of Multiple Crossing Laser Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afeyan, Bedros [Polymath Research Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Hueller, Stefan [Centre de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Polytechnique (France); Montgomery, David S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hammer, James H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meezan, Nathan B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heebner, John E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The various implementations of the STUD pulse program (spike trains of uneven duration and delay) for LPI (laser-plasma instability) control were studied in depth, and novel regimes were found. How to generate STUD pulses with large time-bandwidth products, how to measure their optical scattering signatures, and how to experimentally demonstrate their usefulness were explored. Theoretical and numerical studies were conducted on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and Crossed Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) including statistical models. We established how LPI can be tamed and gain democratized in space and time. Implementing STUD pulses on NIF was also studied. Future high rep rate lasers and fast diagnostics will aid in the adoption of the whole STUD pulse program for LPI control in High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP).

  10. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  11. Comparison of the Three NIF Ablators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yi, S. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on NIF have now been performed using three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) or CH, high density carbon (HDC, which we also refer to as diamond), and sputtered beryllium (Be). It has been appreciated for some time that each of these materials has specific advantages and disadvantages as an ICF ablator.[1-4] In light of experiments conducted on NIF in the last few years, how do these ablators compare? Given current understanding, is any ablator more or less likely to reach ignition on NIF? Has the understanding of their respective strengths and weaknesses changed since NIF experiments began? How are those strengths and weaknesses highlighted by implosion designs currently being tested or planned for testing soon? This document aims to address these questions by combining modern simulation results with a survey of the current experimental data base. More particularly, this document is meant to fulfill an L2 Milestone for FY17 to “Document our understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of CH, HDC, and Be designs.” Note that this document does not aim to recommend a down-selection of the current three ablator choices. It is intended only to gather and document the current understanding of the differences between these ablators and thereby inform the choices made in planning future implosion experiments. This document has two themes: (i) We report on a reanalysis project in which post-shot simulations were done on a common basis for layered shots using each ablator. This included data from keyholes, 2D ConA, and so forth, from each campaign, leading up to the layered shots. (“Keyholes” are shots dedicated to measuring the shock timing in a NIF target, as described in Ref. 5. “2DConAs” are backlit implosions in which the symmetry of the implosion is measured between about half and full convergence, as described in Ref. 6.) This set of common-basis postshot simulations is compared to

  12. On the design of the NIF Continuum Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, D. B.; MacPhee, A.; Ayers, J.; Galbraith, J.; Hardy, C. M.; Izumi, N.; Bradley, D. K.; Pickworth, L. A.; Bachmann, B.; Kozioziemski, B.; Landen, O.; Clark, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Nagel, S.; Bell, P. M.; Person, S.; Khater, H. Y.; Smith, C.; Kilkenny, J.

    2017-08-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), measurements of average ion temperature using DT neutron time of flight broadening and of DD neutrons do not show the same apparent temperature. Some of this may be due to time and space dependent temperature profiles in the imploding capsule which are not taken into account in the analysis. As such, we are attempting to measure the electron temperature by recording the free-free electron-ion scattering-spectrum from the tail of the Maxwellian temperature distribution. This will be accomplished with the new NIF Continuum Spectrometer (ConSpec) which spans the x-ray range of 20 keV to 30 keV (where any opacity corrections from the remaining mass of the ablator shell are negligible) and will be sensitive to temperatures between ˜ 3 keV and 6 keV. The optical design of the ConSpec is designed to be adaptable to an x-ray streak camera to record time resolved free-free electron continuum spectra for direct measurement of the dT/dt evolution across the burn width of a DT plasma. The spectrometer is a conically bent Bragg crystal in a focusing geometry that allows for the dispersion plane to be perpendicular to the spectrometer axis. Additionally, to address the spatial temperature dependence, both time integrated and time resolved pinhole and penumbral imaging will be provided along the same polar angle. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument is presented along with estimates for the dispersion, solid angle, photometric sensitivity, and performance.

  13. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson R.E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.

  14. Current progress in NIF target concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Thoma, D.J.; Jacobson, L.A.; Hollis, R.V.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Target concepts for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require progress in the art and science of target fabrication. Three distinct issues are addressed: beryllium fuel capsules, foam-buffered direct drive, and high-density gas-filled hohlraums. In all cases experiments on the existing Nova laser at LLNL are either in progress or planned for the near future to test the various concepts. Consequently, target fabrication must be able to deliver targets appropriate for each

  15. The Eagle Nebula Science on NIF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Heeter, Robert; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    The Eagle Nebula NIF experiment was one of nine selected for laser time through the Science on NIF program. The goal of this scale laboratory experiment is to study the dynamic evolution of distinctive structures in star forming regions of astrophysical molecular clouds such as the Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. That evolution is driven by photoionizing radiation from nearby stars. A critical aspect of the radiation is its very directional nature at the photoionization front. The long duration of the drive and its directionality can generate new classes of instabilities and dynamic flows at the front that may be responsible for the shapes of Pillars and other structures. The experiment will leverage and modify the existing NIF Radiation Transport platform, replacing the target at the back end of the halfraum with a collimating aperture, and extending the existing 20 ns drive to longer times, using a combination of gas fill and other new design features. The apertured, quasi-collimated drive will be used to drive a target placed 2 mm away from the aperture. The astrophysical background and the status of the experimental design will be presented.

  16. NIF: IFE applications, waste management and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Miley, G.H.; Petra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Although many energy sources have been suggested for the future, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been demonstrated as scientifically feasible and deserves support for continued development. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), proposed by US DOE, is a next step in that direction. NIF would use ICF technology to achieve ignition and energy gain that would allow the development and continued support of national security and other civilian applications including inertial fusion energy power plants. NIF would also guarantee US leadership in dense plasma research. Four sites are being considered for NIF: LLNL, Los Alamos, Sandia, and two NTS sites. An environmental evaluation was performed which considered all impacts. This paper provides the results of the waste management analyses conducted on the proposed NIF sites. Overall, the proposed construction and operation of NIF should qualify it as a low-hazard, non-nuclear radiological facility with minor onsite and negligible offsite environmental impacts

  17. Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Erik

    2014-02-06

    The committee has during the earlier period finalized their work on the report, Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation (2013) . The report did undergo review and initial editorial processing. The NRC released a pre-publication report on August 13, 2012. A final report is now available. The study director has been able to practice his skills in running a national academies committee. From a research perspective the grant has generated a report with recommendations to the government. The work itself is the meetings where the committee convened to hear presenters and to discuss the status of optics and photonics as well as writing the report.

  18. Mitigation of BSG damage caused by upstream flaw in the final optics assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhaoyang; Sun, Mingying; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2016-07-01

    In high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, there are many large-radius optical elements, which inevitably have some flaws on the surface. The flaws can cause optical intensity intensification and therefore damage the optical elements in the downstream, especially for the beam sampling grating (BSG), which is an important element in the final optics assembly. In this paper, several physical models are established to study the optical field enhancement in the BSG position modulated by upstream flaw. Firstly, when only the linear transportation is considered, it is found that there is a peak or valley of the maximum intensity after the focus lens compared with the ideal wave front. Meanwhile the influence of flaw has an effective range. Secondly, when the nonlinear effect of the focus lens is also considered, the peak maximum downstream is much bigger than the one for the linear consideration and the damage risk of the BSG there is much higher too. From the simulation, we can see that it is important to place the BSG in a properly selected position to mitigate the laser induced damage. The results could give some references to the mitigation of BSG damage caused by upstream flaws and the layout of the final optics assembly.

  19. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 77 FR 27423 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-972] Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  1. Breakthrough at NIF 'unlikely' in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Hopes of reaching a milestone in fusion research by the end of 2010 have dimmed following a US government report that plays down the chances of an early breakthrough and sharply criticizes management of the 4bn National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the report, officials from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that ignition - fusion's "break-even" point - is "unlikely" to occur at the laser-fusion lab this year and that "significant scientific and technical challenges" could delay or even prevent the facility from achieving ignition by 2012.

  2. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Datte, P; Krauter, K; Bond, E; Michel, P A; Glenzer, S H; Divol, L; Niemann, C; Suter, L; Meezan, N; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, R; London, R; Kilkenny, J; Wallace, R; Kline, J L; Knittel, K; Frieders, G; Golick, B; Ross, G; Widmann, K; Jackson, J; Vernon, S; Clancy, T

    2010-10-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  3. Polarimetry of uncoupled light on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D; Moody, J D; Michel, P; Ralph, J E; Divol, L

    2014-11-01

    Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.

  4. Application Software Structure Enables NIF Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K W; Estes, C M; Fisher, J M; Shelton, R T

    2001-10-17

    The NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) application software uses a set of service frameworks that assures uniform behavior spanning the front-end processors (FEPs) and supervisor programs. This uniformity is visible both in the way each program employs shared services and in the flexibility it affords for attaching graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Uniformity of structure across applications is desired for the benefit of programmers who will be maintaining the many programs that constitute the ICCS. In this paper, the framework components that have the greatest impact on the application structure are discussed.

  5. Regulation of nif gene expression in Enterobacter agglomerans: nucleotide sequence of the nifLA operon and influence of temperature and ammonium on its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddavattam, D; Steibl, H D; Kreutzer, R; Klingmüller, W

    1995-12-20

    The nucleotide sequence of a plasmid-borne 3.9 kb XhoI-SmaI fragment comprising the 3'-region of the nifM gene, the nifL and nifA genes and the 5'-region of nifB gene of Enterobacter agglomerans was determined. The genes were identified by their homology to the corresponding nif genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A typical sigma 54-dependent promoter and a consensus NtrC-binding motif were identified upstream of nifL. The predicted amino acid sequence of NifL showed close similarities to NifL of K. pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, no histidine residue was found to correspond to histidine-304 of A. vinelandii NifL, which had been proposed to be required for the repressor activity of NifL. The NifA sequence with a putative DNA binding motif (Q(x3) A(x3) G(x5)I) and an ATP binding site in the C-terminal and central domains, respectively, resembles that of other known NifA proteins. The function of the nifL and nifA genes was demonstrated in vivo using a binary plasmid system by their ability to activate a nifH promoter-lacZ fusion at different temperatures and concentrations of NH4+. Maximal promoter activity occurred at 25 degrees C, and it appears that the sensitivity of NifA to elevated temperatures is independent of NifL. The expression of nifL inhibited promoter activity in the presence of NifA when the initial NH4+ concentration in the medium exceeded 4 mM.

  6. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  7. Functional organization of a single nif cluster in the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ehlers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 is able to utilize molecular nitrogen (N2 as its sole nitrogen source. We have identified and characterized a single nitrogen fixation (nif gene cluster in M. mazei Gö1 with an approximate length of 9 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed seven genes with sequence similarities to nifH, nifI1, nifI2, nifD, nifK, nifE and nifN, similar to other diazotrophic methanogens and certain bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the two glnB-like genes (nifI1 and nifI2 located between nifH and nifD. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for the nitrogenase structural genes of M. mazei Gö1 showed that they are most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri nif2 genes, and also closely resemble those for the corresponding nif products of the gram-positive bacterium C. acetobutylicum. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that the M. mazei nif genes constitute an operon transcribed only under nitrogen starvation as a single 8 kb transcript. Sequence analysis revealed a palindromic sequence at the transcriptional start site in front of the M. mazei nifH gene, which may have a function in transcriptional regulation of the nif operon.

  8. Cloning and characterization of nif structural and regulatory genes in the purple sulfur bacterium, Halorhodospira halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Hisayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Kamikubo, Hironari; Imamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is a halophilic photosynthetic bacterium classified as a purple sulfur bacterium. We found that H. halophila generates hydrogen gas during photoautotrophic growth as a byproduct of a nitrogenase reaction. In order to consider the applied possibilities of this photobiological hydrogen generation, we cloned and characterized the structural and regulatory genes encoding the nitrogenase, nifH, nifD and nifA, from H. halophila. This is the first description of the nif genes for a purple sulfur bacterium. The amino-acid sequences of NifH and NifD indicated that these proteins are an Fe protein and a part of a MoFe protein, respectively. The important residues are conserved completely. The sequence upstream from the nifH region and sequence similarities of nifH and nifD with those of the other organisms suggest that the regulatory system might be a NifL-NifA system; however, H. halophila lacks nifL. The amino-acid sequence of H. halophila NifA is closer to that of the NifA of the NifL-NifA system than to that of NifA without NifL. H. halophila NifA does not conserve either the residue that interacts with NifL or the important residues involved in NifL-independent regulation. These results suggest the existence of yet another regulatory system, and that the development of functional systems and their molecular counterparts are not necessarily correlated throughout evolution. All of these Nif proteins of H. halophila possess an excess of acidic residues, which acts as a salt-resistant mechanism.

  9. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  10. Precision Neutron Time-of-Flight Detectors Provide Insight into NIF Implosion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, David; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Waltz, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, higher-order moments of neutron time-of-flight (nToF) spectra can provide essential information for optimizing implosions. The nToF diagnostic suite at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was recently upgraded to include novel, quartz Cherenkov detectors. These detectors exploit the rapid Cherenkov radiation process, in contrast with conventional scintillator decay times, to provide high temporal-precision measurements that support higher-order moment analyses. Preliminary measurements have been made on the NIF during several implosions and initial results are presented here. Measured line-of-sight asymmetries, for example in ion temperatures, will be discussed. Finally, advanced detector optimization is shown to advance accessible physics, with possibilities for energy discrimination, gamma source identification, and further reduction in quartz response times. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Basic optics of the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1988-12-01

    In this report we discuss some general optics principles and scaling laws that have been useful in guiding the design and operation of the Final Focus System for the Stanford Linear Collider. Included are expressions for the minimum Β x * and Β y * that can be expected for the present SLC design at the interaction point as a function of beam emittance. 6 refs., 13 figs

  12. Summary of the evidence file demonstrating completion of the NIF Project Completion Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    This document summarizes the results of performance verification tests on NIF that demonstrate it has met its performance-related Project Completion Criteria (PCC). It includes measurements made on NIF with the NIF diagnostics, the calibration of these diagnostics and the supporting analyses that verify the NIF performance criteria have been met.

  13. Partial characterization of nif genes from the bacterium Azospirillum amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Potrich

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense revealed genomic organization patterns of the nitrogen fixation genes similar to those of the distantly related species A. brasilense. Our work suggests that A. brasilense nifHDK, nifENX, fixABC operons and nifA and glnB genes may be structurally homologous to the counterpart genes of A. amazonense. This is the first analysis revealing homology between A. brasilense nif genes and the A. amazonense genome. Sequence analysis of PCR amplification products revealed similarities between the amino acid sequences of the highly conserved nifD and glnB genes of A. amazonense and related genes of A. brasilense and other bacteria. However, the A. amazonense non-coding regions (the upstream activator sequence region and the region between the nifH and nifD genes differed from related regions of A. brasilense even in nitrogenase structural genes which are highly conserved among diazotrophic bacteria. The feasibility of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based PCR system for specific detection of A. amazonense was shown. Our results indicate that the PCR primers for 16S rDNA defined in this article are highly specific to A. amazonense and can distinguish this species from A. brasilense.

  14. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a User Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; NIF Team

    2013-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has made significant progress towards operation as a user facility. Through June 2013, NIF conducted over 1200 experiments in support of ICF, HED science, and development of facility capabilities. The NIF laser has met or achieved all specifications and a wide variety of diagnostic and target fabrication capabilities are in place. A NIF User Group and associated Executive Board have been formed. Two User Group meetings have been conducted since formation of the User Group. NIF experiments in fundamental science have provided important new results. NIF ramp compression experiments have been conducted using diamond and iron, with EOS results obtained at pressures up to approximately 50 Mbar and 8 Mbar, respectively. Initial experiments in supernova hydrodynamics, the fundamental physics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and equation of state in the Gbar pressure regime have also been conducted. This presentation will discuss the fundamental science program at NIF, including the proposal solicitation and scientific review processes and other aspects of user facility operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Mutations in nif genes that cause Klebsiella pneumoniae to be derepressed for nitrogenase synthesis in the presence of ammonium.

    OpenAIRE

    MacNeil, D; Brill, W J

    1980-01-01

    Four Nif+ revertants from strains with polar insertions in nifL, were insensitive to ammonium and amino acid repression of nitrogenase synthesis. These strains have mutations located in or near the nifL region. The derepressed phenotype was dominant in a merodiploid containing a nif+ plasmid. These nif regulatory mutations also suppressed the Nif- phenotype of Gln- strains. Thus, regulation by fixed nitrogen (possible via glutamine synthetase) occurs on the nifLA operon but not on the other s...

  16. NIF target area design support. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Curran, D.R.

    1996-02-01

    SRI International continued support work for the National Ignition Facility, Chamber Dynamics Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work entailed computational modeling of shrapnel and debris generation from copper shine shields, hohlraum, and stainless steel cryogenic support tubes for 1.8 MJ and 1.0 MJ no-yield and 20 MJ yield shots. Also, the authors addressed the effects of shrapnel at the first wall. Computations for 1.8 MJ showed an ionized gold hohlraum, but about half solid and half ionized copper shine shields, when material cell phase boundaries were maintained. This debris generation represents a potential threat to the first wall and debris shields. Further work is required to translate these results into particle size distributions based on computed strain rates. The authors used simple algorithms for x-ray loading of frost layers protecting the target support to compute peak stress attenuation. They developed algorithmic formulas for predicting damage in candidate first wall materials and they found damage algorithms for fused-silica debris shield material. They obtained very preliminary computational results at 20 MJ for predicting shrapnel mass and particle density at the first wall in spherical polar coordinate space with the hohlraum axis as the polar direction

  17. NIF target area design support. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Curran, D.R.

    1996-02-01

    SRI International continued support work for the National Ignition Facility, Chamber Dynamics Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work entailed computational modeling of shrapnel and debris generation from copper shine shields, hohlraum, and stainless steel cryogenic support tubes for 1.8 MJ and 1.0 MJ no-yield and 20 MJ yield shots. Also, the authors addressed the effects of shrapnel at the first wall. Computations for 1.8 MJ showed an ionized gold hohlraum, but about half solid and half ionized copper shine shields, when material cell phase boundaries were maintained. This debris generation represents a potential threat to the first wall and debris shields. Further work is required to translate these results into particle size distributions based on computed strain rates. The authors used simple algorithms for x-ray loading of frost layers protecting the target support to compute peak stress attenuation. They developed algorithmic formulas for predicting damage in candidate first wall materials and they found damage algorithms for fused-silica debris shield material. They obtained very preliminary computational results at 20 MJ for predicting shrapnel mass and particle density at the first wall in spherical polar coordinate space with the hohlraum axis as the polar direction.

  18. Transport Simulations for Fast Ignition on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strozzi, D J; Tabak, M; Grote, D P; Cohen, B I; Shay, H D; Town, R J; Kemp, A J; Key, M

    2009-10-26

    We are designing a full hydro-scale cone-guided, indirect-drive FI coupling experiment, for NIF, with the ARC-FIDO short-pulse laser. Current rad-hydro designs with limited fuel jetting into cone tip are not yet adequate for ignition. Designs are improving. Electron beam transport simulations (implicit-PIC LSP) show: (1) Magnetic fields and smaller angular spreads increase coupling to ignition-relevant 'hot spot' (20 um radius); (2) Plastic CD (for a warm target) produces somewhat better coupling than pure D (cryogenic target) due to enhanced resistive B fields; and (3) The optimal T{sub hot} for this target is {approx} 1 MeV; coupling falls by 3x as T{sub hot} rises to 4 MeV.

  19. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.

    2002-01-01

    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  20. Purification and binding analysis of the nitrogen fixation regulatory NifA protein from Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.P. Passaglia

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available NifA protein activates transcription of nitrogen fixation operons by the alternative sigma54 holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase. This protein binds to a well-defined upstream activator sequence (UAS located at the -200/-100 position of nif promoters with the consensus motif TGT-N10-ACA. NifA of Azospirillum brasilense was purified in the form of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST-NifA fusion protein and proteolytic release of GST yielded inactive and partially soluble NifA. However, the purified NifA was able to induce the production of specific anti-A. brasilense NifA-antiserum that recognized NifA from A. brasilense but not from K. pneumoniae. Both GST-NifA and NifA expressed from the E. coli tac promoter are able to activate transcription from the nifHDK promoter but only in an A. brasilense background. In order to investigate the mechanism that regulates NifA binding capacity we have used E. coli total protein extracts expressing A. brasilense nifA in mobility shift assays. DNA fragments carrying the two overlapping, wild-type or mutated UAS motifs present in the nifH promoter region revealed a retarded band of related size. These data show that the binding activity present in the C-terminal domain of A. brasilense NifA protein is still functional even in the presence of oxygen.

  1. NifH and NifD phylogenies: an evolutionary basis for understanding nitrogen fixation capabilities of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Ricke, Peter; Liesack, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The ability to utilize dinitrogen as a nitrogen source is an important phenotypic trait in most currently known methanotrophic bacteria (MB). This trait is especially important for acidophilic MB, which inhabit acidic oligotrophic environments, highly depleted in available nitrogen compounds. Phylogenetically, acidophilic MB are most closely related to heterotrophic dinitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus BEIJERINCKIA: To further explore the phylogenetic linkage between these metabolically different organisms, the sequences of nifH and nifD gene fragments from acidophilic MB of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa, and from representatives of Beijerinckia, were determined. For reference, nifH and nifD sequences were also obtained from some type II MB of the alphaproteobacterial Methylosinus/Methylocystis group and from gammaproteobacterial type I MB. The trees constructed for the inferred amino acid sequences of nifH and nifD were highly congruent. The phylogenetic relationships among MB in the NifH and NifD trees also agreed well with the corresponding 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, except for two distinctive features. First, different methods used for phylogenetic analysis grouped the NifH and NifD sequences of strains of the gammaproteobacterial MB Methylococcus capsulatus within a clade mainly characterized by Alphaproteobacteria, including acidophilic MB and type II MB of the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group. From this and other genomic data from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, it is proposed that an ancient event of lateral gene transfer was responsible for this aberrant branching. Second, the identity values of NifH and NifD sequences between Methylocapsa acidiphila B2 and representatives of Beijerinckia were clearly higher (98.5 and 96.6 %, respectively) than would be expected from their 16S rRNA-based relationships. Possibly, these two bacteria originated from a common acidophilic dinitrogen-fixing ancestor, and were subject to similar evolutionary pressure

  2. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berger, R. L.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Lindl, J. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P. A.; Pollaine, S. M.; Suter, L. J.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt.

  3. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D A; Hinkel, D E; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haan, S W; Jones, O S; Lindl, J D; Meezan, N B; Michel, P A; Pollaine, S M; Suter, L J; Town, R P J; Bradley, P A

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt

  4. NIFS contributions to 19th IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    NIFS has presented 21 papers at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (Lyon, France, 14-19 October 2002). The contributed papers are collected in this report. The 21 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  6. Beam control and diagnostic functions in the NIF transport spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdener, F.R.; Ables, E.; Bliss, E.S.

    1996-10-01

    Beam control and diagnostic systems are required to align the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser prior to a shot as well as to provide diagnostics on 192 beam lines at shot time. A design that allows each beam's large spatial filter lenses to also serve as objective lenses for beam control and diagnostic sensor packages helps to accomplish the task at a reasonable cost. However, this approach also causes a high concentration of small optics near the pinhole plane of the transport spatial filter (TSF) at the output of each beam. This paper describes the optomechanical design in and near the central vacuum vessel of the TSF

  7. Design of optics for the final focus test beam at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1989-05-01

    The goal of the Final Focus Test Beam experiment (FFTB) is to produce an electron beam spot of 1 μm by 60 nm in transverse dimensions. In the future linear collider of TeV region (TLC), a typical spot size of 100 nm by 1 nm at the interaction point is required to get luminosity of 1 /times/ 10 34 cm/sup /minus/2/s/sup /minus/1/. This spot size is about 1/1000 of the SLC in the vertical dimension, and is demanding for an optics design, alignments, beam diagnostics, and tuning procedures. The spot size of the FFTB will be an important next step from the SLC toward the TLC. This paper describes the design of the beam optics. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  9. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: Uncovering General Features of Nitrogen-fixation (nif-Flavodoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50’s loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as “short-chain” with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the “long-chain” with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  10. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: uncovering general features of nitrogen-fixation (nif)-flavodoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A

    2013-01-09

    Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50's loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as "short-chain" with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the "long-chain" with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  11. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials & Optical Technology (LM&OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM&OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies.

  12. Non-linear optics for the final focus of the single-pass-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Spencer, J.E.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the final focus system (FFS) is to demagnify the beam envelope in the Collider arc lattice to a size suitable for beam collisions at the interaction region. The final spot size is determined by the beam emittance, the beta function β* at the IR, the momentum spread in the beam, and the quality of the FFS optics. In particular, if the focusing system is not chromatically corrected, the momentum dispersion in the beam can lead to a substantial degradation in the quality of the final focus. The objective is to design a FFS for 50 GeV/c within approx. 100 meters having an IR spot size sigma/sub xy/ of approximately 2 μm for a beam emittance of epsilon = 3 x 10 -10 m-rad and a momentum spread of delta = +-0.5%. This requires a β/sub x,y/ equal to or less than 1 cm. This report considers the problems encountered in the design of a final focus system that will reliably provide the desired beam size for collisions

  13. The presence of five nifH-like sequences in Clostridium pasteurianum: sequence divergence and transcription properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Z; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L

    1988-01-01

    The nifH gene encodes the iron protein (component II) of the nitrogenase complex. We have previously shown the presence in Clostridium pasteurianum of two nifH-like sequences in addition to the nifH1 gene which codes for a protein identical to the isolated iron protein. In the present study, we report that there are at least five nifH-like sequences in C. pasteurianum. DNA sequencing data indicate that the six nifH (nifH1) and nifH-like (nifH2, nifH3, nifH4, nifH5 and nifH6) sequences are not...

  14. Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    As requested in the guidance memo 1 , this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline

  15. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  16. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  17. Diversity and Functional Analysis of the FeMo-Cofactor Maturase NifB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Arragain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main hurdles to engineer nitrogenase in a non-diazotrophic host is achieving NifB activity. NifB is an extremely unstable and oxygen sensitive protein that catalyzes a low-potential SAM-radical dependent reaction. The product of NifB activity is called NifB-co, a complex [8Fe-9S-C] cluster that serves as obligate intermediate in the biosyntheses of the active-site cofactors of all known nitrogenases. Here we study the diversity and phylogeny of naturally occurring NifB proteins, their protein architecture and the functions of the distinct NifB domains in order to understand what defines a catalytically active NifB. Focus is on NifB from the thermophile Chlorobium tepidum (two-domain architecture, the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus infernus (single-domain architecture and the mesophile Klebsiella oxytoca (two-domain architecture, showing in silico characterization of their nitrogen fixation (nif gene clusters, conserved NifB motifs, and functionality. C. tepidum and M. infernus NifB were able to complement an Azotobacter vinelandii (ΔnifB mutant restoring the Nif+ phenotype and thus demonstrating their functionality in vivo. In addition, purified C. tepidum NifB exhibited activity in the in vitro NifB-dependent nitrogenase reconstitution assay. Intriguingly, changing the two-domain K. oxytoca NifB to single-domain by removal of the C-terminal NifX-like extension resulted in higher in vivo nitrogenase activity, demonstrating that this domain is not required for nitrogen fixation in mesophiles.

  18. NIF conventional facilities construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, D W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to outline the minimum health and safety requirements to which all participating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and non-LLNL employees (excluding National Ignition Facility [NIF] specific contractors and subcontractors covered under the construction subcontract packages (e.g., CSP-9)-see Construction Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility [CSP] Section I.B. ''NIF Construction Contractors and Subcontractors'' for specifics) shall adhere to for preventing job-related injuries and illnesses during Conventional Facilities construction activities at the NIF Project. For the purpose of this Plan, the term ''LLNL and non-LLNL employees'' includes LLNL employees, LLNL Plant Operations staff and their contractors, supplemental labor, contract labor, labor-only contractors, vendors, DOE representatives, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, and others such as visitors, students, consultants etc., performing on-site work or services in support of the NIF Project. Based upon an activity level determination explained in Section 1.2.18, in this document, these organizations or individuals may be required by site management to prepare their own NIF site-specific safety plan. LLNL employees will normally not be expected to prepare a site-specific safety plan. This Plan also outlines job-specific exposures and construction site safety activities with which LLNL and non-LLNL employees shall comply

  19. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  20. Self-transmissible nif plasmid (pEA9) of Enterobacter agglomerans 339: molecular cloning and evidence for the existence of similar nif clusters on dissimilar plasmids in Enterobacter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steibl, H D; Siddavattam, D; Klingmüller, W

    1995-11-01

    A cosmid library was generated to the 200-kb self-transmissible nif plasmid pEA9 isolated from Enterobacter agglomerans 339. The cosmid clone identified to contain the complete nif cluster was used to determine the nif gene organization and the physical map. The restriction pattern and nif gene organization of this nif cluster showed remarkable similarities to the nif cluster identified on the 110-kb plasmid pEA3 of Enterobacter agglomerans 333. Nucleotide sequence of several randomly selected regions of the nif cluster of pEA9 showed 96% similarity when compared to the known sequences of the nif cluster of pEA3. However, the homology ended abruptly at the flanking regions of the nif clusters and no similarity could be detected with the rest of the DNA of these plasmids. This reveals the existence of similar nif clusters on dissimilar plasmids, implying the horizontal transfer of the entire nif gene cluster.

  1. Physical and genetic map of the major nif gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, M R; Brigle, K E; Bennett, L T; Setterquist, R A; Wilson, M S; Cash, V L; Beynon, J; Newton, W E; Dean, D R

    1989-01-01

    Determination of a 28,793-base-pair DNA sequence of a region from the Azotobacter vinelandii genome that includes and flanks the nitrogenase structural gene region was completed. This information was used to revise the previously proposed organization of the major nif cluster. The major nif cluster from A. vinelandii encodes 15 nif-specific genes whose products bear significant structural identity to the corresponding nif-specific gene products from Klebsiella pneumoniae. These genes include ...

  2. Research Performance Progress Report: Diverging Supernova Explosion Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewa, Tomasz [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this project was to design a series of blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments of this kind are relevant to mixing in core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) and have the potential to address previously unanswered questions in high-energy density physics (HEDP) and astrophysics. The unmatched laser power of the NIF laser offers a unique chance to observe and study “new physics” like the mass extensions observed in HEDP RT experiments performed on the Omega laser [1], which might be linked to self-generated magnetic fields [2] and so far could not be reproduced by numerical simulations. Moreover, NIF is currently the only facility that offers the possibility to execute a diverging RT experiment, which would allow to observe processes such as inter-shell penetration via turbulent mixing and shock-proximity effects (distortion of the shock by RT spikes).

  3. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Investigation of impurity parameters and natural radioactivity of Nif Rivulet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Nif Rivulet is the only flowing fountain in the region of Kemalpasa, originating from Besyol Village and flowing in to the river Gediz through Kemalpasa territories (D.S.I., 1979). The region has been losing properties of an agricultural area due to the increase in the number of recently established industrial settlements in the region. Since the region does not have a proper drainage system and some industrial establishments haven't got treatment system, the Nif Rivulet has been an area where all waste waters discharged (C.D.M.Y., 1996). In this study, the parameters determined according to the water quality standards in the water samples taken in the duration of twelve months from the seven separate places of the Nif Rivulet is classified in the fourth class water category as scheduled under the organic parameters and in the second class water category for heavy metal pollution

  5. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, R. L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Kessler, T. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Padalino, S. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-11-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive-ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray-drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 107 cm s-1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium-tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ˜0.3 g cm-2, ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s.

  6. National Ignition Facility (NIF) FY2015 Facility Use Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wisoff, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Major features of the FY2015 NIF Use Plan include: • Performing a record number of layered DT experiments with 28 planned compared with 15 in FY2014. Executing the first plutonium experiments on the NIF in support of the Science Campaigns. • Over 300 targets shots, a 57% increase compared to FY14. This is a stretch goal defined in the 120-Day Study document, and relies upon the success of many shot-rate improvement actions, as well as on the distribution of shot type selected by the users. While the Plan is consistent with this goal, the increased proportion of layered DT experiments described above reduces the margin against this goal. • Commissioning of initial ARC capability, which will support both SSP-HED and SSPICF programs. • Increase in days allocated to Discovery Science to a level that supports an ongoing program for academic use of NIF and an annual solicitation for new proposals. • Six Facility Maintenance and Reconfiguration (FM&R) periods totaling 30 days dedicated to major facility maintenance and modifications. • Utilization of the NIF Facility Advisory Schedule Committee (FASC) to provide stakeholder review and feedback on the NIF schedule. The Use Plan assumes a total FY2015 LLNL NIF Operations funding in MTE 10.7 of $229.465M and in MTE 10.3 of 47.0M. This Use Plan will be revised in the event of significant changes to the FY2015 funding or if NNSA provides FY2016 budget guidance significantly reduced compared to FY2015.

  7. National Ignition Facility system design requirements NIF integrated computer controls SDR004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is covered in NIF WBS element 1.5. This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in the NIF Functional Requirements/Primary Criteria, and is supported by subsystem design requirements documents for each major ICCS Subsystem

  8. Directed mutagenesis affects recombination in Azospirillum brasilense nif genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the gene transfer/mutagenesis system for Azospirillum brasilense, gene-cartridge mutagenesis was used to replace the nifD gene with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene. The construct was transferred to A. brasilense by electrotransformation. Of the 12 colonies isolated using the suicide plasmid pSUP202 as vector, only four did not show vector integration into the chromosome. Nevertheless, all 12 colonies were deficient in acetylene reduction, indicating an Nif- phenotype. Four Nif- mutants were analyzed by Southern blot, using six different probes spanning the nif and Km r genes and the plasmid vector. Apparently, several recombination events occurred in the mutant genomes, probably caused mainly by gene disruption owing to the mutagenesis technique used: resistance gene-cartridge mutagenesis combined with electrotransformation.Com o objetivo de melhorar os sistemas de transferência gênica e mutagênese para Azospirillum brasilense, a técnica de mutagênese através do uso de um gene marcador ("gene-cartridge mutagenesis" foi utilizada para substituir a região genômica de A. brasilense correspondente ao gene nifD por um segmento de DNA do transposon Tn5 contendo o gene que confere resistência ao antibiótico canamicina. A construção foi transferida para a linhagem de A. brasilense por eletrotransformação. Doze colônias transformantes foram isoladas com o plasmídeo suicida pSUP202 servindo como vetor. Dessas, somente quatro não possuíam o vetor integrado no cromossomo da bactéria. Independentemente da integração ou não do vetor, as 12 colônias foram deficientes na redução do gás acetileno, evidenciando o fenótipo Nif -. Quatro mutantes Nif - foram analisados através da técnica de Southern blot, utilizando-se seis diferentes fragmentos contendo genes nif, de resistência à canamicina e do vetor como sondas. Os resultados sugerem a ocorrência de eventos recombinacionais variados no genoma dos mutantes. A

  9. Modeling Laser Effects on the Final Optics in Simulated IFE Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr Ghoniem

    2004-08-14

    When laser light interacts with a material's surface, photons rapidly heat the electronic system, resulting in very fast energy transfer to the underlying atomic crystal structure. The intense rate of energy deposition in the shallow sub-surface layer creates atomic defects, which alter the optical characteristics of the surface itself. In addition, the small fraction of energy absorbed in the mirror leads to its global deformation by thermal and gravity loads (especially for large surface area mirrors). The aim of this research was to model the deformation of mirror surfaces at multiple length and time scales for applications in advanced Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) systems. The goal is to control micro- and macro-deformations by material system and structural design. A parallel experimental program at UCSD has been set up to validate the modeling efforts. The main objective of the research program was to develop computer models and simulations for Laser-Induced Damage (LID) in reflective and transmissive final optical elements in IFE laser-based systems. A range of materials and material concepts were investigated and verified by experiments at UCSD. Four different classes of materials were considered: (1) High-reflectivity FCC metals (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag, and Al), (2) BCC metals (e.g. Mo, Ta and W), (3) Advanced material concepts (e.g. functionally graded material systems, amorphous coatings, and layered structures), and (4) Transmissive dielectrics (e.g. fused SiO2). In this report, we give a summary of the three-year project, followed by details in three areas: (1) Characterization of laser-induced damage; (2) Theory development for LIDT; and (3) Design of IFE reflective laser mirrors.

  10. Cherenkov radiation conversion and collection considerations for a gamma bang time/reaction history diagnostic for the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W; Mack, Joseph M; Young, Carlton S; Malone, Robert M; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Horsfield, Colin J

    2008-10-01

    Bang time and reaction history measurements are fundamental components of diagnosing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and will be essential contributors to diagnosing attempts at ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of fusion interaction rate without being compromised by Doppler spreading. Gamma-based gas Cherenkov detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to optical Cherenkov photons for collection by fast recording systems have been developed and fielded at Omega. These systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns. Bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF system design requirements. A comprehensive, validated numerical study of candidate systems is providing essential information needed to make a down selection based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF logistics. This paper presents basic design considerations arising from the two-step conversion process from gamma rays to relativistic electrons to UV/visible Cherenkov radiation.

  11. NIF ICCS Test Controller for Automated and Manual Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, J S

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is a large (1.5 MSLOC), hierarchical, distributed system that controls all aspects of the NIF laser [1]. The ICCS team delivers software updates to the NIF facility throughout the year to support shot operations and commissioning activities. In 2006, there were 48 releases of ICCS: 29 full releases, 19 patches. To ensure the quality of each delivery, thousands of manual and automated tests are performed using the ICCS Test Controller test infrastructure. The TestController system provides test inventory management, test planning, automated test execution and manual test logging, release testing summaries and test results search, all through a web browser interface. Automated tests include command line based frameworks server tests and Graphical User Interface (GUI) based Java tests. Manual tests are presented as a checklist-style web form to be completed by the tester. The results of all tests, automated and manual, are kept in a common repository that provides data to dynamic status reports. As part of the 3-stage ICCS release testing strategy, the TestController system helps plan, evaluate and track the readiness of each release to the NIF facility

  12. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium.

  13. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrey K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main material focus. One important characterization metric the physics' have determined is that the knowledge of density gradients in foams is important. We are making strides in not only locating these density gradients in aerogels and foams as a result of how they are manufactured and machined but also quantifying the density within the foam using 3D confocal micro x-ray fluorescence (μXRF imaging and 3D x-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. In addition, collaborative efforts between General Atomics (GA and LANL in the characterization of the NIF Ignition beryllium capsule have shown that the copper in the capsule migrates radially from the capsule center.

  14. NIF Rugby High Foot Campaign from the design side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Ralph, J. E.; Amendt, P.; Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Celliers, P.; Clouët, J.-F.; Dewald, E. L.; Kaiser, P.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Liberatore, S.; Marion, D.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Milovich, J. L.; Morice, O.; Pak, A. E.; Poujade, O.; Strozzi, D.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The NIF Rugby High Foot campaign results, with 8 shots to date, are compared with the 2D FCI2 design simulations. A special emphasis is placed on the predictive features and on those areas where some work is still required to achieve the best possible modelling of these MJ-class experiments.

  15. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  16. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  17. Identification of nif genes of heterotrophic and endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Rocha et al., 1986). Since the nif H gene only occurs in nitrogen fixing microorganisms, it has been used to monitor the presence of these diazotrophs, for example, in pure cultures ... and the remaining letters represent the location from which it was isolated with the .... 2, Washington State University Press,.

  18. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter.

  19. First Successes and Modifications of the NIF Opacity Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. A.; Huffman, E. J.; Knight, R. A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Ross, P. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Ahmed, M. F.; Emig, J. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Martin, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Thompson, N. B.; Dodd, E. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Lopez, F. E.; Archuleta, T. N.; Perry, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    The NIF Opacity Spectrometer (OpSpec) began returning X-ray spectra on its first NIF shot in September 2016. In May 2017, OpSpec recorded the first X-ray transmission data for iron-magnesium plasmas on NIF, at ``Anchor 1'' sample conditions (150 eV and 7E21 e-/cc). OpSpec diffracts X-rays in the 540-2100 eV range off a KAP or RbAP crystal onto either image plate or X-ray film. Modifications to further improve OpSpec's performance are underway, with the largest improvements expected in resolving power (E/dE up to 1000) and reduction of background levels. Implementation is planned for NIF shots in August and December 2017. This presentation will discuss the OpSpec data and design improvements, and also future goals. This work was performed by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946-2891.

  20. 2-Oxoglutarate and the PII homologues NifI1 and NifI2 regulate nitrogenase activity in cell extracts of Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Cady, Nathaniel C; Leigh, John A

    2005-06-01

    Summary Post-translational regulation of nitrogen fixation, or switch-off, in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis does not involve detectable covalent modification of the dinitrogenase reductase as in some bacteria, and the genes encoding the PII homologues NifI(1) and NifI(2) are both required, indicating a novel mechanism. To further understand the mechanism of switch-off, we assayed nitrogenase activity in cell extracts from wild-type and nifI mutant strains in the absence or presence of potential signals of nitrogen status. Activity in extracts from a DeltanifI(1)nifI(2) strain was sixfold higher than in extracts from wild-type cells. Addition of 2-oxoglutarate to wild-type extracts enhanced activity up to fivefold, a level similar to that observed in DeltanifI(1)nifI(2) extracts. 2-Oxoglutarate did not affect activity in DeltanifI(1)nifI(2) or single nifI mutant extracts. Furthermore, extracts from genetically complimented nifI mutants regained wild-type characteristics, indicating an in vitro correlation with in vivo effects. Extraction and quantification of 2-oxoglutarate indicated concentrations 10-fold higher in nitrogen-fixing cells than in switched-off and ammonium-grown cells. We propose a model for switch-off where the NifI proteins have an inhibitory effect on nitrogenase activity that is counteracted by high levels of 2-oxoglutarate, which acts as a signal of nitrogen limitation.

  1. The genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27 provides insight into evolution, organization and functional elucidation of nif and nif-like genes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinxin; Deng, Zhiping; Liu, Zhanzhi; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Tianshu; Xie, Jianbo; Lin, Min; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase. This enzyme is a complex which contains the MoFe protein encoded by nifDK and the Fe protein encoded by nifH. In addition to nifHDK, nifHDK-like genes were found in some Archaea and Firmicutes, but their function is unclear. Results We sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27. A total of 4,793 open reading frames were predicted from its 5.27 Mb genome. The genome of P. sabinae T27 contains fiftee...

  2. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Malone; John R. Celesteb; Peter M. Celliers; Brent C. Froggeta; Robert L. Guyton; Morris I. Kaufman; Tony L. Lee; Brian J. MacGowan; Edmund W. Ng; Imants P. Reinbachs; Ronald B. Robinson; Lynn G. Seppala; Tom W. Tunnell; Phillip W. Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1–5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  3. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert M.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2005-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  4. Research in Fiber Optics: Implications for Fiber Optics in Vocational-Technical Education. Final Report 1984-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This project was conducted to determine the vocational, technical, and scientific skills and knowledge needed to work with the fiber optics applications that are in all areas of technology. A research assistant was hired by the project director to collect data and develop a research base for the project. Information was gathered through a…

  5. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Froula, D.H.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S.X.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Kessler, T.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Casey, D.T.; Frenje, J.A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive–ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray–drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 10 7 cm s −1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium–tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ∼0.3 g cm −2 , ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s. (paper)

  6. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  7. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  8. Uncertainty Detection for NIF Normal Pointing Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A S; Law, C; Ferguson, S W

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory when completed in 2009, will deliver 192-beams aligned precisely at the center of the target chamber producing extreme energy densities and pressures. Video images of laser beams along the beam path are used by automatic alignment algorithms to determine the position of the beams for alignment purposes. However, noise and other optical effects may affect the accuracy of the calculated beam location. Realistic estimation of the uncertainty is necessary to assure that the beam is monitored within the clear optical path. When the uncertainty is above a certain threshold the automated alignment operation is suspended and control of the beam is transferred to a human operator. This work describes our effort to quantify the uncertainty of measurement of the most common alignment beam

  9. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to highlight possible future developments of importance to the electrical and optical (E&O) equipment sector, paying particular importance to ‘radical’ changes and discussing policy options and future scenarios. The electrical & optical equipment sector plays a vital role

  10. Experimental results of astrophysical collisionless shock experiments from NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Higginson, D.; Huntington, C.; Pollock, B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H.; Ross, J.; Ryutov, D.; Swadling, G.; Wilks, S.; Fiuza, F.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Petrasso, R.; Li, C.; Zylstra, A.; Lamb, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Manuel, M.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss our laboratory experiments using the Omega and NIF lasers to investigate the dynamics of high Mach number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. It is believed that in astrophysical environments such shocks are the sites where seed magnetic fields are generated on a cosmologically fast timescale via the Weibel instability. Particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations generate magnetic fields whose magnitude and scale are consistent with this concept. We will present recent experimental results as well as simulations and theoretical interpretations of these observations. The NIF experiments were able to observe the counter-streaming flow interactions through the transition from collisional to collisionless regimes. The latest proton radiography results will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Alternative irradiation schemes for NIF and LMJ hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Bowen, Christopher; Gauthier, Pascal; Landen, Otto

    2018-02-01

    We explore two alternative irradiation schemes for the large (‘outer’) and small (‘inner’) angle beams that currently illuminate National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Mégajoule cavities. In the first, while the outer laser beams enter through the usual end laser entrance holes (LEH), the inner beams enter through slots along the cavity axis wall, illuminating the back wall of the cavity. This avoids the current interaction of the inner laser beams with the gold wall bubbles generated by the outer beams, which leads to large time-dependent changes in drive symmetry. Another scheme potentially useful for NIF uses only the outer beams. The radiative losses through the slots or from the use of outer beams only are compensated by using a smaller cavity and LEH.

  12. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  13. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  14. An ion-optical design study of a carbon-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting final bending magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokor, J.; Pavlovič, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-optical designs of an isocentric ion gantry with a compact curved superconducting final bending magnet are presented. The gantry is designed for transporting carbon-therapy beams with nominal kinetic energy of 400 MeV/u, which corresponds to the penetration range of C 6+ beam in water of about 28 cm. In contrast to other existing designs, we present a “hybrid” beam transport system containing a single superconducting element – the last bending magnet. All other elements are based on conventional warm technology. Ion-optical properties of such a hybrid system are investigated in case of transporting non-symmetric (i.e. different emittance patterns in the horizontal and vertical plane) beams. Different conditions for transporting the non-symmetric beams are analyzed aiming at finding the optimal, i.e. the most compact, gantry version. The final gantry layout is presented including a 2D parallel scanning. The ion-optical and scanning properties of the final gantry design are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by WinAGILE.

  15. A sensorimotor area (NIf) is required for the production of learned vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon M. H. Gobes; Bence P. Ölveczky

    2011-01-01

    Sensory feedback is essential for the acquisition of complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback is relayed to the descending motor pathway primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (NIf). NIf projects to HVC - a premotor region essential for song, which projects to RA, a motor cortex analogue brain area that drives muscle activity required for vocalizations. NIf is also essential for ‘sleep replay’, a recapitulation of song-relat...

  16. Evaluation of Aerogel Clad Optical Fibers Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1448-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitland, Duncan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Droege, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Fiber-optic based sensors will be needed for in situ monitoring of degradation products in various components of nuclear weapons. These sensors typically consist of a transducer located at the measurement site whose optical properties are modulated by interaction with the targeted degradation product. The interrogating light source and the detector for determining sensor response are located remotely. These two subsystems are connected by fiber optic cables. LLNL has developed a new technology, aerogel clad optical fibers, that have the advantage of accepting incident rays over a much wider angular range than normal glass clad fibers. These fibers are also capable of transmitting light more efficiently. These advantages can lead to a factor of 2-4 improvement in sensitivity and detection limit.

  17. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed as the latest in a series of high-power laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion. In particular, the NIF will generate and amplify 192 laser beams and focus them onto a fusion fuel capsule the size of a BB. The energy deposited by the laser beams will raise the core temperature of the target to 100,OOO,OOO C, which will ignite the fusion fuel and produce a fusion energy output that is several times greater than the energy input. The ability to generate, condition, and focus 192 laser beams onto a target the size of a BB, requires precision optical hardware and instrumentation. One of the most critical pieces of optical hardware within the NIF is the Optics Module (OM), a mechanical apparatus which is responsible for optical focusing and frequency conversion of the laser beam to optimize the energy deposition at the fusion target. The OM contains two potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens. The functionality of the KDP crystals is extremely temperature sensitive. Small temperature changes on the order of 0.1 C can significantly alter the performance of these components. Consequently, to maximize NIF system availability and minimize beam conditioning problems, accurate temperature control of the OM optical components was deemed a necessity. In this study, an experimental OM prototype, containing mock frequency conversion crystals and a focusing lens, was used determine the thermal stability provided by a prototype water temperature control system. More importantly, the OM prototype was used to identify and characterize potential thermal upsets and corresponding recovery times of the KDP crystals. The results of this study indicate that the water temperature control system is adequate in maintaining uniform steady-state temperatures within the OM. Vacuum pump-down and venting of the OM generated significant

  19. Quantitative measurements in laser-induced plasmas using optical probing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Optical probing of laser induced plasmas can be used to quantitatively reconstruct electron number densities and magnetic fields. Numerical techniques for extracting quantitative information from the experimental data are described. A computer simulation of optical probing is used to determine the quantitative information that can be reasonably extracted from real experimental interferometric systems to reconstruct electron number density distributions. An example of a reconstructed interferogram shows a steepened electron distribution due to radiation pressure effects

  20. Integrated optic chemical sensor for the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple ions. Final report, March--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, E.

    1995-09-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) on the DOE contract entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Optic Chemical Sensor for the Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Multiple Metal Ions{close_quotes}. This project successfully demonstrated a multi-element integrated optic chemical sensor (IOCS) system capable of simultaneous detection and quantification of metal ions in a water flow stream. POC`s innovative integrated optic chemical sensor technology uses an array of chemically active optical waveguides integrated in parallel in a single small IOCS chip. The IOCS technique uses commonly available materials and straightforward processing to produce channel waveguides in porous glass, each channel treated with a chemical indicator that responds optically to heavy metal ions in a water flow stream. The porosity of the glass allows metal ions present in the water to diffuse into the glass and interact with the immobilized indicators, producing a measurable optical chance. For the {open_quotes}proof-of-concept{close_quotes} demonstration, POC designed and fabricated two types of IOCS chips. Type I uses an array of four straight channel waveguides, three of which are doped with a metal sensitive indicator, an ionophore. The undoped fourth channel is used as the reference channel. Type II uses a 1 x 4 star coupler structure with three sensing channels and a reference channel. Successful implementation of the IOCS technology is expected to have a broad impact on water quality control as well as in the commercial environmental monitoring market. Because of the self-referenced, multidetection capability of the IOCS technique, POC`s water quality sensors are expected to find markets in environmental monitoring and protection, ground water monitoring, and in-line process control. Specific applications include monitoring of chromium, copper, and iron ions in water discharged by the metal plating industry.

  1. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  2. 77 FR 17027 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import... OBAs) from Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value...: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 76 FR...

  3. 77 FR 27419 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Amended Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping... fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of stilbenic OBAs from Taiwan.\\1\\ On May 2, 2012, the... Less Than Fair Value, 77 FR 17027 (March 23, 2012) (Final Determination). \\2\\ See Certain Stilbenic...

  4. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  5. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  6. Optical Mode Converters Final Report CRADA No. TC-0838-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, Kent [Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Agilent Technologies

    2017-11-09

    The information age was maturing, and photonics was emerging as a significant technology with important'national security and commercial implications at the time of the CRADA. This was largely due to the vast information carrying capacity of optical beams and the availability of cheap.and effective optical fiber waveguides to guide the light. However, a major limitation to the widespread deployment of photonic systems was the high-cost (in an economic and performance sense) associated with coupling optical power between optoelectronic waveguide devices or between a device and an optical fiber. The problem was critical in the case of single-mode waveguide devices. Mitigating these costs would be a significant and pervasive enabler of the technology for a wide variety of applications that would have crucial defense and economic impact. The partners worked together to develop optical mode size converters on silicon substrates. Silicon was chosen because of its compatibility with the required photolithographic and micromachining techniques. By choosing silicon, these techniques could enable the close coupling of high-speed, high density silicon electronic circuitry to efficient low-cost photonics. The efficient coupling of electronics and photonics technologies would be important for many information age technologies. The joint nature of this project was intended to allow HP to benefit from some unique LLNL capabilities, and LLNL would be in a position to learn from HP and enhance its value to fundamental DP missions. Although the CRADA began as a hardware development project to develop the mode converter, it evolved into a software development venture. LLNL and HP researchers examined literature, performed some preliminary calculations, and evaluated production trade-offs of several known techniques to determine the best candidates for an integrated system.

  7. Localization and physical mapping of a plasmid-borne 23-kb nif gene cluster from Enterobacter agglomerans showing homology to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Kreutzer, R; Acker, G; Klingmüller, W

    1988-01-01

    A physical and genetical map of the plasmid pEA3 indigenous to Enterobacter agglomerans is presented. pEA3 is a 111-kb large plasmid containing a 23-kb large cluster of nif genes which shows extensive homology (Southern hybridization and heteroduplex analysis) to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) M5a1. All the nif genes on pEA3 are organized in the same manner as in K. pneumoniae, except nifJ, which is located on the left end of pEA3 nif gene cluster (near nifQB). A BamHI restriction map of pEA3 and a detailed restriction map of the 23-kb nif region on pEA3 is also presented. The nif genes of pEA3 showed a low level of acetylene reduction in Escherichia coli, demonstrating that these genes are functional and contain the whole genetic information required to fix nitrogen. The origin of vegetative replication (OriV) of pEA3 was localized about 5.5 kb from the right end of the nif gene cluster. In addition to pEA3, large plasmids from four other strains of E. agglomerans showed homology to all the Kp nif genes tested, indicating that in diazotrophic strains of E. agglomerans nif genes are usually located on plasmids. In contrast, in most of the free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria the nif genes are on chromosome.

  8. Magnetic Fields on the National Ignition Facility (MagNIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Folta, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    A magnetized target capability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been investigated. Stakeholders’ needs and project feasibility analysis were considered in order to down-select from a wide variety of different potential magnetic field magnitudes and volumes. From the large range of different target platforms, laser configurations, and diagnostics configurations of interest to the stakeholders, the gas-pipe platform has been selected for the first round of magnetized target experiments. Gas pipe targets are routinely shot on the NIF and provide unique value for external collaborators. High-level project goals have been established including an experimentally relevant 20Tesla magnetic field magnitude. The field will be achieved using pulsed power-driven coils. A system architecture has been proposed. The pulsed power drive system will be located in the NIF target bay. This decision provides improved maintainability and mitigates equipment safety risks associated with explosive failure of the drive capacitor. High-level and first-level subsystem requirements have been established. Requirements have been included for two distinct coil designs – full solenoid and quasi-Helmholtz. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been performed and documented. Additional requirements have been derived from the mitigations included in the FMEA document. A project plan is proposed. The plan includes a first phase of electromagnetic simulations to assess whether the design will meet performance requirements, then a second phase of risk mitigation projects to address the areas of highest technical risk. The duration from project kickoff to the first magnetized target shot is approximately 29 months.

  9. Status Update: Modeling Energy Balance in NIF Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    We have developed a standardized methodology to model hohlraum drive in NIF experiments. We compare simulation results to experiments by 1) comparing hohlraum xray fluxes and 2) comparing capsule metrics, such as bang times. Long-pulse, high gas-fill hohlraums require a 20-28% reduction in simulated drive and inclusion of ~15% backscatter to match experiment through (1) and (2). Short-pulse, low fill or near-vacuum hohlraums require a 10% reduction in simulated drive to match experiment through (2); no reduction through (1). Ongoing work focuses on physical model modifications to improve these matches.

  10. FY17 NIF Performance Quad Campaign: laser performance results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nicola, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mennerat, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Widmayer, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The FY17 NIF Performance Quad Campaign exercised a single quad of NIF (Q45T) at elevated energy to assess the impact of recent improvements to the infrared (1ω) and ultraviolet (3ω) section of the laser on integrated performance.

  11. Microwave-optical double resonance spectroscopy. Final report, February 1, 1971-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Optical, zero-field and high-field optical detection of magnetic resonance, electron-nuclear double resonance, level anticrossing and cross relaxation, and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments have been performed on a variety of chemical systems in order to further basic knowledge of the structure, reactivity, and response to radiation of molecules in their ground and/or excited electronic states. Systems investigated include organic molecules oriented in low temperature crystals, simple free radicals, transition metal complexes, rare earth hydrides, and hemeproteins in biological enzymes. Many of these systems are of potential importance in a number of applied areas including hydrocarbon-based fuel systems, solar energy devices, laser-initiated photochemical reactions, and free radical mechanisms in chemical carcinogenesis

  12. Improved Fiber Optics Final Report CRADA No. TSB-957-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Glenn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Wilford, Sandy [Lumenyte futemational Corporation (LIC), Irvine, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    The existing chemistry of Lumenyte® (an illumination fiber optic developed by LIC) was such that the component monomers inherently polymerized to a very hard mass if exposed to environmental IR, UV, or a combination of these frequencies. Lumenyte optic also would cure to a hard mass by exposure to the UV & IR generated by the illuminating lamps-although this could occur at a much slower rate, and the hardening could occur even when the adverse frequencies were filtered. The resultant product did not have the flexibility for the required applications. LIC's objective was to include other monomeric components in the formulation to impart permanent flexibility. LIC sought the expertise and the use of the facilities in the Polymeric Materials Section at LLNL to achieve this objective.

  13. Towards understanding the nitrogen signal transduction for nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöer, Jens; Thummer, Robert; Ullrich, Heike; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2008-12-01

    In the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae, the nitrogen sensory protein GlnK mediates the cellular nitrogen status towards the NifL/NifA system that regulates transcription of the nitrogen fixation genes in response to ammonium and molecular oxygen. To identify amino acids of GlnK essential for this signal transduction by protein-protein interaction, we performed random point mutagenesis by PCR amplification under conditions of reduced Taq polymerase fidelity. Three thousand two hundred mutated glnK genes were screened to identify those that would no longer complement a K. pneumoniaeDeltaglnK strain for growth under nitrogen fixing conditions. Twenty-four candidates resulting in a Nif(-) phenotype were identified, carrying 1-11 amino acid changes in GlnK. Based on these findings, as well as structural data, several single mutations were introduced into glnK by site-directed mutagenesis, and the Nif phenotype and the respective effects on NifA-mediated nif gene induction was monitored in K. pneumoniae using a chromosomal nifK'-'lacZ fusion. Single amino acid changes resulting in significant nif gene inhibition under nitrogen limiting conditions were located within the highly conserved T-loop (A43G, A49T and N54D), the body of the protein (G87V and K79E) and in the C-terminal region (I100M, R103S, E106Q and D108G). Complex formation analyses between GlnK (wild-type or derivatives) and NifL or NifA in response to 2-oxoglutarate indicated that: (a) besides the T-loop, the C-terminal region of GlnK is essential for the interaction with NifL and NifA and (b) GlnK binds both proteins in the absence of 2-oxoglutarate, whereas, in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate, NifA is released but NifL remains bound to GlnK.

  14. Tests and Calibration of the NIF Neutron Time of Flight Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Cruz, M.; Duffy, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Tommasini, R.; Throop, A; Moran, M.; Dauffy, L.; Horsefield, C.

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD (D = deuterium, T = tritium, H = hydrogen) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 10 9 to 2 x 10 19 . The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 m and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detectors tests and calibration will be presented

  15. IFE chamber technology testing program in NIF and chamber development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Issues concerning chamber technology testing program in NIF involving: criteria for evaluation/prioritization of experiments, engineering scaling requirements for test article design and material selection and R and D plan prior to NIF testing were addressed in this paper. In order to maximize the benefits of testing program in NIF, the testing in NIF should provide the experimental data relevant to DEMO design choice or to DEMO design predictive capability by utilizing engineering scaling test article designs. Test plans were developed for 2 promising chamber design concepts. Early testing in non-fusion/non-ignition prior to testing in ignition facility serves a critical role in chamber R and D test plans in order to reduce the risks and costs of the more complex experiments in NIF

  16. 77 FR 17436 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...'') published its preliminary determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping... People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement...

  17. Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H.; Cerjan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-induced instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments

  18. Limiting the Accidental Pressure Drop in NIF Beam Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the use of a one-dimensional model of a time-dependent compressible flow condition to validate the results from a more sophisticated three-dimensional model. The flow conditions consist of the sudden decompression of a pressurized tube joined to an evacuated sphere, where the tube also has a leak to external atmosphere that is triggered open at a given pressure difference below sea-level pressure. This flow model is used to calculate conditions in a NIF beam tube if an internal vacuum barrier fails, and to calculate how the size and timing of an opening to external atmosphere changes tube pressure. Decompression of a NIF beam tube is a potential safety hazard since the tube could collapse if the tube pressure is reduced below the buckling limit. To prevent this from occurring, each pressurized section includes a rupture panel which is designed to open to external atmosphere at a given pressure difference. The inrush of external atmosphere through the rupture panel fills both the tube and the vacuum drawing on it, and in this way the pressure drop in the tube is quickly limited and reversed. In summary, the results from the 1D model indicate that the 3-D calculations are accurate and reasonable

  19. OMEGA ICF experiments and preparations for direct drive on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼3.4-mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm of CH wall thickness, and an ∼340-μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (∼19 K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The cryogenic targets to be used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell fuel mixing, laser plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (author)

  20. Low fuel convergence path to ignition on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Molvig, Kim; Gianakon, T. A.; Woods, C. N.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Schmidt, D. W.; Dodd, E. S.; Zylstra, Alex; Scheiner, B.; McKenty, P.; Campbell, E. M.; Froula, D.; Betti, R.; Michel, T.

    2017-10-01

    A novel concept for achieving ignition on the NIF is proposed that obviates current issues plaguing single-shell high-convergence capsules. A large directly-driven Be shell is designed to robustly implode two nested internal shells by efficiently converting 1.7MJ of laser energy from a 6 ns, low intensity laser pulse, into a 1 ns dynamic pressure pulse to ignite and burn a central liquid DT core after a fuel convergence of only 9. The short, low intensity laser pulse mitigates LPI allowing more uniform laser drive of the target and eliminates hot e-, preheat and laser zooming issues. Preliminary rad-hydro simulations predict ignition initiation with 90% maximum inner shell velocity, before deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor growth can cause significant pusher shell mix into the compressed DT fuel. The gold inner pusher shell reduces pre-ignition radiation losses from the fuel allowing ignition to occur at 2.5keV. Further 2D simulations show that the short pulse design results in a spatially uniform kinetic drive that is tolerant to variations in laser cone power. A multi-pronged effort, in collaboration with LLE, is progressing to optimize this design for NIF's PDD laser configuration. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-FG02-051ER54810.

  1. In-Situ Preparation of Radioactive Tracers in NIF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Mark

    2011-04-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will probe fundamental high energy density physics of plasmas. Radiochemical diagnostics will provide information on ablator and fuel rho-R, yield, asymmetry, and mix by collecting both gaseous and solid debris samples following an implosion. Many experiments utilize ratios of produced activities, but full utilization of the technique requires knowledge of sample collection efficiencies. Gaseous samples are expected to be collected with high efficiency, but solid sample collection is typically limited by location of the collecting apparatus. Activation of ICF capsules has been utilized at other laser facilities [1-2] to produce a radioactive tracer in the ablator of the capsule that can be used to measure the solid collection efficiency. This talk will describe preliminary experiments activating CH(Ge) NIF capsules and Au hohlraums in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL in order to produce Ge, As, and Au isotopes for determination of collection efficiency, spatial distribution of the debris, efficacy of various collectors, and if there are preferred locations for debris collection. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. S.M. Lane and M.B. Nelson, Rev. Sci. Inst. 61 (1990) 3298.

  2. Science of NIF scale capsule development (activities for FY97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Buckley, S.R.; Cook, R.R.

    1997-11-12

    The focus of this work is the production of 2-mm P{alpha}MS mandrels by microencapsulation for use as National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser targets. It is our findings thus far that the processing techniques used previously for the 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm targets are no longer useful for preparation of the larger targets for a few fundamental reasons. The driving force for sphericity (from the minimization of interracial energy) decreases as the radius of curvature increases. Simultaneously, the mechanical robustness /stability of the water-oil-water emulsion droplets decreases as the droplet size increases. The impact of these physical conditions and the possibilities of circumventing these limitations have been examined while attempting to meet the NIF shell power spectrum criteria. Identifying the key parameters in the transition (solidification) from a w-o-w droplet to a solid polymer shell has been understood implicitly to be the paramount goal. It is believed through the knowledge gained that it will be possible to minimize the deleterious forces and maximize shell sphericity. At this point it is believed that properties intrinsic to the polymer (i.e., P{alpha}MS) such as its solution behavior and evolution of film stresses control the overall shell sphericity.

  3. Regulation of nif expression in Methanococcus maripaludis: roles of the euryarchaeal repressor NrpR, 2-oxoglutarate, and two operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Thomas J; Wood, Gwendolyn E; Leigh, John A

    2005-02-18

    The methanogenic archaean Methanococcus maripaludis can use ammonia, alanine, or dinitrogen as a nitrogen source for growth. The euryarchaeal nitrogen repressor NrpR controls the expression of the nif (nitrogen fixation) operon, resulting in full repression with ammonia, intermediate repression with alanine, and derepression with dinitrogen. NrpR binds to two tandem operators in the nif promoter region, nifOR(1) and nifOR(2). Here we have undertaken both in vivo and in vitro approaches to study the way in which NrpR, nifOR(1), nifOR(2), and the effector 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) combine to regulate nif expression, leading to a comprehensive understanding of this archaeal regulatory system. We show that NrpR binds as a dimer to nifOR(1) and cooperatively as two dimers to both operators. Cooperative binding occurs only with both operators present. nifOR(1) has stronger binding and by itself can mediate the repression of nif transcription during growth on ammonia, unlike the weakly binding nifOR(2). However, nifOR(2) in combination with nifOR(1) is critical for intermediate repression during growth on alanine. Accordingly, NrpR binds to both operators together with higher affinity than to nifOR(1) alone. NrpR responds directly to 2OG, which weakens its binding to the operators. Hence, 2OG is an intracellular indicator of nitrogen deficiency and acts as an inducer of nif transcription via NrpR. This model is upheld by the recent finding (J. A. Dodsworth and J. A. Leigh, submitted for publication) in our laboratory that 2OG levels in M. maripaludis vary with growth on different nitrogen sources.

  4. Optics Designs of Final-Focus Systems for Future LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, J L; Zimmermann, Frank; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the thesis is the study of a novel option for the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprising a large Piwinski angle, flat beams, and crab waists. Flat beams and crab waists are not only pre-requisites for a crab-waist scheme, but, even by themselves; each of these two elements alone could boost the luminosity of the existing collider as built. The new optics involves an upgrade of the interaction region of the two high-luminosity experiments, ATLAS and CMS, in order to provide them with a substantially higher luminosity. To this end, a flat-beam optics scenario has been explored for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), with a much reduced vertical beta function at the interaction point (IP), $\\beta_y^*$. In addition, a large Piwinski angle is considered. Advantages of a large Piwinski angle include a reduction in the hourglass effect over the length of the collision area, which allows for the significant $\\beta_y^*$ decrease. In addition there is a reduction of the be...

  5. Analysis of higher order optical aberrations in the SLC final focus using Lie Algebra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.J.; Irwin, J.; Woodley, M.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC final focus system is designed to have an overall demagnification of 30:1, with a β at the interaction point (β*) of 5 mm, and an energy band pass of ∼0.4%. Strong sextupole pairs are used to cancel the large chromaticity which accrues primarily from the final triplet. Third-order aberrations limit the performance of the system, the dominating terms being U 1266 and U 3466 terms (in the notation of K. Brown). Using Lie Algebra techniques, it is possible to analytically calculate the soave of these terms in addition to understanding their origin. Analytical calculations (using Lie Algebra packages developed in the Mathematica language) are presented of the bandwidth and minimum spot size as a function of divergence at the interaction point (IP). Comparisons of the analytical results from the Lie Algebra maps and results from particle tracking (TURTLE) are also presented

  6. Sequencing and promoter analysis of the nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ operon from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrich D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-kb DNA region containing the major cluster of nif genes has been isolated from the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 genome. In this region three nif operons have been identified: nifHDKorf1Y, nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ and orf2nifUSVorf4. The operons containing nifENX and nifUSV genes are separated from the structural nifHDKorf1Y operon by about 5 kb and 10 kb, respectively. The present study shows the sequence analysis of the 6045-bp DNA region containing the nifENX genes. The deduced amino acid sequences from the open reading frames were compared to the nif gene products of other diazotrophic bacteria and indicate the presence of seven ORFs, all reading in the same direction as that of the nifHDKorf1Y operon. Consensus sigma54 and NifA-binding sites are present only in the promoter region upstream of the nifE gene. This promoter is activated by NifA protein and is approximately two-times less active than the nifH promoter, as indicated by the ß-galactosidase assays. This result suggests the differential expression of the nif genes and their respective products in Azospirillum.

  7. Studies on the roles of GlnK and GlnB in regulating Klebsiella pneumoniae NifL-dependent nitrogen control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arcondeguy, T.; van Heeswijk, W.C.; Merrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, nitrogen fixation (nif) genes are regulated in response to fixed nitrogen and oxygen. The activity of the nif-specific transcriptional activator NifA is modulated by NifL, which mediates both oxygen and nitrogen control. The signal transduction protein GlnK is required to

  8. Federated access to heterogeneous information resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF system is designed to treat them as concepts whose meanings are interpreted by the system. Thus, a search for term should find a record containing synonyms of the term. The system is targeted to find information from web pages, publications, databases, web sites built upon databases, XML documents and any other modality in which such information may be published. We have designed a system to achieve this functionality. A central element in the system is an ontology called NIFSTD (for NIF Standard) constructed by amalgamating a number of known and newly developed ontologies. NIFSTD is used by our ontology management module, called OntoQuest to perform ontology-based search over data sources. The NIF architecture currently provides three different mechanisms for searching heterogeneous data sources including relational databases, web sites, XML documents and full text of publications. Version 1.0 of the NIF system is currently in beta test and may be accessed through http://nif.nih.gov.

  9. Kinetics of Nif gene expression in a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Carrión, César; Jiménez-Vicente, Emilio; Navarro-Rodríguez, Mónica; Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen fixation is a tightly regulated trait. Switching from N2 fixation-repressing conditions to the N2-fixing state is carefully controlled in diazotrophic bacteria mainly because of the high energy demand that it imposes. By using quantitative real-time PCR and quantitative immunoblotting, we show here how nitrogen fixation (nif) gene expression develops in Azotobacter vinelandii upon derepression. Transient expression of the transcriptional activator-encoding gene, nifA, was followed by subsequent, longer-duration waves of expression of the nitrogenase biosynthetic and structural genes. Importantly, expression timing, expression levels, and NifA dependence varied greatly among the nif operons. Moreover, the exact concentrations of Nif proteins and their changes over time were determined for the first time. Nif protein concentrations were exquisitely balanced, with FeMo cofactor biosynthetic proteins accumulating at levels 50- to 100-fold lower than those of the structural proteins. Mutants lacking nitrogenase structural genes or impaired in FeMo cofactor biosynthesis showed overenhanced responses to derepression that were proportional to the degree of nitrogenase activity impairment, consistent with the existence of at least two negative-feedback regulatory mechanisms. The first such mechanism responded to the levels of fixed nitrogen, whereas the second mechanism appeared to respond to the levels of the mature NifDK component. Altogether, these findings provide a framework to engineer N2 fixation in nondiazotrophs.

  10. NifH- Harboring Bacterial Community Composition Across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since nitrogen (N is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes. NifH sequences most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta Proteobacteria were in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta and Gamma Proteobacteria were more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

  11. Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels Final Report CRADA No TC02132.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haushalter, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Parallel Synthesis Technologies, Inc. (PSTI), to develop Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels. The goal for this effort was to prepare a portable bead reader system that would enable the development of viral and bacterial screening panels which could be used for the detection of any desired set of bacteria or viruses in any location. The main objective was to determine if the combination of a bead-based, PCR suspension array technology, formulated from Parallume encoded beads and PSTI’s multiplex assay reader system (MARS), could provide advantages in terms of the number of simultaneously measured samples, portability, ruggedness, ease of use, accuracy, precision or cost as compared to the Luminexbased system developed at LLNL. The project underwent several no cost extensions however the overall goal of demonstrating the utility of this new system was achieved. As a result of the project a significant change to the type of bead PSTI used for the suspension system was implemented allowing better performance than the commercial Luminex system.

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  13. Quadrupole-free detector optics design for the Compact Linear Collider final focus system at 3 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Plassard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to simplify the machine detector interface of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC, a new detector model has been designed allowing the last quadrupole QD0 of the final focus system (FFS to be located outside of the experiment with a distance L^{*} from the interaction point of 6 m. In this paper, the beam delivery system (BDS has been reoptimized, offering a luminosity performance that exceeds the design requirements by 11% for the total luminosity and by 7% in the energy peak. A simulation campaign has been carried out and has proved the feasibility of recovering the luminosity under realistic transverse misalignments of the FFS optics, by means of different orbit and aberration correction techniques, making this long L^{*} design a realistic candidate for the future CLIC BDS.

  14. Quadrupole-free detector optics design for the Compact Linear Collider final focus system at 3 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Fabien; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Tomás, Rogelio; Bambade, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to simplify the machine detector interface of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a new detector model has been designed allowing the last quadrupole QD0 of the final focus system (FFS) to be located outside of the experiment with a distance L* from the interaction point of 6 m. In this paper, the beam delivery system (BDS) has been reoptimized, offering a luminosity performance that exceeds the design requirements by 11% for the total luminosity and by 7% in the energy peak. A simulation campaign has been carried out and has proved the feasibility of recovering the luminosity under realistic transverse misalignments of the FFS optics, by means of different orbit and aberration correction techniques, making this long L* design a realistic candidate for the future CLIC BDS.

  15. Final Technical Report [Scalable methods for electronic excitations and optical responses of nanostructures: mathematics to algorithms to observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Yousef

    2014-03-19

    The master project under which this work is funded had as its main objective to develop computational methods for modeling electronic excited-state and optical properties of various nanostructures. The specific goals of the computer science group were primarily to develop effective numerical algorithms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT). There were essentially four distinct stated objectives. The first objective was to study and develop effective numerical algorithms for solving large eigenvalue problems such as those that arise in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The second objective was to explore so-called linear scaling methods or Methods that avoid diagonalization. The third was to develop effective approaches for Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT). Our fourth and final objective was to examine effective solution strategies for other problems in electronic excitations, such as the GW/Bethe-Salpeter method, and quantum transport problems.

  16. Atomic and Molecular Data Activities at NIFS in 2009 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.

    2011-01-01

    We open and maintain the NIFS atomic and molecular numerical databases. Numbers of data records increase to 476,048 in total (as of Aug. 23, 2011) and mainly new data are added for AMDIS (electron impact ionization, excitation, and recombination cross sections and rate coefficients) and CHART (charge transfer of atom - ion collisions cross sections) during last two years. A collaboration group has started for research on atomic and molecular processes in plasma using the Large Helical Device and we measure visible and extreme ultraviolet spectra of W and rare earth elements. We also organize a collaboration group with atomic physicists from Japanese universities for research on W to study atomic data, spectra and collisional-radiative models for W ions. (author)

  17. Diffractive Optics in the Infrared (DiOptIR) LDRD 67109 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, Charles Fred; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Wendt, Joel Robert; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Samora, Sally; Carter, Tony Ray; Peters, David William; Shields, Eric A.

    2005-10-01

    This diffractive optical element (DOE) LDRD is divided into two tasks. In Task 1, we develop two new DOE technologies: (1) a broad wavelength band effective anti-reflection (AR) structure and (2) a design tool to encode dispersion and polarization information into a unique diffraction pattern. In Task 2, we model, design, and fabricate a subwavelength polarization splitter. The first technology is an anti-reflective (AR) layer that may be etched into the DOE surface. For many wavelengths of interest, transmissive silicon DOEs are ideal. However, a significant portion of light (30% from each surface) is lost due to Fresnel reflection. To address this issue, we investigate a subwavelength, surface relief structure that acts as an effective AR coating. The second DOE component technology in Task 1 is a design tool to determine the optimal DOE surface relief structure that can encode the light's degree of dispersion and polarization into a unique spatial pattern. Many signals of interest have unique spatial, temporal, spectral, and polarization signatures. The ability to disperse the signal into a unique diffraction pattern would result in improved signal detection sensitivity with a simultaneous reduction in false alarm. Task 2 of this LDRD project is to investigate the modeling, design, and fabrication of subwavelength birefringent devices for polarimetric spectral sensing and imaging applications. Polarimetric spectral sensing measures the spectrum of the light and polarization state of light at each wavelength simultaneously. The capability to obtain both polarization and spectral information can help develop target/object signature and identify the target/object for several applications in NP&MC and national security.

  18. A plasma amplifier to combine multiple beams at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Turnbull, D. P.; Chapman, T.; Wilks, S. C.; Rosen, M. D.; London, R. A.; Pickworth, L. A.; Colaitis, A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Poole, P.; Moody, J. D.; Strozzi, D. J.; Michel, P. A.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Blue, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    Combining laser beams in a plasma is enabled by seeded stimulated Brillouin scattering which allows cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) to occur and re-distributes the energy between beams that cross with different incident angles and small differences in wavelength [Kirkwood et al. Phys. Plasmas 4, 1800 (1997)]. Indirect-drive implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Haynam et al. Appl. Opt. 46, 3276-3303 (2007)] have controlled drive symmetry by using plasma amplifiers to transfer energy between beams [Kirkwood et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 103001 (2013); Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 020501 (2014); and Hurricane et al. Nature 506, 343-348 (2014)]. In this work, we show that the existing models are well enough validated by experiments to allow a design of a plasma beam combiner that, once optimized, is expected to produce a pulse of light in a single beam with the energy greatly enhanced over existing sources. The scheme combines up to 61 NIF beams with 120 kJ of available energy into a single f/20 beam with a 1 ns pulse duration and a 351 nm wavelength by both resonant and off-resonance CBET. Initial experiments are also described that have already succeeded in producing a 4 kJ, 1 ns pulse in a single beam by combination of up to eight incident pump beams containing <1.1 kJ/beam, which are maintained near resonance for CBET in a plasma that is formed by 60 pre-heating beams [Kirkwood et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 80 (2018)].

  19. Neutron Skyshine Considerations For The NIF Shielding Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M S; Mecozzi, J M; Tobin, M T

    2004-01-28

    A series of coupled neutron-photon transport Monte-Carlo calculations was performed to estimate the roof shielding required to limit the skyshine dose to less than 1 mrem/y at the site boundary when conducting DT experiments with annual fusion yields up to 1200 MJ (4.2E20 neutrons/y). The NIF shielding design consists of many different components. The basic components include 10-cm-thick Al chamber with 40-cm-thick target chamber gunite shield having multiple penetrations, 1.83-m-thick concrete Target Bay walls, 1.37-m-thick concrete roof, and multiple concrete floors with numerous penetrations. Under this shielding configuration, the skyshine dose at the nearest site-boundary was calculated to be less than 0.2 mrem/y for all possible target illumination configurations. The potential dose at the site boundary would be about one-tenth of the cosmic neutron dose that we measured with bubble neutron detectors on board a commercial roundtrip flight from SF to Rochester. This incremental dose increase is well within the normal fluctuations (noise) of the natural background radiation in the Livermore area. The skyshine dose has no impact on the public. The skyshine dose trends at ground and elevated levels are plotted as a function of distance from 20 m to 1000 m from the center of the target bay. The differential neutron and photon energy flux emerging from the NIF roof and at several locations on the ground is plotted to show how it shifts with distance. The results of this study are compared with the neutron skyshine studies done at high-energy accelerators by R. H. Thomas.

  20. Effective and efficient optics inspection approach using machine learning algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, G.; Kegelmeyer, L.; Liao, Z.; Carr, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system automatically acquires and utilizes the Optics Inspection (OI) system to analyze images of the final optics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). During each inspection cycle up to 1000 images acquired by FODI are examined by OI to identify and track damage sites on the optics. The process of tracking growing damage sites on the surface of an optic can be made more effective by identifying and removing signals associated with debris or reflections. The manual process to filter these false sites is daunting and time consuming. In this paper we discuss the use of machine learning tools and data mining techniques to help with this task. We describe the process to prepare a data set that can be used for training and identifying hardware reflections in the image data. In order to collect training data, the images are first automatically acquired and analyzed with existing software and then relevant features such as spatial, physical and luminosity measures are extracted for each site. A subset of these sites is 'truthed' or manually assigned a class to create training data. A supervised classification algorithm is used to test if the features can predict the class membership of new sites. A suite of self-configuring machine learning tools called 'Avatar Tools' is applied to classify all sites. To verify, we used 10-fold cross correlation and found the accuracy was above 99%. This substantially reduces the number of false alarms that would otherwise be sent for more extensive investigation.

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  2. NIF: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical/radiological accident approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The goals of the NIF are to (1) achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time by using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology based on an advanced-design neodymium glass solid-state laser, and (2) conduct high-energy-density experiments in support of national security and civilian applications. The primary focus of this paper is worker-public health and safety issues associated with postulated chemical accidents during the operation of NIF. The key findings from the accident analysis will be presented. Although NIF chemical accidents will be emphasized, the important differences between chemical and radiological accident analysis approaches and the metrics for reporting results will be highlighted. These differences are common EIS facility and transportation accident assessments

  3. Molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and evolution of heterocystous cyanobacteria using nifH gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, P.; Singh, S. S.; Elster, Josef; Mishra, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 3 (2013), s. 751-764 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolution * heterocystous cyanobacteria * nifH gene Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.171, year: 2013

  4. Site-specific mutagenesis in Enterobacter agglomerans: construction of nif B mutants and analysis of the gene's structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddavattam, D; Nickles, A; Herterich, S; Steibl, H D; Kreutzer, R; Klingmüller, W

    1995-12-15

    A novel technique was developed which may be generally well suited to the site-specific construction of mutations in Enterobacter agglomerans. The method is based on the observation that E. agglomerans can be cured of a plasmid of the incompatibility group IncQ by cultivation on citrate-containing medium. To test the applicability of this technique, we inserted a kanamycin cassette into the cloned nifB gene, transferred it into E. agglomerans, and selected for recombinants in which the wild-type nifB was replaced by the mutated gene by growing transformants on citrate medium with kanamycin. The nifB- mutants with the kanamycin cassette inserted in either orientation showed a nif- phenotype. Further, we determined the nucleotide sequence of nifB. A typical sigma 54-dependent promoter and a consensus NifA binding site were found upstream of nifB. Activation of this promoter by both heterologous and homologous NifA proteins was observed in vivo. The predicted amino acid sequence of the NifB protein showed strong similarity to the NifB sequences of other diazotrophic bacteria. The typical clustering of cysteine residues at the N-terminal end indicates its involvement in Fe-Mo cofactor biosynthesis.

  5. Evidence for the direct interaction of the nifW gene product with the MoFe protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Burgess, B K

    1996-04-19

    The Azotobacter vinelandii nifW gene, under control of the nifH promoter, was subcloned into the broad host range multicopy plasmid pKT230 for overexpression in both wild-type and delta nifW strains of A. vinelandii. Unlike the parent delta nifW strain, which grows slowly relative to wild-type under N2-fixing conditions, both overproduction strains grow at the same rate, showing that the overexpressed nifW product is functional in vivo. The approximately 40-fold overexpressed protein was purified, and sequence analysis confirmed its identity. During purification it was observed that NifW in crude extracts ran above the predicted molecular weight on denaturing gels and that as the purification proceeded lower molecular weight forms appeared. Mass spectrometry and studies with protease inhibitors revealed that this abnormal behavior was due to proteolysis. Native molecular weight determinations demonstrate that NifW is a homomultimer, most likely a trimer. Native gel electrophoresis analysis shows that the behavior of wild-type and overexpressed NifW are identical and that when extracts are prepared anaerobically only the homomultimeric forms of NifW are observed. When extracts are exposed to oxygen, however, NifW becomes part of a very high molecular weight complex. Immunoprecipitation with NifW antibodies demonstrate that under those conditions NifW specifically associates with the MoFe protein. These data are consistent with a model whereby NifW is not involved in the initial assembly of an active MoFe protein but rather is part of a system design to protect the MoFe protein from O2 damage.

  6. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  7. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  8. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  9. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Veenstra

    Full Text Available Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1, a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF, a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2 by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  10. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, B.; Stefanello, A.A.; Oliveira, M.A.S.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Monteiro, R.A.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  11. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  13. The Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hakel, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murphy, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Kimberly A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, Rahul C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    LANL will perform two Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) implosion campaigns on NIF in July and September, 2012. This presentation describes the goals for these shots and the experimental configuration and diagnostic set up to collect the appropriate data. The first two-shot campaign will focus on executing polar direct drive (PDD) implosions of plastic CH capsules filled with deuterium gas. Gas filling will be performed through a fill tube at target chamber center. A vanadium backligher foil will provide x-rays to radiograph the last half of the implosion to compare the implosion trajectory with modeling predictions. An equatorial groove in one of the capsules will be present to determine its effect on implosion dynamics. The second DIME campaign will commission and use a spectral imager (MMI) to examine the evolution of thin capsule layers doped with either Ge or Ga at 1.85%. Spectral line emission from these layers will quantify the mix width at the inner shell radius and near an equatorial groove feature.

  14. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    A cryogenic, β-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a reduced drive hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at ∼ 250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of: (1) ∼200 ps in the timing of the foot pulse; (2) ∼5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) ∼10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) ∼ 5 microm in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 microm in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only ∼ 1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation

  15. The Ignition Physics Campaign on NIF: Status and Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have made significant progress in ICF implosion performance on NIF since the 2011 IFSA. Employing a 3-shock, high adiabat CH (“High-Foot”) design, total neutron yields have increased 10-fold to 6.3 x10 15 (a yield of ∼ 17 kJ, which is greater than the energy invested in the DT fuel ∼ 12kJ). At that level, the yield from alpha self-heating is essentially equivalent to the compression yield, indicating that we are close to the alpha self-heating regime. Low adiabat, 4-shock High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules have been imploded in conventional gas-filled hohlraums, and employing a 6 ns, 2-shock pulse, HDC capsules were imploded in near-vacuum hohlraums with overall coupling ∼ 98%. Both the 4- and 2-shock HDC capsules had very low mix and high yield over simulated performance. Rugby holraums have demonstrated uniform x-ray drive with minimal Cross Beam Energy Transfer (CBET), and we have made good progress in measuring and modelling growth of ablation front hydro instabilities. (paper)

  16. Exploring the universe through Discovery Science on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    New regimes of science are being experimentally studied at high energy density facilities around the world, spanning drive energies from microjoules to megajoules, and time scales from femtoseconds to microseconds. The ability to shock and ramp compress samples to very high pressures and densities allows new states of matter relevant to planetary and stellar interiors to be studied. Shock driven hydrodynamic instabilities evolving into turbulent flows relevant to the dynamics of exploding stars (such as supernovae), accreting compact objects (such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes), and planetary formation dynamics (relevant to the exoplanets) are being probed. The dynamics of magnetized plasmas relevant to astrophysics, both in collisional and collisionless systems, are starting to be studied. High temperature, high velocity interacting flows are being probed for evidence of astrophysical collisionless shock formation, the turbulent magnetic dynamo effect, magnetic reconnection, and particle acceleration. And new results from thermonuclear reactions in hot dense plasmas relevant to stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis are starting to emerge. A selection of examples of frontier research through NIF Discovery Science in the coming decade will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. 3D studies of the NIF symmetry tuning targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovich, J.; Jones, O.; Edwards, M.; Weber, S.; Dewald, E.; Landen, O.; Marinak, M.

    2009-11-01

    Minimizing radiation drive asymmetries is necessary for a successful ignition campaign. Since the ignition capsule symmetry is most sensitive to the foot (first 2 ns) and the peak of the laser pulse, two different targets will be fielded on the NIF: re-emit and symmetry capsules (Sym-Caps). The first measures the incoming flux asymmetries during the foot by observing the re-radiated flux of a high-Z ball in place of the ignition capsule. The Sym-Caps resemble the ignition target with the frozen DT layer replaced by an equivalent mass of ablator material, thus preserving the hydrodynamic implosion properties. By measuring the x-ray self-emission near peak compression the ignition capsule core shape can be tuned. Simulations with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations codes omit 3D effects in the hohlraum such as diagnostic holes, capsule roughness, shot-to-shot variations caused by laser beam power imbalances and pointing errors. We study these effects by performing 3D simulations using HYDRA and found that tuning the laser pulse using a finite number of shots is not substantially compromised.

  18. Results from neutron imaging of ICF experiments at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F. E.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 a neutron imaging diagnostic was commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system has been used to collect neutron images to measure the size and shape of the burning DT plasma and the surrounding fuel assembly. The imaging technique uses a pinhole neutron aperture placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two-dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic collects two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically one image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons, and the other image measures the distribution of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core. Images have been collected for the majority of the experiments performed as part of the ignition campaign. Results from this data have been used to estimate a burn-averaged fuel assembly as well as providing performance metrics to gauge progress towards ignition. This data set and our interpretation are presented.

  19. Progress towards monochromatic imaging of mix at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Krashenninnikova, N. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Obrey, K.; Shah, R. C.; Hakel, P.; Kline, J. L.; Grim, G. P.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Mix of non-hydrogenic (Z >1) material into the hydrogenic (D and T) ICF capsule fuel degrades implosion performance. The amount of degradation depends on the degree and the spatial distribution of mix. Experiments are underway at NIF to quantify the mix of shell material into fuel using directly driven capsules. CH or CD shells with various dopants, implanted at different depths in the shell are being used to change the amount of dopant mix. Spatially and spectrally resolved emission from the ionized dopants will be used to generate spatially and temporally dependent density and temperature maps of the ionized dopants that are mixed and heated in the core plasma. This information will be used to validate different mix models. This talk will describe the search for the appropriate dopant that gave a radiation spectrum that could be used to record images with the MMI diagnostic. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  20. Ultra High Mode Mix in NIF NIC Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robbie; Garbett, Warren

    2017-10-01

    This work re-examines a sub-set of the low adiabat implosions from the National Ignition Campaign in an effort to better understand potential phenomenological sources of `excess' mix observed experimentally. An extensive effort has been made to match both shock-timing and backlit radiography (Con-A) implosion data in an effort to reproduce the experimental conditions as accurately as possible. Notably a 30% reduction in ablation pressure at peak drive is required to match the experimental data. The reduced ablation pressure required to match the experimental data allows the ablator to decompress, in turn causing the DT ice-ablator interface to go Rayleigh-Taylor unstable early in the implosion acceleration phase. Post-processing the runs with various mix models indicates high-mode mix from the DT ice-ablator interface may penetrate deep into the hotspot. This work offers a potential explanation of why these low-adiabat implosions exhibited significantly higher levels of mix than expected from high-fidelity multi-dimensional simulations. Through this new understanding, a possible route forward for low-adiabat implosions on NIF is suggested.

  1. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. First liquid-layer implosion experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Replacing the standard ice layer in an ignition design with a liquid layer allows fielding the target with a higher central vapor pressure, leading to reduced implosion convergence ratio (CR). At lower CR, the implosions are expected to be more robust to instabilities and asymmetries than standard ice-layer designs, and are also unique in that the hot spot can be primarily formed from material originating in the central fuel vapor. The first liquid-layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been performed by wicking the liquid fuel into a supporting foam that lines the inside surface of the capsule. A series of shots has been conducted between CR of 12 and 20 using a HDC ablator driven by a 3-shock pulse in a near-vacuum Au hohlraum. At the lowest CR the implosion performance is well predicted by 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. However, as the CR is increased the nominal simulations do not capture the experimentally observed trends. Data-based models suggest that the hot spot formation is unexpectedly suppressed at higher convergence. The data could be explained by reduced hydrodynamic coupling efficiency, or an anomalously enhanced thermal conductivity in the mixed DT/foam material. We show that the latter hypothesis can explain observed trends in several experimental metrics, including the yield, ion temperature, and burn duration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  3. Low convergence path to fusion II: An integrated NIF design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark J.; Molvig, K.; McCall, G. H.; Edgel, D. H.; Myatt, J. E.; Betti, R.; Froula, D. H.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Revolver design methodology for achieving ignition using large diameter (6mm) Be shells to efficiently ( 10%) convert laser energy from a short, 5 ns, 320TW laser pulse on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) into a dynamic pressure source for inertial confinement fusion. It is shown that this source can be used to kinetically drive two nested internal shells to achieve ignition conditions inside a central liquid DT core. Using principles recently elucidated [K. Molvig, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 255003, 2016], we formulate a robust optimization of a triple shell target that mitigates long-standing issues with conventional ignition schemes including drive non-uniformities, laser plasma instabilities (including the hot electrons they produce), non-local heat conduction and deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mix. Rad-hydro simulations predict ignition initiating at 2.5keV with 90% of the maximum inner shell velocity remaining (before deceleration RT can cause significant mix in the compressed DT fuel). Simulations in 2D show that the short pulse design produces a spatially uniform kinetic drive that is tolerant to random 5% variations in laser cone power. Moreover, it will be shown that intra-shell parameters can be adjusted to mitigate convergence growth of capsule spatial non-uniformities. This research supported by the US DOE/NNSA, performed in part at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Full aperture backscatter diagnostic for the NIF laser facility (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, Noel; Lewis, Izzy; Kirkwood, Robert; Moody, John; Celeste, John

    2001-01-01

    The current schemes for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility require efficient coupling of energy from 192 laser beams to the deuterium--tritium fuel capsule. Each laser beam must propagate through a long scalelength plasma region before being converted to x rays (indirect drive) or being absorbed on the capsule (direct drive). Laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS and SRS) will scatter a fraction of the incident laser energy out of the target leading to an overall reduction in the coupling efficiency. It is important to measure the character of this scattered light in order to understand it and to develop methods for reducing it to acceptable levels. We are designing a system called the full aperature backscatter diagnostic with the capability to measure the time-dependent amplitude and spectral content of the light which is backscattered through the incident beam focusing optic. The backscattered light will be collected over about 85% of the full beam aperture and separated into the SBS wavelength band (348--354 nm) and the SRS wavelength band (400--700 nm). Spectrometers coupled to streak cameras will provide time-resolved spectra for both scattered light components. The scattered light amplitude will be measured with fast and slow diodes. The entire system will be routinely calibrated. Analysis of the data will provide important information for reducing scattered power, achieving power balance, and finally achieving ignition

  5. Nonuniform Liouville transformers for quasi-homogeneous optical fields. Final technical report, September 25, 1989--January 22, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannson, T.

    1993-03-01

    During the last two decades, there have been dramatic improvements in the development of optical sources. Examples of this development range from semiconductor laser diodes to free electron beam lasers and synchrotron radiation. Before these developments, standards for the measurement of basic optical parameters (quantities) were less demanding. Now, however, there is a fundamental need for new, reliable methods for providing fast quantitative results for a very broad variety of optical systems and sources. This is particularly true for partially coherent optical beams, since all optical sources are either fully or partially spatially coherent (including Lambertian sources). Until now, there has been no satisfactory solution to this problem. During the last two decades, however, the foundations of physical radiometry have been developed by Walther, Wolf and co-workers. By integrating physical optics, statistical optics and conventional radiometry, this body of work provides necessary tools for the evaluation of radiometric quantities for partially coherent optical beams propagating through optical systems. In this program, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) demonstrated the viability of such a radiometric approach for the specific case of generalized energy concentrators called Liouville transformers. We believe that this radiometric approach is necessary to fully characterize any type of optical system since it takes into account the partial coherence of radiation. 90 refs., 57 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. NIF-type iron-sulfur cluster assembly system is duplicated and distributed in the mitochondria and cytosol of Mastigamoeba balamuthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nývltová, Eva; Šuták, Robert; Harant, Karel; Šedinová, Miroslava; Hrdy, Ivan; Paces, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Tachezy, Jan

    2013-04-30

    In most eukaryotes, the mitochondrion is the main organelle for the formation of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters. This function is mediated through the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, which was inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. In Archamoebae, including pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and free-living Mastigamoeba balamuthi, the complex iron-sulfur cluster machinery has been replaced by an ε-proteobacterial nitrogen fixation (NIF) system consisting of two components: NifS (cysteine desulfurase) and NifU (scaffold protein). However, the cellular localization of the NIF system and the involvement of mitochondria in archamoebal FeS assembly are controversial. Here, we show that the genes for both NIF components are duplicated within the M. balamuthi genome. One paralog of each protein contains an amino-terminal extension that targets proteins to mitochondria (NifS-M and NifU-M), and the second paralog lacks a targeting signal, thereby reflecting the cytosolic form of the NIF machinery (NifS-C and NifU-C). The dual localization of the NIF system corresponds to the presence of FeS proteins in both cellular compartments, including detectable hydrogenase activity in Mastigamoeba cytosol and mitochondria. In contrast, E. histolytica possesses only single genes encoding NifS and NifU, respectively, and there is no evidence for the presence of the NIF machinery in its reduced mitochondria. Thus, M. balamuthi is unique among eukaryotes in that its FeS cluster formation is mediated through two most likely independent NIF machineries present in two cellular compartments.

  7. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials ampersand Optical Technology (LM ampersand OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM ampersand OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies

  8. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ammonia Switch-Off of Nitrogen Fixation in the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis: Mechanistic Features and Requirement for the Novel GlnB Homologues, NifI1 and NifI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Peter S.; Daniel, Catherine; Leigh, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia switch-off is the immediate inactivation of nitrogen fixation that occurs when a superior nitrogen source is encountered. In certain bacteria switch-off occurs by reversible covalent ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase protein, NifH. Ammonia switch-off occurs in diazotrophic species of the methanogenic Archaea as well. We showed previously that in Methanococcus maripaludis switch-off requires at least one of two novel homologues of glnB, a family of genes whose products play a central role in nitrogen sensing and regulation in bacteria. The novel glnB homologues have recently been named nifI1 and nifI2. Here we use in-frame deletions and genetic complementation analysis in M. maripaludis to show that the nifI1 and nifI2 genes are both required for switch-off. We could not detect ADP-ribosylation or any other covalent modification of dinitrogenase reductase during switch-off, suggesting that the mechanism differs from the well-studied bacterial system. Furthermore, switch-off did not affect nif gene transcription, nifH mRNA stability, or NifH protein stability. Nitrogenase activity resumed within a short time after ammonia was removed from a switched-off culture, suggesting that whatever the mechanism, it is reversible. We demonstrate the physiological importance of switch-off by showing that it allows growth to accelerate substantially when a diazotrophic culture is switched to ammonia. PMID:11208785

  10. Fiber Based Optical Amplifier for High Energy Laser Pulses Final Report CRADA No. TC02100.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cunningham, P. [Boeing Company, Springfield, VA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and The Boeing Company to develop an optical fiber-based laser amplifier capable of producing and sustaining very high-energy, nanosecond-scale optical pulses. The overall technical objective of this CRADA was to research, design, and develop an optical fiber-based amplifier that would meet specific metrics.

  11. Radiochemistry: A versatile diagnostic for the NIF ignition campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M A; Cerjan, C J; Moody, K J; Hoffman, R D; Bernstein, L A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this paper is to provide quick, clear, concise information about radiochemical diagnostics for the NIF program. Radiochemistry is perhaps the most versatile, flexible and dynamic of all nuclear diagnostics because it provides quantitative data on multiple capsule performance parameters such as mix, asymmetry of implosion, shell and fuel {rho}R, yield, neutron spectral information, high energy neutron information, fill tube jets, charged particle stopping, and the fission yield of the hohlraum by employing a variety of nuclear reactions on materials either present naturally in the capsule or specifically doped into the capsule. The choice and location of the doped material, together with the specific nuclear reaction used to produce a measurable product nuclide or ratio of nuclides, provides significant diagnostic information on the performance of the capsule during the experiment. The nature of the experiment, design of the capsule including fuel(s), and desired diagnostic information would dictate the radiochemical dopants used on any given shot--not all reactions would be possible nor monitored on any given experiment. Some of this diagnostic information is obtainable with other diagnostics, for example, the neutron yield is measured using Cu-activation pucks or nTOF. The unique niche of radiochemistry, for which few other measurements are currently planned, is the quantification of ablator/fuel mix. This diagnostic can supply complementary information on ablator {rho}R, asymmetry and unique information on mix--three of the four important concerns of the ignition campaign. This paper will not discuss the additional nuclear chemistry and physics possible by utilizing radiochemistry collection and similar nuclear reactions.

  12. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, R A; Glebov, V Y; Moran, M J; McNaney, J M; Kilkenny, J D; Eckart, M; Zacharias, R A; Haslam, J J; Clancy, T J; Yeoman, M F; Warwas, D P; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C; Knauer, J; Horsfield, C J

    2010-05-13

    The first three of eighteen neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2 x 10{sup 10} 2.45-MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  13. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  14. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NIF's ignition target designs and our ignition target designs given by simulations are also in accordance with the energy balance model. This work confirms the value of the energy balance model for ignition target design and experimental data assessment, and demonstrates that the NIF energy is enough to achieve ignition if a 1D spherical radiation drive could be created, meanwhile both the laser plasma instabilities and hydrodynamic instabilities could be suppressed.

  15. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  16. Structure of the Redox Sensor Domain of Azotobacter vinelandii NifL at Atomic Resolution: Signaling, Dimerization, and Mechanism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, J.; Hefti, M.H.; Purcell, E.B.; Moffat, K.

    2007-01-01

    NifL is a multidomain sensor protein responsible for the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in response to changes in cellular redox state and ADP concentration. Cellular redox is monitored by the N-terminal PAS domain of NifL which contains an FAD cofactor. Flavin-based PAS domains of

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelton, R. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Batha, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grim, G. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herrmann, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edgell, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glebov, V. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regan, S. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gatu-Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petrasso, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rindernecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cooper, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruiz, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  18. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements NIF site improvements SSDR 1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements associated with the NIF Project Site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Livermore, California. It identifies generic design conditions for all NIF Project facilities, including siting requirements associated with natural phenomena, and contains specific requirements for furnishing site-related infrastructure utilities and services to the NIF Project conventional facilities and experimental hardware systems. Three candidate sites were identified as potential locations for the NIF Project. However, LLNL has been identified by DOE as the preferred site because of closely related laser experimentation underway at LLNL, the ability to use existing interrelated infrastructure, and other reasons. Selection of a site other than LLNL will entail the acquisition of site improvements and infrastructure additional to those described in this document. This SSDR addresses only the improvements associated with the NIF Project site located at LLNL, including new work and relocation or demolition of existing facilities that interfere with the construction of new facilities. If the Record of Decision for the PEIS on Stockpile Stewardship and Management were to select another site, this SSDR would be revised to reflect the characteristics of the selected site. Other facilities and infrastructure needed to support operation of the NIF, such as those listed below, are existing and available at the LLNL site, and are not included in this SSDR. Office Building. Target Receiving and Inspection. General Assembly Building. Electro- Mechanical Shop. Warehousing and General Storage. Shipping and Receiving. General Stores. Medical Facilities. Cafeteria services. Service Station and Garage. Fire Station. Security and Badging Services

  19. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  20. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  1. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  2. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-microm-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE

  3. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of iron-bound forms of Azotobacter vinelandii (Nif)IscA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2012-10-16

    The ability of Azotobacter vinelandii(Nif)IscA to bind Fe has been investigated to assess the role of Fe-bound forms in NIF-specific Fe-S cluster biogenesis. (Nif)IscA is shown to bind one Fe(III) or one Fe(II) per homodimer and the spectroscopic and redox properties of both the Fe(III)- and Fe(II)-bound forms have been characterized using the UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, and variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The results reveal a rhombic intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) Fe(III) center (E/D = 0.33, D = 3.5 ± 1.5 cm(-1)) that is most likely 5-coordinate with two or three cysteinate ligands and a rhombic high spin (S = 2) Fe(II) center (E/D = 0.28, D = 7.6 cm(-1)) with properties similar to reduced rubredoxins or rubredoxin variants with three cysteinate and one or two oxygenic ligands. Iron-bound (Nif)IscA undergoes reversible redox cycling between the Fe(III)/Fe(II) forms with a midpoint potential of +36 ± 15 mV at pH 7.8 (versus NHE). l-Cysteine is effective in mediating release of free Fe(II) from both the Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-bound forms of (Nif)IscA. Fe(III)-bound (Nif)IscA was also shown to be a competent iron source for in vitro NifS-mediated [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly on the N-terminal domain of NifU, but the reaction occurs via cysteine-mediated release of free Fe(II) rather than direct iron transfer. The proposed roles of A-type proteins in storing Fe under aerobic growth conditions and serving as iron donors for cluster assembly on U-type scaffold proteins or maturation of biological [4Fe-4S] centers are discussed in light of these results.

  4. Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Caggiano, J A; Carman, M L; Clancy, T J; Hatarik, R; McNaney, J; Zaitseva, N P

    2012-10-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.

  5. Improved Solar Cell Efficiency Through the Use of an Additive Nanostructure-Based Optical Downshifter: Final Subcontract Report, January 28, 2010 -- February 28, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtin, J.

    2011-05-01

    This final report summarizes all SpectraWatt's progress in achieving a boost in solar cell efficiency using an optical downshifter. Spectrawatt's downshifting technology is based on a nanostructured material system which absorbs high energy (short wavelength) light and reemits it at a lower energy (long wavelength) with high efficiency. This system has shown unprecedented performance parameters including near unity quantum yield and high thermal stability.

  6. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Nishikawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL. A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  7. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription. PMID:22267004

  8. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, C Y; Araújo, L M; Kadowaki, M A S; Monteiro, R A; Steffens, M B R; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Chubatsu, L S

    2012-02-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ(54) co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH(4)Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  9. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-27

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ{sup 54} factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH{sub 4}Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  10. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet

  11. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia

    2017-06-28

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  12. In silico characterization and transcriptomic analysis of nif family genes from Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpi; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In silico approaches in conjunction with morphology, nitrogenase activity, and qRT-PCR explore the impact of selected abiotic stressor such as arsenic, salt, cadmium, copper, and butachlor on nitrogen fixing (nif family) genes of diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. A total of 19 nif genes are present within the Anabaena genome that is involved in the process of nitrogen fixation. Docking studies revealed the interaction between these nif gene-encoded proteins and the selected abiotic stressors which were further validated through decreased heterocyst frequency, fragmentation of filaments, and downregulation of nitrogenase activity under these stresses indicating towards their toxic impact on nitrogen fixation potential of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Another appealing finding of this study is even though having similar binding energy and similar interacting residues between arsenic/salt and copper/cadmium to nif-encoded proteins, arsenic and cadmium are more toxic than salt and copper for nitrogenase activity of Anabaena which is crucial for growth and yield of rice paddy and soil reclamation.

  13. Money and Politics: Who Owns Democracy? NIF Report on the Issues, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Issues Forums, Dayton, OH.

    National Issues Forums (NIF) bring together citizens to deliberate and make choices about challenging social and political issues of the day. These forums have addressed issues such as the economy, education, health care, foreign affairs, and crime. This report is an analysis of what happened in a forum on "Money and Politics" that took…

  14. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth.

  15. pMH2, a small plasmid bearing the nif gene cluster of Enterobacter agglomerans 333 as an excisable cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, F; Halda, L; Klingmüller, W

    1993-10-01

    A small plasmid containing the entire nif gene cluster of Enterobacter agglomerans 333 as an excisable cassette has been constructed, using pACYC177 as a vector. Two cosmid clones taken from a gene library of E. agglomerans plasmid pEA3 were used as a source of nif genes. A SmaI fragment of peaMS2-2, containing the H,D,K,Y,E,N,X,U,S,V,W,Z,M,L,A and B genes and an ApaI fragment of peaMS2-16 containing nif A,B,Q,F and J were selected to construct pMH2. The resulting plasmid of 33 kb carries the complete nif gene cluster as a nif cassette on a single XbaI fragment. The nif construct pMH2 in Escherichia coli strains has significant nitrogenase activity compared to wild-type E. agglomerans 333. The nif gene cluster construct was found to be very stable.

  16. Analysis and Design of a Fiber-optic Probe for DNA Sensors Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1147-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molau, Nicole [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vail, Curtis [Accu.Photonics, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-01-24

    In 1995, a challenge in the field of genetics dealt with the acquisition of efficient DNA sequencing techniques for reading the 3 billion base-pairs that comprised the human genome. AccuPhotonics, Inc. proposed to develop and manufacture a state-of-the-art near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) fiber-optic probe that was expected to increase probe efficiency by two orders of magnitude over the existing state-of-the-art and to improve resolution to 10Å. The detailed design calculation and optimization of electrical properties of the fiber-optic probe tip geometry would be performed at LLNL, using existing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic (EM) codes.

  17. Testing and Quality Assurance of the Control System During NIF Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casavant, D; Carey, R; Cline, B; Lagin, L; Ludwigsen, P; Reddi, U; Van Arsdall, P

    2003-10-13

    The strategy used to develop the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (NIF ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver nearly one million lines of code. Software releases that implement specific functionality are approved for deployment when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance and interface requirements using test procedures derived from system requirements. At this stage of the project the controls team has delivered approximately 3/4 of the planned software by performing dozens of development and test cycles within offline test facilities and followed by online tests to confirm integrated operation in the NIF. Test incidents are recorded and tracked from development to successful deployment by the verification team, with hardware and software changes approved by the appropriate change control board. Project metrics are generated by the Software Quality Assurance manager and monitored by ICCS management. Test results are summarized and reported to responsible individuals and Project managers under a work authorization and permit process that assesses risk and evaluates control system upgrade readiness. NIF is well into the first phases of its laser commissioning program to characterize and operate the first four laser beams and target systems. The integrated control system has successfully fired over 100 coordinated shots into beam diagnostics and an initial set of target diagnostics in the 10-m diameter target chamber. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in prototype laboratories and in the NIF. This paper will discuss NIF's software QC and QA processes, capabilities of offline test facilities, and metrics collection.

  18. Testing and Quality Assurance of the Control System During NIF Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casavant, D.; Carey, R.; Cline, B.; Lagin, L.; Ludwigsen, P.; Reddi, U.; Van Arsdall, P.

    2003-01-01

    The strategy used to develop the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (NIF ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver nearly one million lines of code. Software releases that implement specific functionality are approved for deployment when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance and interface requirements using test procedures derived from system requirements. At this stage of the project the controls team has delivered approximately 3/4 of the planned software by performing dozens of development and test cycles within offline test facilities and followed by online tests to confirm integrated operation in the NIF. Test incidents are recorded and tracked from development to successful deployment by the verification team, with hardware and software changes approved by the appropriate change control board. Project metrics are generated by the Software Quality Assurance manager and monitored by ICCS management. Test results are summarized and reported to responsible individuals and Project managers under a work authorization and permit process that assesses risk and evaluates control system upgrade readiness. NIF is well into the first phases of its laser commissioning program to characterize and operate the first four laser beams and target systems. The integrated control system has successfully fired over 100 coordinated shots into beam diagnostics and an initial set of target diagnostics in the 10-m diameter target chamber. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in prototype laboratories and in the NIF. This paper will discuss NIF's software QC and QA processes, capabilities of offline test facilities, and metrics collection

  19. CORBA-Based Distributed Software Framework for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, E A; Carey, R W; Estes, C M; Fisher, J M; Lagin, L J; Mathisen, D G; Reynolds, C A; Sanchez, R J

    2007-11-20

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) which is a scalable, framework-based control system distributed over 800 computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates and extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points and implement specializations of common application behaviors. An estimated 140 thousand software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Many of these objects have persistent configuration information stored in a database. The configuration data is used to initialize the objects at system start-up. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, data archival, name service, data access, and process management provide common system wide services. At the highest level, a model-driven, distributed shot automation system provides a flexible and scalable framework for automatic sequencing of work-flow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The shot model, in conjunction with data defining the parameters and goals of an experiment, describes the steps to be performed by each subsystem in order to prepare for and fire a NIF shot. Status and usage of this distributed framework are described.

  20. CORBA-based distributed software framework for the NIF integrated computer control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: stout6@llnl.gov; Carey, R.W.; Estes, C.M.; Fisher, J.M.; Lagin, L.J.; Mathisen, D.G.; Reynolds, C.A.; Sanchez, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 MJ, 500 TW, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) which is a scalable, framework-based control system distributed over 800 computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates and extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points and implement specializations of common application behaviors. An estimated 140,000 software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Many of these objects have persistent configuration information stored in a database. The configuration data is used to initialize the objects at system start-up. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, data archival, name service, data access, and process management provide common system wide services. At the highest level, a model-driven, distributed shot automation system provides a flexible and scalable framework for automatic sequencing of workflow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The shot model, in conjunction with data defining the parameters and goals of an experiment, describes the steps to be performed by each subsystem in order to prepare for and fire a NIF shot. Status and usage of this distributed framework are described.

  1. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  2. PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL SCIENCES Final Report for the period September 30, 2008 to June 30, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, James

    2015-06-29

    This report is the final report for the 2008-2014 cycle of DOE support for the Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences. Highlights of the committee’s activities over this period included: • Meetings of the committee were held semiannually (Washington, DC in April and Irvine, CA in October) for four of the six years and annually the last two years (Washington, DC in April). • Committee meetings included half-day focus sessions on each of the areas identified in the last AMO decadal survey as having great scientific promise and short summaries of the focus session were prepared and delivered to sponsoring agencies. • CAMOS initiated a study that has been funded on high intensity lasers. DOE support for CAMOS has been of central importance to the committee’s ability to continue to fulfill its mandate to the Board on Physics and Astronomy and to the wider atomic, molecular, and optical sciences research community.

  3. Optical Materials, Adhesive and Encapsulant, III-V, and Optical Characterization Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-216

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M.

    2012-11-01

    SolFocus is currently developing solar technology for utility scale application using Winston collector based concentrating photovoltaics (CPV). Part of that technology development includes small mirror dishes and front surface reflectors, and bonding the separate parts to the assembly. Mirror panels must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. The reflective surfaces must demonstrate long term durability and maintain high reflectivity. Some bonded surfaces must maintain adhesion and transparency under high concentrations and high temperatures. Others will experience moderate temperatures and do not require transparency. NREL researchers have developed methods and tools that address these related areas.

  4. Development of Optical Diagnostic Probes to Enhance Minimally Invasive Surgical Systems: Final Report CRADA No. TC-1085-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Dennis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Barbara [Conversion Energy Enterprises, Spring Valley, NY (United States)

    2000-11-28

    The purpose of this project was to develop optical probes that would identify tissue conditions and tissue type while the tissue was being subjected to therapeutic energy delivery systems (EDSs). These systems included electrosurgical, optical and thermal sources. Feedback from the probe would be given directly to the EDS leading to "smart" instruments which would automatically adjust energy delivery parameters to obtain optimal tissue welding, coagulation, and cutting. The project was scheduled to be a three-year effort. The initial three-year project was extended another two years with a first amendment of the work statement (Appendix A of the CRADA). A second and then third amendment extended the work statement two additional years.

  5. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  6. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  7. The NifA-RpoN Regulon of Mesorhizobium loti Strain R7A and Its Symbiotic Activation by a Novel LacI/GalR-Family Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John T.; Brown, Steven D.; Ronson, Clive W.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valerie

    2013-01-07

    Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSymR7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSymR7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSymR7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.

  8. The NifA-RpoN regulon of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A and its symbiotic activation by a novel LacI/GalR-family regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Sullivan

    Full Text Available Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSym(R7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSym(R7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSym(R7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSym(R7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.

  9. Sensorimotor nucleus NIf is necessary for auditory processing but not vocal motor output in the avian song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F

    2005-04-01

    Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.

  10. EXAFS reveals two Mo environments in the nitrogenase iron-molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic protein NifQ†

    OpenAIRE

    George, Simon J.; Hernandez, Jose A.; Jimenez-Vicente, Emilio; Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Rubio, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Mo and Fe K-edge EXAFS analysis of NifQ shows the presence of a [MoFe3S4] cluster and a second independent Mo environment that includes Mo-O bonds and Mo-S bonds. Both environments are relevant to FeMo-co biosynthesis and may represent different stages of Mo biochemical transformations catalyzed by NifQ.

  11. Evaluation of the potential of optical switching materials for overheating protection of thermal solar collectors - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huot, G.; Roecker, Ch.; Schueler, A.

    2008-01-15

    Providing renewable energy for domestic hot water production and space heating, thermal solar collectors are more and more widespread, and users' expectations with respect to performance and service lifetime are rising continuously. The durability of solar collector materials is a critical point as the collector lifetime should be at least 25 years. Overheating and the resulting stagnation of the collector is a common problem with solar thermal systems. During stagnation high temperatures lead to water evaporation, glycol degradation, and stresses in the collector with increasing pressure. Special precautions are necessary to release this pressure; only mechanical solutions exist nowadays. Additionally, the occurring elevated temperatures lead to degradation of the materials that compose collectors: seals, insulation materials, and also the selective coating which is the most important part of the collector. A promising way to achieve active cooling of collectors without any mechanical device for pressure release or collector emptying is to produce a selective coating which is able to switch its optical properties at a critical temperature Tc. An optical switch allows changing the selective coating efficiency; the goal is to obtain a coating with a poor selectivity above Tc (decreasing of absorptance, increasing of emittance). Obtaining self-cooling collectors will allow increasing collector surfaces on facades and roofs in order to get high efficiency and hot water production during winter without inconvenient overheating during summer. Optical switching of materials can be obtained by many ways. Inorganic and organic thermochromic compounds, and organic thermotropic coatings are the main types of switching coatings that have been studied at EPFL-LESO-PB. Aging studies of organic thermochromic paints fabricated at EPFL suggest that the durability of organic compounds might not be sufficient for glazed metallic collectors. First samples of inorganic coatings

  12. Development of Operational Free-Space-Optical (FSO) Laser Communication Systems Final Report CRADA No. TC02093.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Orgren, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This project was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and LGS Innovations, LLC (formerly Lucent Technologies, Inc.), to develop long-range and mobile operational free-space optical (FSO) laser communication systems for specialized government applications. LLNL and LGS Innovations formerly Lucent Bell Laboratories Government Communications Systems performed this work for a United States Government (USG) Intelligence Work for Others (I-WFO) customer, also referred to as "Government Customer", or "Customer" and "Government Sponsor." The CRADA was a critical and required part of the LLNL technology transfer plan for the customer.

  13. Functional participation of a nifH-arsA2 chimeric fusion gene in arsenic reduction by Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2008-01-01

    The NifH (dimer) and ArsA proteins are structural homologs and share common motifs like nucleotide-binding domains, signal transduction domains and also possible similar metal center ligands. Given the similarity between two proteins, we investigated if the NifH protein from Azotobacter vinelandii could functionally substitute for the ArsA1 half of the ArsA protein of Escherichia coli. The chimeric NifH-ArsA2 protein was expressed and detected in the E. coli strain by Western blotting. Growth comparisons of E. coli strains containing plasmids encoding for complete ArsA, partial ArsA (ArsA2) or chimeric ArsA (NifH-ArsA2) in media with increasing sodium arsenite concentrations (0-5 mM) showed that the chimeric NifH-ArsA2 could substitute for the ArsA. This functional complementation demonstrated the strong conservation of essential domains that have been maintained in NifH and ArsA even after their divergence to perform varied functions

  14. Organization of nif gene cluster in Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, a symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Jae; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, Jitae; Kim, Won Jin; Lee, Hyoungseok; An, Chung Sun

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 20.5-kb genomic region harboring nif genes was determined and analyzed. The fragment was obtained from Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, an indigenous symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata. A total of 20 ORFs including 12 nif genes were identified and subjected to comparative analysis with the genome sequences of 3 Frankia strains representing diverse host plant specificities. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed highest levels of identity with orthologous genes from an Elaeagnus-infecting strain. The gene organization patterns around the nif gene clusters were well conserved among all 4 Frankia strains. However, characteristic features appeared in the location of the nifV gene for each Frankia strain, depending on the type of host plant. Sequence analysis was performed to determine the transcription units and suggested that there could be an independent operon starting from the nifW gene in the EuIK strain. Considering the organization patterns and their total extensions on the genome, we propose that the nif gene clusters remained stable despite genetic variations occurring in the Frankia genomes.

  15. First Results from the South Pole Bang Time (SPBT) Diagnostic on the NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Magoon, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J., III; Stoeckl, C.; Macphee, A.; Bradley, D. K.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Eckart, M. J.; Jones, O. S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kimbrough, J. R.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Parker, J.; Thomas, T.

    2011-10-01

    The south pole bang time (SPBT) x-ray diagnostic has been successfully fielded on the NIF. SPBT consists of chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detectors, with different filtrations, located 3 m directly below target chamber center, viewing the implosion through the hohlraum laser entrance hole. The diamond detectors are sensitive to both x rays and neutrons. HOPG crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal to background ratio. SPBT is designed to measure the x-ray bang time with an accuracy of a few tens of picoseconds. SPBT x-ray and neutron results from NIF implosions are presented along with timing and error analysis. *This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  16. Sensitivity of Inferred Electron Temperature from X-ray Emission of NIF Cryogenic DT Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, Michael [Univ. of Dallas, Irving, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seeks to achieve thermonuclear ignition through inertial confinement fusion. The accurate assessment of the performance of each implosion experiment is a crucial step. Here we report on work to derive a reliable electron temperature for the cryogenic deuteriumtritium implosions completed on the NIF using the xray signal from the Ross filter diagnostic. These Xrays are dominated by bremsstrahlung emission. By fitting the xray signal measured through each of the individual Ross filters, the source bremsstrahlung spectrum can be inferred, and an electron temperature of the implosion hot spot inferred. Currently, each filter is weighted equally in this analysis. We present work quantifying the errors with such a technique and the results from investigating the contribution of each filter to the overall accuracy of the temperature inference. Using this research, we also compare the inferred electron temperature against other measured implosion quantities to develop a more complete understanding of the hotspot physics.

  17. Data Analysis of the Gated-LEH X-Ray Imaging Diagnostic at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Matthew; Chen, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The Gated Laser Entrance Hole (G-LEH) x-ray imaging diagnostic in use at the NIF offers a desirable combination of spatial and temporal resolution. By looking inside of NIF hohlraums with time resolution, G-LEH measures target features including LEH size and capsule size. A framework is presented for automated and systematic analysis of G-LEH images that measures several physical parameters of interest and their evolution over time. The results from these analyses enable comparisons with hohlraum models and allow model validation of LEH closure velocity and the extent of capsule blow-off. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Neutron peak velocity measurements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using novel quartz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Root, Jaben; Sayre, Daniel; Schlossberg, David; Waltz, Cory

    2017-10-01

    In mid-2017 the NIF implemented quartz based neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors which have a faster and narrower impulse response function (IRF) relative to traditional scintillator detectors. In this presentation we report on comparisons between fusion neutron first moments as measured by quartz and scintillator based detectors using DT layered implosions at the NIF. We report on the change in precision presaged by the quartz converter and quantify the change in both in shot, line-of-site velocity variability. as well as, shot-to-shot variation. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734511-DRAFT.

  19. CAD Model and Visual Assisted Control System for NIF Target Area Positioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekle, E A; Wilson, E F; Paik, T S

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber contains precision motion control systems that reach up to 6 meters into the target chamber for handling targets and diagnostics. Systems include the target positioner, an alignment sensor, and diagnostic manipulators (collectively called positioners). Target chamber shot experiments require a variety of positioner arrangements near the chamber center to be aligned to an accuracy of 10 micrometers. Positioners are some of the largest devices in NIF, and they require careful monitoring and control in 3 dimensions to prevent interferences. The Integrated Computer Control System provides efficient and flexible multi-positioner controls. This is accomplished through advanced video-control integration incorporating remote position sensing and realtime analysis of a CAD model of target chamber devices. The control system design, the method used to integrate existing mechanical CAD models, and the offline test laboratory used to verify proper operation of the control system are described

  20. CRADA Final Report: Thermal Design and Analysis Tools for Dense-Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed (DWDM) Optical Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Deborah

    2005-01-31

    The current project originated from discussions with designers and engineers in the opto-electronics industry who sought help from LBNL in identifying effective thermal-management strategies for optical-network components and systems. Miniaturization of opto-electronic components exacerbates the thermal management problem because it allows a greater number of temperature-sensitive components to be fit into less space. Measurement techniques are required to evaluate emerging technologies, test prototype designs, and provide data that can be used to calibrate and validate models. To address these needs, LBNL and project partners developed a test station that allows experiments to be performed under tightly controlled conditions. The central component of the testing device is a "guarded" hot plate that enables high-precision temperature measurements, allowing forced-convection cooling devices to be evaluated. The device is so named because guard plates are used to eliminate heat flow and ensure that heat is not dissipated through the cooling device under investigation. This tool not only allows characterization of emerging technologies and materials, but also allows collection of high-resolution data that can be used to validate and improve simulation tools used to develop next-generation cooling devices for telecommunication systems. The ability to measure and analyze thermal performance benefits the photonics and optical-network industry by reducing development costs and time to market.

  1. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  2. Design options for reducing the impact of the fill-tube in ICF implosion experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christopher R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Le Pape, S.; Macphee, A.; Milovich, J.; Pickworth, L. A.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stadermann, M.; Felker, S. J.; Nikroo, A.; Thomas, C. A.; Crippen, J.; Rice, N.

    2017-10-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are filled with thermonuclear fuel through a fill-tube. When the capsule implodes, perturbations caused by the fill-tube allow ablator material to mix into the hot spot and reduce fusion performance. This talk will explore several design options that attempt to reduce this damaging effect. Reducing the diameter of the fill-tube and its entrance hole is the obvious course and has been tested in experiments. Simulations also show sensitivity to the amount of glue holding the fill-tube to the capsule and suggest that careful control of this feature can limit the amount of injected mass. Finally, an off-axis fill-tube reduces the initial squirt of material into the fuel and may be a way of further optimizing this engineering feature. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Zylstra, A B; Rosenberg, M; Waugh, C J; Rinderknecht, H G; Casey, D T; Sio, H; Ruszczynski, J K; Zhou, L; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J

    2012-04-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D(3)He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10(7) s(-1) and 10(6) s(-1) for DD and D(3)He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  4. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  5. NIF-Scale Hohlraum Asymmetry Studies Using Point-Projection Radiograph of Thin Shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollaine, S.; Bradley, D.; Landen, O.; Wallace, R.; Jones, O.

    2000-01-01

    Our current OMEGA experimental campaign is developing the thin shell diagnostic for use on NIF with the needed accuracy. The thin shell diagnostic has the advantage of linearity over alternative measurement techniques, so that low-order modes will not corrupt the measurement of high-order modes. Although our random measurement errors are adequate, we need to monitor beam balance and ensure that the thin shells have a uniform thickness

  6. D2 and DT Liquid-Layer Target Shots on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Curtis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alger, Ethan [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bhandarkar, Suhas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boehm, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Braun, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Espinosaloza, Francisco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haid, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heredia, Ricardo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kline, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozioziemski, Bernard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kroll, Jeremy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malone, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Opsahl, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sater, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using targets containing a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel layer have, until recently, required that a high-quality layer of solid deuterium-tritium (herein referred to as an "ice-layer") be formed in the capsule. The development of a process to line the inner surface of a target capsule with a foam layer of a thickness that is typical of icelayers has resulted in the ability to field targets with liquid layers wetting the foam. Successful fielding of liquid-layer targets on NIF required not only a foam lined capsule, but also changes to the capsule filling process and the manner with which the inventory is maintained in the capsule. Additionally, changes to target heater power and the temperature drops across target components were required in order to achieve the desired range of shot temperatures. These changes, and the target's performance during four target shots on NIF will be discussed.

  7. An exploration of Lasnex designs to support the MShock campaign at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolder, Barbara Gloria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-11

    In support of planned MShock experiments at NIF, Lasnex is being used to explore possible laser sources and halfraum designs that launch two shocks into an ablator - shock tube configuration. Two design features were investigated: (1) launching a two-component laser source consisting of an early pre-pulse separated in time from a later main pulse, to create two shocks, and (2) adding a liner on the inner surface of the gold wall of the halfraum, to delay or prevent gold stagnation on-axis and to preserve the effectiveness of the second laser pulse. The clearest indication of two shocks propagating in the shock tube occurred when the pre-pulse mimicked a direct drive, achieved by re-pointing the inner beam cones, and when a liner was used to ensure that the free-electron number density was below the critical density for NIF. Additional simulations (presented in the Appendix) that used the two-component laser source but focused on specific choices in laser-pulse design space, as proposed by Kirk Flippo for use in the first MShock experiments at NIF, also demonstrated the presence of two shocks.

  8. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  9. ORGANIZATION OF THE nif GENES OF THE NONHETEROCYSTOUS CYANOBACTERIUM TRICHODESMIUM SP. IMS101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Benny; Zani, Sabino; Chen, Yi-Bu; Mellon, Mark T; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2000-08-26

    An approximately 16-kb fragment of the Trichodesmium sp. IMS101 (a nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium) "conventional"nif gene cluster was cloned and sequenced. The gene organization of the Trichodesmium and Anabaena variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase gene clusters spanning the region from nif B to nif W are similar except for the absence of two open reading frames (ORF3 and ORF1) in Trichodesmium. The Trichodesmium nif EN genes encode a fused Nif EN polypeptide that does not appear to be processed into individual Nif E and Nif N polypeptides. Fused nif EN genes were previously found in the A. variabilis nif 2 genes, but we have found that fused nif EN genes are widespread in the nonheterocystous cyanobacteria. Although the gene organization of the nonheterocystous filamentous Trichodesmium nif gene cluster is very similar to that of the A. variabilis vegetative nif 2 gene cluster, phylogenetic analysis of nif sequences do not support close relatedness of Trichodesmium and A. variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase genes.

  10. A Platform for X-Ray Thomson Scattering Measurements of Radiation Hydrodynamics Experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Heath; Ma, Kevin; Belancourt, Patrick; MacDonald, Michael; Doeppner, Tilo; Keiter, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2017-10-01

    A recent experiment on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) radiographed the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability under high and low drive cases. This experiment showed that under a high drive the growth rate of the RT instability is reduced relative to the low drive case. The high drive launches a radiative shock, increases the temperature of the post-shock region, and ablates the spikes, which reduces the RT growth rate. The plasma parameters must be measured to validate this claim. We present a target design for making X-Ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) measurements on radiation hydrodynamics experiments on NIF to measure the electron temperature of the shocked region in the above cases. Specifically, we show that a previously fielded NIF radiation hydrodynamics platform can be modified to allow sufficient signal and temperature resolution for XRTS measurements. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956 and the National Science Foundation through the Basic Plasma Science and Engineering program.

  11. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  12. Enhancing Ignition Probability and Fusion Yield in NIF Indirect Drive Targets with Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, B. Grant; Ho, Darwin; Zimmerman, George; Rhodes, Mark; Blackfield, Donald; Hawkins, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under capsule compression may relax conditions for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive ICF targets. This may allow attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently-performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation. Results of detailed 2D radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction and stabilization of higher-mode RT instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are around 50 T. Off-line testing has been performed of a hohlraum coil and pulsed power supply that could be integrated on NIF; axial fields of 58T were obtained. Given the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by 3-D resistive MHD, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to NIF ICF ignition and burn. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Development of the real-time neutron activation diagnostic system for NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jaben R.; Jedlovec, Donald R.; Edwards, Ellen R.; Yeamans, Charles B.; Golod, Tony; Hernandez, Jose; Adams, Phil; Brunton, Gordon

    2017-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is one of the highest fluence neutron sources provided by the nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei. One of the resultant products is 14.1 MeV neutrons which provide key information to the conditions in which they were formed. The degree of polar and azimuthal symmetry of the neutron flux is a key metric for the performance of the capsule, thus a spatially-resolved measurement of the neutron distribution is critical. Implementing a suite of 48 lanthanum bromide detectors with zirconium activation samples around the target chamber has been developed to measure the neutron distribution. The system provides near real-time time estimates of the neutron fluence distribution. It is designed to operate over six orders of magnitude of neutron yield, providing overall yield estimates precise to 2%. The system is designed to operate continuously through the NIF shot cycles, accommodating high data rates. We will describe the nuclear counting system, data acquisition and archiving, analysis, and yield distribution results for some NIF high yield shots. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-CONF-736439

  14. Status of the Use of Large-Scale Corba-Distributed Software Framework for NIF Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, R W; Bettenhausen, R C; Estes, C M; Fisher, J M; Krammen, J E; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Mathisen, D G; Matone, J T; Patterson, R W; Reynolds, C A; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A; Tappero, J D; Van Arsdall, P J

    2005-09-09

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is based on a scalable software framework that will be distributed over some 750 Computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates to be extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points. About 140 thousand software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Most of the objects have persistent state that is initialized at system start-up and stored in a database. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, message logging, data archive, name services, and process management provide additional framework services. A higher-level model-based, distributed shot automation framework also provides a flexible and scalable scripted framework for automatic sequencing of work-flow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The ICCS software framework has allowed for efficient construction of a software system that supports a large number of distributed control points representing a complex control application. Status of the use of this framework during first experimental shot campaigns and initial commissioning and build-out of the laser facility is described.

  15. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)) provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  16. Controlled expression of nif and isc iron-sulfur protein maturation components reveals target specificity and limited functional replacement between the two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Patricia C; Johnson, Deborah C; Ragle, Brook E; Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Dean, Dennis R

    2007-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing organism Azotobacter vinelandii contains at least two systems that catalyze formation of [Fe-S] clusters. One of these systems is encoded by nif genes, whose products supply [Fe-S] clusters required for maturation of nitrogenase. The other system is encoded by isc genes, whose products are required for maturation of [Fe-S] proteins that participate in general metabolic processes. The two systems are similar in that they include an enzyme for the mobilization of sulfur (NifS or IscS) and an assembly scaffold (NifU or IscU) upon which [Fe-S] clusters are formed. Normal cellular levels of the Nif system, which supplies [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase, cannot also supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of other cellular [Fe-S] proteins. Conversely, when produced at the normal physiological levels, the Isc system cannot supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase. In the present work we found that such target specificity for IscU can be overcome by elevated production of NifU. We also found that NifU, when expressed at normal levels, is able to partially replace the function of IscU if cells are cultured under low-oxygen-availability conditions. In contrast to the situation with IscU, we could not establish conditions in which the function of IscS could be replaced by NifS. We also found that elevated expression of the Isc components, as a result of deletion of the regulatory iscR gene, improved the capacity for nitrogen-fixing growth of strains deficient in either NifU or NifS.

  17. Analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias and relationship of GC content, amino acid composition with expression of the structural nif genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.

  18. Calculating the shrapnel generation and subsequent damage to first wall and optics components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Lew, B.; Curran, D.R.; Sanchez, J.; Anderson, A.; Tobin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to computationally assess the threat from shrapnel generation on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) first wall, final optics, and ultimately other target chamber components. Shrapnel is defined as material.that is in a solid, liquid, or clustered-vapor phase with sufficient velocity to become a threat to exposed surfaces as a consequence of its impact. Typical NIF experiments will be of two types, low neutron yield shots in which the capsule is not cryogenically cooled, and high yield shots for which cryogenic cooling of the capsule is required. For non-cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be produced by spaIIing, melting and vaporizing of ''shine shields'' by absorption and shock wave loading following 1-ω and 2-ω laser radiation. For cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be generated through shock wave splitting, spalling, and droplet formation of the cryogenic tubes following neutron energy deposition. Motion of the shrapnel is determined not only by particle velocities resulting from the neutron deposition, but also by both x-ray and debris loading arising from explosion of the hohlraum. Material responses of different target area components are computed from one- dimensional and two-dimensional stress wave propagation codes. Well developed rate-dependent spall computational models are used for stainless steel spall and splitting,. Severe cell distortion is accounted for in shine-shield and hohlraum-loading computations. Resulting distributions of shrapnel particles are traced to the first wall and optics and damage is estimated for candidate materials. First wall and optical material damage from shrapnel includes crater formation and associated extended cracking

  19. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  20. Development of key technologies in DPSSL system for fast-ignition, laser fusion reactor - FIREX, HALNA, and protection of final optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Fujimoto, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Kanabe, T.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Shiraga, H.; Tanaka, K.A.; Tsubakimoto, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Izawa, Y.; Kawashima, T.; Kurita, T.; Matsumoto, O.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Sekine, T.; Kan, H.

    2005-01-01

    A critical path to a laser fusion power plant is construction of a reliable, efficient, high repetitive energy driver including the relation with the reactor environment. At ILE, Osaka University, FIREX project has been proposed and the phase I to show heating of compressed fuel to 5 keV has started with construction of the FIREX laser. This project will demonstrate physics of fast ignition and elemental studies are carried out to obtain persuasive data to find the path to the goal. A diode-laser-pumped, solid-state-laser (DPSSL) HALNA-10 succeeded in operation of 7.5J output power at 10 Hz rep-rate. Contamination of final optics by metal vapor was studied using a 1/10 model of the beam duct. The result indicated that contamination can be controlled with high speed shutters and a low pressure buffer gas. (author)

  1. Development of Chemically Amplified Optical Sensors for Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1162-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Mastrototaro, John J. [Minimed Technologies, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects 14 million people in the U.S. and more than 110 million people worldwide. Each year in this country 27,000 diabetic patients become blind, 15,000 have kidney failure, and over 54,000 have peripheral limb amputations. In 1992, total healthcare costs in the U.S. for diabetes were more than $105 billion, approximately 15% of our healthcare budget. Conventional therapy for the most severe form of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes, is to administer one or two injections per day of various forms of insulin while monitoring blood glucose levels twice or three times daily with commercial glucometers that require blood samples. Near normal blood sugar levels (glycemic control) is difficult to achieve with conventional therapy. In the fall of 1993, the results of the 10-year $165 million Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were published which showed that intensive insulin management would lead to dramatically fewer cases of retinopathy (which leads to blindness), nephropathy (which leads to kidney failure), and neuropathy (which can lead to limb amputations) [New England Journal of Medicine, Vo1239, No.14 977-986 (1993)]. If existing commercial insulin pumps could be combined with a continuous glucose sensor, a more physiological and fine-tuned therapy could be provided - in effect, an artificial biomechanical pancreas would be available. Existing research suggested that such a development would dramatically improve glucose control, thus greatly reducing morbidity and mortality from this disease. MiniMed Technologies in Sylmar, CA, identified a number of optically based sensor strategies as well as candidate chemical reactions that could be used to implement a minimally invasive opto-chemical glucose sensor. LLNL evaluated these sensor strategies and chemical reactions. These evaluations were the first steps leading to development of a sensor of considerable importance that could

  2. Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, A., LLNL

    1998-06-09

    In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

  3. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of iron-sulfur cluster-bound forms of Azotobacter vinelandii (Nif)IscA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2012-10-16

    The mechanism of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly on A-type Fe-S cluster assembly proteins, in general, and the specific role of (Nif)IscA in the maturation of nitrogen fixation proteins are currently unknown. To address these questions, in vitro spectroscopic studies (UV-visible absorption/CD, resonance Raman and Mössbauer) have been used to investigate the mechanism of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly on Azotobacter vinelandii(Nif)IscA, and the ability of (Nif)IscA to accept clusters from NifU and to donate clusters to the apo form of the nitrogenase Fe-protein. The results show that (Nif)IscA can rapidly and reversibly cycle between forms containing one [2Fe-2S](2+) and one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster per homodimer via DTT-induced two-electron reductive coupling of two [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters and O(2)-induced [4Fe-4S](2+) oxidative cleavage. This unique type of cluster interconversion in response to cellular redox status and oxygen levels is likely to be important for the specific role of A-type proteins in the maturation of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing proteins under aerobic growth or oxidative stress conditions. Only the [4Fe-4S](2+)-(Nif)IscA was competent for rapid activation of apo-nitrogenase Fe protein under anaerobic conditions. Apo-(Nif)IscA was shown to accept clusters from [4Fe-4S] cluster-bound NifU via rapid intact cluster transfer, indicating a potential role as a cluster carrier for delivery of clusters assembled on NifU. Overall the results support the proposal that A-type proteins can function as carrier proteins for clusters assembled on U-type proteins and suggest that they are likely to supply [2Fe-2S] clusters rather than [4Fe-4S] for the maturation of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing proteins under aerobic or oxidative stress growth conditions.

  4. Structure of the nifQ gene from Enterobacter agglomerans 333 and its overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddavattam, D; Singh, M; Klingmüller, W

    1993-06-01

    The nifQ gene, involved in early stages of iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) biosynthesis, was identified downstream of the nifB and nifF genes of Enterobacter agglomerans. This gene was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The amino acid sequence, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed an accumulation of cysteine amino acid residues at the C-terminal end of the protein. The cysteine cluster showed the following consensus sequence Cys-X4-Cys-X2-Cys-X5-Cys, which is a typical characteristic of metal-binding proteins. Further, the nifQ gene was cloned downstream of strong transcriptional (bacteriophage lambda PLPR) and translational (atpE) signals of the expression vector pCYTEXP1 and expressed as an unfused, soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The molecular mass of 19 kDa, as deduced by SDS-PAGE, is in good agreement with the molecular mass deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The availability of high-level expression clones should facilitate purification of large quantities of the recombinant NifQ protein and elucidation of its properties.

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the nifH gene from mangrove rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyin; Peng, Mengjun; Li, Youguo

    2012-04-01

    Nine types of nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from 3 rhizosphere soil samples taken from mangrove plants in the Dongzhaigang National Mangrove Nature Reserve of China. Most isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonas, showing that these environments constituted favorable niches for such abundant nitrogen-fixing bacteria. New members of the diazotrophs were also found. Using a soil DNA extraction and PCR-cloning-sequencing approach, 135 clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and 27 unique nifH sequence phylotypes were identified, most of which were closely related to sequences from uncultured bacteria. The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed by constructing nifH phylogenetic trees from sequences of all isolates and clones in this work, together with related nifH sequences from other mangrove ecosystems in GenBank. The nifH diversity varied among soil samples, with distinct biogeochemical properties within a mangrove ecosystem. When comparing different mangrove ecosystems, the nifH gene sequences from a specific site tended to cluster as individual groups. The results provided interesting data and novel information on our understanding of diazotroph community diversity in the mangrove ecosystems.

  6. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language

  7. Comparison of plastic, high-density carbon, and beryllium as NIF ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    An effort is underway to compare the three principal ablators for National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions: plastic (CH), High Density Carbon (HDC), and beryllium (Be). This presentation will summarize the comparison and discuss in more detail the issues pertaining to hohlraum performance and symmetry. Several aspects of the hohlraum design are affected by the ablator properties, as the ablator constrains the first shock and determines the overall pulse length. HDC targets can utilize shorter pulse lengths due to the thinner, higher density shell, and should be less susceptible to late time wall motion. However, HDC requires a larger picket energy to ensure adequate melt, leading to increased late time wall movement. Be is intermediate to CH and HDC in both these regards, and has more ablated material in the hohlraum. These tradeoffs as well as other design choices for currently fielded campaigns are assessed in this work. To assess consistently the radiation drive and symmetry, integrated postshot simulations of the hohlraum and capsule were done for each design using the same methodology. The simulation results are compared to experimental data. Using this post-shot model, we make a projection of the relative plausible performance that can be achieved, while maintaining adequate symmetry, using the full NIF laser, i.e. 1.8 MJ/500 TW Full NIF Equivalent (FNE). The hydrodynamic stability of the different ablators is also an important consideration and will be presented for the current platforms and projection to FNE. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us

  9. Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us.

  10. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  11. Optical transmission of glass for the National Ignition Facility near backscatter imagers under x-ray exposurea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, R. A.; Froula, D. H.; Sorce, C. M.; Moody, J. D.; Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Jones, O. S.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosen, M. D.

    2008-10-01

    In experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the near backscatter imager materials need to maintain high optical transmission while exposed to hohlraum generated x rays. Glass plates are incorporated in the design to protect the optical scattering plates from x-ray damage. Radiation environments spanning those expected on NIF have been produced at the Omega Laser Facility by symmetric laser illumination of 1mm sized gold spheres. The time-dependent ultraviolet transmission of sample glass plates was measured. The data are interpreted with a free electron absorption model. Combined with the simulations of the hohlraum x-ray emission, this model is used to predict the transmission of the glass plates on the NIF. We predict that the plates should perform adequately up to the peak of the laser pulse.

  12. Concept of operations for channel characterization and simulation of coaxial transmission channels at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jr., Charles G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) executes experiments for inertial con nement fusion (ICF), world-class high energy density physics (HEDP), and critical national security missions. While the laser systems, target positioners, alignment systems, control systems, etc. enable the execution of such experiments, NIF’s utility would be greatly reduced without its suite of diagnostics. It would be e ectively “blind” to the incredible physics unleashed in its target chamber. Since NIF diagnostics are such an important part of its mission, the quality and reliability of the diagnostics, and of the data recorded from them, is crucial.

  13. Omega experiments and preparation for moderate-gain direct-drive experiments on Nif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr Crory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Boehly, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼ 3.5 mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm if CH wall thickness, and a ∼ 350 μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (μ19K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The future cryogenic targets used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address all of the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell-fuel mixing, laser-plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (authors)

  14. Influence of PAS domain flanking regions on oligomerisation and redox signalling by NifL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Little

    Full Text Available Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS domains constitute a typically dimeric, conserved α/β tertiary fold of approximately 110 amino acids that perform signalling roles in diverse proteins from all kingdoms of life. The amino terminal PAS1 domain of NifL from Azotobacter vinelandii accommodates a redox-active FAD group; elevation of cytosolic oxygen concentrations result in FAD oxidation and a concomitant conformational re-arrangement that is relayed via a short downstream linker to a second PAS domain, PAS2. At PAS2, the signal is amplified and passed on to effector domains generating the 'on' (inhibitory state of the protein. Although the crystal structure of oxidised PAS1 reveals regions that contribute to the dimerisation interface, 21 amino acids at the extreme N-terminus of NifL, are unresolved. Furthermore, the structure and function of the linker between the two PAS domains has not been determined. In this study we have investigated the importance to signalling of residues extending beyond the core PAS fold. Our results implicate the N-terminus of PAS1 and the helical linker connecting the two PAS domains in redox signal transduction and demonstrate a role for these flanking regions in controlling the oligomerisation state of PAS1 in solution.

  15. Problems and Concerns Regarding Access Control System Construction in Radiation Facilities Based on the NIFS Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Inoue, N.; Sakuma, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 1998, access control system for the large helical device (LHD) experimental hall was constructed and put into operation at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Toki, Japan. Since then, the system has been continuously improved. It now controls access into the LHD controlled area through four entrances. The system has five turnstile gates and enables control of access at the four entrances. The system is always checking whether the shielding doors are open or closed at eight positions. The details pertaining to the construction of the system were reported at IRPA-10 held in Hiroshima, Japan, in 2000. Based on our construction experience of the NIFS access control system, we will discuss problems related to software and operational design of the system. We will also discuss some concerns regarding the use of the system in radiation facilities. The problems we will present concern, among other thing, individual registration, time control, turnstile control, interlock signal control, data aggregation and transactions, automatic and manual control, and emergency procedures. For example, in relation to the time control and turnstile control functions, we will discuss the gate-opening time interval for an access event, the timing of access data recording, date changing, turn bar control, double access, and access error handling. (author)

  16. Progress Toward Modeling Spectroscopic Signatures of Mix on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Wysocki, F. J.; Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.

    2011-10-01

    Defect-induced mix processes may degrade the performance of ICF and ICF-like targets at Omega and NIF. An improved understanding of the relevant physics requires an experimental program built on a foundation of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations plus reliable synthetic diagnostic outputs. To that end, the Applications of Ignition (AoI) and Defect Implosion Experiment (DIME) efforts at LANL have focused on directly driven plastic capsules containing high-Z dopants and manufactured with an equatorial ``trench'' defect. One of the key diagnostic techniques for detecting and diagnosing the migration of dopant material into the hot core is Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imaging (MMI). This talk will focus on recent efforts to model spectroscopic signatures of mix processes in AoI/DIME capsules via simulated MMI-type diagnostic instruments. It will also include data from recent Omega shots and calculations in support of Tier 1 experiments at NIF in FY2012. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  17. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Prediction of scaling physics laws for proton acceleration with extended parameter space of the NIF ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  19. Long-duration planar direct-drive hydrodynamics experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Mailliet, C.; Khan, S. F.; Martinez, D.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Di Nicola, P.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Le Bel, E.; Igumenshchev, I.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Remington, B. A.; Masse, L.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The advent of high-power lasers facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the laser megajoule provide unique platforms to study the physics of turbulent mixing flows in high energy density plasmas. We report here on the commissioning of a novel planar direct-drive platform on the NIF, which allows the acceleration of targets during 30 ns. Planar plastic samples were directly irradiated by 300–450 kJ of UV laser light (351 nm) and a very good planarity of the laser drive is demonstrated. No detrimental effect of imprint is observed in the case of these thick plastic targets (300 μm), which is beneficial for future academic experiments requesting similar irradiation conditions. The long-duration direct-drive (DD) platform is thereafter harnessed to study the ablative Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) in DD. The growth of two-dimensional pre-imposed perturbations is quantified through time-resolved face-on x-ray radiography and used as a benchmark for radiative hydrocode simulations. The ablative RTI is then quantified in its highly nonlinear stage starting from intentionally large 3D imprinted broadband modulations. Two generations of bubble mergers is observed for the first time in DD, as a result of the unprecedented long laser acceleration.

  20. Spectroscopic diagnostics of NIF ICF implosions using line ratios of Kr dopant in the ignition capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Ouart, Nicholas; Giuiani, John; Clark, Robert; Schneider, Marilyn; Scott, Howard; Chen, Hui; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    X ray spectroscopy is used on the NIF to diagnose the plasma conditions in the ignition target in indirect drive ICF implosions. A platform is being developed at NIF where small traces of krypton are used as a dopant to the fuel gas for spectroscopic diagnostics using krypton line emissions. The fraction of krypton dopant was varied in the experiments and was selected so as not to perturb the implosion. Our goal is to use X-ray spectroscopy of dopant line ratios produced by the hot core that can provide a precise measurement of electron temperature. Simulations of the krypton spectra using a 1 in 104 atomic fraction of krypton in direct-drive exploding pusher with a range of electron temperatures and densities show discrepancies when different atomic models are used. We use our non-LTE atomic model with a detailed fine-structure level atomic structure and collisional-radiative rates to investigate the krypton spectra at the same conditions. Synthetic spectra are generated with a detailed multi-frequency radiation transport scheme from the emission regions of interest to analyze the experimental data with 0.02% Kr concentration and compare and contrast with the existing simulations at LLNL. Work supported by DOE/NNSA; Part of this work was also done under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Simulated impact of self-generated magnetic fields in the hot-spot of NIF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, M. A.; Haan, S. W.; Koning, J.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    Deviations from sphericity in an imploded hot-spot result in magnetic fields generated by the Biermann battery effect. The magnetic field can reduce thermal conductivity, affect α transport, change instability growth, and cause magnetic pressure. Previous estimates of these effects have indicated that they are not of great consequence, but have suggested that they could plausibly affect NIF observables such as yield and ion temperature by 5-25%. Using the MHD capability in the Hydra code, we evaluated the impact of these processes in a post-shot model for a typical NIF implosion. Various implosion asymmetries were implemented, with the goal of surveying plausible implosion configurations to find the geometry in which the MHD effects were the most significant. Magnetic fields are estimated to approach 104 Tesla, and to affect conductivity locally by more than 50%, but global impact on observables is small in most cases. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. A Modern Educationalist in I. Constitutionalism Period: Münif Pasha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Yıldırım Celkan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Münif Pasha was a distinguised stateman and a scientist. While he was studing in “Mederese”, he had the chance of studing Western education. He had worked as a Minister of National education three times and as a minister of Commerse for some time. Later he worked in Germany as a diplomat and in Persia as an ambassador. He tougt students in the School of Law and he wrote various article on Humanities and Social sciences in a periodical called “Mecmua-i Fünun”. One of his noteworhty articles was titled as “ Ehemmiyet-i Terbiye-i Sıbyan” ( The Importance of Child Education. In this article, Münif Pasha wrote about basic issues such as the impotance of compulsory primary education, teaching language and mathematics, industrialization, improvement of tecahing merthods, vocational education, teacher training and improvements to be made in National Education System. These issues are still of importance in Turkish Education

  3. Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  4. The influence of coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography on final microvascular function after stenting in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Giovanni L; Patel, Niket; Wolfrum, Mathias; Fahrni, Gregor; Kassimis, George; Porto, Italo; Dawkins, Sam; Choudhury, Robin P; Forfar, John C; Prendergast, Bernard D; Channon, Keith M; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Banning, Adrian P

    2017-05-01

    The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) provides a reproducible assessment of the status of coronary microvasculature in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) enables detailed assessment of the morphology of coronary plaque.We sought to determine the influence of the initial culprit coronary plaque anatomy within the infarct-related artery on IMR after stenting in STEMI. In 25 STEMI patients IMR was measured immediately before and after stent implantation. FD-OCT imaging was performed at the same time points and atherothrombotic volume (ATV) before stenting, prolapsed+floating ATV after stenting and ΔATV was measured using three different strategies. There were no relationships between preprocedural IMR and FD-OCT parameters. Prestenting IMR was related only to pain to wire time (P: 0.02). Irrespective of the method adopted, the final IMR was related to prestenting ATV (ρ: 0.44, P: 0.03 for method I, ρ: 0.48, P: 0.02 for method II and ρ: 0.30, P: 0.06 for method III) and ΔATV (ρ: 0.41, P: 0.04 for method II and ρ: 0.44, P: 0.03 for method III). IMR measured before stenting is independent of the appearances of the culprit coronary plaque within the infarct-related artery. IMR after stenting, and more importantly, the change in IMR after stenting, reflect the degree of distal embolization during stent implantation.

  5. Gene function analysis in environmental isolates: The nif regulon of the strict iron oxidizing bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    A random genomic library from an environmental isolate of the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans has been printed on a microarray. Gene expression analysis was carried out with total RNA extracted from L. ferrooxidans cultures in the presence or absence of ammonium as nitrogen source under aerobic conditions. Although practically nothing is known about the genome sequence of this bacterium, this approach allowed us the selection and sequencing of only those clones bearing genes that showed an altered expression pattern. By sequence comparison, we have identified most of the genes of nitrogen fixation regulon in L. ferrooxidans, like the nifHDKENX operon, encoding the structural components of Mo-Fe nitrogenase; nifSU-hesB-hscBA-fdx operon, for Fe-S cluster assembly; the amtB gene (ammonium transporter); modA (molybdenum ABC type transporter); some regulatory genes like ntrC, nifA (the specific activator of nif genes); or two glnB-like genes (encoding the PII regulatory protein). Our results show that shotgun DNA microarrays are very powerful tools to accomplish gene expression studies with environmental bacteria whose genome sequence is still unknown, avoiding the time and effort necessary for whole genome sequencing projects. PMID:12808145

  6. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Su Zhao

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1, is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  7. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Su; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chien, Winnie W Y; Li, Zhen; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC)-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1), is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  8. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  9. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  10. Temporal multiplexing for economical measurement of power versus time on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.; Boyd, B.; Davis, D.T.; Hall, B.

    1996-10-01

    The researchers have designed an economical device to measure the power time history in the National Ignition Facility`s (NIF) 192 beam laser. The heart of the system is a commercial, high-speed, four-channel digitizer with a 15,000 point record length. Samples of several beams are taken with fiberoptic pickoffs, separated in time with appropriate fiberoptic delays and presented to high-speed vacuum photodiodes, which convert the samples to electrical signals for the digitizer. Amplitude and time multiplexing are used to cover the required dynamic range and to record 12 samples on the digitizer, making the cost per sample competitive with alternative approaches. Forty-eight digitizers can record the required three samples from each of the 192 beams. An additional similar but lower bandwidth system is used to record the backreflected light from the main laser amplifiers and elsewhere. The recording electronics are discussed in detail.

  11. [Labelling of nif-plasmid pEA9 from Enterobacter agglomerans 339].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-jun; Klingmüller, Walter

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe the in vivo labelling of the plasmid pEA9 in Enterobacter agglomerans 339 with a kanamycin resistance gene. For labelling purposes the donor plasmid pST5 was constructed. This plasmid contains the nif ENX region from pEA9,in which a kanamycin resistance gene is cloned.pST5 was transformed into E.a.339 and subsequently cured from the host. Curing was achieved with AP medium. Fourty strains that had lost pST5,but retained the kanamycin resistance, could be isolated. It showed that none of these clones contained co-integrates of pST5 and pEA9. This is evident that in all clones the kanamycin resistance gene was integrated into pEA9 by homologous recombination.

  12. Characterizing NIF hohlraum energy and particle transport using mid-Z spectroscopic tracer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Widmann, K.; Suter, L. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Thorn, D. B.; Farmer, W. A.; Landen, O. L.; Kauffman, R. L.; Jarrott, C.; Sherlock, M. W.; Chen, H.; Jones, O.; MacLaren, S. A.; Eder, D.; Strozzi, D. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J. J.; Johnson, S.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.

    2017-10-01

    Line emission from mid-Z dopants placed at several spatial locations is used to determine the electron temperature (Te) and plasma flow in NIF hohlraums. Laser drive ablates the dopant and launches it on a trajectory recorded with a framing camera. Analysis of temporally streaked spectroscopy provides an estimate of the time-resolved Te. The estimated temperature gradients show evidence for significantly restricted thermal conduction. Non-local thermal conductivity can account for part of this; additional effects due to magnetic fields, return-current instabilities, ion acoustic turbulence and other physics are considered. We describe our findings and discuss interpretations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Analysis of BigFoot HDC SymCap experiment N161205 on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Baker, K. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Harte, J. A.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Woods, D. T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ho, D. D.; Weber, C. R.; Kyrala, G.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of NIF implosion experiment N161205 provides insight into both hohlraum and capsule performance. This experiment used an undoped High Density Carbon (HDC) ablator driven by a BigFoot x-ray profile in a Au hohlraum. Observations from this experiment include DT fusion yield, bang time, DSR, Tion and time-resolved x-ray emission images around bang time. These observations are all consistent with an x-ray spectrum having significantly reduced Au m-band emission that is present in a standard hohlraum simulation. Attempts to justify the observations using several other simulation modifications will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Enhanced electron/fuel-ion equilibration through impurity ions: Studies applicable to NIF and Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Simpson, R.; Parker, C.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Casey, D.; Grabowski, P.; Graziani, F.; Taitano, W.; Le, A.; Chacon, L.; Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Simakov, A.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Betti, R.; Srinivasan, B.; Mancini, R.

    2017-10-01

    In shock-driven exploding-pushers, a platform used extensively to study multi-species and kinetic effects, electrons and fuel ions are far out of equilibrium, as reflected by very different temperatures. However, impurity ions, even in small quantities, can couple effectively to the electrons, because of a Z2 dependence, and in turn, impurity ions can then strongly couple to the fuel ions. Through this mechanism, electrons and fuel-ions can equilibrate much faster than they otherwise would. This is a quantitative issue, depending upon the amount and Z of the impurity. For NIF and Omega, we consider the role of this process. Coupled non-linear equations, reflecting the temperatures of the three species, are solved for a range of conditions. Consideration is also given to ablatively driven implosions, since impurities can similarly affect the equilibration. This work was supported in part by DOE/NNSA DE-NA0002949 and DE-NA0002726.

  15. Upgrade and benchmarking of the NIFS physics-engineering-cost code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Yamazaki, K.

    2004-07-01

    The NIFS Physics-Engineering-Cost (PEC) code for helical and tokamak fusion reactors is upgraded by adding data from three blanket-shield designs, a new cost section based on the ARIES cost schedule, more recent unit costs, and improved algorithms for various computations. The PEC code is also benchmarked by modeling the ARIES-AT (advanced technology) tokamak and the ARIES-SPPS (stellarator power plant system). The PEC code succeeds in predicting many of the pertinent plasma parameters and reactor component masses within about 10%. There are cost differences greater than 10% for some fusion power core components, which may be attributed to differences of unit costs used by the codes. The COEs estimated by the PEC code differ from the COEs of the ARIES-AT and ARIES-SPPS studies by 5%. (author)

  16. Temporal multiplexing for economical measurement of power versus time on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.; Boyd, B.; Davis, D.T.; Hall, B.

    1996-10-01

    The researchers have designed an economical device to measure the power time history in the National Ignition Facility's (NIF) 192 beam laser. The heart of the system is a commercial, high-speed, four-channel digitizer with a 15,000 point record length. Samples of several beams are taken with fiberoptic pickoffs, separated in time with appropriate fiberoptic delays and presented to high-speed vacuum photodiodes, which convert the samples to electrical signals for the digitizer. Amplitude and time multiplexing are used to cover the required dynamic range and to record 12 samples on the digitizer, making the cost per sample competitive with alternative approaches. Forty-eight digitizers can record the required three samples from each of the 192 beams. An additional similar but lower bandwidth system is used to record the backreflected light from the main laser amplifiers and elsewhere. The recording electronics are discussed in detail

  17. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer for time-resolved neutron measurements (MRSt) at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. E.; Frenje, J. A.; Wink, C. W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bionta, R.; Casey, D. T.; Khater, H. Y.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sorce, C.; Hares, J. D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2017-10-01

    The next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer, called MRSt, will provide time-resolved measurements of the DT-neutron spectrum. These measurements will provide critical information about the time evolution of the fuel assembly, hot-spot formation, and nuclear burn in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The neutron spectrum in the energy range 12-16 MeV will be measured with high accuracy ( 5%), unprecedented energy resolution ( 100 keV) and, for the first time ever, time resolution ( 20 ps). An overview of the physics motivation, conceptual design for meeting these performance requirements, and the status of the offline tests for critical components will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  18. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optics subsystems SSDR 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements

  19. Performance of high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Andy

    2013-10-01

    A series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been performed to measure high-density carbon (HDC) ablator performance for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). HDC is a very promising ablator material; being 3x denser than plastic, it absorbs more hohlraum x-rays, leading to higher implosion efficiency. For the HDC experiments the NIF laser generated shaped laser pulses with peak power up to 410 TW and total energy of 1.3 MJ. Pulse shapes were designed to drive 2, 3 or 4 shocks in cryogenic layered implosions. The 2-shock pulse, with a designed fuel adiabat of ~3 is 6-7ns in duration, allowing use of near vacuum hohlraums, which greatly increases the coupling efficiency due to low backscatter losses. Excellent results were obtained for 2,3 and 4 shock pulses. In particular a deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsule driven by a 4-shock pulse in a gas-filled hohlraum produced a neutron yield of 1.6 × 1015, a record for a non-cryogenically layered capsule driven by a gas-filled hohlraum. The first 2-shock experiment used a vacuum hohlraum to drive a DD gas filled HDC capsule with a 6.5 ns, laser pulse. This hohlraum was 40% more efficient than the gas-filled counterpart used for 3 and 4 shock experiments, producing near 1D performance at 11 x convergence ratio, peak radiation temperature of 317 eV, 98% laser-hohlraum coupling, and DD neutron yield of 2.2e13, a record for a laser driven DD implosion. The HDC campaigns will be presented, including options for pushing towards the alpha dominated regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-09-01

    Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery, including 3D and interactive visualization of branching, frequently measured morphometrics, and reciprocal links to the original PubMed publications. The integration of NeuroMorpho.Org with version-1 of the NIF (NIFv1) provides the opportunity to access morphological data in the context of other relevant resources and diverse subdomains of neuroscience, opening

  1. Non-image-forming light driven functions are preserved in a mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Perganta

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA is a slowly progressive optic neuropathy that has been associated with mutations of the OPA1 gene. In patients, the disease primarily affects the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and causes optic nerve atrophy and visual loss. A subset of RGCs are intrinsically photosensitive, express the photopigment melanopsin and drive non-image-forming (NIF visual functions including light driven circadian and sleep behaviours and the pupil light reflex. Given the RGC pathology in ADOA, disruption of NIF functions might be predicted. Interestingly in ADOA patients the pupil light reflex was preserved, although NIF behavioural outputs were not examined. The B6; C3-Opa1(Q285STOP mouse model of ADOA displays optic nerve abnormalities, RGC dendropathy and functional visual disruption. We performed a comprehensive assessment of light driven NIF functions in this mouse model using wheel running activity monitoring, videotracking and pupillometry. Opa1 mutant mice entrained their activity rhythm to the external light/dark cycle, suppressed their activity in response to acute light exposure at night, generated circadian phase shift responses to 480 nm and 525 nm pulses, demonstrated immobility-defined sleep induction following exposure to a brief light pulse at night and exhibited an intensity dependent pupil light reflex. There were no significant differences in any parameter tested relative to wildtype littermate controls. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of melanopsin-expressing RGCs, cell morphology or melanopsin transcript levels between genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the preservation of NIF functions in Opa1 mutants. The results provide support to growing evidence that the melanopsin-expressing RGCs are protected in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

  2. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O(2)-inhibited process that reduces N(2) gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle in the microb...... of N(2) fixation over the diel cycle.The ISME Journal (2008) 2, 364-378; doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.117; published online 6 March 2008. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr...

  3. Symbiotic Burkholderia Species Show Diverse Arrangements of nif/fix and nod Genes and Lack Typical High-Affinity Cytochrome cbb3 Oxidase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Briscoe, Leah; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Agapakis, Christina M; de-Los Santos, Paulina Estrada; Seshadri, Rekha; Reeve, Wayne; Weinstock, George; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John G; Hirsch, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Genome analysis of fourteen mimosoid and four papilionoid beta-rhizobia together with fourteen reference alpha-rhizobia for both nodulation (nod) and nitrogen-fixing (nif/fix) genes has shown phylogenetic congruence between 16S rRNA/MLSA (combined 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and nif/fix genes, indicating a free-living diazotrophic ancestry of the beta-rhizobia. However, deeper genomic analysis revealed a complex symbiosis acquisition history in the beta-rhizobia that clearly separates the mimosoid and papilionoid nodulating groups. Mimosoid-nodulating beta-rhizobia have nod genes tightly clustered in the nodBCIJHASU operon, whereas papilionoid-nodulating Burkholderia have nodUSDABC and nodIJ genes, although their arrangement is not canonical because the nod genes are subdivided by the insertion of nif and other genes. Furthermore, the papilionoid Burkholderia spp. contain duplications of several nod and nif genes. The Burkholderia nifHDKEN and fixABC genes are very closely related to those found in free-living diazotrophs. In contrast, nifA is highly divergent between both groups, but the papilionoid species nifA is more similar to alpha-rhizobia nifA than to other groups. Surprisingly, for all Burkholderia, the fixNOQP and fixGHIS genes required for cbb3 cytochrome oxidase production and assembly are missing. In contrast, symbiotic Cupriavidus strains have fixNOQPGHIS genes, revealing a divergence in the evolution of two distinct electron transport chains required for nitrogen fixation within the beta-rhizobia.

  4. Development of improved x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeams. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1294-0283

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.; Gao, N.; Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to develop improved glass capillary, x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeam applications. X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc. (XOS) designed and fabricated capillary optics and LMES tested those optics for x-ray microanalytical applications using its unique X-Ray Microprobe. Tapered capillaries with 3-microm and 8-microm output openings were fabricated and tested. The tapered capillaries had better spectral quality for x-ray microfluorescence (XRMF) analysis, than non-tapered, straight capillaries that are currently used in the system. X-ray beam count-rates for the tapered capillaries were also greater than the straight capillaries. Two monolithic, polycapillary optics were fabricated and tested. The polycapillary optics produced focal spots of 40 and 100 microm. Beam intensities for the polycapillaries were, respective, 44 and 18 times the intensities found in straight 50-microm and 100-microm capillaries. High-sensitivity scanning will be possible because of the enhanced intensity of the polycapillary optic. LMES and the DP program will benefit from improved capabilities for nondestructive x-ray microanalysis, while XOS will benefit from test results that will enhance the marketability of their products

  5. Directed-Assembly of Block Copolymers for Large-Scale, Three-Dimensional, Optical Metamaterials at Visible Wavelengths. Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiszpanski, Anna M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Metamaterials are composites with patterned subwavelength features where the choice of materials and subwavelength structuring bestows upon the metamaterials unique optical properties not found in nature, thereby enabling optical applications previously considered impossible. However, because the structure of optical metamaterials must be subwavelength, metamaterials operating at visible wavelengths require features on the order of 100 nm or smaller, and such resolution typically requires top-down lithographic fabrication techniques that are not easily scaled to device-relevant areas that are square centimeters in size. In this project, we developed a new fabrication route using block copolymers to make over large device-relevant areas optical metamaterials that operate at visible wavelengths. Our structures are smaller in size (sub-100 nm) and cover a larger area (cm2) than what has been achieved with traditional nanofabrication routes. To guide our experimental efforts, we developed an algorithm to calculate the expected optical properties (specifically the index of refraction) of such metamaterials that predicts that we can achieve surprisingly large changes in optical properties with small changes in metamaterials’ structure. In the course of our work, we also found that the ordered metal nanowires meshes produced by our scalable fabrication route for making optical metamaterials may also possibly act as transparent electrodes, which are needed in electrical displays and solar cells. We explored the ordered metal nanowires meshes’ utility for this application and developed design guidelines to aide our experimental efforts.

  6. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomaior, P; Araújo, L M; Nishikawa, C Y; Huergo, L F; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Chubatsu, L S; Souza, E M

    2012-12-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate.

  7. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomaior, P.; Araújo, L.M.; Nishikawa, C.Y.; Huergo, L.F.; Monteiro, R.A.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Souza, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate. PMID:22983183

  8. Effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate on the in vitro interaction between the NifA GAF domain and the GlnB protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotomaior, P.; Araújo, L.M.; Nishikawa, C.Y.; Huergo, L.F.; Monteiro, R.A.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Chubatsu, L.S.; Souza, E.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    Azospirillum brasilense is a diazotroph that associates with important agricultural crops and thus has potential to be a nitrogen biofertilizer. The A. brasilense transcription regulator NifA, which seems to be constitutively expressed, activates the transcription of nitrogen fixation genes. It has been suggested that the nitrogen status-signaling protein GlnB regulates NifA activity by direct interaction with the NifA N-terminal GAF domain, preventing the inhibitory effect of this domain under conditions of nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we show that an N-terminal truncated form of NifA no longer required GlnB for activity and lost regulation by ammonium. On the other hand, in trans co-expression of the N-terminal GAF domain inhibited the N-truncated protein in response to fixed nitrogen levels. We also used pull-down assays to show in vitro interaction between the purified N-terminal GAF domain of NifA and the GlnB protein. The results showed that A. brasilense GlnB interacts directly with the NifA N-terminal domain and this interaction is dependent on the presence of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate.

  9. Dilation x-ray imager a new∕faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Barrios, M A; Felker, B; Smith, R F; Collins, G W; Jones, O S; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Piston, K; Raman, K S; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2012-10-01

    As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for ∼7 × 10(18) neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. High Capacity High Speed Optical Data Storage System Based on Diffraction-Free Nanobeam. Final Report, 09-02-98 to 03-17-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin Aye

    1999-06-16

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) investigated the development of an optical data storage system built around a current well-engineered high-speed optical disk system with an innovative diffraction-free micro-optical element to produce a beam {approximately}250 nm wide with {approximately}4-5 mm depth of focus, allowing the system to address data at {approximately}100 Mbits/second and to store it 100 to 1,000 times more densely ({approximately}10 Gbit/in.{sup 2}) than in present systems. In Phase 1 of this project POC completed a thorough feasibility study by system design and analysis, successfully demonstrated fabrication of the key components, and conducted a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. Specifically, production of a subwavelength ({approximately}380 nm) large depth of focus ({approximately}4-5 mm) addressing beam was demonstrated by fabricating a special microdiffractive optical element and recording this beam on a standard optical recording disk coated with a photopolymer material.

  11. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  12. Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bradley, D K; Bell, P; Cerjan, C J; Dixit, S; Döppner, T; Jones, O; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Regan, S P; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Suter, L; Town, R P J; Weber, S V; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

  13. Hohlraum glint and laser pre-pulse detector for NIF experiments using velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Clancy, T J; Frieders, G; Celliers, P M; Ralph, J; Turnbull, D P

    2014-11-01

    Laser pre-pulse and early-time laser reflection from the hohlraum wall onto the capsule (termed "glint") can cause capsule imprint and unwanted early-time shocks on indirect drive implosion experiments. In a minor modification to the existing velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic on NIF a fast-response vacuum photodiode was added to detect this light. The measurements show evidence of laser pre-pulse and possible light reflection off the hohlraum wall and onto the capsule.

  14. National Ignition Facility Incorporates P2/E2 in Aqueous Parts Cleaning of Optics Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, K

    2001-01-01

    When completed, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest laser with experimental capabilities applicable to stockpile stewardship, energy research, science and astrophysics. As construction of the conventional facilities nears completion, operations supporting the installation of specialized laser equipment have come online. Playing a critical role in the precision cleaning of mechanical parts from the NIF beamline are three pieces of aqueous cleaning equipment. Housed in the Optics Assembly Building (OAB), adjacent to NIF's laser bay, are the large mechanical parts gross cleaner (LMPGC), the large mechanical parts precision cleaner (LMPPC), and the small mechanical parts gross and precision cleaner (SMPGPC). These aqueous units, designed and built by Sonic Systems, Inc., of Newtown, Pennsylvania, not only accommodate parts that vary greatly in size, weight, geometry, surface finish and material, but also produce cleaned parts that meet the stringent NIF cleanliness standards (MIL-STD-1246C Level 83 for particles and A/10 for non-volatile residue). Each unit was designed with extensive water- and energy-conserving features, and the technology used minimizes hazardous waste generation associated with solvent wipe cleaning, the traditional method for cleaning laser mechanical components. The LMPGC provides preliminary gross cleaning for large mechanical parts. Collection, filtration and reuse of the wash and primary rinse water in the LMPGC limit its routine discharge to the volume of the low-pressure, deionized secondary rinse. After an initial gross cleaning in the LMPGC, a large mechanical part goes to the LMPPC. This piece of equipment, unique because of its size, consists of four 2700-gallon tanks. Parts held securely on specialized metal pallets (jointly weighing up to 1500 pounds) move through the tanks on an automated system. Operators program all movement, speeds and process times to

  15. Characterizing Hohlraum Plasma Conditions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Using X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Maria Alejandra

    2015-11-01

    Improved hohlraums will have a significant impact on increasing the likelihood of indirect drive ignition at the NIF. In indirect-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), a high-Z hohlraum converts laser power into a tailored x-ray flux that drives the implosion of a spherical capsule filled with D-T fuel. The x-radiation drive to capsule coupling sets the velocity, adiabat, and symmetry of the implosion. Previous experiments in gas-filled hohlraums determined that the laser-hohlraum energy coupling is 20-25% less than modeled, therefore identifying energy loss mechanisms that reduce the efficacy of the hohlraum drive is central to improving implosion performance. Characterizing the plasma conditions, particularly the plasma electron temperature (Te) , is critical to understanding mechanism that affect the energy coupling such as the laser plasma interactions (LPI), hohlraum x-ray conversion efficiency, and dynamic drive symmetry. The first Te measurements inside a NIF hohlraum, presented here, were achieved using K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of an Mn-Co tracer dot. The dot is deposited on a thin-walled CH capsule, centered on the hohlraum symmetry axis below the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a bottom-truncated hohlraum. The hohlraum x-ray drive ablates the dot and causes it to flow upward, towards the LEH, entering the hot laser deposition region. An absolutely calibrated streaked spectrometer with a line of sight into the LEH records the temporal history of the Mn and Co X-ray emission. The measured (interstage) Lyα/ Heα line ratios for Co and Mn and the Mn-Heα/Co-Heα isoelectronic line ratio are used to infer the local plasma Te from the atomic physics code SCRAM. Time resovled x-ray images perpendicular to the hohlraum axis record the dot expansion and trajectory into the LEH region. The temporal evolution of the measured Te and dot trajectory are compared with simulations from radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This work was performed under the auspices of the U

  16. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Daniel A; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P; Barber, H Bradford; Miller, Brian W; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-23

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, (12)C(n,n'γ)(12)C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10(-3) of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented.

  17. Expansion of ribosomally produced natural products: a nitrile hydratase- and Nif11-related precursor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Douglas A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new family of natural products has been described in which cysteine, serine and threonine from ribosomally-produced peptides are converted to thiazoles, oxazoles and methyloxazoles, respectively. These metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters are now referred to as thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMM. As exemplified by microcin B17 and streptolysin S, TOMM precursors contain an N-terminal leader sequence and C-terminal core peptide. The leader sequence contains binding sites for the posttranslational modifying enzymes which subsequently act upon the core peptide. TOMM peptides are small and highly variable, frequently missed by gene-finders and occasionally situated far from the thiazole/oxazole forming genes. Thus, locating a substrate for a particular TOMM pathway can be a challenging endeavor. Results Examination of candidate TOMM precursors has revealed a subclass with an uncharacteristically long leader sequence closely related to the enzyme nitrile hydratase. Members of this nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP family lack the metal-binding residues required for catalysis. Instead, NHLP sequences display the classic Gly-Gly cleavage motif and have C-terminal regions rich in heterocyclizable residues. The NHLP family exhibits a correlated species distribution and local clustering with an ABC transport system. This study also provides evidence that a separate family, annotated as Nif11 nitrogen-fixing proteins, can serve as natural product precursors (N11P, but not always of the TOMM variety. Indeed, a number of cyanobacterial genomes show extensive N11P paralogous expansion, such as Nostoc, Prochlorococcus and Cyanothece, which replace the TOMM cluster with lanthionine biosynthetic machinery. Conclusions This study has united numerous TOMM gene clusters with their cognate substrates. These results suggest that two large protein families, the nitrile hydratases and Nif11, have been retailored for

  18. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  19. Improved techniques for the growth of optical-quality CdGeAs/sub 2/. Final report, December 1, 1976-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.

    1978-06-01

    The ternary chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs/sub 2/ is one of the most efficient nonlinear infrared materials known. With transparency extending from 2.3 ..mu..m to 18 ..mu..m and a damage threshold exceeding 40 Mw/cm/sup 2/, it has a large number of potential applications, including doubling of the 10.6 ..mu..m CO/sub 2/ laser and continuous phase-matched mixing throughout its transparent region. It is also potentially suitable for certain acousto-optic applications consistent with its 4 2m space group symmetry. However, the growth of high optical quality, uncracked crystals of this material has been difficult. Polycrystallinity, cracking, and variable optical transparency were consistent problems. In this section we describe experiments carried out to eliminate (or control) polycrystallinity and cracking during the melt growth of this material.

  20. Progress towards materials science above 1000 GPa (10 Mbar) on the NIF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Park, H.; Prisbrey, S.T.; Pollaine, S.M.; Cavallo, R.M.; Rudd, R.E.; Lorenz, K.T.; Becker, R.; Bernier, J.; Barton, N.; Arsenlis, T.; Glendinning, S.G.; Hamza, A.; Swift, D.; Jankowski, A.; Meyers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state dynamics experiments at extreme pressures, P > 1000 GPa (10 Mbar), and ultrahigh strain rates (1.e6-1.e8 1/s) are being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. These experiments will open up exploration of new regimes of materials science at an order of magnitude higher pressures than have been possible to date. Such extreme, solid state conditions can be accessed with a ramped pressure drive. The experimental, computational, and theoretical techniques are being developed and tested on the Omega laser. Velocity interferometer measurements (VISAR) establish the high pressure conditions generated by the ramped drive. Constitutive models for solid state strength under these conditions are tested by comparing simulations with experiments measuring perturbation growth from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid state samples of vanadium. Radiography techniques using synchronized bursts of x-rays have been developed to diagnose this perturbation growth. Experiments on Omega demonstrating these techniques at peak pressures of ∼1 Mbar will be discussed. The time resolved observation of foil cracking and void formation show the need for tamped samples and a planar drive

  1. Modeling Laser-Plasma Interaction over a Suite of NIF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Berger, R. L.; Jones, O. S.; Chapman, T.; Woods, D. T.; MacLaren, S. A.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.

    2017-10-01

    We systematically study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) on NIF indirect-drive experiments, namely backscatter and cross-beam energy transfer. LLNL's best practice radiation-hydrodynamic simulation methodology in the Lasnex simulation code is employed without ad-hoc tuning to match experimental data. This entails converged numerical resolution, an improved DCA model for coronal (ne 1 keV) gold opacity, electron heat flux strongly limited to 0.03neTe3 / 2 me- 1 / 2 , and the inline CBET model. The rad-hydro plasma conditions are used for LPI analysis, namely linear instability gains, and the paraxial-envelope code pF3D. Simulated scattered-light spectra are also compared to measurements. We initially focus on shots with low backscatter, so its self-consistent treatment should not be important. These shots have low hohlraum fill density and short laser pulses, and the only significant backscatter is outer-beams Brillouin. Our long-term goals are to understand reflectivity trends to guide target design and develop LPI mitigation strategies. Work performed under auspices of US DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Demonstration of high coupling efficiency to Al capsule in rugby hohlraum on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V.; Amendt, P.; Bennett, D.; Chen, H.; Dewald, E.; Goyon, C.; Graziani, F.; Johnson, S.; Khan, S.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Pino, J.; Ralph, J.; Seugling, R.; Strozzi, D.; Tipton, R.; Tommasini, R.; Wang, M.; Loomis, E.; Merritt, E.; Montgomery, D.

    2017-10-01

    A new design of the double-shell approach predicts a high coupling efficiency from the hohlraum to the capsule, with 700 kJ in the capsule instead of 200kJ in the conventional low-Z single-shell scheme, improving prospects of double-shell performance. A recent experiment on NIF has evaluated a first step toward this goal of energy coupling using 0.7x subscale Al capsule, Au rugby hohlraum and 1MJ drive. A shell velocity of 150 μm/ns was measured, DANTE peak temperature of 255 eV was measured, and shell kinetic energy of 36 kJ was inferred using a rocket model, all close to predictions and consistent with 330kJ of total energy coupled to the capsule. Data analysis and more results from subsequent experiments will be presented. In the next step, an additional 2x increase of total coupled energy up to 700 kJ is projected for full-scale 2-MJ drive in U Rugby hohlraum. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Benedetti, Robin; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Prav; Schneider, Marilyn; Springer, Paul; LLNL Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered implosions on the NIF using a titanium differential filtering x-ray diagnostic. The electron temperature from x-ray emission is insensitive to non-thermal velocity flows as is the case with ion temperature measurements and is thus a critical parameter in interpreting stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss measurements using titanium filters ranging from 10 μm to 1mm in thickness with a sensitivity band of 10-30keV coupled with penumbral pinholes. The use of larger pinhole diameters increases x-ray fluence improving sensitivity of photon energies with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. This diagnostic has been fielded on a series of cryogenic shots with DT ion temperatures ranging from 2-5keV. Analysis of the measurement will be presented along with a comparison against simulated electron temperatures and x-ray spectra as well as a comparison to DT ion temperature measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Using deep neural networks to augment NIF post-shot analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, Luc; McClarren, Ryan; Field, John; Gaffney, Jim; Kruse, Michael; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Post-shot analysis of National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments is the process of determining which simulation inputs yield results consistent with experimental observations. This analysis is typically accomplished by running suites of manually adjusted simulations, or Monte Carlo sampling surrogate models that approximate the response surfaces of the physics code. These approaches are expensive and often find simulations that match only a small subset of observables simultaneously. We demonstrate an alternative method for performing post-shot analysis using inverse models, which map directly from experimental observables to simulation inputs with quantified uncertainties. The models are created using a novel machine learning algorithm which automates the construction and initialization of deep neural networks to optimize predictive accuracy. We show how these neural networks, trained on large databases of post-shot simulations, can rigorously quantify the agreement between simulation and experiment. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Using NIF to Test Theories of High-Pressure, High-Rate Plastic Flow in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Arsenlis, A.; Cavallo, R. M.; Huntington, C. M.; McNaney, J. M.; Park, H. S.; Powell, P.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Remington, B. A.; Swift, D.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Yang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Precisely controlled plasmas are playing key roles both as pump and probe in experiments to understand the strength of solid metals at high energy density (HED) conditions. In concert with theoretical advances, these experiments have enabled a predictive capability to model material strength at Mbar pressures and high strain rates. Here we describe multiscale strength models developed for tantalum starting with atomic bonding and extending up through the mobility of individual dislocations, the evolution of dislocation networks and so on until the ultimate material response at the scale of an experiment. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) probe strength in metals ramp compressed to 1-8 Mbar. The model is able to predict 1 Mbar experiments without adjustable parameters. The combination of experiment and theory has shown that solid metals can behave significantly differently at HED conditions. We also describe recent studies of lead compressed to 3-5 Mbar. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  6. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Birkel, A.; Doeg, E.; Frankel, R.; Kabadi, N. V.; Lahmann, B.; Manzin, M.; Simpson, R. A.; Parker, C. E.; Sutcliffe, G. D.; Wink, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R.; Hahn, K.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.; Hilsabeck, T.

    2017-10-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV, linear electrostatic ion accelerator; DT and DD neutron sources; and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The accelerator generates DD and D3He fusion products through the acceleration of D+ ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Accurately characterized fusion product rates of around 106 s- 1 are routinely achieved. The DT and DD neutron sources generate up to 6×108 and 1×107 neutrons/s, respectively. One x-ray generator is a thick-target W source with a peak energy of 225 keV and a maximum dose rate of 12 Gy/min; the other uses Cu, Mo, or Ti elemental tubes to generate x-rays with a maximum energy of 40 keV. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39-based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a valuable hands-on tool for graduate and undergraduate education at MIT. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, SNL, LLE and LLNL.

  7. Components of the CCR4-NOT complex function as nuclear hormone receptor coactivators via association with the NRC-interacting Factor NIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapaty, Shivani; Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2008-03-14

    CCR4-NOT is an evolutionarily conserved, multicomponent complex known to be involved in transcription as well as mRNA degradation. Various subunits (e.g. CNOT1 and CNOT7/CAF1) have been reported to be involved in influencing nuclear hormone receptor activities. Here, we show that CCR4/CNOT6 and RCD1/CNOT9, members of the CCR4-NOT complex, potentiate nuclear receptor activity. RCD1 interacts in vivo and in vitro with NIF-1 (NRC-interacting factor), a previously characterized nuclear receptor cotransducer that activates nuclear receptors via its interaction with NRC. As with NIF-1, RCD1 and CCR4 do not directly associate with nuclear receptors; however, they enhance ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptors. CCR4 mediates its effect through the ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors and small interference RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous CCR4 results in a marked decrease in nuclear receptor activation. Furthermore, knockdown of CCR4 results in an attenuated stimulation of RARalpha target genes (e.g. Sox9 and HoxA1) as shown by quantitative PCR assays. The silencing of endogenous NIF-1 also resulted in a comparable decrease in the RAR-mediated induction of both Sox9 and HoxA1. Furthermore, CCR4 associates in vivo with NIF-1. In addition, the CCR4-enhanced transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors is dependent on NIF-1. The small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of NIF-1 blocks the ligand-dependent potentiating effect of CCR4. Our results suggest that CCR4 plays a role in the regulation of certain endogenous RARalpha target genes and that RCD1 and CCR4 might mediate their function through their interaction with NIF-1.

  8. A database of wavefront measurements for laser system modeling, optical component development and fabrication process qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the second half of the 1990's, LLNL and others anticipate designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF will be capable of producing the worlds first laboratory scale fusion ignition and bum reaction by imploding a small target. The NIF will utilize approximately 192 simultaneous laser beams for this purpose. The laser will be capable of producing a shaped energy pulse of at least 1.8 million joules (MJ) with peak power of at least 500 trillion watts (TV). In total, the facility will require more than 7,000 large optical components. The performance of a high power laser of this kind can be seriously degraded by the presence of low amplitude, periodic modulations in the surface and transmitted wavefronts of the optics used. At high peak power, these phase modulations can convert into large intensity modulations by non-linear optical processes. This in turn can lead to loss in energy on target via many well known mechanisms. In some cases laser damage to the optics downstream of the source of the phase modulation can occur. The database described here contains wavefront phase maps of early prototype optical components for the NIF. It has only recently become possible to map the wavefront of these large aperture components with high spatial resolution. Modem large aperture static fringe and phase shifting interferometers equipped with large area solid state detectors have made this possible. In a series of measurements with these instruments, wide spatial bandwidth can be detected in the wavefront

  9. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  10. Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin

    2013-12-01

    For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.

  11. Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin

    2013-12-20

    For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.

  12. Synthesis and crystal structure of K2NiF4-type novel Gd1+xCa1−xAlO4−xNx oxynitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yuji; Hata, Tomoyuki; Motohashi, Teruki; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel gadolinium calcium aluminum oxynitride was prepared by solid state reaction. • Crystal structure of the oxynitride was refined by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. • Gd 1.2 Ca 0.8 AlO 3.8 N 0.2 has a layered K 2 NiF 4 -type structure with the I4mm space group. • Nitride ions preferentially occupy the apical site of aluminum octahedron. -- Abstract: Novel gadolinium calcium aluminum oxynitrides, Gd 1+x Ca 1−x AlO 4−x N x , were prepared in x = 0.15–0.25 by the solid state reaction of a nitrogen–rich mixture with AlN as an aluminum source; the mixture was sintered twice at 1500 °C for 5 h under 0.5 MPa of nitrogen gas. Shift in the optical absorption edge was observed in their diffuse reflectance spectra from 4.46 eV for the oxide (x = 0) to 2.94 eV for the oxynitride at x = 0.2. The crystal structure of Gd 1.2 Ca 0.8 AlO 3.8 N 0.2 at x = 0.2 was refined using a synchrotron X-ray diffraction data as a layered K 2 NiF 4 -type structure with the I4mm space group. Longer Al–O/N bond lengths in the oxynitride than those in GdCaAlO 4 suggest that the nitride ions are in the apical site of aluminum polyhedron, similar to those in Nd 2 AlO 3 N

  13. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis N; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF's data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO's current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation.

  14. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  15. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  16. Mutational analysis of GlnB residues critical for NifA activation in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Juliana; Thornton, Jeremy; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; Monteiro, Rose Adele; Klassen, Giseli; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Merrick, Mike; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-02-01

    PII proteins are signal transduction that sense cellular nitrogen status and relay this signals to other targets. Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium, which associates with grasses and cereals promoting beneficial effects on plant growth and crop yields. A. brasilense contains two PII encoding genes, named glnB and glnZ. In this paper, glnB was mutagenised in order to identify amino acid residues involved in GlnB signaling. Two variants were obtained by random mutagenesis, GlnBL13P and GlnBV100A and a site directed mutant, GlnBY51F, was obtained. Their ability to complement nitrogenase activity of glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense were determined. The variant proteins were also overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized biochemically. None of the GlnB variant forms was able to restore nitrogenase activity in glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense LFH3 and 7628. The purified GlnBY51F and GlnBL13P proteins could not be uridylylated by GlnD, whereas GlnBV100A was uridylylated but at only 20% of the rate for wild type GlnB. Biochemical and computational analyses suggest that residue Leu13, located in the α helix 1 of GlnB, is important to maintain GlnB trimeric structure and function. The substitution V100A led to a lower affinity for ATP binding. Together the results suggest that NifA activation requires uridylylated GlnB bound to ATP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - I. Stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Dahmer-Hahn, Luis G.; Diniz, Marlon R.; Schönell, Astor J.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2017-09-01

    We use the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the stellar kinematics of the inner few hundred parsecs of a sample of 16 nearby Seyfert galaxies, at a spatial resolution of tens of parsecs and spectral resolution of 40 km s- 1. We find that the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity fields for most galaxies are well reproduced by rotating disc models. The kinematic position angle (PA) derived for the LOS velocity field is consistent with the large-scale photometric PA. The residual velocities are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity, suggesting that more luminous active galactic nuclei have a larger impact in the surrounding stellar dynamics. The central velocity dispersion values are usually higher than the rotation velocity amplitude, what we attribute to the strong contribution of bulge kinematics in these inner regions. For 50 per cent of the galaxies, we find an inverse correlation between the velocities and the h3 Gauss-Hermitte moment, implying red wings in the blueshifted side and blue wings in the redshifted side of the velocity field, attributed to the movement of the bulge stars lagging the rotation. Two of the 16 galaxies (NGC 5899 and Mrk 1066) show an S-shape zero velocity line, attributed to the gravitational potential of a nuclear bar. Velocity dispersion (σ) maps show rings of low-σ values (˜50-80 km s- 1) for four objects and 'patches' of low σ for six galaxies at 150-250 pc from the nucleus, attributed to young/ intermediate age stellar populations.

  18. Laser-Driven Hydrodynamic Experiments in the Turbulent Plasma Regime: from OMEGA to NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H F; Miles, A R; Hansen, J F; Blue, B E; Drake, R P

    2003-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in studying the evolution of hydrodynamic phenomena in high energy density plasmas that have transitioned beyond the initial phases of instability into an Ely developed turbulent state. Motivation for this study arises both in fusion plasmas as well as in numerous astrophysical applications where the understanding of turbulent mixing is essential. Double-shell ignition targets, for example, are subject to large growth of short wavelength perturbations on both surfaces of the high-Z inner shell. These perturbations, initiated by Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, can transition to a turbulent state and will lead to deleterious mixing of the cooler shell material with the hot burning fuel. In astrophysical plasmas, due to the extremely large scale, turbulent hydrodynamic mixing is also of wide-spread interest. The radial mixing that occurs in the explosion phase of core-collapse supernovae is an example that has received much attention in recent years and yet remains only poorly understood. In all of these cases, numerical simulation of the flow field is very difficult due to the large Reynolds number and corresponding wide range of spatial scales characterizing the plasma. Laboratory experiments on high energy density facilities that can access this regime are therefore of great interest. Experiments exploring the transition to turbulence that are currently being conducted on the Omega laser will be described. We will also discuss experiments being planned for the initial commissioning phases of the NIF as well as the enhanced experimental parameter space that will become available, as additional quads are made operational

  19. A new synthetic approach to the science of complexity: the MISSION project at NIFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsuya Sato

    1999-01-01

    The present day stage of computer simulation has entered into the third phase. The age of computer simulation in plasma physics dawned in the late 1950's when Oscar Buneman and John Dawson developed the sheet particle model. In 1960's and the early part of 1970's, one devoted oneself to refine the particle model and to develop, more practically, fluid magnetic hydrodynamic models so that the feasibility of the computer simulation methodology could be tested. This age can be called 'dawning of computer simulation'. The so-called supercomputer appeared in the late 1970's and the computer simulation entered the second phase where individual nonlinear phenomena have become possible to be attacked. At present when a supercomputer with the ability of higher than 100 GFlops speed and lager than 10GBytes common memory is available, almost any individual nonlinear phenomenon, whatever it may look complex, can be solved. This age may well be called 'the age of nonlinear solver'. However, as far as the authors are satisfied with using a supercomputer for simply solving an individual nonlinear problem, the computer simulation plays only a passive role in science and would never cause a catastrophic transition to it. Then, the modern science of the 20th century based on reductionism would continue in the coming 21st century, thus the 21st century's science would stay boring and tedious. It must be the computer simulation that can refresh this boring state. At NIFS an extensive effort has been made to establish a new paradigm of science in the 21st century by developing a new synthetic methodology of computer simulation, which the authors call the MISSION Project. The authors present this MISSION Project and propose a working hypothesis of the science of complexity in this talk

  20. Formulación de las NIF en México: referente de convergencia a NIIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helda María Fuentes Gómez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se desarrolla en un momento coyuntural de la profesión contable a nivel mundial, debido a que las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF han cobrado gran importancia desde su creación, "como normatividad contable universal reconocida por las empresas, que permite cada vez más comparar la información financiera entre entidades de un mismo sector, aunque la base de sus negocios se encuentre en diferentes países, "destaca Alberto del Castillo Socio de Auditoria de la firma Price Wáter House Coopers". El resultado de la aplicación de estas normas permitirá que las decisiones de inversión se agilicen y los mercados actúen con rapidez, permitiendo un mayor volumen de operaciones. (Pérez, 2009. De cara a esta realidad, Colombia a través de la Ley 1314 de 2009, a partir del 1 de enero del año 2010, inicia el proceso de convergencia hacia las NIIF delegando al Consejo Técnico de la Contaduría Pública (CTCP como ente normalizador. De esta manera, para la profesión contable colombiana resulta conveniente dar una mirada a países que han desarrollado procesos similares, como lo es, el caso mexicano. Dado que México inició este proceso desde el año 2002 construyendo su cuerpo normativo contable denominado NIF (Normas de Información Financiera de México sin perder de vista las NIIF (Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera emitidas por la IASB (Junta de Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad.

  1. Shielding Design for the South Pole nToF Diagnostic at the NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Hesham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron time of flight (nToF detectors are fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF to measure neutron yield, ion temperature, and downscattering in the cold fuel for D-T implosions. Anisotropically assembled cold fuel may generate different nToF data when measured by detectors located at the Target Chamber equator and poles. A collimated nToF line of sight has been fielded near the Target Chamber South Pole (SP to examine any possible anisotropy in the cold fuel. The SP nToF detector is located in the lowest floor level of the NIF’s Target Bay and at a distance of ~ 18 m from the Target Chamber Center. The detector utilizes a solid bibenzyl scintillator and four photomultiplier tubes. The line of sight includes a port collimator that is attached to the Target Chamber and a bore hole collimator in the concrete floor above the detector. In addition, a beam line get lost hole is constructed in the Target Bay floor to minimize the backscattered radiation at the detector location. Initial measurements indicated the need for installation of additional shielding to eliminate gamma background during the period before arrival of the 14.1 MeV neutrons to the detector. A set of MCNP Monte Carlo simulations with the full Target Bay model were conducted to provide an estimate of the expected neutron and gamma backgrounds during D-T shots. A new shielding scheme is designed to reduce the gamma background by an order of magnitude.

  2. Study of the integrity of pressurized LEH window assemblies at cryogenic temperatures for NIF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a directorate of LLNL, a DOE Lab, and is home to the world’s largest laser. This laser shoots its 192 beams at a target about the size of a pencil eraser. Within the target are two main chambers; and depending on the type of shot, those chambers need to be pressurized to a certain point at a very low temperature (18 Kelvin). The component used for keeping the hohlraum at its designated pressure is a Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) window, made from a thin (0.5um) polyimide film and an aluminum washer attached with a miniscule amount of polymeric adhesive. One issue that has been known to happen is the chambers will leak, at very low rates (5.0E-7 mBar-liter/s and under). At higher pressures significantly larger leak rates have been observed.There are three proposed mechanisms by which the LEH windows are leaking. The first is that there is a small pinhole somewhere in the freestanding film. This is the most unlikely because before any film is shipped from Luxel, it must pass a 50-75 torr room temperature pressure test. The second is a tear in the film at the edge of the washer. This type of damage suggests that the film is under additional stress at this edge portion and/or the edge of the washer itself is what is doing the damage. Lastly, it has been hypothesized that there are small channels under the window that do not get completely filled by the glue and, if they connect to the edge of the freestanding portion of the film, then the pressure can escape through them. These channels were the mechanism being most directly tested over the course of the experiments.

  3. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 32 X 2.5 Gb/s Optical Code Division Multiplexing (O-CDM) For Agile Optical Networking (Phase II) Final Report CRADA No. TC02051.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mendez, A. J. [Mendez R & D Associates, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Mendez R & D Associates (MRDA) to develop and demonstrate a reconfigurable and cost effective design for optical code division multiplexing (O-CDM) with high spectral efficiency and throughput, as applied to the field of distributed computing, including multiple accessing (sharing of communication resources) and bidirectional data distribution in fiber-to-the-premise (FTTx) networks.

  5. Nacira Guénif-Souilamas, dir., La République mise à nu par son immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Trémel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif rassemble les contributions de huit auteurs : Saïd Bouamama (socio-économiste), Christine Delphy (sociologue), Nacira Guénif-Souilamas (sociologue), Éric Macé (sociologue), Joëlle Marelli (philosophe), Laurent Mucchielli (sociologue et historien), Joël Roman (philosophe), Patrick Simon (socio-démographe). D’emblée, on se rend compte que nous affaire à un propos engagé, pour ne pas dire dénonciateur. Le but de l’ouvrage est de montrer le paradoxe d’une République se reven...

  6. Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

  7. Experimental study on the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of NIFS-V4Cr4Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiming; Xu Zengyu; Den Ying; Muroga, T.

    2002-01-01

    SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) has joined an international collaboration on the hydrogen embrittlement resistance evaluation of the vanadium alloy. This paper presents some experiments on the tensile properties and Charpy impact properties of the NIFS-V4Cr4Ti alloy with high-level hydrogen concentration. The experiment results show different properties against hydrogen embrittlement in static tension and impact load. The critical hydrogen concentration required to embrittle the alloy was about 215 - 310 mg·kg -1 on static tension load, but less than 130 mg·kg -1 on impact loading

  8. Three phylogenetic groups of nodA and nifH genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium isolates from leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, K; Lindström, K; Young, J P

    1998-02-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels.

  9. Three Phylogenetic Groups of nodA and nifH Genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium Isolates from Leguminous Trees Growing in Africa and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Young, J. Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels. PMID:9464375

  10. Engineering Foundation Conference: Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine, and surgery, Kona Surf Resort and Conference Center, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, August 1-6, 1999. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yodh, Arjun; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Benaron, David

    2001-09-01

    The intent of the conference was to gather a group of cross-disciplinary investigators from universities, medical schools, national laboratories, industry, and government in order to highlight future applications and technology of the optical sciences in biotechnology, medicine, and surgery. The session chairs brought new participants and speakers to the conference who were not regular attendees of the OSA and SPIE conferences. Attendees included a good number of graduate and post-doctoral students who tended to join the more senior members in organized and spontaneous afternoon activities. A critique of the conference is given which discusses things that worked well and things that could have been better, focusing on costs, funding, and speaker cancellations. Sessions were held on the following topics: Photodynamic therapy: fundamental and clinical studies; Frontiers in spectroscopy; Photon migration; Advances in tissue microscopy, dyes and reporters; Advances in cell microscopy: spectroscopy and micromanipulation; Laser-tissue interactions: therapeutic interventions; and Optics for biotechnology. Along with the program and participant lists, nearly 50 poster presentations are included.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of nitrogen fixation and the role of NifA in the diazotrophic endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The model endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is known to contribute fixed nitrogen to its host Kallar grass and also expresses nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings. Availability of nitrogen is a signal regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes. Therefore, we analysed global transcription in response to differences in the nitrogen source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A DNA microarray, comprising 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 3989 open reading frames of the genome of strain BH72, was used for transcriptome studies. Transcription profiles of cells grown microaerobically on N2 versus ammonium were compared. Expression of 7.2% of the genes was significantly up-regulated, and 5.8% down-regulated upon N2 fixation, respectively. A parallel genome-wide prediction of σ(54-type promoter elements mapped to the upstream region of 38 sequences of which 36 were modulated under the N2 response. In addition to modulation of genes related to N2 fixation, the expressions of gene clusters that might be related to plant-microbe interaction and of several transcription factors were significantly enhanced. While comparing under N2-fixation conditions the transcriptome of wild type with a nifLA(- insertion mutant, NifA being the essential transcriptional activator for nif genes, 24.5% of the genome was found to be affected in expression. A genome-wide prediction of 29 NifA binding sequences matched to 25 of the target genes whose expression was differential during microarray analysis, some of which were putatively negatively regulated by NifA. For selected genes, differential expression was corroborated by real time RT-PCR studies. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that life under conditions of nitrogen fixation is an important part of the lifestyle of strain BH72 in roots, as a wide range of genes far beyond the nif regulon is modulated. Moreover, the NifA regulon in strain BH72 appears to encompass a wider range of

  12. KrF laser fusion: perform optical systems study of direct short pulse extraction. Final technical report, 26 June 1978-14 March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, R.S. Jr.; Betts, J.A.; Aprahamian, R.; Livingston, P.M.

    1981-03-01

    KrF is a prime candidate for a laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) driver, however, there are still scaling issues to be addressed. The purpose of this program is to determine KrF performance in a regime of ICF interest both experimentally and analytically. Using a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, 100J has been obtained from a five liter optical volume KrF amplifier pumped at 300 KW/cm 3 peak at the end of a 500 nsec pulse. A normalized input flux of 0.4 was required to reduce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) to one half the free running value. A peak extraction efficiency of 0.46 was obtained under these conditions at 1 atm total pressure. The TRW kinetics model has been refined to give excellent agreement with high and low pump regimes. An integrated kinetics and pulse propagation code has also been developed and agrees well with experiment

  13. The NIF LinkOut broker: a web resource to facilitate federated data integration using NCBI identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Martone, Maryann E; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the NIF LinkOut Broker (NLB) that has been built as part of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project. The NLB is designed to coordinate the assembly of links to neuroscience information items (e.g., experimental data, knowledge bases, and software tools) that are (1) accessible via the Web, and (2) related to entries in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Entrez system. The NLB collects these links from each resource and passes them to the NCBI which incorporates them into its Entrez LinkOut service. In this way, an Entrez user looking at a specific Entrez entry can LinkOut directly to related neuroscience information. The information stored in the NLB can also be utilized in other ways. A second approach, which is operational on a pilot basis, is for the NLB Web server to create dynamically its own Web page of LinkOut links for each NCBI identifier in the NLB database. This approach can allow other resources (in addition to the NCBI Entrez) to LinkOut to related neuroscience information. The paper describes the current NLB system and discusses certain design issues that arose during its implementation.

  14. 3D Simulations of NIF Wetted Foam Experiments to Understand the Transition from 2D to 3D Implosion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brian; Olson, Richard; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Peterson, Robert; Bradley, Paul; Shah, Rahul; Wilson, Doug; Kline, John; Leeper, Ramon; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    The high convergence ratio (CR) of layered Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule implosions contribute to high performance in 1D simulations yet make them more susceptible to hydrodynamic instabilities, contributing to the development of 3D flows. The wetted foam platform is an approach to hot spot ignition to achieve low-to-moderate convergence ratios in layered implosions on the NIF unobtainable using an ice layer. Detailed high-resolution modeling of these experiments in 2D and 3D, including all known asymmetries, demonstrates that 2D hydrodynamics explain capsule performance at CR 12 but become less suitable as the CR increases. Mechanisms for this behavior and detailed comparisons of simulations to experiments on NIF will be presented. To evaluate the tradeoff between increased instability and improved 1D performance, we present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design with 17

  15. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Danly, C R; Izumi, N; Jedlovec, D; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2014-11-01

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  16. Calibration of a High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer for High-Energy-Density Plasmas on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, B.; Gao, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Liedahl, D.; Macphee, A. G.; Thorn, D. B.; Bettencourt, R.; Kauffman, R.; Le, H.; Nelson, D.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution, DIM-based (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) x-ray crystal spectrometer has been calibrated for and deployed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to diagnose plasma conditions and mix in ignition capsules near stagnation times. Two conical crystals in the Hall geometry focus rays from the Kr He- α, Ly- α, and He- β complexes onto a streak camera for time-resolved spectra, in order to measure electron density and temperature by observing Stark broadening and relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Signals from these two crystals are correlated with a third crystal that time-integrates the intervening energy range. The spectrometer has been absolutely calibrated using a microfocus x-ray source, an array of CCD and single-photon-counting detectors, and K- and L-absorption edge filters. Measurements of the integrated reflectivity, energy range, and energy resolution for each crystal will be presented. The implications of the calibration on signal levels from NIF implosions and x-ray filter choices will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  18. Protective effects of a bacterially expressed NIF-KGF fusion protein against bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinping; Li, Shengli; Zhang, Miaotao; Li, Xiukun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Chuanghong

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence suggests that the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and the polymorphonuclear leukocyte may play key roles in the development of lung fibrosis. Here we describe the construction, expression, purification, and identification of a novel NIF (neutrophil inhibitory factor)-KGF mutant fusion protein (NKM). The fusion gene was ligated via a flexible octapeptide hinge and expressed as an insoluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion protein retained the activities of KGF and NIF, as it inhibited both fibroblast proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Next, the effects of NKM on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice were examined. The mice were divided into the following four groups: (i) saline group; (ii) bleomycin group (instilled with 5 mg/kg bleomycin intratracheally); (iii) bleomycin plus dexamethasone (Dex) group (Dex was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 1 mg/kg/day 2 days prior to bleomycin instillation and daily after bleomycin instillation until the end of the treatment); and (iv) bleomycin plus NKM group (NKM was given i.p. at 2 mg/kg/day using the same protocol as the Dex group). NKM significantly improved the survival rates of mice exposed to bleomycin. The marked morphological changes and increased hydroxyproline levels resulted from the instillation of bleomycin (on Day 17) in the lungs were significantly inhibited by NKM. These results revealed that NKM can attenuate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, suggesting that NKM could be used to prevent bleomycin-induced lung damage or other interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Using embedded systems for the remote delivery and recovery of National Ignition Facility and optical line replaceable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the embedded control systems used to deliver and recover the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical line replaceable units (LRUs). As part of the NIF Operations Special Equipment Control System (OSECS), the embedded control systems form a part of the front end processor (FEP) layer of the OSECS. During the start-up and operations phases of the NIF project, it is anticipated that a significant number of LRUs will be delivered to the laser beamline structure. The frequency of LRU delivery combined with the design of the facility pose severe constraints for human-only delivery and recovery operations. To reduce the risks to personnel and to allow for safe and efficient delivery of equipment, LLNL engineers are designing and developing embedded control systems for the low-level device control of NIF Transport and Handling mechanical delivery system components. The design of the embedded control system makes use of advanced PC-based motion control technology commonly found in industrial applications. The PC-based platform consists of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software such as industrial computers, motion controllers, data acquisition boards, sensors technology, networking capabilities, development languages and operating system. Wireless networking technology is also being employed in the design to achieve a distributed control architecture for operator mobility during operations. Additionally, the PC-based platform provides the greatest degree of flexibility in satisfying a diverse set of motion control requirements and helps to maintain low maintenance and future upgrade costs

  20. Thermal oscillation smoothing of DT solid layers for HAPL and NIF scale targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheliak, John D.; Geller, Drew A.; Hoffer, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) solid fuel layers must meet stringent roughness specifications for both the ICF and IFE laser fusion programs and native beta-layering alone is unable to provide sufficient solid layer smoothing to meet these specifications at 18.3 K or below. Consequently, several supplemental smoothing options have been proposed to resolve this issue, including a technique called 'Thermal Breathing'. This technique consists of oscillating the temperature of the solid D-T layer about its equilibration temperature for a period of one to several hours. Recently, thermal oscillations have been used to successfully smooth rough solid D 2 in spherical targets. In order to study this particular smoothing technique, we examined the effects of thermal oscillations on equilibrated D-T solid layers, using both ICF and IFE scale layering cells and layer thicknesses. The D-T solid layers that were Subjected to thermal breathing in these studies were equilibrated at temperatures ranging from 16.0 K to 19.25 K, followed by 1.5 to 2 hours of temperature oscillations. During the HAPL scale experiments the amplitude and period of the oscillations were both varied to examine parametric effects of these variables on final layer roughness. In both sets of experiments, once the oscillations completed we allowed the layers to 'relax' at their initial equilibration temperature for another 1 to 2 hours, to observe any 'rebounding' or re-roughening that might occur. The rCF scale experiments were performed using a 2 mm beryllium torus, for which the layer was free from optical distortions that were observed in our IFE scale cell (a 4 mm dia. sapphire sphere-cylinder). Our results showed a temperature dependent smoothing effect ofthe DT solid layer ranging from 20% to 35% over the temperature range of 17.3 K to 19.0 K for the rCF-scale, 2-mm celL The final RMS roughness for layers grown in this 2-mm Be torus was on average less than 1 /lm for modes 7 and above. Results for the r

  1. The involvement of the nif-associated ferredoxin-like genes fdxA and fdxN of Herbaspirillum seropedicae in nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L F; Invitti, Adriana L; Rego, Fabiane G M; Monteiro, Rose A; Klassen, Giseli; Souza, Emanuel M; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Rigo, Liu U

    2010-02-01

    The pathway of electron transport to nitrogenase in the endophytic beta-Proteobacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae has not been characterized. We have generated mutants in two nif-associated genes encoding putative ferredoxins, fdxA and fdxN. The fdxA gene is part of the operon nifHDKENXorf1orf2fdxAnifQmodABC and is transcribed from the nifH promoter, as revealed by lacZ gene fusion. The fdxN gene is probably cotranscribed with the nifB gene. Mutational analysis suggests that the FdxA protein is essential for maximum nitrogenase activity, since the nitrogenase activity of the fdxA mutant strain was reduced to about 30% of that of the wild-type strain. In addition, the fdxA mutation had no effect on the nitrogenase switch-off in response to ammonium. Nitrogenase activity of a mutant strain lacking the fdxN gene was completely abolished. This phenotype was reverted by complementation with fdxN expressed under lacZ promoter control. The results suggest that the products of both the fdxA and fdxN genes are probably involved in electron transfer during nitrogen fixation.

  2. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric; Becraft, Eric D; Bateson, Mary M; Kilian, Oliver; Bhaya, Devaki; Ward, David M; Peters, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Kühl, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O2-inhibited process that reduces N2 gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night, and only declined when the mat became oxic in the morning. Nitrogenase activity was low throughout the night; however, it exhibited two peaks, a small one in the evening and a large one in the early morning, when light began to stimulate cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity, but O2 consumption by respiration still exceeded the rate of O2 evolution. Once the irradiance increased to the point at which the mat became oxic, the nitrogenase activity was strongly inhibited. Transcripts for proteins associated with energy-producing metabolisms in the cell also followed diel patterns, with fermentation-related transcripts accumulating at night, photosynthesis- and respiration-related transcripts accumulating during the day and late afternoon, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to the energetics and regulation of N2 fixation in hot spring mats and factors that can markedly influence the extent of N2 fixation over the diel cycle.

  3. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis N.; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF’s data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO’s current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation. PMID:25018728

  4. Ecological patterns of nifH genes in four terrestrial climatic zones explored with targeted metagenomics using FrameBot, a new informatics tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Quensen, John F; Fish, Jordan A; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sun, Yanni; Tiedje, James M; Cole, James R

    2013-09-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an important component of sustainable soil fertility and a key component of the nitrogen cycle. We used targeted metagenomics to study the nitrogen fixation-capable terrestrial bacterial community by targeting the gene for nitrogenase reductase (nifH). We obtained 1.1 million nifH 454 amplicon sequences from 222 soil samples collected from 4 National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) sites in Alaska, Hawaii, Utah, and Florida. To accurately detect and correct frameshifts caused by indel sequencing errors, we developed FrameBot, a tool for frameshift correction and nearest-neighbor classification, and compared its accuracy to that of two other rapid frameshift correction tools. We found FrameBot was, in general, more accurate as long as a reference protein sequence with 80% or greater identity to a query was available, as was the case for virtually all nifH reads for the 4 NEON sites. Frameshifts were present in 12.7% of the reads. Those nifH sequences related to the Proteobacteria phylum were most abundant, followed by those for Cyanobacteria in the Alaska and Utah sites. Predominant genera with nifH sequences similar to reads included Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, the latter two without obvious plant hosts at the sites. Surprisingly, 80% of the sequences had greater than 95% amino acid identity to known nifH gene sequences. These samples were grouped by site and correlated with soil environmental factors, especially drainage, light intensity, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation. FrameBot was tested successfully on three ecofunctional genes but should be applicable to any. High-throughput phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities using rRNA-targeted sequencing is now commonplace; however, such data often allow little inference with respect to either the presence or the diversity of genes involved in most important ecological processes. To study the gene pool for these processes, it is more

  5. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  6. Formation of a homocitrate-free iron-molybdenum cluster on NifEN: implications for the role of homocitrate in nitrogenase assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Aaron Wolfe; Blank, Michael Aaron; Yoshizawa, Janice Mariko; Lee, Chi Chung; Wiig, Jared Andrew; Hu, Yilin; Hodgson, Keith Owen; Hedman, Britt; Ribbe, Markus Walter

    2010-03-28

    Molybdenum (Mo)-dependent nitrogenase is a complex metalloprotein that catalyzes the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) at the molybdenum-iron cofactor (FeMoco) site of its molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein component. Here we report the formation of a homocitrate-free, iron-molybdenum ("FeMo") cluster on the biosynthetic scaffold of FeMoco, NifEN. Such a NifEN-associated "FeMo" cluster exhibits EPR features similar to those of the NifEN-associated, fully-complemented "FeMoco", which originate from the presence of Mo in both cluster species; however, "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" display different temperature-dependent changes in the line shape and the signal intensity of their respective EPR features, which reflect the impact of homocitrate on the redox properties of these clusters. XAS/EXAFS analysis reveals that the Mo centers in both "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" are present in a similar coordination environment, although Mo in "FeMo" cluster is more loosely coordinated as compared to that in "FeMoco" with respect to the Mo-O distances in the cluster, likely due to the absence of homocitrate that normally serves as an additional ligand for the Mo in the cluster. Subsequent biochemical investigation of the "FeMo" cluster not only facilitates the determination of the sequence of events in the mobilization of Mo and homocitrate during FeMoco maturation, but also permits the examination of the role of homocitrate in the transfer of FeMoco between NifEN and MoFe protein. Combined outcome of these studies establishes a platform for future structural analysis of the interactions between NifEN and MoFe protein, which will provide useful insights into the mechanism of cluster transfer between the two proteins.

  7. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyarudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

  8. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  9. Studies of fuel-bulk flows using charged-particle and neutron spectrometry on OMEGA and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V.; Knauer, J.; McKenty, P.; Sangster, T. C.; Appelbe, B.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Bionta, R.; Bleuel, D.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Edwards, J.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S.; Landen, O.

    2013-10-01

    A. MACKINNON, J. MCNANEY, D. MUNRO, J. PINO, S. WILKS, C. YEAMANS, LLNL, J. KILKENNY, A. NIKROO, GA - Charged-particle and neutron spectra are used to study fuel-bulk flows, which are indicative of implosion asymmetries and inefficient conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy. We distinguish between (i) collective, directional motion of the burn region, which manifests itself as a directional shift of the fusion-product spectrum, and (ii) radial flow, which appears as an additional broadening of the spectrum relative to expected based on Ti Doppler broadening. In this talk, we will present neutron and charged particle spectra from OMEGA and the NIF, which display the effect of these phenomena and their relation to implosion asymmetry. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  10. Ab initio study of the diatomic fluorides FeF, CoF, NiF, and CuF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukounas, Constantine; Mavridis, Aristides

    2008-11-06

    The late-3d transition-metal diatomic fluorides MF = FeF, CoF, NiF, and CuF have been studied using variational multireference (MRCI) and coupled-cluster [RCCSD(T)] methods, combined with large to very large basis sets. We examined a total of 35 (2S+1)|Lambda| states, constructing as well 29 full potential energy curves through the MRCI method. All examined states are ionic, diabatically correlating to M(+)+F(-)((1)S). Notwithstanding the "eccentric" character of the 3d transition metals and the difficulties to accurately be described with all-electron ab initio methods, our results are, in general, in very good agreement with available experimental numbers.

  11. Characterizing high energy spectra of NIF ignition Hohlraums using a differentially filtered high energy multipinhole x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Dewald, E D; Glenzer, S; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; MacGowan, B J; Maddox, B R; Milovich, J L; Prasad, R R; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Thomas, C A

    2010-10-01

    Understanding hot electron distributions generated inside Hohlraums is important to the national ignition campaign for controlling implosion symmetry and sources of preheat. While direct imaging of hot electrons is difficult, their spatial distribution and spectrum can be deduced by detecting high energy x-rays generated as they interact with target materials. We used an array of 18 pinholes with four independent filter combinations to image entire Hohlraums with a magnification of 0.87× during the Hohlraum energetics campaign on NIF. Comparing our results with Hohlraum simulations indicates that the characteristic 10-40 keV hot electrons are mainly generated from backscattered laser-plasma interactions rather than from Hohlraum hydrodynamics.

  12. Sensitivity of NIF-scale backlit thin shell implosions to hohlraum symmetry in the foot of the ignition drive pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, R K; Milovich, J; Bradley, D K; Schmitt, M; Goldman, S R; Kalantar, D H; Meeker, D; Jones, O S; Pollaine, S M; Amendt, P A; Dewald, E; Edwards, J; Landen, O L; Nikroo, A

    2008-07-28

    A necessary condition for igniting indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) spherical capsules on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is controlling drive flux asymmetry to the 1% level time-integrated over the pulse and with < 10%/ns swings during the pulse [J. D. Lindl et al., 'The Physics Basis for Ignition using Indirect Drive Targets on the National Ignition Facility', Physics of Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)]. While drive symmetry during the first 2 ns of the pulse can be inferred by using the re-emission pattern from a surrogate high Z sphere [E. Dewald et al. to be published in Rev. Sci. Inst.] and symmetry during the last 5 ns inferred from the shape of fully imploded capsules [A. Hauer, N. Delamater, D. Ress et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 672-7 (1995)], the midportion ({approx} 2-10 ns) has been shown to be amenable to detection by the in-flight shape of x-ray backlit thin shell capsules [Pollaine et. al., Physics of Plasmas 8 2357 (2001)]. In this paper, we present sensitivity studies conducted on the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser of the thin shell symmetry measurement technique at near NIF-scale for two candidate capsule ablator materials, Ge-doped CH and Cu-doped Be. These experiments use both point and area backlighting to cast 4.7 keV radiographs of thin 1.4 mm initial-diameter Ge-doped CH and Cu-doped Be shells when converged a factor of {approx} 0.5 x in radius. Distortions in the position of the transmission limb of the shells resulting from drive asymmetries are measured to an accuracy of a few {micro}ms, meeting requirements. The promising results to date allow us to compare measured and predicted distortions and by inference drive asymmetries for the first 4 asymmetry modes as a function of hohlraum illumination conditions.

  13. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  14. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  15. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoorian, H R; Abrishamian, M S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device. (paper)

  16. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  17. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  18. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, D.A.; Gostic, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.; Lewis, L.A.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10 15 atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten

  19. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

    2011-11-21

    The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  2. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Frankel, R.; Sinenian, N.; Childs, R. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Burke, M.; Roberts, S.

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  3. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  4. A magnetic particle time-of-flight (MagPTOF) diagnostic for measurements of shock- and compression-bang time at the NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, H G; Sio, H; Frenje, J A; Magoon, J; Agliata, A; Shoup, M; Ayers, S; Bailey, C G; Gatu Johnson, M; Zylstra, A B; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M J; Li, C K; Sèguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Rygg, J R; Kimbrough, J R; Mackinnon, A; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Clancy, T; Zacharias, R; House, A; Döppner, T; Park, H S; LePape, S; Landen, O; Meezan, N; Robey, H; Glebov, V U; Hohenberger, M; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Li, C; Parat, J; Olson, R; Kline, J; Kilkenny, J

    2014-11-01

    A magnetic particle time-of-flight (MagPTOF) diagnostic has been designed to measure shock- and compression-bang time using D(3)He-fusion protons and DD-fusion neutrons, respectively, at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This capability, in combination with shock-burn weighted areal density measurements, will significantly constrain the modeling of the implosion dynamics. This design is an upgrade to the existing particle time-of-flight (pTOF) diagnostic, which records bang times using DD or DT neutrons with an accuracy better than ±70 ps [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D902 (2012)]. The inclusion of a deflecting magnet will increase D(3)He-proton signal-to-background by a factor of 1000, allowing for the first time simultaneous measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D(3)He-filled surrogate implosions at the NIF.

  5. Impact of final kissing balloon inflation on vessel healing following drug-eluting stent implantation: Insight from the optical coherence tomography sub-study of the J-REVERSE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hachidai; Otake, Hiromasa; Shinke, Toshiro; Murasato, Yoshinobu; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Yamawaki, Masahiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Kenichi; Yamada, Shin-Ichiro; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Yamashita, Takehiro; Yumoto, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    We sought to clarify the impact of final kissing inflation (FKI) after single stenting of bifurcation lesions on vessel healing. From the J-REVERSE registry enrolling 303 bifurcation lesions treated with provisional single stenting using sirolimus- (SES) or everolimus-eluting stent (EES), 65 lesions treated with (n=30) and without (n=35) FKI underwent 9-month follow-up optical coherence tomography. Average stent eccentricity index (SEI: minimum/maximum stent diameter) and neointimal unevenness score (NUS: maximum/average neointimal thickness of the same cross-section) for the proximal, bifurcation, and distal segments were compared between FKI and non-FKI groups. At the proximal segment, the FKI group demonstrated significantly larger average stent area with greater asymmetric stent expansion, and average lumen area remained significantly larger at 9-month follow-up despite a tendency toward greater neointimal proliferation. Jailed strut and thrombus incidence were also significantly lower at the side branch orifice, and NUS was significantly smaller at the bifurcation and proximal segments in the FKI group. Nine months after SES and EES treatment of bifurcation lesions, FKI reduced proximal-segment luminal narrowing. Considering its homogeneous neointimal distribution and fewer jailed struts, FKI may be beneficial for treating bifurcation lesions. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomical and functional assessment of Tryton bifurcation stent before and after final kissing balloon dilatation: Evaluations by three-dimensional coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography imaging and fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyxaras, Stylianos A; Toth, Gabor G; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Ughi, Giovanni J; Tu, Shengxian; Rusinaru, Dan; Adriaenssens, Tom; Reiber, Johan H C; Leon, Martin B; Bax, Jeroen J; Wijns, William

    2017-07-01

    To assess the anatomical and functional impact of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) after implantation of a dedicated bifurcation stent system. Current evidence suggests clinical benefit of FKBI in patients undergoing bifurcation dilatation using the Tryton side branch stent (Tryton-SBS). We hypothesized that FKBI improves anatomical reconstruction and functional results of bifurcation treated by Tryton-SBS. An unselected group of patients with complex bifurcation coronary lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Tryton-SBS underwent paired anatomical assessment with two- and three-dimensional quantitative coronary analysis (2D- and 3D-QCA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), including 3D reconstruction before and after FKBI. Functional assessment by fractional flow reserve (FFR) was performed in the main branch (MB) and side branch (SB) before and after FKBI. Paired pre- and post-FKBI data were obtained in 10 patients. By OCT imaging, FKBI increased both the SB ostial area (4.93 ± 2.81 vs. 7.43 ± 2.87 mm 2 , P system, FKBI is associated with improved anatomical and functional results at the SB level, without compromising the result at the MB. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Experiments in Molecular Optics - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the manipulation of molecules with laser light is reported. It is shown that the dipole force produced by the electric field of a focused laser may be used to deflect, align, and orient molecules in a collision free environment. The feasibility of applying these techniques to nanolithography is explored, and a scheme for orienting molecules in space is developed

  8. The Use of Degenerate Primers in qPCR Analysis of Functional Genes Can Cause Dramatic Quantification Bias as Revealed by Investigation of nifH Primer Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H

    2017-10-01

    The measurement of functional gene abundance in diverse microbial communities often employs quantitative PCR (qPCR) with highly degenerate oligonucleotide primers. While degenerate PCR primers have been demonstrated to cause template-specific bias in PCR applications, the effect of such bias on qPCR has been less well explored. We used a set of diverse, full-length nifH gene standards to test the performance of several universal nifH primer sets in qPCR. We found significant template-specific bias in all but the PolF/PolR primer set. Template-specific bias caused more than 1000-fold mis-estimation of nifH gene copy number for three of the primer sets and one primer set resulted in more than 10,000-fold mis-estimation. Furthermore, such template-specific bias will cause qPCR estimates to vary in response to beta-diversity, thereby causing mis-estimation of changes in gene copy number. A reduction in bias was achieved by increasing the primer concentration. We conclude that degenerate primers should be evaluated across a range of templates, annealing temperatures, and primer concentrations to evaluate the potential for template-specific bias prior to their use in qPCR.

  9. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  10. Signal and background considerations for the MRSt on the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, C W; Frenje, J A; Hilsabeck, T J; Bionta, R; Khater, H Y; Gatu Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2016-11-01

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRSt) has been conceptually designed for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility. Using the MRSt, the goals are to measure the time-evolution of the spectrum with a time resolution of ∼20-ps and absolute accuracy better than 5%. To meet these goals, a detailed understanding and optimization of the signal and background characteristics are required. Through ion-optics, MCNP simulations, and detector-response calculations, it is demonstrated that the goals and a signal-to background >5-10 for the down-scattered neutron measurement are met if the background, consisting of ambient neutrons and gammas, at the MRSt is reduced 50-100 times.

  11. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  12. Understanding Bright 13 keV Kr K-shell X-ray Sources at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Kemp, G. E.; Fournier, K. B.; Scott, H.; Patel, M.; Barrios, Widmann; Widmann, K.

    2015-11-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (CE) K-shell Kr sources are being investigated for High Energy Density experiments. These sources are 4.1 mm in diameter 4.4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 40 μm thick wall holding either 1.2 or 1.5 atm of Kr gas. The CE of K-shell Kr is dependent upon the peak electron temperature in the radiating plasma. In the NIF experiments, the available energy heats the source to Te = 6-7 keV, well below the temperature of Te ~25 keV needed to optimize the Kr CE. The CE is a steep function of the peak electron temperature. A spatially averaged electron temperature can be estimated from measured He(α) and Ly(α) line ratios. Some disagreement has been observed in the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. Disagreements have been observed between the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. To help understand this issue, Kr gas pipes have been shot with 3 ω light at ?750 kJ at ~210, ~140 TW and ~120 TW power levels with 3.7, 5.2 and 6.7 ns pulses, respectively. The power and pulse length scaling of the measured CE and K-shell line ratios and their comparison to simulations will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspic

  13. pF3D Simulations of Large Outer-Beam Brillouin Scattering from NIF Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Chapman, Thomas; Amendt, Peter

    2015-11-01

    We assess the cause of large outer-beam stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a NIF shot with a rugby-shaped hohlraum, which has less wall surface loss and thus higher x-ray drive than a cylindrical hohlraum of the same radius. This shot differed from a prior rugby shot with low SBS in three ways: outer beam pointing, split-pointing of the four beams within each outer-beam quadruplet, and a small amount of neon added to the hohlraum helium fill gas. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles from the radiation-hydrodynamics code Lasnex. We determine which change between the two shots increased the SBS by adding them one at a time to the simulations. We compare the simulations to experimental data for total SBS power, its spatial distribution at the lens, and the SBS spectrum. For each shot, we use profiles from Lasnex simulations with and without a model for mix at the hohlraum wall-gas interface. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674893.

  14. Development of new platforms for hydrodynamic instability and asymmetry measurements in deceleration phase of indirectly-driven implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, Louisa

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetries are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause pre-existing capsule perturbations to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This talk will review recent developments of the experimental platforms and techniques to measure high-mode instabilities and low-mode asymmetries in the deceleration phase of implosions. These new platforms provide a natural link between the acceleration-phase experiments and neutron performance of layered deuterium-tritium implosions. In one innovative technique, self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to ``self-backlight'' the shell in-flight around peak compression. Experiments with pre-imposed 2-D perturbations measured instability growth factors, while experiments with 3-D, ``native-roughness'' perturbations measured shell integrity in the deceleration phase of implosions. In a complimentary technique, the inner surface of the shell, along with its low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations were visualized in implosions using x-ray emission of a high-Z dopant added to the inner surface of the capsule. These new measurements were instrumental in revealing unexpected surprises and providing improved understanding of the role of instabilities and asymmetries on implosion performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, B; Milanese, L M; Han, W; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Hahn, K D; Jones, B

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  16. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  17. Some aspects of the hydrodynamics of the microencapsulation route to NIF mandrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gresho, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spherical plastic shells for use as mandrels for the fabrication of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) target capsules can be produced by solution-based microencapsulation techniques. The specifications for these mandrels in terms of sphericity are extremely rigorous, and it is clear that various aspects of the solution hydrodynamics associated with their production are important in controlling the quality of the final product. This paper explores what the author knows (and needs to know) about the hydrodynamics of the microencapsulation process in order to lay the foundation for process improvements as well as identify inherent limits

  18. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  19. Multipurpose 10 in. manipulator-based optical telescope for Omega and the Trident laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, J.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Berggren, R.R.; Faulkner, J.; Schmell, R.; Little, D.; Archuleta, T.; Lopez, J.; Velarde, J.; Horton, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently designed and are building a telescope which acts as an imaging light collector relaying the image to an optical table for experiment dependent analysis and recording. The expected primary use of this instrument is a streaked optical pyrometer for witness plate measurements of the hohlraum drive temperature. The telescope is based on the University of Rochester close-quote s 10 in. manipulator (TIM) which allows compatibility between Omega, Trident, and the NIF lasers. The optics capture a f/7 cone of light, have a field of view of 6 mm, have a spatial resolution of 5 - 7 μm per line pair at the object plane, and are optimized for operation at 280 nm. The image is at a magnification of 11.7x, which is convenient for many experiments, but can be changed using additional optics that reside outside the TIM. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Thomas R.

    2014-03-14

    We propose to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by continued development and application of polarized 3He spin-filters. These devices are particularly relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source, as the polarizing monochromators historically used at reactor sources will usually not be suitable polarizers, and wide-angle polarization analysis will be essential. With prior support from the Office of Science, we have developed neutron spin-filters based on the large spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by 3He, and applied these devices to a small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS), polarized neutron reflectometers, a thermal energy single crystal diffractometer (SCD), and a thermal energy triple-axis instrument. Our developments have been adopted for application on the magnetism reflectometer at the SNS and for the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) 3He user capability. Results from both these programs are emerging. We have made significant progress in the past grant period on wide-angle polarization analysis. We have also performed several studies relevant to continuous optical pumping, including collaboration on experiments that have revealed neutron beam effects on spin filters that are continuously pumped by spin-exchange optical pumping. We contributed to an experiment on a neutron interferometer, in which the successful results obtained are directly related to both 3He cell technology and high accuracy 3He -based neutron polarimetry. Implementation of wide-angle polarization analysis will continue to be key thrust for our work in this new proposal. We will also focus on continuous optical pumping and the fundamental issues that determine the achievable 3He polarization. This project will be carried out by a collaboration involving scientists at NIST, Indiana University, Hamilton College, and the Univ. of Wisconsin who are experts in 3He polarization techniques, and materials scientists from the

  2. Role of reactant transport in determining the properties of NIF shells made by interfacial polycondensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Letts, S.A.; Buckley, S.R.; Fearon, E.M.; Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schroen-Carey, D. [W.J. Schafer and Associates, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Polymer shells up to 2 mm in diameter were prepared using an interfacial polycondensation / cross-linking reaction occurring at the surface of an oil drop. The oil phase is comprised of a solution (20 wt% or less) of isophthaloyl dichloride (IPC) dissolved in an organic solvent. An interfacial reaction is initiated when the IPC-loaded oil drop is submerged in an aqueous solution of poly(p-vinylphenol) (PVP), a poly(electrolyte) at elevated pH. Composition, structure, and surface finish for fully-formed dry shells were assessed using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC) mass spectroscopy (MS), microhardness measurements, gas permeability, and solvent permeability measurements. From deposition rate data, a reaction mechanism and key reaction parameters were identified. The deposition rate of shell membrane material was found to be a diffusion limited reaction of IPC through the forming membrane to the exterior shell interface (which is believed to be the reaction front). The final thickness of the film deposited at the interface and the rate of deposition were found to be strong functions of the IPC concentration and oil phase solvent. Films made with diethyl phthalate (DEP) were thinner and harder than films made using 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) as a solvent. Differences in solubility of the forming membrane in DCH and DEP appear to be able to account for the differences in deposition rate and the hardness (related to cross-linking density). The deposition can be thought of as a phase separation which is affected by both the poly(electrolyte) / ionomer transition and the amount of cross-linking. Finally, it was found that the choice of oil phase solvent profoundly affects the evolution of the outer surface roughness.

  3. Conclusiones finales

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Gaitán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La investigación realizada permite extraer las siguientes conclusiones finales que serán agrupadas según los principales problemas abordados: 1. En relación a las cláusulas que impiden una adecuada transferencia de tecnología, en la presente investigación se demuestra: Primero. Que las cláusulas más frecuentes recogidas en los contratos internacionales de transferencia de tecnología son: la fijación de precios, las restricciones a la investigación y adaptación de la tecnología objeto del cont...

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  5. Molecular Ecology of nifH Genes and Transcripts Along a Chronosequence in Revegetated Areas of the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Bao, Jing-Ting; Li, Xin-Rong; Liu, Yu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The colonization and succession of diazotrophs are essential for the development of organic soil layers in desert. We examined the succession of diazotrophs in the well-established revegetated areas representing a chronosequence of 0 year (control), 22 years (restored artificially since 1981), 57 years (restored artificially since 1956), and more than 100 years (restored naturally) to determine the community assembly and active expression of diazotrophs. The pyrosequencing data revealed that Alphaproteobacteria-like diazotrophs predominated in the topsoil of our mobile dune site, while cyanobacterial diazotrophs predominated in the revegetated sites. The cyanobacterial diazotrophs were primarily composed of the heterocystous genera Anabaena, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Nodularia, Nostoc, Trichormus, and Mastigocladus. Almost all the nifH sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria phylum (all the relative abundance values >99.1 %) at transcript level and all the active cyanobacterial diazotrophs distributed in the families Nostocaceae and Rivulariaceae. The most dominant active cyanobacterial genus was Cylindrospermum in all the samples. The rank abundance and community analyses demonstrated that most of the diazotrophic diversity originated from the "rare" species, and all the DNA-based diazotrophic libraries were richer and more diverse than their RNA-based counterparts in the revegetated sites. Significant differences in the diazotrophic community and their active population composition were observed among the four research sites. Samples from the 1981-revegetating site (predominated by cyanobacterial crusts) showed the highest nitrogenase activity, followed by samples from the naturally revegetating site (predominated by lichen crusts), the 1956-revegetating site (predominated by moss crusts), and the mobile dune site (without crusts). Collectively, our data highlight the importance of nitrogen fixation by the primary successional desert topsoil and suggest

  6. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Optical computer switching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  8. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  9. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail: lafoux@cea.fr; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.

    2002-05-21

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  10. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  12. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P; Griffith, R; Hagans, K; Lerche, R; Allen, C; Davies, T; Janson, F; Justin, R; Marshall, B; Sweningsen, O

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses1 (optical comb generators) that are suitable for temporal calibrations. These optical comb generators (Figure 1) are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced, optical pulses. Comb generators have been produced with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 10-GHz pulse trains of 780-nm wavelength light with individual pulse durations of ∼25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector. Signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fibers. At the NIF, ultra-fast streak-cameras are used by the Laser Fusion Program experimentalists to record fast transient optical signals. Their temporal resolution is unmatched by any other transient recorder. Their ability to spatially discriminate an image along the input slit allows them to function as a one-dimensional image recorder, time-resolved spectrometer, or multichannel transient recorder. Depending on the choice of photocathode, they can be made sensitive to photon energies from 1.1 eV to 30 keV and beyond. Comb generators perform two important functions for LLNL streak-camera users. First, comb generators are used as a precision time-mark generator for calibrating streak camera sweep rates. Accuracy is achieved by averaging many streak camera images of comb generator signals. Time-base calibrations with portable comb generators are easily done in both the calibration laboratory and in situ. Second, comb signals are applied

  13. Proceedings of joint meeting of the 6th simulation science symposium and the NIFS collaboration research 'large scale computer simulation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Joint meeting of the 6th Simulation Science Symposium and the NIFS Collaboration Research 'Large Scale Computer Simulation' was held on December 12-13, 2002 at National Institute for Fusion Science, with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaborations in various fields of computer simulations. The present meeting attended by more than 40 people consists of the 11 invited and 22 contributed papers, of which topics were extended not only to fusion science but also to related fields such as astrophysics, earth science, fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, computer science etc. (author)

  14. Models of optical quantum computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krovi Hari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I review some work on models of quantum computing, optical implementations of these models, as well as the associated computational power. In particular, we discuss the circuit model and cluster state implementations using quantum optics with various encodings such as dual rail encoding, Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding, and coherent state encoding. Then we discuss intermediate models of optical computing such as boson sampling and its variants. Finally, we review some recent work in optical implementations of adiabatic quantum computing and analog optical computing. We also provide a brief description of the relevant aspects from complexity theory needed to understand the results surveyed.

  15. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  17. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrin- sically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition, etc). Optical digi- tal computers are still some years ...

  18. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Simmons; Tracie J. Bukowski

    2002-08-07

    determine if photocarriers could be collected. Thus, we tested a variety of semiconductor-glass nano-composite structures for photoconductivity. Tests were conducted in collaboration with the Laser Physics Division at Sandia National Laboratories. Nano-composite samples were formed consisting of Ge nanocrystals embedded in an indium-tin-oxide matrix. Photoconductivity measurements were conducted with exposure of the films to sub-bandgap and super-bandgap light. The results showed a clear photoconductivity effect arising from exposure to super-bandgap light only. These results suggest that the high-efficiency photovoltaic cell structure proposed in DOE sponsored U.S. Patent 5,720,827 is viable. The results of fabrication studies, structural characterization studies and photovoltaic measurements are presented in the report. This report is taken from a PhD dissertation of Tracie J. Bukowski submitted to the University of Florida in May 2002. ''The optical and photoconductive response in germanium quantum dots and indium tin oxide composite thin film structures,'' Dr. Bukowski conducted her PhD study under this grant at the University of Arizona and under Grant No DE-FG05-91ER45462 at the University of Florida, as well as during a two-year fellowship at Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Epitaxial effects in thin films of high-Tc cuprates with the K2NiF4 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Michio; Sato, Hisashi; Tsukada, Akio; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) and La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) have been recognized as the archetype materials of "hole-doped" high-Tc superconductors. Their crystal structures are relatively simple with a small number of constituent cation elements. In addition, the doping level can be varied by the chemical substitution over a wide range enough to obtain the full spectrum of doping-dependent electronic and magnetic properties. These attractive features have dedicated many researchers to thin-film growth of LSCO and LBCO. The critical temperature (Tc) of LSCO and LBCO is sensitive to strain as manifested by a positive pressure coefficient of Tc in bulk samples. In general, films are strained if they are grown on lattice-mismatched substrates (epitaxial strain). Early attempts (before 1997) at the growth of LSCO and LBCO films resulted in depressed Tc below 30 K as they were grown on a commonly used SrTiO3 substrate (in-plane lattice parameter asub = 3.905 Å): the in-plane lattice parameters of LSCO and LBCO are ≤3.80 Å, and hence tensile epitaxial strain is introduced. The situation was changed by the use of LaSrAlO4 substrates with a slightly shorter in-plane lattice constant (asub = 3.756 Å). On LaSrAlO4 substrates, the Tc reaches 45 K in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4, 47 K in La1.85Ba0.15CuO4, and 56 K in ozone-oxidized La2CuO4+δ films, substantially higher than the Tc's of the bulk compounds. The Tc increase in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films on LaSrAlO4 and decrease on SrTiO3 are semi-quantitatively in accord with the phenomenological estimations based on the anisotropic strain coefficients of Tc (dTc/dεi). In this review article, we describe the growth and properties of films of cuprates having the K2NiF4 structure, mainly focusing on the increase/decrease of Tc by epitaxial strain and quasi-stable phase formation by epitaxial stabilization. We further extract the structural and/or physical parameters controlling Tc toward microscopic understanding of the variation of Tc by epitaxial strain.

  20. [Diversity of diazotrophs in the sediments of hypersaline salt and soda lakes analyzed with the use of the nifH gene as a molecular marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, T P; Slobodova, N V; Bumazhkin, B K; Sukhacheva, M V; Sorokin, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH genes, encoding the Fe protein of the nitrogenas enzymatic complex, was carried out for pure cultures of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria of diverse origin, as well as for heterotrophic alkaliphilic sulfate reducers isolated from saline and soda lakes. Topology of the nitrogenase tree correlated with that of the 16S rRNAgene tree to a considerable degree; which niade it possible to use the nifH gene as a molecular marker for investigation of diazotrophic bacterialcommunities in silty sediments of saline and sodalakes. Although diazotrophs were revealed in all environmentalsamples, their phylogenetic diversity was relatively low. Sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria and photo- and chemotrophicgammaproteobacteria were predominant in samples integrated over sediment thickness. Analysis of samples fromthe upper sediment layers revealed predominance of phototrophic diazotrophs of various phyla, including purple sulfur and nonsulfur proteobacteria, green nonsulfur bacteria, heliobacteria; and cyanobacteria. Some phylotypes could not be identified, probably indicating the presence of bacterial groups which have not yet been studied by conventional microbiological techniques.

  1. Analysis of FeF3 and NiF2 thin films by using RBS, (α, X) reactions, and SIMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevers, G.; Barriere, A.S.; Grannec, J.; Lozano, L.; Blanchard, B.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of FeF 3 and NiF 2 thin films, prepared by sublimation under vacuum, is investigated from several complementary analysis techniques (RBS, α, X reactions, and SIMS measurements). It greatly depends on fabrication parameters and further treatments. For a residual pressure in the preparation enclosure less than 10 -7 Torr and a temperature, T/sub s/, of the substrate during the condensation of the vapour greater than 400 K for FeF 3 and lower than 550 K for NiF 2 , the bulk composition of the layers is quasi stoichiometric. A lack of fluorine is observed near the two faces of the films. It is correlated to the presence of oxygen which probably corresponds to water adsorption, after an air exposure of the samples, followed by an hydrolysis of the compounds. This effect is considerably reduced by the presence of gold electrodes which protect the insulating layers, and in the conditions previously mentioned any diffusion can be noted. However in all cases some traces of impurities are pointed out, mainly: sodium, potassium, calcium, and chlorine, which are probably present in the initial powder. On the other hand, it is shown that FeF 3 diffuses throughout a gold electrode for T/sub s/ 2 , the content of fluorine decreases when T/sub s/ > 550 K or when the films are annealed. (author)

  2. Impact properties of electron beam welds of V–4Ti–4Cr alloys NIFS-HEAT-2 and CEA-J57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsisar, Valentyn, E-mail: valentyn_tsisar@ipm.lviv.ua [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Physical–Mechanical Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (PhMI NASU), 5 Naukova Street, 79601 Lviv (Ukraine); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials – Material Process Technology (IAM-WPT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Le Flem, Marion [CEA, DEN, DMN, SRMA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Yeliseyeva, Olga [Physical–Mechanical Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (PhMI NASU), 5 Naukova Street, 79601 Lviv (Ukraine); Konys, Jürgen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials – Material Process Technology (IAM-WPT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Electron beam welding was applied for V–4Ti–4Cr alloys NIFS-HEAT-2 and CEA-J57. • Weld metal showed superior impact properties in comparison with base metal. • Expected shift in DBTT to higher temperatures does not take place. - Abstract: The Charpy impact properties and microstructure of bead-on-plate electron beam welds of V–4Ti–4Cr alloys NIFS-HEAT-2 (NH-2) and CEA-J57 (J57) were investigated. Weld metal of both grades demonstrated increase in hardness (HV{sub 100} ∼ 180) in comparison with base metal (HV{sub 100} ∼ 135) due to decomposition of Ti–C,O,N precipitates followed by the solid-solution hardening of V-matrix with oxygen. Hardness decreases gradually from the weld metal through the heat affected zone toward the base metal indicating partial decomposition of precipitation bands from the side of heat affected zone directly adjoining weld metal. The latter consists of columnar crystallites (grains) possessing with inner dendritic structure and elongated from the center of weld belt in the direction of heat removal. Thickness of weld metal does not exceed 1 mm while heat affected zone is about 3 mm thick. Absorbed energies of weld metal are superior in comparison with base metal for both grades (NH-2 and J57) while the fracture mode is mainly ductile in the temperature range of impact test from 17 to −196 °C.

  3. IMAC fractionation in combination with LC-MS reveals H2B and NIF-1 peptides as potential bladder cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzi, Maria; Zoidakis, Jerome; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Zürbig, Petra; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Lazaris, Andreas; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Ploumidis, Achilles; Mischak, Harald; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia

    2013-09-06

    Improvement in bladder cancer (BC) management requires more effective diagnosis and prognosis of disease recurrence and progression. Urinary biomarkers attract special interest because of the noninvasive means of urine collection. Proteomic analysis of urine entails the adoption of a fractionation methodology to reduce sample complexity. In this study, we applied immobilized metal affinity chromatography in combination with high-resolution LC-MS/MS for the discovery of native urinary peptides potentially associated with BC aggressiveness. This approach was employed toward urine samples from patients with invasive BC, noninvasive BC, and benign urogenital diseases. A total of 1845 peptides were identified, corresponding to a total of 638 precursor proteins. Specific enrichment for proteins involved in nucleosome assembly and for zinc-finger transcription factors was observed. The differential expression of two candidate biomarkers, histone H2B and NIF-1 (zinc finger 335) in BC, was verified in independent sets of urine samples by ELISA and by immunohistochemical analysis of BC tissue. The results collectively support changes in the expression of both of these proteins with tumor progression, suggesting their potential role as markers for discriminating BC stages. In addition, the data indicate a possible involvement of NIF-1 in BC progression, likely as a suppressor and through interactions with Sox9 and HoxA1.

  4. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  5. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011). [54] H. Jung, et al., “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator...supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nonlinear optics, parametric mixing, nanophotonics, optical frequency combs 16...Finally, we investigated comb generation via coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides. Our research effort illustrates that the

  6. Exploring nuclear reactions relevant to Stellar and Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using High-Energy-Density plasmas at OMEGA and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to Stellar Nucleosynthesis (SN) and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas closely mimic astrophysical environments and are an excellent complement to accelerator experiments in exploring SN and BBN-relevant nuclear reactions. To date, our work using HED plasmas at OMEGA and NIF has focused on the complementary 3He+3He, T+3He and T +T reactions. First studies of the T +T reaction indicated the significance of the 5He ground-state resonance in the T +T neutron spectrum. Subsequent T +T experiments showed that the strength of this resonance varies with center-of-mass (c-m) energy in the range of 16-50 keV, a variation that is not fundamentally understood. Studies of the 3He+3He and T+3He reactions have also been conducted at OMEGA at c-m energies of 165 keV and 80 keV, respectively, and the results revealed three things. First, a large cross section for the T+3He- γ branch can be ruled out as an explanation for the anomalously high abundance of 6Li in primordial material. Second, the results contrasted to theoretical modeling indicate that the mirror-symmetry assumption is not enough to capture the differences between T +T and 3He+3He reactions. Third, the elliptical spectrum assumed in the analysis of 3He+3He data obtained in accelerator experiments is incorrect. Preliminary data from recent experiments at the NIF exploring the 3He+3He reaction at c-m energies of 60 keV and 100 keV also indicate that the underlying physics changes with c-m energy. In this talk, we describe these findings and future directions for exploring light-ion reactions at OMEGA and the NIF. The work was supported in part by the US DOE, LLE, and LLNL.

  7. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  8. Springer handbook of lasers and optics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments. This second edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially four new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs, and Interferometry reflect the major changes. In addition, chapters Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit have been thoroughly revised and updated. The now 25 chapters are grouped into four parts which cover basic principles and materials, fabrication and properties of optical components, coherent and incoherent light sources, and, finally, selected applications and special fields such as terahertz photonics, x-ray optics and holography. Each chapter is authored by respected exp...

  9. Hamilton's Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Hamiton, optics, wavefronts, characterisic function, conical refraction. . Hamilton's Optics. The Power of Wavefronts. Rajaram Nityananada. Building on work by Fermat and Huygens, Hamil- ton transformed the study of geometrical optics in his very first paper, presented when still in his teens. His 'characteristic function' was ...

  10. On-chip optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Wu, Ming C.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Microoptical components, such as diffractive and refractive microlenses, micromirrors, beam splitter and beam combining have recently received considerable attention in the optics R&D centers and finally in the manufacturing community. This achievement is due to MEM technology that demonstrated major improvements in overall performance/cost of optical systems while offering the possibility of relatively rapid transition to products for military, industrial and consumer markets. Because of these technology advances, an industrial infrastructure is rapidly becoming established to provide combining microoptical components and MEM-based microactuators for on-chip optical processing. Optical systems that once were considered to be impractical due to the limitations of bulk optics can now easily be designed and fabricated with all required optical paths, signal conditioning, and electronic controls, integrated on a single chip. On-chip optical processing will enhance the performance of devices such as focal plane optical concentrator, smart actuators, color separation, beam shaping, FDDI switch, digital micromirror devices (DMDs), and miniature optical scanners. In this paper we review advances in microoptical components developed at Rockwell Science Center. We also review the potential of on-chip optical processing and recent achievement of free-space integrated optics and microoptical bench components developed at UCLA, and DMDs developed at Texas Instruments.

  11. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  13. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  14. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  15. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  16. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, Chris [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  17. A novel particle time of flight diagnostic for measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D3He and DT implosions at the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Zylstra, A B; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M J; Frenje, J A; Waugh, C J; Li, C K; Sèguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Rygg, J R; Kimbrough, J R; MacPhee, A; Collins, G W; Hicks, D; Mackinnon, A; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Clancy, T; Zacharias, R; Döppner, T; Park, H S; LePape, S; Landen, O; Meezan, N; Moses, E I; Glebov, V U; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Olson, R; Kline, J; Kilkenny, J

    2012-10-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) diagnostic, fielded alongside a wedge range-filter (WRF) proton spectrometer, will provide an absolute timing for the shock-burn weighted ρR measurements that will validate the modeling of implosion dynamics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the first phase of the project, pTOF has recorded accurate bang times in cryogenic DT, DT exploding pusher, and D(3)He implosions using DD or DT neutrons with an accuracy better than ±70 ps. In the second phase of the project, a deflecting magnet will be incorporated into the pTOF design for simultaneous measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D(3)He-filled surrogate implosions using D(3)He protons and DD-neutrons, respectively.

  18. Physics of optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Timo A; Knöner, Gregor; Heckenberg, Norman R; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2007-01-01

    We outline the basic principles of optical tweezers as well as the fundamental theory underlying optical tweezers. The optical forces responsible for trapping result from the transfer of momentum from the trapping beam to the particle and are explained in terms of the momenta of incoming and reflected or refracted rays. We also consider the angular momentum flux of the beam in order to understand and explain optical torques. In order to provide a qualitative picture of the trapping, we treat the particle as a weak positive lens and the forces on the lens are shown. However, this representation does not provide quantitative results for the force. We, therefore, present results of applying exact electromagnetic theory to optical trapping. First, we consider a tightly focused laser beam. We give results for trapping of spherical particles and examine the limits of trappability in terms of type and size of the particles. We also study the effect of a particle on the beam. This exact solution reproduces the same qualitative effect as when treating the particle as a lens where changes in the convergence or divergence and in the direction of the trapping beam result in restoring forces acting on the particle. Finally, we review the fundamental theory of optical tweezers.

  19. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  20. Using geometric algebra to understand pattern rotations in multiple mirror optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-01-01

    Geometric Algebra (GA) is a new formulation of Clifford Algebra that includes vector analysis without notation changes. Most applications of Ga have been in theoretical physics, but GA is also a very good analysis tool for engineering. As an example, the authors use GA to study pattern rotation in optical systems with multiple mirror reflections. The common ways to analyze pattern rotations are to use rotation matrices or optical ray trace codes, but these are often inconvenient. The authors use GA to develop a simple expression for pattern rotation that is useful for designing or tolerancing pattern rotations in a multiple mirror optical system by inspection. Pattern rotation is used in many optical engineering systems, but it is not normally covered in optical system engineering texts. Pattern rotation is important in optical systems such as: (1) the 192 beam National ignition Facility (NIF), which uses square laser beams in close packed arrays to cut costs; (2) visual optical systems, which use pattern rotation to present the image to the observer in the appropriate orientation, and (3) the UR90 unstable ring resonator, which uses pattern rotation to fill a rectangular laser gain region and provide a filled-in laser output beam

  1. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  3. Optics Express

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The Hilbert transform as been investigated abundantly in coherent imaging. To the best of our knowledge, it is for the first time investigated in the context of incoherent imaging. We present a two-pupil optical heterodyne scanning system and analyze mathematically the design of its two pupils such that the optical system can perform the Hilbert transform on incoherent objects. Computer simulations of the idea clarify the theoretical results. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America.

  4. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  5. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  6. SABER Optical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R

    2006-01-01

    SABER, the South Arc Beam Experimental Region, is a proposed new beam line facility designed to replace the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC. In this paper, we outline the optical design features and beam parameters now envisioned for SABER. A magnetic chicane to compress positron bunches for SABER and a bypass line that could transport electrons or positrons from the two-thirds point of the linac to SABER, bypassing the LCLS systems, are also discussed

  7. Target Area Structural Support systems design to achieve the micron-level stability requirement of the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; Wavrik, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Target Area Structural Support (TASS) systems are designed to provide an optically stable support for the target area systems and personnel access platforms for the 192 laser beam configuration. The conceptual design of the TASS systems was an optimum configuration selected from three designs on which performance studies were conducted. The supporting bases for the design selection were the analytical results, operation, and cost effective

  8. Roadmap on optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    : Sheridan reviews phase retrieval algorithms to perform different attacks, whereas Situ discusses nonlinear optical encryption techniques and the development of a rigorous optical information security theory. The fourth category with two contributions reports how encryption could be implemented at the nano- or micro-scale. Naruse discusses the use of nanostructures in security applications and Carnicer proposes encoding information in a tightly focused beam. In the fifth category, encryption based on ghost imaging using single-pixel detectors is also considered. In particular, the authors [Chen, Tajahuerce] emphasize the need for more specialized hardware and image processing algorithms. Finally, in the sixth category, Mosk and Javidi analyze in their corresponding papers how quantum imaging can benefit optical encryption systems. Sources that use few photons make encryption systems much more difficult to attack, providing a secure method for authentication.

  9. Optical Computing With Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrova, Galina; Gibbs, Hyatt; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is becoming a new thrust in the field of optical computing and signal processing.14 Optical nonlinearity makes the device's transmission intensity dependent, so one can obtain the thresholding needed for logic decisionmaking. Thresholding is essential to digital optical computing, neural nets, and associative memories. GaAs etalons exhibit many of the characteristics desirable for the nonlinear devices including high speed (picosecond) and diode-laser compatability. However, demonstrations of the use of nonlinear decisionmaking for optical computing have used ZnS or ZnSe interference filters. They are slow (millisecond), but they can be used with the visible 514.5-nm output of an argon laser. We have used such filters to demonstrate all-optical logic operations, one-bit addition by symbolic substitution, and recognition of a three-spot pattern in an arbitrary 2 x 8 array of input beams. The application to associative memories is under study.

  10. Effect of foundation flexibility on the vibrational stability of the National Ignition Facility optical system support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Alignment requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical components will require a number of support structures which minimize the system displacements and deformations. The stringent design requirements for this facility will result in a system in which vibrations due to ambient environmental loads (e.g. foundation motion due to typical traffic loads, microseisms or nearby equipment) will have a significant, and perhaps predominant, influence on the design of the supporting structures. When considering the total deformations and displacements of the structural systems, the contribution of the foundation to the overall system flexibility must be addressed. Classical fixed-base structural analyses, which are predicated on an assumption of an infinitely rigid foundation system, neglect the influence of foundation flexibility and for the vibration regime in which the NIF structures reside, may result in significant underestimation of the system ambient vibration displacements. In the work described herein, parametric studies were performed in order to understand the potential contributions of soil-structure- interaction (SSI) to optical system displacements. Time domain finite element analyses were employed to quantify the effect of wave scattering by the mat foundation and the effects of inertial SSI due to the rocking of the massive shear wall support structures. A simplified procedure is recommended for accounting for SSI effects in the design of the special equipment structures. The simplified approach consists of applying a scale factor to displacements obtained from fixed base analyses to approximately account for the effects of soil-structure interaction and variable support input motion

  11. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest Jr., Michael; Torres, Peter III; Silbernagel, Christopher; Kalantar, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  12. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  13. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integration (VLSI) technology with smaller device dimensions and greater complexity. The smallest .... on a chip, much less than what was mentioned earlier (optical integration is still in its infancy compared to electronics). ..... Optical tunnel devices are under continuous development varying from small caliber endoscopes to ...

  14. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 56-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Optical Material Researches for Frontier Optical Ceramics and Visible Fiber Laser Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    are very useful for scientific and industrial applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fibre Lasers, Laser Dynamics, Nonlinear Optical Materials 16. SECURITY...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0059 Optical material researches for frontier optical ceramics and visible fiber laser technologies Yasushi Fujimoto Osaka...07-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Apr 2013 to 17 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical material researches for frontier

  16. New Optical Microbarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nief, G.; Olivier, N.; Olivier, S.; Hue, A.

    2017-12-01

    Usually, transducers implemented in infrasound sensor (microbarometer) are mainly composed of two associated elements. The first one converts the external pressure variation into a physical linear displacement. The second one converts this motion into an electrical signal. According to this configuration, MB3, MB2000 and MB2005 microbarometers are using an aneroid capsule for the first one, and an electromagnetic transducer (Magnet-coil or LVDT) for the second one. CEA DAM (designer of MB series) and PROLANN / SEISMO WAVE (manufacturer and seller of MB3) have associated their expertise to design a new optical microbarometer: We aim at thinking that changing the electromagnetic transducer by an interferometer is an interesting solution in order to increase the dynamic and the resolution of the sensor. Currently, we are exploring this way in order to propose a future optical microbarometer which will enlarge the panel of infrasound sensors. First, we will present the new transducer principles, taking into account the aneroid capsule and the interferometer using integrated optics technology. More specifically, we will explain the operation of this optical technology, and discuss on its advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, we will present the optical microbarometer in which the interferometer is positioned inside the aneroid capsule under vacuum. The adjustment of the interferometer position is a challenge we solved. The optical measurement is naturally protected from environmental disturbances. Four prototypes were manufactured in order to compare their performances, and also an optical digitizer specifically designed to record the four channels interferometer. Finally, we will present the results we obtained with this sensor (sensitivity, self-noise, effect of environmental disturbance, etc) compared to those of a MB3 microbarometer, and discuss about the advantages of this new sensor.

  17. New optical microbarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Nathalie; Olivier, Serge; Hue, Anthony; Le Mallet, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Usually, transducers implemented in infrasound sensor (microbarometer) are mainly composed of two associated elements. The first one converts the external pressure variation into a physical linear displacement. The second one converts this motion into an electrical signal. According to this configuration, MB3, MB2000 and MB2005 microbarometers are using an aneroid capsule for the first one, and an electromagnetic transducer (Magnet-coil or LVDT) for the second one. CEA DAM (designer of MB series) and PROLANN / SEISMO WAVE (manufacturer and seller of MB3) have associated their expertise to design a new optical microbarometer: We aim at thinking that changing the electromagnetic transducer by an interferometer is an interesting solution in order to increase the dynamic and the resolution of the sensor. Currently, we are exploring this way in order to propose a future optical microbarometer which will enlarge the panel of infrasound sensors. First, we will present the new transducer principles, taking into account the aneroid capsule and the interferometer using integrated optics technology. More specifically, we will explain the operation of this optical technology, and discuss on its advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, we will present the optical microbarometer in which the interferometer is positioned inside the aneroid capsule under vacuum. The adjustment of the interferometer position is a challenge we solved. The optical measurement is naturally protected from environmental disturbances. Four prototypes were manufactured in order to compare their performances, and also an optical digitizer specifically designed to record the four channels interferometer. Finally, we will present the results we obtained with this sensor (sensitivity, self-noise, effect of environmental disturbance, etc) compared to those of a MB3 microbarometer, and discuss about the advantages of this new sensor.

  18. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Casamassima, Biagio; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Guided-wave optical biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Advantages related to optical technologies are presented and integrated architectures are investigated in detail. Main classes of bio receptors and the most attractive optical transduction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility to use Mach-Zehnder and Young interferometers, microdisk and microring resonators, surface plasmon resonance, hollow and antiresonant waveguides, and Bragg gratings to realize very sensitive and selective, ultra-compact and fast biosensors is discussed. Finally, CMOS-compatible technologies are proved to be the most attractive for fabrication of guided-wave photonic biosensors.

  20. Influence of ammonium availability on expression of nifD and amtB genes during biostimulation of a U(VI) contaminated aquifer: implications for U(VI) removal and monitoring the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouser, Paula J.; N' Guessan, A. Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-03-25

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.